Inductive Or Capactive Excitation Patents (Class 372/82)
  • Patent number: 10624715
    Abstract: An improved dental laser system has been developed to cut enamel quickly and precisely, without detrimental residual energy, to provide a replacement for conventional high speed rotary burrs and commercially available dental laser systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2020
    Assignee: Convergent Dental, Inc.
    Inventor: Nathan Paul Monty
  • Patent number: 9349648
    Abstract: Methods of dicing semiconductor wafers, each wafer having a plurality of integrated circuits, are described. In an example, a method of dicing a semiconductor wafer having a plurality of integrated circuits involves forming a mask above the semiconductor wafer, the mask composed of a layer covering and protecting the integrated circuits. The mask is then patterned with a top hat laser beam profile laser scribing process to provide a patterned mask with gaps, exposing regions of the semiconductor wafer between the integrated circuits. The semiconductor wafer is then plasma etched through the gaps in the patterned mask to singulate the integrated circuits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2016
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Wei-Sheng Lei, Prabhat Kumar, Jungrae Park, Brad Eaton, Ajay Kumar
  • Patent number: 9257742
    Abstract: An antenna includes an electrical excitation component and a core component. The electrical excitation component has and input, an output and a conducting component. The conducting component is disposed between the input and the output and can conduct current from the input to the output. The core component has a concentrically wound magnetic film having a substrate and a magnetic material layer. The core component can have a magnetic current loop induced therein. The electrical excitation component is arranged such that concentric magnetic fields associated with current conducted through the electrical excitation component are additionally associated with a magnetic current loop within the core component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2016
    Inventors: David Auckland, Chris Daniel
  • Patent number: 9048615
    Abstract: A slab gas laser has a live slab electrode and a ground slab electrode with the live slab electrode and the ground slab electrode defining a primary gas discharge chamber therebetween. The live electrode is in electrical communication with a first AC power supply to provide a first excitation signal. A pre-ionizing cell comprises a live electrode and a ground electrode defining a pre-ionizing gas discharge chamber therebetween. The live electrode is in electrical communication with a second AC power supply distinct from the first AC power supply to provide a second excitation signal delivering a discharge of electrons from the pre-ionizing gas discharge chamber. The pre-ionizing and the primary gas discharge chambers are aligned such that the pre-ionizing cell is oriented with the edges of its live and ground electrodes adjacent and substantially parallel to edges of the ground slab and live slab electrodes, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: Epilog Corporation
    Inventors: Roberto Julio Ramírez Zárate, Jay Austin Moore
  • Publication number: 20150103859
    Abstract: A device for, and a method of, generating stimulated emission of microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic radiation, utilize a resonator structure, an input source of microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic radiation to be amplified, and an input of energy arranged to pump the resonator structure and thereby cause amplification of the electromagnetic radiation. The configuration of the resonator structure and/or the materials used in its construction give rise to an increase in the magnetic Purcell factor of the resonator structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 24, 2013
    Publication date: April 16, 2015
    Inventors: Jonathan David Baxendale Breeze, Neil McNeill Alford
  • Patent number: 8792522
    Abstract: The invention can be used for setting up high energy and high average power soft x-ray laser equipments. The apparatus of the present invention is provided with a capillary discharge, wherein the spark gap (3) is disposed in water and breakdown of the spark gap (3) is triggered and synchronized by a laser source (16). In order to complete the synchronizing step the apparatus comprises a transformer (12) for monitoring and controlling the decrease of the charging current of the generator, preferably a Marx generator (7), and a triggering circuit (14). The time dependent control of the laser source (16) generating the breakdown of the spark gap (3) is achieved by the triggering circuit (14).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2014
    Assignee: Pécsi Tudományegyetem
    Inventors: Gábor Almási, Mátyás Kiss, Szergej Kuhlevszkij, Imre Sánta, Sándor Szatmári, János Szász
  • Patent number: 8767780
