Plasma Furnace Device Patents (Class 373/18)
  • Patent number: 9335097
    Abstract: Bottom electrode or anode for continuous direct current arc furnaces, provided with a cooling system which allows to improve the effectiveness of the cooling action of the bottom electrode, made in the shape of bimetallic billet, for the purpose of ensuring a sufficient height of the portion of said electrode which remains solid during the operation of the furnace, also when there is a very high electric load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2016
    Assignee: Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A.
    Inventors: Maurizio Picciotto, Marco Ansoldi, Stefano Morsut, Alfredo Poloni
  • Patent number: 9127206
    Abstract: An apparatus for synergistically combining a plasma with a comminution means such as a fluid kinetic energy mill (jet mill), preferably in a single reactor and/or in a single process step is provided by the present invention. Within the apparatus of the invention potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and subsequently into angular momentum by means of wave energy, for comminuting, reacting and separation of feed materials. Methods of use of the apparatus in the practice of various processes are also provided by the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC
    Inventor: Todd Foret
  • Patent number: 9127205
    Abstract: An apparatus for synergistically combining a plasma with a comminution means such as a fluid kinetic energy mill (jet mill), preferably in a single reactor and/or in a single process step is provided by the present invention. Within the apparatus of the invention potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and subsequently into angular momentum by means of wave energy, for comminuting, reacting and separation of feed materials. Methods of use of the apparatus in the practice of various processes are also provided by the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: FORET PLASMA LABS, LLC
    Inventor: Todd Foret
  • Patent number: 9107283
    Abstract: A device for controlling a plasma arc is provided that includes a plurality of magnetic poles disposed around a distal end portion of a plasma arc torch. A plurality of electrical coils are wound around a proximal end portion of each of the plurality of magnetic poles, and a plurality of lead wires are connected to the plurality of electrical coils. A control system for controlling a current supplied to the plasma arc torch through the lead wires is also provided that changes at least one of a strength of a magnetic field produced by the magnetic poles, a polarity of the magnetic poles, and a movement of a magnetic force between the plurality of magnetic poles, such that a size and location of the plasma arc is controlled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2015
    Assignee: Victor Equipment Company
    Inventor: Pieter Willen Jozef Zelis
  • Publication number: 20150139265
    Abstract: A furnace for melting and/or gasifying material, comprising a housing for temporary enclosure of said material, a supply opening through said housing, heating means, a discharge opening through said housing, a gas outlet through said housing, wherein said housing is mounted tiltable around a horizontal axis, said supply opening extending coaxially with said horizontal axis, and the discharge opening being mounted in a wall of the housing so that said melted material can be removed from the housing by tilting the furnace about said axis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 16, 2015
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Inventors: Jan Deckers, Jurgen Hansen
  • Patent number: 8653404
    Abstract: An in-liquid plasma electrode according to the present invention is an in-liquid plasma electrode for generating plasma in a liquid and has an electrically conductive member having an electric discharge end surface in contact with the liquid, and an electrically insulating member covering an outer periphery of the conductive member at least except the electric discharge end surface. Preferably, d and x satisfy ?2d?x?2d, where d is a length of a minor axis of the cross section when a conductive end portion of the electrically conductive member having the electric discharge end surface has an approximately circular cross section, or d is a length of a short side of the cross section when the conductive end portion has an approximately rectangular cross section, and x is a distance from a reference plane to a plane containing the electric discharge end surface when the reference plane is an end surface of the electrically insulating member that is approximately parallel with the electric discharge end surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2014
    Assignees: Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Jidoshokki, Ehime University
    Inventors: Hitotoshi Murase, Toshihisa Shimo, Hiroaki Takashima, Hiromichi Toyota, Shinfuku Nomura, Tsunehiro Maehara
  • Patent number: 8591821
    Abstract: Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventor: Peter C. Kong
  • Publication number: 20130044784
    Abstract: A furnace 1 for melting and/or gasifying material, comprising a housing 2 for temporary enclosure of said material, a supply opening 3 through said housing 2, heating means 10, a discharge opening 7 through said housing 2, a gas outlet 5 through said housing 2, wherein said housing 2 is mounted tiltable around a horizontal axis 3, said supply opening 4 extending coaxially with said horizontal axis 3, and the discharge opening 7 being mounted in a wall of the housing 2 so that said melted material can be removed from the housing 2 by tilting the furnace 1 about said axis 3.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2011
    Publication date: February 21, 2013
    Applicant: BELGOPROCESS N.V.
