Having Significant Frequency Limitation Or Relationship (e.g., Peak, Ratio) Patents (Class 374/127)
  • Patent number: 9181121
    Abstract: Accurate temperature measurement during manufacturing a vitreous silica crucible is enabled. The present invention provides an apparatus for manufacturing a vitreous silica crucible including: a mold for forming a silica powder layer by supplying silica powder therein; an are discharge unit having carbon electrodes and a power supply unit and for heating and fusing the silica powder layer by arc discharge; and a temperature measurement unit for measuring temperature of a fused portion in the mold, wherein the temperature measurement unit is an radiation thermometer for measuring temperature by detecting radiation energy of a wavelength of 4.8 to 5.2 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2015
    Assignee: SUMCO CORPORATION
    Inventors: Toshiaki Sudo, Eriko Suzuki
  • Patent number: 8496375
    Abstract: A pyrometer that is adapted for detecting radiation in the range of 250 to 450 nm is disclosed. The pyrometer can be used for determining the temperature of a matter thermally emitting only ultraviolet-radiation. In particular, the pyrometer can include: a detector having an active area adapted for measuring thermal radiation, a longpass filter having a cut-off wavelength in the range of 400 to 450 nm, means adapted for alternately activating and deactivating the longpass filter, means adapted for measuring a first thermal radiation signal when the longpass filter is deactivated and adapted for measuring a second thermal radiation signal when the longpass filter is activated, and means adapted for determining a temperature corresponding to the measured thermal radiation from a difference of the first radiation signal and the second radiation signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: Laytec Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Joerg-Thomas Zettler, Tobias Schenk, Jens Zilian
  • Patent number: 8359180
    Abstract: To avoid an influence on measurement accuracy in a case where an observation window for a measurement sample is provided to a thermal analysis apparatus, the influence being imposed by thermal conduction through the observation window, the observation window is formed of layers of transparent members, and a gap layer is provided between the layers, to thereby reduce the thermal conduction. Gas or solid having a high heat insulation property is employed for the gap layer to further enhance a heat insulation property of the observation window. Accordingly, a change due to heating of the measurement sample is visually observed in the thermal analysis apparatus, to thereby obtain a thermal change or a physical change with higher accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2013
    Assignee: SII NanoTechnology Inc.
    Inventor: Kentaro Yamada
  • Patent number: 7891866
    Abstract: A system and method for determining the temperature of an object without physically contacting the object. The method involves reading a spectral radiation of the object over a plurality of wavelengths to obtain a set of radiation data related to a temperature of the object. A known characteristic of a black body is determined at a plurality of predetermined, different test temperatures. The spectral data and the characteristic of the black body at the various test temperatures are used to calculate a temperature of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Mark D. Rogers, Loyal B. Shawgo
  • Patent number: 7665891
    Abstract: A differential temperature sensor system and method of determining a temperature shift of an optical resonator and its surroundings are provided. The differential temperature sensor system includes a light generating device capable of generating a beam having a carrier frequency, a modulator capable of modulating the beam with a sideband frequency, and an optical resonator capable of supporting an ordinary mode and an extraordinary mode. The system includes an ordinary mode-lock setup capable of locking the carrier frequency of the beam to the ordinary mode of the optical resonator and an extraordinary mode-lock setup capable of locking the sideband frequency of the beam to the extraordinary mode of the optical resonator by providing a specific radio frequency to the modulator substantially corresponding to a frequency shift between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode of the optical resonator resulting from a temperature change of the optical resonator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Anatoliy A. Savchenkov, Nan Yu, Lute Maleki, Vladimir S. Iltchenko, Andrey B. Matsko, Dmitry V. Strekalov
  • Patent number: 7577183
    Abstract: There is a problem that a delay is caused in signal processing by exercising control so as to cause amplitude peaks in a transmission signal to fall in a prescribed range. A transmission apparatus for conducting wireless communication makes a decision whether a specific pattern which causes a peak exceeding a predetermined amplitude range to be generated in frequency characteristics of a transmission signal is included in a transmission code sequence for forming the transmission signal. And the transmission apparatus selects filter coefficients which prescribe a band limiting factor for the frequency characteristics of the transmission signal, on the basis of a result of the decision, and conducts filtering on the transmission code sequence by using the selected filter coefficients.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2009