    Abstract: A laser device for emitting waves in a frequency range belonging to the terahertz range, includes the following, in combination: a wave guide extending longitudinally along an axis A-A?; a superconducting coil arranged coaxially to the wave guide and arranged at a first end of the wave guide; a p-Ge p-doped germanium crystal arranged inside the coil such that the turns of the superconducting coil at least partially surround the p-Ge crystal; a cooling device containing a coolant, the superconducting coil and the p-Ge crystal being arranged in the cooling device, and the wave guide partially extending outside the cooling device; and removing the coolant from the wave guide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignees: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universite Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
    Inventors: Wojciech Knap, Oleg Klimenko, Yuri Mityagin, Pierre Solignac
  • Patent number: 8411721
    Abstract: Two excimer lasers have individual pulsing circuits each including a storage capacitor which is charged and then discharged through a pulse transformer to generate an electrical pulse, which is delivered to the laser to generate a light pulse. The time between generation of the electrical pulse and creation of the light pulse is dependent on the charged voltage of the capacitor. The capacitors are charged while disconnected from each other. The generation of the electrical pulses is synchronized by connecting the capacitors together for a brief period after the capacitors are charged to equalize the charging voltages. The capacitors are disconnected from each other before they are discharged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: Coherent GmbH
    Inventors: Andreas Targsdorf, Rainer Desor
  • Patent number: 8238400
    Abstract: Two excimer lasers have individual pulsing circuits each including a storage capacitor which is charged and then discharged through a pulse transformer to generate an electrical pulse, which is delivered to the laser to generate a light pulse. The time between generation of the electrical pulse and creation of the light pulse is dependent on the charged voltage of the capacitor. The capacitors are charged while disconnected from each other. The generation of the electrical pulses is synchronized by connecting the capacitors together for a brief period after the capacitors are charged to equalize the charging voltages. The capacitors are disconnected from each other before they are discharged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2012
    Assignee: Coherent GmbH
    Inventors: Andreas Targsdorf, Rainer Desor
  • Patent number: 8199789
    Abstract: RF power is transmitted to a CO2 gas discharge laser form a source of RF power via a series combination of transmission line sections. The lengths and characteristic impedances of the transmission line sections are selected to transform the impedance of the RF power source to the operating impedance of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Coherent, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick W. Hauer, Patrick T. Tracy, R. Russel Austin
  • Publication number: 20120106586
    Abstract: A radio frequency (RF) excited laser assembly includes a pair of opposed electrodes defining an inter-electrode gap and a conductive termination bridge in electrical contact with both electrodes. The termination bridge mechanically supports and positions the electrodes relative to each other and provides a termination impedance for an RF voltage applied to the electrodes. A conical spiral inductor includes one or more metals windings, and one or more concentric terminals, such that the conical spiral inductor defines an inter-winding spacing sufficient to mitigate ionization of a gas medium between windings. A radio frequency (RF) feed-through assembly configured to apply an RF voltage to a pair of opposing electrodes such that a conductor is isolated from a metal sleeve position around the conductor by ion sheath discharge barrier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Publication date: May 3, 2012
    Applicant: TRUMPF, INC.
    Inventors: Francisco Javier Villarreal-Saucedo, Jesus Fernando Monjardin-Lopez, Peter Daniel, Jochen Deile, Shadi Sumrain, Viktor Granson
  • Patent number: 7970037
    Abstract: RF power is transmitted to a CO2 gas discharge laser form a source of RF power via a series combination of transmission line sections. The lengths and characteristic impedances of the transmission line sections are selected to transform the impedance of the RF power source to the operating impedance of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2011
    Assignee: Coherent, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick W. Hauer, Patrick T. Tracy, R. Russel Austin
  • Patent number: 7873085
    Abstract: A method of controlling an optical output of a laser diode includes applying a bipolar current pulse to the laser diode, thereby substantially suppressing the emission tail of the optical output of the laser diode. A device for generating sub-nanosecond intense optical pulses includes a driver unit operative to generate a plurality of bipolar current pulses, and a semiconductor laser diode driven by the bipolar current pulses and operative to emit the intense optical pulses each of which has a substantially suppressed or completely eliminated emission tail.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2011