    Inventors: Jan Deckers, Jurgen Hansen
  • Patent number: 8372166
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The system may be a modular system housed within a frame facilitating relatively easy transportation. The system may include a reactor vessel with distinct reaction zones that facilitate greater control and a more efficient system. The system may include a syngas heater channeling syngas collected downstream of the carbon layer support and to the pyrolysis reaction zone. The system may also include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The system may further include an agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Patent number: 8372167
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor with an agitator drive assembly for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel. The agitator drive assembly may include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The syngas separation chamber may feed syngas downstream to a syngas heater in a pyrolysis reaction zone in the reactor vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Publication number: 20120201266
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for producing nanopowders and materials processing is described herein. A plasma reactor comprising a torch body comprising a plasma torch for generating a plasma; a reactor section in fluid communication with the torch body for receiving a plasma discharge and further being in fluid communication with a quench section; and at least one heating element in thermal communication with the reactor section and wherein the at least one heating element provides for selectively modulating the temperature within the reactor section is described herein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 24, 2010
    Publication date: August 9, 2012
    Applicant: TEKNA PLASMA SYSTEMS INC.
    Inventors: Maher I. Boulos, Jerzy Jurewicz, Jiayin Guo
  • Patent number: 8199790
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a reactor vessel for plasma gasification reactors employing a DC graphite electrode, AC graphite electrodes, AC plasma torches or DC plasma torches to create a high-energy plasma arc for the pyrolytic decomposition of feed materials. The vessel is configured with an upper portion and a lower portion, where the lower portion is for the containment of a layer of molten metal (iron) and a second layer of slag and having a substantially uniform width, while the upper portion being for the containment of gas and having a varying width. The reactor vessel comprises a steel shell housing a multi-layered wall that defines a chamber where the multi-layered wall includes a first layer high-density refractory material, a second intermediate layer of a insulating material, and a third outer layer of high-density refractory materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Plasma Waste Recycling, Inc.
    Inventor: Rodrigo B. Vera
  • Publication number: 20120140786
    Abstract: A melting furnace for smelting scrap includes a heating device extending through a wall of the furnace in order to supply melting energy, wherein the heating device including a tubular body, which encloses a flow channel. Further, the furnace includes a heating zone formed by a longitudinal section of the tubular body configured as an electrodeless plasma torch including an inductive heating coil which encloses the flow channel coaxially. An injection pipe is disposed in a central manner in the flow channel extending up or into to the heating zone, wherein the injection pipe is enclosed by a gas guiding pipe coaxially and at a radial distance. An annular channel is arranged between the injection pipe and the wall of the flow channel for supplying a cooling gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 9, 2012
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Inventor: Thomas Matschullat
  • Patent number: 7982165
    Abstract: A system for heat treating a metal product has an annealing zone having a first preselected atmosphere condition, a cooling zone having a second preselected atmosphere condition different than the first preselected atmosphere condition, and a blueing zone having a third preselected atmosphere condition different than the first and second preselected atmosphere conditions. A graphical user interface allows an operator select one of the zones for displaying processing information pertaining to the selected zone. The processing information includes a computed ratio of gaseous hydrogen H2 (g) to water vapor H2O (g) for the respective preselected atmosphere condition. The graphical user interface allows an operator to control the respective preselected atmosphere based, at least in part, upon the computed ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignee: Furnace Control Corp.
    Inventors: Robert N. Blumenthal, Andreas T. Melville
  • Publication number: 20090116532
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a reactor vessel for plasma gasification reactors employing a DC graphite electrode, AC graphite electrodes, AC plasma torches or DC plasma torches to create a high-energy plasma are for the pyrolytic decomposition of feed materials. The vessel is configured with an upper portion and a lower portion, where the lower portion is for the containment of a layer of molten metal (iron) and a second layer of slag and having a substantially uniform width, while the upper portion being for the containment of gas and having a varying width. The reactor vessel comprises a steel shell housing a multi-layered wall that defines a chamber where the multi-layered wall includes a first layer high-density refractory material, a second intermediate layer of a insulating material, and a third outer layer of high-density refractory materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 2, 2007
    Publication date: May 7, 2009
    Applicant: PLASMA WASTE RECYCLING, INC.