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Masahiko Nakayama
  • Patent number: 7503690
    Abstract: Disclosed are a temperature measurement apparatus and method for measuring temperature by using RF signals having different frequencies. The temperature measurement apparatus includes a parameter generation unit for generating a first parameter based on a radio frequency (RF) signal having a first frequency and a second parameter based on an RF signal having a second frequency; a parameter detection unit for detecting the generated first and second parameters; and a control unit for calculating a temperature value based on the detected first and second parameters. Accordingly, the temperature measurement apparatus can measure temperature by use of existing components and received RF signals without any addition of a temperature sensor, as well as measure temperature precisely without having any influence on the intensities of RF signals that can vary due to the changes of transmission distances and signal-receiving environments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2009
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Il-jong Song, Ja-nam Ku, Young-hoon Min, Sang-wook Kwon
  • Patent number: 7416330
    Abstract: The temperature of the surface and/or inside of a substrate is measured by irradiating the front surface or rear surface of the substrate, whose temperature is to be measured, with light and measuring the interference of a reflected light from the substrate and a reference light. A method and apparatus for measuring temperature or thickness which is suitable for directly measuring the temperature of the outermost surface layer of a substrate, and an apparatus for treating a substrate for an electronic device, which uses such method, are provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2008
    Assignees: Tokyo Electron Limited
    Inventors: Masafumi Ito, Yasuyuki Okamura, Tatsuo Shiina, Nobuo Ishii, Tomohiro Suzuki, Chishio Koshimizu
  • Patent number: 7001068
    Abstract: Remote sensing of the temperature of a greybody or blackbody radiator is effected by passing its radiation (24) through a modulated infrared filter spectrometer. The infrared filter comprises, in sequence, a band pass filter (20), a first polariser (21) which polarises the radiation, an electro-optical element (22) which splits the polarised radiation into two orthogonally polarised components, and a second polariser (23). A lens (28) images the radiation leaving the second polariser onto a detector (27). The electrical signal from the detector (27) is input to a numerical analyser. The electro-optical element (22), typically comprising a birefringent crystal assembly (25) and a birefringent trim plate (26), is configured so that the net optical delay of the orthogonally polarised components passed through it is such that the recombined components are at or near a peak or trough in their interferogram.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Assignee: The Australian National University
    Inventor: John Howard
  • Patent number: 6817758
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for measuring a surface temperature of an object body, by calculating a temperature at each picture element of an image of the object body, on the basis of a radiant intensity ratio at each pair of corresponding picture elements of a first and a second image which are obtained with respective radiations having respective first and second wavelengths which are selected from a light emitted from the surface of the body, by a first filter which permits transmission therethrough a radiation having the first wavelength which is selected according to a radiant intensity curve corresponding to a wavelength of a black body at a lower limit of a temperature measurement range, and which is within a high radiant intensity range in which the radiant intensity is higher than a radiant intensity at a normal room temperature, and a second filter which permits transmission therethrough a radiation having the second wavelength which is selected within the high radiant intensity range, such that the second
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignees: Noritake Co., Limited
    Inventors: Kenji Yano, Misao Iwata, Miyuki Hashimoto, Kuniyuki Kitagawa, Norio Arai
  • Patent number: 6786634
    Abstract: A method of measuring a temperature of an object body in an electric furnace, based on an intensity of a radiant energy emitted from the object body, the electric furnace being provided with an electric heater operable by application of a drive voltage thereto to heat the object body, the method comprising: a radiant-energy detecting step of detecting an intensity of a radiant energy emitted from the object body; a stray-light noise eliminating step of determining as a noise an intensity of a radiant energy of a stray light which is emitted from an inner wall surface of the electric furnace toward the object body and reflected by a surface of the object body, according to a predetermined relationship between the intensity of the radiant energy of the stray light and the drive voltage applied to the electric heater and based on an actually applied value of the drive voltage, and subtracting the intensity of the radiant energy of the stray light determined as the noise, from the detected intensity of the radian