    Inventors: Andrei Babushkin, Vladimir Efanov
  • Patent number: 7869479
    Abstract: An optical module includes a stem; a first lead pin and a second lead pin for receiving differential signals, the first and second lead pins penetrating the stem; a mount block fixed to the stem; a laser diode having a pair of electrodes; a submount mounted on the mount block and having an interdigital capacitor, and a plurality of electrode patterns on a surfaces on the submount; and a first wire and a second wire electrically connecting the submount to the first and second lead pins, respectively. The laser diode is mounted on one of the electrode patterns on the submount and connected to another one of the electrode patterns on the submount by a third wire such that the laser diode and the interdigital capacitor form an electrical circuit. The interdigital capacitor has a capacitance selected to reduce signal reflection at a selected frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Hiroshi Aruga
  • Patent number: 7800086
    Abstract: An arrangement for the generation of radiation by a gas discharge has the object of achieving a considerable reduction in the inductance of the discharge circuit for the gas discharge while simultaneously increasing the lifetime of the electrode system. Also, the use of different emitters is ensured. A rotary electrode arrangement accommodated in the discharge chamber contains electrodes which are rigidly connected to one another at a distance from one another and are mounted so as to be rotatable around a common axis. Capacitor elements of a high-voltage power supply for generating high-voltage pulses for the two electrodes are arranged in a free space formed by the mutual distance. The electrodes are electrically connected to the capacitor elements and to a voltage source for charging the capacitor elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2010
    Assignee: Xtreme technologies GmbH
    Inventors: Christian Ziener, Guido Hergenhan, Frank Flohrer, Juergen Kleinschmidt
  • Patent number: 7732793
    Abstract: Systems and methods are disclosed for reducing the influence of plasma generated debris on internal components of an EUV light source. In one aspect, an EUV metrology monitor is provided which may have a heater to heat an internal multi-layer filtering mirror to a temperature sufficient to remove deposited debris from the mirror. In another aspect, a device is disclosed for removing plasma generated debris from an EUV light source collector mirror having a different debris deposition rate at different zones on the collector mirror. In a particular aspect, an EUV collector mirror system may comprise a source of hydrogen to combine with Li debris to create LiH on a collector surface; and a sputtering system to sputter LiH from the collector surface. In another aspect, an apparatus for etching debris from a surface of a EUV light source collector mirror with a controlled plasma etch rate is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2010
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander I. Ershov, William F. Marx, Norbert Bowering, Bjorn A. M. Hansson, Oleh Khodykin, Igor V. Fomenkov
  • Patent number: 7545839
    Abstract: To achieve both a fast risetime and a desired flat top current pulse, or to be able to independently specify a risetime and pulse width (energy), a supplemental or “fast” voltage discharge stage (or multiple supplemental or “fast” voltage discharge stages) having a faster and shorter voltage discharge characteristic and a higher starting voltage relative to the main or “slow” voltage discharge stage is used in parallel with the slow voltage discharge stage. The energy storage element of the slow voltage discharge stage has sufficient energy storage at an appropriate voltage level for maintaining the desired flat top current throughout the pulse duration, while the energy storage element of the fast voltage discharge stage has less energy storage capability but a higher starting voltage for achieving the desired fast current pulse risetime.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: Optiswitch Technology Corporation
    Inventors: David M. Giorgi, Jay Philippbar, James Long
  • Publication number: 20090116531
    Abstract: An RF excited laser assembly includes a pair of opposed electrodes, and at least one inductor. The pair of opposed electrodes defines an inter-electrode gap that provides a discharge volume for laser propagation within a gas medium. The pair of opposed electrodes define one or more discharge-free regions within a laser-free region in the inter-electrode gap. The least one inductor is electrically connected to both electrodes and extends between the electrodes within the inter-electrode gap and inside of the one or more discharge-free regions within the laser-free region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2007
    Publication date: May 7, 2009
    Applicant: TRUMPF INC.