    Inventor: Rodrigo B. Vera
  • Patent number: 7435929
    Abstract: Methods for monitoring a heat treating atmosphere supply a preselected gas atmosphere at a preselected temperature to a heat treating furnace. The preselected temperature is not greater than a temperature at which wustite (FeO) forms. The methods sense the preselected gas atmosphere and the preselected temperature and compute a computed ratio of gaseous hydrogen H2 (g) to water vapor H2O (g) for the preselected atmosphere as a function of the sensed values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: Furnace Control Corp.
    Inventors: Robert N. Blumenthal, Andreas T. Melville
  • Patent number: 7232975
    Abstract: A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2007
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Peter C. Kong, Robert J. Pink, James E. Lee
  • Patent number: 7193189
    Abstract: Systems and methods for monitoring a heat treating atmosphere derive from at least one sensor placed in situ in the atmosphere a process variable, which is indicative of the ratio of gaseous hydrogen H2 (g) to water vapor H2O (g) in the atmosphere. The systems and methods use the process variable, e.g., to control the atmosphere, or to record or display the process variable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: Furnace Control Corp.
    Inventors: Robert N. Blumenthal, Andreas T. Melville
  • Patent number: 7189940
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for plasma-assisted melting are provided. In one embodiment, a plasma-assisted melting method can include: (1) adding a solid to a melting region, (2) forming a plasma in a cavity by subjecting a gas to electromagnetic radiation having a frequency less than about 333 GHz in the presence of a plasma catalyst, wherein the cavity has a wall, (3) sustaining the plasma in the cavity such that energy from the plasma passes through the wall into the melting region and melts the solid into a liquid, and (4) collecting the liquid. Solids that can be melted consistent with this invention can include metals, such as metal ore and scrap metal. Various plasma catalysts are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2007
    Assignee: BTU International Inc.
    Inventors: Satyendra Kumar, Devendra Kumar
  • Patent number: 7098421
    Abstract: The invention is a transferred or non-transferred plasma arc torch for use in a fuel gas generator system for generating electricity from waste, wherein the torch includes a torch housing, electrodes (one in a transferred torch, two in a non-transferred torch), a tubular sleeve member, a coolant flow path, a vortex mechanism, and a power supply circuit connected to the rear and front electrodes that generates an arc that is adapted to extend axially from the rear electrode through the vortical flow of gas and to an attachment located on the bore of the front electrode, and wherein the electrodes are metal coated in order to protect from wear during use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Inventor: Joseph Frank Pierce, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6987792
    Abstract: Blocks of organic material (58) are fed from a plurality of directions into a reactor (10) having three zones (16, 18, 19). The material forms a bed (70) atop a bed of consumable carbon catalyst (60). These beds are heated by a series of plasma arc torches (42) mounted in inlets (37) about the reactor. Gas is supplied via inlets (39, 41) from wind drums (38, 40). The superheated gas from the reaction is vented through an outlet (30) and is used to produce electrical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2006
    Assignee: Solena Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert T. Do, Gary L. Leatherman
  • Patent number: 6794618
    Abstract: In order to refine a method for electric heating of furnaces for heat treating metallic workpieces, especially vacuum furnaces usable for plasma carburizing or nitriding, in which the heater elements of a furnace are supplied with a heating voltage that is generated in the secondary circuit of a three phase transformer connected to the three phase power network such that a comparatively small reactive power component can be obtained in a simple and economical manner, it is proposed that the primary coil windings of the three phase transformer be switched in the delta connection during a first heating phase and in the star connection during a second heating phase, whereby the switchover time from the delta connection to the star connection is determined as a function of operating parameters characteristic for the heating process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: Ipsen International GmbH