    Inventors: Francisco J. Villarreal-Saucedo, Jochen Deile, Shadi Sumrain, Viktor Granson, Peter Daniel
  • Publication number: 20080285613
    Abstract: A Colpitts oscillator that includes an RF-excited gas discharge laser tube as the feedback pi-network of the Colpitts oscillator.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 17, 2007
    Publication date: November 20, 2008
    Applicant: Synrad, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael W. Murray
  • Patent number: 7447249
    Abstract: A lighting system includes a microwave resonator (2) for generating a standing microwave in the internal space, and a gas cell (6) enclosing a medium is disposed in the internal space of the microwave resonator 2. The lighting system excites the medium in the gas cell (6) by the standing microwave to generate light. The gas cell (6) is replaceably mounted on the microwave resonator (2). The generated light is output to the outside of the microwave resonator (2) through a light lead-out hole (26). Thereby, it is possible to provide a lighting system (including a gas laser) capable of emitting light efficiently with a compact and inexpensive device configuration and of achieving a long life. Moreover, it can also be used as a lighting system in the THz-wave region by enclosing the medium for generating light in the far-infrared region in the gas cell (6).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2008
    Assignee: Stanley Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takahiro Matsumoto, Masayuki Kanechika
  • Patent number: 7196342
    Abstract: Systems and methods are disclosed for reducing the influence of plasma generated debris on internal components of an EUV light source. In one aspect, an EUV meteorology monitor is provided which may have a heater to heat an internal multi-layer filtering mirror to a temperature sufficient to remove deposited debris from the mirror. In another aspect, a device is disclosed for removing plasma generated debris from an EUV light source collector mirror having a different debris deposition rate at different zones on the collector mirror. In a particular aspect, an EUV collector mirror system may comprise a source of hydrogen to combine with Li debris to create LiH on a collector surface; and a sputtering system to sputter LiH from the collector surface. In another aspect, an apparatus for etching debris from a surface of a EUV light source collector mirror with a controlled plasma etch rate is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2007
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander I. Ershov, William F. Marx
  • Patent number: 6950453
    Abstract: A novel and inexpensive excitation circuit based on a single switch and a single source drives helium-free TEA CO2 lasers, mini to conventional types, providing low divergent output. By varying the partial pressure of either CO2 or N2, the duration (FWHM) and the peak power of the laser pulse (for a system with active volume about 70 cc) is made to vary by a factor of about 7 and about 5 respectively. The fact that expensive and scarce helium is not a constituent of the laser gas mixture makes it an ideal system for high repetition rate operation as the gas re-circulatory loop consisting of the heat exchanger and the catalytic re-converter, a mandatory requirement for conventional systems to recycle helium gas, can be readily dispensed with here. This laser can be used wherever a TEA CO2 laser with conventional gas mixture containing helium is used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2005
    Assignee: Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy Goverment of India
    Inventors: Dhruba J. Biswas, Jonnaiagadda Padma Nilaya, Aniruddha Kumar
  • Patent number: 6914927
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus are provided for cleaning and passivating laser discharge chambers with plasmas. In one embodiment, an oxygen based plasma is formed in a plasma source external to the laser discharge chamber by applying a radiofrequency signal to oxygen containing gases. The oxygen based plasma is drawn into the laser discharge chamber, where it reacts with contaminants and cleans internal surfaces. After cleaning, a fluorine based plasma is formed in the plasma source and drawn into the laser discharge chamber to passivate internal surfaces. In another embodiment, cleaning with the oxygen based plasma is not used since some level of cleaning is accomplished with the fluorine based plasma. In another embodiment, oxygen based plasmas and fluorine based plasmas are formed in the laser discharge chamber by applying a radiofrequency signal to a laser discharge chamber electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2005
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Tom A. Watson, Richard L. Sandstrom, Richard G. Morton, Robert E. Weeks, John P. Quitter, Mark R. Lewis
  • Patent number: 6847670
    Abstract: The oscillation pulse width is extended in a gas laser apparatus emitting ultraviolet radiation by a high-repetition rate oscillating operation. The gas laser apparatus has a pair of laser discharge electrodes connected to the output terminals of a magnetic pulse compression circuit and disposed in a laser chamber. The pulse width is extended by determining circuit constants so that the period of the oscillating current flowing between the discharge electrodes is shortened and, at the same time, the peak value of the current is increased, whereby the laser gas is continuously excited even during at least one half-cycle subsequent to the first half-cycle of the oscillating current to sustain the laser oscillating operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2005
    Assignee: Ushio Denki Kabushiki Kaisya
    Inventors: Koji Kakizaki, Takashi Saito, Hidenori Watanabe
  • Patent number: 6782031
    Abstract: A long pulse power system for gas discharge lasers. The system includes a sustainer capacitor for accepting a charge from a high voltage pulse power source. A peaking capacitor with a capacitance value of less than half the sustainer capacitance provides the high voltage for the laser discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Hofmann, Bruce D. Johanson
  • Patent number: 6782030
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a gas laser with a high-voltage electrode 12 and a ground electrode 14, which electrodes 12, 14 are disposed relative to each other so as to form a discharge gap 16 between them, and with high voltage generating means including a circuit having at least one storage capacitor and at least one secondary capacitor 18, 20, said secondary capacitor 18, 20 being disposed in the area of said high-voltage electrode 12 within a discharge chamber 32 filled with laser gas. Said secondary capacitor 18, 20 includes at least one external surface 28, 28′ oriented towards said high-voltage electrode 12 and made of a material which is inert with respect to said laser gas, which external surface 28, 28′ forms at least one boundary surface of a flow channel 26, 26′ for said laser gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Inventor: Claus Strowitzki
  • Patent number: 6782029
    Abstract: A dedusting unit for a laser optical element is provided. The dedusting unit comprises a high-voltage duct comprising a high-voltage conducting core having a first end and a second end and an insulator element disposed around the core. The first end of the core is connectable to a high voltage power supply and the second end of the core is electrically connected to a wire loop. The dedusting unit may be used in connection with a variety of gas lasers. In use, the dedusting unit is mounted to the laser tube so that the wire loop is disposed inside the gas laser tube in proximity to an optical element to be protected from dust. The dedusting unit is further mounted so that the wire loop is transverse to the resonating path of the laser light within the laser tube so that the resonating laser light may pass through the wire loop without being obstructed by the wire loop. A method for installing the dedusting unit to protect a laser optical element in a gas laser is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Assignee: TuiLaser AG
    Inventor: Claus Strowitzki
  • Patent number: 6757315
    Abstract: A preionization device for a gas laser includes an internal preionization electrode having a dielectric housing around it such that the preionization device is of corona type. The internal electrode connects to advantageous electrical circuitry, preferably external to the discharge chamber via a conductive feedthrough. The circuitry reduces the voltage across the dielectric tube of the preionization unit to reduce over-flashing at tube ends and oscillations due to residual energies stored in the dielectric. A semi-transparent mesh electrode between the preionization unit and the discharge area prevents field distortions and discharge instabilities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: Lambda Physik AG
    Inventors: Igor Bragin, Vadim Berger, Ivan Tassy-Julien, Uwe Stamm
  • Patent number: 6744802
    Abstract: In a slot array structure, electromagnetic wave emission which is uniform as a whole over the length of a laser tube is realized to allow uniform laser emission with minimum energy loss. Slots (10) are formed at a predetermined pitch in a long end face (H plane) of each waveguide (1) along a central line (m) in the longitudinal direction of the H plane to be alternately located on the left and right sides of the central line (m) and spaced apart from the central line (m) by a distance (d).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2004
    Assignees: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tadahiro Ohmi, Nobumasa Suzuki, Hiroshi Ohsawa, Nobuyoshi Tanaka, Toshikuni Shinohara, Masaki Hirayama
  • Patent number: 6728284
    Abstract: A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of ±40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2004
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Daniel L. Birx, Don G. Ball, Edward G. Cook
  • Patent number: 6665486
    Abstract: A single photon generating apparatus includes an optical waveguide, an active medium section and a resonator section. In the active medium section, a single electron is excited in response to application of exciting energy, and a single photon is emitted from the electron. The resonator section optically resonates with the active medium section, holds the photon emitted from the electron in the resonator, and transfers the held photon to the optical waveguide in response to a first control signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Akihisa Tomita
  • Patent number: 6650678
    Abstract: A plasma is excited uniformly as a whole over the length of each slot. A laser oscillating apparatus is designed to excite a laser gas in a laser tube (2) by introducing electromagnetic waves into the laser tube through a plurality of slots (10) formed in a waveguide wall and generate a laser beam by resonating the light generated from the laser gas. A least one electrode (13) is placed near the slot (10). By giving a predetermined current density to the electrode (13), the intensity distribution of light generated from the laser gas above the slot (10) is controlled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignees: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tadahiro Ohmi, Nobumasa Suzuki, Hiroshi Ohsawa, Nobuyoshi Tanaka, Toshikuni Shinohara, Masaki Hirayama