    Inventor: Karl-Heinz Lemken
  • Patent number: 6781086
    Abstract: A method of removing photoresist from a wafer or other substrate consists of ashing the photoresist only once the wafer is spaced a predetermined distance above a wafer stage in a process chamber, so that the photoresist is removed at once from all of the surfaces of the wafer. The wafer is heated to a temperature of 210° C. to 230° C. after it is positioned on the upper surface of the wafer stage. The heated wafer is then raised a distance of 9 mm to 11 mm above the upper surface of the wafer stage. At this time, process gas is introduced into the process chamber, and the process gas is converted into plasma. Thus, the plasma efficiently removes the photoresist all at once from the surfaces of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Doo-Whan Choi
  • Patent number: 6753495
    Abstract: A multi-axis machine method and apparatus for the control of the motion of a material processing device is disclosed. The device has supply element and the apparatus has a supply co-ordination element. The motion of the processing device can be co-ordinated with the motion of the apparatus such that the loading or twisting forces on the supply element is substantially reduced. The supply co-ordination element includes an angle drive mechanism and rotator housing assembly. An angle drive mechanism for setting the angle of a processing device, the mechanism includes a linear actuator connected to a rod and the rod is pivotally connected at a first end to the actuator and connected at a second end to a device support, the actuator being connected to the rod such that movement of the actuator causes the rod to move the processing device relative to the device support, in the device support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2004
    Inventor: Murray Forlong
  • Patent number: 6744022
    Abstract: Systems and methods for monitoring a heat treating atmosphere derive from at least one sensor placed in situ in the atmosphere a process variable, which is indicative of the ratio of gaseous hydrogen H2 (g) to water vapor H2O (g) in the atmosphere. The systems and methods use the process variable, e.g., to control the atmosphere, or to record or display the process variable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2004
    Assignee: Furnace Control Corp.
    Inventors: Robert N. Blumenthal, Andreas T. Melville
  • Patent number: 6686556
    Abstract: A solid-waste conversion plant produces useful products and electrical energy in a closed system with zero emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The plant is characterized by catalytic ionic-impact chambers having a pair of electrodes that establish an electric arc. The electric arc breaks down solid waste molecules into a plasma of atomic constituents which exothermically recombine into simple molecules upon leaving the plasma. A primary chamber converts carbon-based waste into solidifiable metal, sulfur and glassy slag extractable from the bottom of the chamber, and into gas containing CO, H2, and CH4. A second chamber contains high carbon waste input that is converted by the arc into incandescent coke, which converts CO2 and H2O in the gas from the first chamber into more CO, H2 and CH4, thereby forming a fuel gas. The fuel gas is combusted in gas turbine generators to produce electricity for operating the electric arcs, plus a sellable surplus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Inventor: C. Kenneth Mitchell
  • Publication number: 20030206571
    Abstract: A discharge housing for connection to a plasma arc furnace outlet, having water quenching stations positioned inside the housing into the gas flow path, and having an inner flow path concentrically positioned inside an outer flow path, with an exhaust port on the downstream end of the outer flow path.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 3, 2002
    Publication date: November 6, 2003
    Inventor: Gary J. Hanus
  • Patent number: 6642472
    Abstract: A discharge housing for connection to a plasma arc furnace outlet, having water quenching stations positioned inside the housing into the gas flow path, and having an inner flow path concentrically positioned inside an outer flow path, with an exhaust port on the downstream end of the outer flow path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2003
    Assignee: Phoenix Solutions Co.