  • Patent number: 6650679
    Abstract: A preionization device for a gas laser comprises an internal preionization electrode having a dielectric housing around it and an external preionization electrode displaced from the dielectric housing by a small gap. The dielectric housing includes two cylindrical regions of differing outer radii of curvature. An open end of the housing has a larger radius of curvature than the other end which is closed. The internal electrode connects to circuitry external to the discharge chamber via a conductive feedthrough which penetrates through the housing. The external circuitry prevents voltage oscillations caused by residual energy stored as capacitance in the dielectric housing. The external preionization electrode, which is connected electrically to one of the main discharge electrodes, is formed to shield the internal preionization electrode from the other main discharge electrode to prevent arcing therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: Lambda Physik AG
    Inventors: Igor Bragin, Ulrich Rebhan, Uwe Stamm, Dirk Basting
  • Patent number: 6618422
    Abstract: A preionization device for a gas laser comprises an internal preionization electrode having a dielectric housing around it and an external preionization electrode displaced from the dielectric housing by a small gap. The dielectric housing includes two cylindrical regions of differing outer radii of curvature. An open end of the housing has a larger radius of curvature than the other end which is closed. The internal electrode connects to circuitry external to the discharge chamber via a conductive feedthrough which penetrates through the housing. The external circuitry prevents voltage oscillations caused by residual energy stored as capacitance in the dielectric housing. The external preionization electrode, which is connected electrically to one of the main discharge electrodes, is formed to shield the internal preionization electrode from the other main discharge electrode to prevent arcing therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2003
    Assignee: Lambda Physik AG
    Inventors: Igor Bragin, Ulrich Rebhan, Uwe Stamm, Dirk Basting
  • Patent number: 6614827
    Abstract: In an apparatus and method for generating high power laser radiation, the geometry of the resonant laser cavity defines a fundamental spatial or transverse cavity mode. A gain medium is disposed within the resonant cavity and an energy source energizes the gain medium within a first volume. This causes spontaneous and stimulated energy emission to propagate in the gain medium in a direction transverse to the fundamental cavity mode. The transverse emission in turn optically pumps a second volume of the gain medium about the first volume. When the intensity of the transverse emission is sufficiently high, inversion and gain are produced in the second volume. By optimizing the geometry of the cavity such that the fundamental cavity mode is coupled to both the first and the second volumes encompassing the first pumped volume, the transversely-directed energy of the first volume which would otherwise be wasted is instead captured by the fundamental beam, improving the overall power efficiently of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Novalux, Inc.
    Inventor: Aram Mooradian
  • Patent number: 6603790
    Abstract: A gas laser and a dedusting unit thereof are provided. The gas laser comprises a tube containing a gas mixture including a laser gas and preferably a buffer gas. The tube preferably comprises a cylindrical inner wall. A discharge unit is inserted into the tube and has two elongated electrodes defining an electrical gas discharge gap therebetween for providing an electric gas discharge between said electrodes to generate laser light. A circulation means is included in the tube for generating a gas flow within the tube that passes through the discharge gap. A dedusting unit is mounted along the inner cylindrical wall of the tube in such a manner that only a bypass flow which is a part of the gas flow within the tube passes through the dedusting unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2003
    Inventors: Hans Kodeda, Helmut Frowein, Claus Strowitzki, Alexander Hohla
  • Patent number: 6570903
    Abstract: A generator produces a flow of gaseous molecular oxygen in the singlet sigma and/or singlet delta excited electronic states. The generator is comprised of an optical source; coupling optics to transport and concentrate optical source light; a vacuum chamber, reflective optics; a wall cooling system; an inlet system for injecting oxygen; an inlet system for injecting other gases which deactivate singlet sigma oxygen to singlet delta oxygen; and a means for interfacing this device to a lasing device and for directly flowing the singlet sigma or singlet delta oxygen into a laser cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2003
    Assignee: Neumann Information Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: David K. Neumann
  • Patent number: 6522679