    Inventor: Gary J. Hanus
  • Publication number: 20020144981
    Abstract: A solid-waste conversion plant produces useful products and electrical energy in a closed system with zero emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The plant is characterized by catalytic ionic-impact chambers having a pair of electrodes that establish an electric arc. The electric arc breaks down solid waste molecules into a plasma of atomic constituents which exothermically recombine into simple molecules upon leaving the plasma. A primary chamber converts carbon-based waste into solidifiable metal, sulfur and glassy slag extractable from the bottom of the chamber, and into gas containing CO, H2, and CH4. A second chamber contains high carbon waste input that is converted by the arc into incandescent coke, which converts CO2 and H2O in the gas from the first chamber into more CO, H2 and CH4, thereby forming a fuel gas. The fuel gas is combusted in gas turbine generators to produce electricity for operating the electric arcs, plus a sellable surplus.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2002
    Publication date: October 10, 2002
    Inventor: C. Kenneth Mitchell
  • Patent number: 6355904
    Abstract: A waste treatment system is provided, including a waste melter system and an air pollution control system. Hazardous and/or radioactive waste in drums is conducted through a waste feed system into a plasma chamber where the waste is exposed to heat from a plasma torch. A part of the waste volatilizes and leaves the plasma chamber for a secondary reaction chamber, in which the waste is combusted to form a waste gas stream. The air pollution control system treats the waste gas stream through quenching, filtering and scrubbing, to produce a clean gas stream suitable for release to the atmosphere. Offgas may be recirculated through the waste treatment system as desired. The waste remaining inside the plasma chamber melts and drops onto sloped processing surfaces inside a hearth located below the plasma torch. The hearth includes ground electrodes configured for electrical contact with waste held in the hearth so that the melted waste in the hearth may be further heated by the plasma torch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2002
    Assignee: Science Applications International Corporation
    Inventors: James A. Batdorf, John D. Dalton, Raymond M. Geimer, Robert L. Gillins, Milo M. Larsen, Gary L. Leatherman, Steven D. Poling, William P. Wolfe
  • Publication number: 20010026575
    Abstract: A plasma processing system provided with a vacuum chamber for accommodating a substrate and for generation of plasma in a space in the front of the same, an antenna provided at the vacuum chamber, and a high frequency power source for supplying high frequency power to the antenna. The antenna emits high frequency power, generates plasma inside the vacuum chamber, and processes the surface of the substrate by the plasma. In the plasma processing system, the antenna has a disk-shaped conductor plate having a predetermined thickness. A coaxial waveguide having a folded portion is formed around the disk-shaped conductor plate. The folded portion of the waveguide is provided with a short-circuit 3 dB directional coupler having an impedance matching function. The antenna having the above structure prevents the generation of a standing wave in the high frequency wave propagation path from the high frequency power source to the vacuum chamber and generates high density plasma by supply of a large power.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2000
    Publication date: October 4, 2001
    Inventors: Noriyoshi Sato, Satoru Iizuka, Tsukasa Yoneyama, Hiroyasu Sato, Unryu Ogawa, Yoshio Tominaga, Yoichiro Numazawa, Yukito Nakagawa
  • Patent number: 6274851
    Abstract: An electric arc furnace includes a container for receiving metal, an electrode spaced apart from the container, and an electrical power source coupled to the electrode and the container for generating an electrical discharge between the electrode and the container for melting the metal in the container. The arc furnace includes a flicker controller for reducing flicker induced in the power source by the electric arc furnace. The flicker controller consists of a switch electrically connected between the power source and the electrode, and a control system coupled to the switch. The switch includes a gating input for controlling a conduction interval of the switch, and the control system applies gating signals to the gating input for maintaining a magnitude of reactive current flow through the arc furnace substantially constant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Inverpower Controls Ltd.
    Inventors: Joseph A. Mulcahy, Dawit Tadesse, Janos Rajda, Hassan Ali Kojori
  • Patent number: 6173002
    Abstract: An electric arc gasifier adapts to the variable chemical components of waste products by utilizing mobile and fixed electrodes and a positioning system wherein a waste is injected into a heating chamber and broken down into elemental components capable of being recycled. A primary injection is heated by an electric arc formed between two electrodes. A secondary fluid consisting of the waste and a carrier gas is then injected and mixed with the heated primary fluid. A reaction zone within the fixed electrode of the heating chamber accelerates a resulting mixture of gases, solids, and liquids into a mixing chamber, wherein the resulting high-temperature, high pressure mixture may be combined with a tertiary spray. An efficient destructive rate stemming from the high temperature plasma formed by the electric arc allows for low cost waste processing and a means for recovering high value metals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Inventor: Edgar J. Robert
  • Patent number: 6086361