    Abstract: A gas laser discharge unit is provided. The discharge unit includes an elongated electrode plate having a plurality of spaced-apart holes therein and a plurality of coaxial high voltage ducts. Each duct extends through one of the holes in the electrode plate and includes a central conductive core and an insulator element arranged around the core to electrically insulate said core from the electrode plate. An elongated high voltage electrode is electrically connected to the cores of the ducts. In addition, an elongated ground electrode is positioned to oppose the high voltage electrode and form a gas discharge gap therebetween. The ground electrode is electrically connected to the electrode plate. The gas laser discharge unit may be removably mounted as a module into a gas laser tube, such as an excimer laser tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2003
    Assignee: TuiLaser
    Inventors: Claus Strowitzki, Hans Kodeda
  • Patent number: 6456643
    Abstract: An excimer or molecular fluorine laser includes one or more sliding surface discharge preionization units each including an elongated preionization electrode spaced from one or more associated preionization electrodes by an elongated dielectric within the discharge chamber. The dielectric includes a sliding discharge surface at a long axis, or side, surface of its cross-section substantially facing the discharge volume of the laser. A portion of each of the elongated and associated preionization electrodes conductively contacts a surface of the dielectric portion preferably at a cross-sectional short axis, or top or bottom, side of the dielectric. A significant area of the surface of at least one, and preferably both, of the elongated and associated electrodes contacts the corresponding surface of the dielectric such that the contact area is substantially larger than the area of the sliding discharge surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Lambda Physik AG
    Inventors: Rustem Osmanow, Uwe Stamm
  • Patent number: 6343089
    Abstract: A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2002
    Assignee: College of William & Mary
    Inventors: Dennis M. Manos, Jessie Diggs, Joseph D. Ametepe
  • Patent number: 6333941
    Abstract: The invention is a tunable optical transmitter and light source in which a gain media is connected in an optical loop or resonator and a tunable filter is inserted in to the loop. A sensor is coupled to the loop and provides wavelength indicative signals that a processing unit utilizes in accordance with a predetermined algorithm to determine the wavelength of optical signals in the loop. The processing unit adjusts the tunable filter to a wavelength selected from a plurality of predetermined wavelengths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2001
    Assignee: Micro Photonix Integration Corporation
    Inventor: Henry Hung
  • Patent number: 6331994
    Abstract: This invention relates to an excimer laser oscillation apparatus which has a laser chamber which stores a laser gas containing a gas mixture of at least one inert gas selected from the group consisting of Kr, Ar, and Ne, and F2 gas, and in which an inner surface thereof has a reflection-free surface with respect to light of a desired wavelength of 248 nm, 193 nm, or 157 nm, and the uppermost surface of the inner surface consists of a fluoride, an optical resonator which is made up of a pair of reflection mirrors arranged to sandwich the laser chamber therebetween, and in which the reflectance of the reflection mirror on the output side is 90% or more and microwave introduction means, arranged on the laser chamber, for continuously exciting the laser gas in the laser chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2001
    Assignees: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tadahiro Ohmi, Nobuyoshi Tanaka, Masaki Hirayama
  • Patent number: 6259716
    Abstract: In one discharge tube in which laser gas flows, a plurality of microwave generating units composed of microwave power sources, magnetrons and waveguides are disposed, and each magnetron oscillates intermittently by switching the drive of the microwave power source. A main controller provides a reference clock to a power source unit composed of the plurality of microwave power sources. By this reference clock, adjacent microwave power sources in the power source unit are switched and driven at a predetermined phase difference through a phase shifter. Accordingly, discharge interference in adjacent discharge areas is avoided, so that a stable laser beam output may be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yutaka Iwasaki, Shigeki Yamane
  • Patent number: 6243407
    Abstract: In an apparatus and method for generating high power laser radiation, the geometry of the resonant laser cavity defines a fundamental spatial or transverse cavity mode. A gain medium is disposed within the resonant cavity and an energy source energizes the gain medium within a first volume. This causes spontaneous and stimulated energy emission to propagate in the gain medium in a direction transverse to the fundamental cavity mode. The transverse emission in turn optically pumps a second volume of the gain medium about the first volume. When the intensity of the emission is sufficiently high, inversion and gain are produced in the second volume. By optimizing the geometry of the cavity such that the fundamental cavity mode is coupled to both the first and the second volumes encompassing the first pumped volume, the transversely-directed energy of the first volume which would otherwise be wasted is instead captured by the fundamental beam, improving the overall power efficiently of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2001
    Assignee: Novalux, Inc.