    Abstract: A melt treatment apparatus is provided which obviates an increase in floorspace and in cost and has freedom from a danger of steam explosion and further can control melt discharging with reliability.The welt treatment apparatus 1 is constructed with a furnace body 8 for entry of a material 17 to be heated, a plasma torch 2 that generates a plasma arc 13 so as to melt the material, a melt discharge passage 3 arranged in the furnace body for discharging a hot melt 14 derived by melting the material with the use of the plasma torch, and cooling gas jet means 7 disposed in the melt discharge passage and jetting a cooling gas to cool the hot melt to thereby form a dam 12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2000
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho
    Inventors: Yasuo Higashi, Katsuya Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Noura, Akiyoshi Yamane
  • Patent number: 6066825
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for high efficiency generation of electricity and low oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) emissions are provided. The electricity is generated from combustion of hydrogen-rich gases produced in waste conversion units using ultra lean fuel to air ratios in the range of 0.4-0.7 relative to stoichiometric operation in internal combustion engine-generators or ultra lean operation in gas turbines to ensure minimal production of pollutants such as NO.sub.x. The ultra lean operation also increases the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. High compression ratios (r=12 to 15) can also be employed to further increase the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Supplemental fuel, such as natural gas or diesel oil, may be added directly to the internal combustion engine-generator or gas turbine for combustion with the hydrogen-rich gases produced in waste conversion unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Charles H. Titus, Daniel R. Cohn, Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 6037560
    Abstract: The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Charles H. Titus, Daniel R. Cohn, Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 5963579
    Abstract: Method of heating molten metal in a tundish by irradiating a plasma torch on molten metal flowing along an internal surface of a heating compartment, and tundish configured for such method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Sollac
    Inventor: Michel Henryon
  • Patent number: 5914979
    Abstract: An apparatus for providing three dimensional positioning to the ends of one or more translating elements which are normally restricted to translation along the longitudinal axes of the elements. A cartridge assembly including a cylinder at least partially formed of a ceramic element holds the translating element at an angle to the center axis of the cylinder. The cartridge assembly rotates within a cylindrically shaped chamber in a lid assembly. The lid assembly is mounted on the port of a chamber where the translating element is to be positioned, thereby allowing the translating element to extend into the chamber. The center axis of the cylindrical chamber of the lid assembly is at an angle to the center axis of the port of the chamber. A rotational drive unit rotates the cartridge assembly within the lid assembly. A translational drive unit longitudinally drives the translating element within the cartridge assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1999
    Assignee: MeltTran, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian A. Hill, Thomas L. Eddy
  • Patent number: 5908564
    Abstract: The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1999
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Charles H. Titus, Daniel R. Cohn, Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 5847353
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for high efficiency generation of electricity and low oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) emissions are provided. The electricity is generated from combustion of hydrogen-rich gases produced in waste conversion units using ultra lean fuel to air ratios in the range of 0.4-0.7 relative to stoichiometric operation in internal combustion engine-generators or ultra lean operation in gas turbines to ensure minimal production of pollutants such as NO.sub.x. The ultra lean operation also increases the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. High compression ratios (r=12 to 15) can also be employed to further increase the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Supplemental fuel, such as natural gas or diesel oil, may be added directly to the internal combustion engine-generator or gas turbine for combustion with the hydrogen-rich gases produced in waste conversion unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Assignee: Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Charles H. Titus, Daniel R. Cohn, Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 5824988
    Abstract: A reactor and method for the treatment of matter by plasma action. A plurality of electrode structures are positioned to define a reaction zone associated with the inter-electrode space. The inter-electrode space is conditioned (as by preionizing) and a series of discrete electrical discharges are produced throughout the reaction zone. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction zone is subjected to a sequence of discrete electrical discharges in a time interval less than the residence time of material to be treated within the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Inventor: Jozef K. Tylko
  • Patent number: 5811752
    Abstract: The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Charles H. Titus, Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 5812586
    Abstract: Slag from a pool of molten slag floating on molten metal in a plasma arc treatment chamber is removed by providing a slag container located inside the chamber which has a slag intake pipe extending from a bottom of the container downwardly into the slag pool. A vacuum line is connected to the top of the container and a vacuum source. When a vacuum is applied to the inside of the container, the pressure prevailing in the chamber pushes the slag from the pool through the intake pipe into the container. When the container becomes filled with molten slag, the latter enters a section of the line communicating the top of the container with the vacuum source. As the slag enters the pipe section, it is cooled and solidified to prevent further slag flow into or gas (air) flow through the vacuum line so that the container can be lifted out of the chamber while the slag in the container is still in its molten state without causing slag spillage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Advanced Environmental Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Max P. Schlienger
  • Patent number: 5802097
    Abstract: Melting method for an electric arc furnace with alternative sources of energy for the melting of iron-based alloys, the electric furnace (10) including tuyeres (13) positioned on the bottom to deliver oxygen, at least one tuyere (15) to deliver coal dust which works in the area of contact between the bath of molten metal (16) and the layer of slag (22), at least one supersonic lance (12) cooperating with a lance (29) to deliver coal dust, these lances (12, 29) having a working position (12c, 29c) in which the supersonic lance (12) is positioned in close proximity to the surface of the molten metal (16) and the lance (29) to deliver coal dust is positioned in the vicinity of the surface of the layer of slag (22), and a plurality of burners (28) positioned on the cooled sidewalls (31) of the furnace (10) and delivering oxygen-based gases and combustible substances, whereby at least two first burners (28) work with the action of one burner supporting the action of the next one, the furnace (10) being charged wit
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1998
    Assignee: Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche spA
    Inventors: Gianni Gensini, Matteo Losciale, Corrado De Cecco
  • Patent number: 5782952
    Abstract: A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1998
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander F. Diaz, Jack B. Howard, Anthony J. Modestino, William A. Peters
  • Patent number: 5753004
    Abstract: A method of refining molten metal includes the steps of reduced-pressure-refining molten metal in a heated vessel, adding slag-forming agents into the refined molten metal while keeping the molten metal in the vessel, or after pouring the molten metal into another vessel, re-refining the molten metal by heating the molten metal with inert-gas plasma and while stirring the molten metal as occasion demands. Preferably, the refining apparatus includes two adjacent chambers, each chamber isolated from the surrounding atmosphere. The chambers can be connected with, or separated from, each other and each chamber is provided with an exhaust device. One of the chambers is provided with an induction heating refining furnace, and the other chamber is provided with inert gas plasma heater. The apparatus also includes a re-refining vessel which is transferable between the two chambers, and a material feeder for feeding slag-forming agents into the re-refining vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1998
    Assignee: Hitachi Metals, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noboru Hanai, Kokichi Mikutsu, Tamiya Kishida, Mitsuru Suzuki, Katsumi Kanamoto, Takashi Mukai, Iwao Kashiwagi, Kenji Tokuda
  • Patent number: 5749937
    Abstract: A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company
    Inventors: Brent A. Detering, Alan D. Donaldson, James R. Fincke, Peter C. Kong
  • Patent number: 5734673
    Abstract: A waste-melting furnace includes a furnace body, a rotary heat-resistive vessel which is arranged inside the furnace body and into which waste is to be fed, and a transferred arc type torch plasma gun and a water-cooled electrode arranged above the rotary heat-resistive vessel, the plasma gun and electrode being opposed to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takafumi Kurahashi, Katsutoshi Torita
  • Patent number: 5708678
    Abstract: Method to equalize the temperature in a heating furnace (10) with a controlled-oxidization ambient, the furnace (10) comprising at least one insulated chamber (11) cooperating with a supporting and conveying surface defined by a plurality of rollers (12), the rollers (12) including rings (35) to bear slabs (19), a plurality of burners (18) being comprised in cooperation with the upper part of the furnace (10), whereas a plurality of aspiration intakes (21) is included in cooperation with the lower part of the furnace (10), the feed to the burners (18) being adjusted in such a way as to ensure a strongly oxidizing atmosphere within the furnace (10) so as to obtain a desired and controllable layer of scale on the surface of a slab (19) in the furnace (10), this strongly oxidizing atmosphere being conveyed so as to surround and lap continuously and evenly the whole periphery of the slab (19), the furnace (10) cooperating downstream with a descaling assembly (22) to remove the layer of scale thus formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1998
    Assignee: Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche SpA
    Inventors: Fabio Fasoli, Roberto Millone
  • Patent number: RE37853
    Abstract: A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This “freezes” the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Betchel BWXT Idaho, LLC
    Inventors: Brent A. Detering, Alan D. Donaldson, James R. Fincke, Peter C. Kong