    Inventor: Aram Mooradian
  • Patent number: 6229837
    Abstract: The present invention provides a novel metal-vapor pulsed laser capable of being manufactured without using a large-sized laser tube or an expensive discharging circuit. The output and the efficiency of the laser can be improved economically and easily. The laser includes a laser tube having a cathode and an anode. A discharging circuit induces an electric discharge in the laser tube. A grid electrode is mounted close to the cathode of the laser tube. A preliminary discharge is produced between the grid electrode and the cathode to thereby induce a main discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
    Inventor: Akira Ozu
  • Patent number: 6198762
    Abstract: Disclosed is a gas laser utilizing radio frequency discharge excitation in the area of sonic or supersonic/subsonic transfer gas flow. The laser uses various types of gases and mixtures of gases as the active medium and provides for RF or UV pre-ionization of the gaseous medium before using radio frequency discharge excitation. The gas is supplied into a receiver, and has downstream therefrom a supersonic nozzle for acceleration of the active gaseous flow to high subsonic or supersonic speeds in order to provide intensive dynamic cooling of the active gas medium. The gas is excited using radio frequency discharge excitation in the critical area of the supersonic nozzle or downstream therefrom. The radio frequency discharge and excitation can also occur within the optical resonator region which is located within the supersonic area of the nozzle. The present invention provides compact, efficient and super-powerful continuous, quasi-continuous and pulse laser systems with wavelengths from 2.03 mkm to 10.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Inventor: Alexander V. Krasnov
  • Patent number: 6198646
    Abstract: An improved commutation circuit configured to arrest and dissipate energy which may be reflected from a magnetic pulse compression network. The commutation circuit includes an energy storage capacitor for storing energy, a capacitor charging unit for charging the energy storage capacitor, a power supply protection circuit configured for isolating reverse voltages from the output of the capacitor charging unit, a series switch configured for conducting current in the forward direction and blocking current in the reverse direction to and from the energy storage capacitor, a magnetic assist device configured for isolating the reverse voltage from the switch, a trigger circuit configured for transmitting a trigger pulse signal to the switch to allow the transfer of reflected energy to the energy storage capacitor and a power supply configured for biasing the magnetic assist device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Assignee: Quantum Manufacturing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: David M. Barrett
  • Patent number: 6198761
    Abstract: A pulser with solid dielectrics including a pulse compressor and pulse transformer apparatus, which is able to produce short bursts of electrical energy at high voltage utilizing a coaxial structure. Both the transformer and the compressor utilize ferromagnetic cores having an inner and an outer diameter, and isolating members of similar geometry. The cores and ceramic members are held in place using conducting plates and bus bars. The overall structure of the compressor and the transformer is built around a central axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Assignee: Lambda Physik GmbH
    Inventors: Hubertus von Bergmann, Spencer Merz
  • Patent number: 6137818
    Abstract: An RF-excited discharge laser includes a pair of electrodes and an RF power source, both electrodes being ungrounded, the power source being adapted to apply an RF voltage to both electrodes, the respective voltages applied to each plate being out of phase. A balanced discharge is thereby established in which the inter-electrode voltage is unchanged whilst the potential difference between each electrode and the surrounding grounded surfaces is halved. Thus, the trade off between discharge power and discharge escape likelihood is overcome. The voltages applied to the electrodes are preferably 180 degrees out of phase, or nearly so. One way of delivering the RF energy to the electrodes is to provide a power splitter to divide the output of the RF supply into two outputs, one of which is delivered to one electrode and the other of which is delivered to the other electrode in substantial anti-phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2000
    Assignee: Excitation LLC
    Inventor: Paul E. Jackson
  • Patent number: RE38054
    Abstract: The present invention provides a reliable modular production quality excimer laser capable of producing 10 mJ laser pulses in the range of 1000 Hz to 2000 Hz or greater. Replaceable modules include a laser chamber; a pulse power system comprised of three modules; an optical resonator comprised of a line narrowing module and an output coupler module; a wavemeter module, an electrical control module, a cooling water module and a gas control module. Important improvements have been provided in the pulse power unit to produce faster rise time and improved pulse energy control. These improvements include an increased capacity high voltage power supply with a voltage bleed-down circuit for precise voltage trimming, an improved communication module that generates a high voltage pulse from the capacitors charged by the high voltage power supply and amplifies the pulse voltage 23 times with a very fast voltage transformer having a secondary winding consisting of a single four-segment stainless steel rod.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Hofmann, Jean-Marc Hueber, Palash P. Das, Toshihiko Ishihara, Thomas P. Duffey, John T. Melchior, Herve A. Besaucele, Richard G. Morton, Richard M. Ness, Peter C. Newman, William N. Partlo, Daniel A. Rothweil, Richard L. Sandstrom