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignees: Noritake Co., Limited, Kuniyuki Kitagawa
    Inventors: Miyuki Hashimoto, Kenji Yano, Misao Iwata, Kuniyuki Kitagawa, Norio Arai
  • Patent number: 6756591
    Abstract: A method and device for photothermal imaging tiny metal particles which are immersed in a given medium like a living cell deposited onto a transparent glass slide. The given medium and immersed tiny metal particles are illuminated through separate phase reference laser beam and sensitive probe laser beam, with the sensitive probe laser beam including a heating laser beam undergoing through impingement on the given medium slight phase changes induced by photothermal effect due to a local heating, in the absence of any substantial phase changes to the phase reference laser beam. Illuminating is performed by focusing the separate phase reference and sensitive probe laser beam through the transparent glass slide at a given depth within the given medium and a transmitted phase reference laser beam and a transmitted sensitive probe laser beam undergoing the slight phase changes are generated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignees: Centre National de la Recherche, Universite de Bordeaux I
    Inventors: Brahim Lounis, Michel Orrit, Philippe Tamarat, David Boyer, Laurent Cognet
  • Patent number: 6738724
    Abstract: The invention provides a passive two-stage multiwavelength approach for measuring temperature, emissivity and stray-light levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2004
    Inventor: Devon R. McIntosh
  • Publication number: 20030123518
    Abstract: A method for high temperature process control in which the surface emission intensity of a surface is measured at two near-infrared wavelengths over an array of points covering a fill field of view. The emissivity variable is removed from the temperature calculation and the surface emission intensity measurements are digitally processed, resulting in generation of a color temperature map. The color temperature map is processed in a thermal imaging control algorithm process, producing control output signals, which are then input to a temperature control means for controlling the surface temperature. The apparatus used in carrying out this method is surface temperature monitoring system which includes a multiple-wavelength, near-infrared thermal imaging system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Publication date: July 3, 2003
    Inventors: Hamid A. Abbasi, Ishwar K. Puri, David M. Rue
  • Patent number: 6542853
    Abstract: A life estimation device which numerically measures the damage to a machine such as an engine accurately to estimate, the life of the machine accurately without requiring skill. A load map (B) of the two-dimensional distribution of the operation parameters of an engine is made. In accordance with the weighted integration time &agr;i·ki at each level (Bi) of the load map (B), the actual damage &dgr;=&Sgr;&agr;i·ki to the engine for a certain lapse of time &tgr; is calculated. By operating the engine beforehand, a correspondence relation L2 between the magnitude of the damage &dgr; and the life H is predetermined. The life H1 corresponding to the calculated actual damage &dgr;1 is determined in accordance with the predetermined correspondence relation L2 and the H1 is outputted as the estimated life of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: Komatsu, Ltd.
    Inventors: Taku Murakami, Ichio Ichikawa, Haruo Hashimoto, Koji Iijima, Fumihide Sato, Hiroshi Ohkawa
  • Publication number: 20020146056
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for measuring a surface temperature of an object body, by calculating a temperature at each picture element of an image of the object body, on the basis of a radiant intensity ratio at each pair of corresponding picture elements of a first and a second image which are obtained with respective radiations having respective first and second wavelengths which are selected from a light emitted from the surface of the body, by a first filter which permits transmission therethrough a radiation having the first wavelength which is selected according to a radiant intensity curve corresponding to a wavelength of a black body at a lower limit of a temperature measurement range, and which is within a high radiant intensity range in which the radiant intensity is higher than a radiant intensity at a normal room temperature, and a second filter which permits transmission therethrough a radiation having the second wavelength which is selected within the high radiant intensity range, such that the second
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2002
    Publication date: October 10, 2002
    Applicant: NORITAKE CO., LIMITED
    Inventors: Kenji Yano, Misao Iwata, Miyuki Hashimoto, Kuniyuki Kitagawa, Norio Arai
  • Patent number: 6357910
    Abstract: A pyrometer for measuring the temperature of an object with high accuracy and fast response time that uses both multi-wavelength pyrometry techniques and nanotechnology. Radiance from an object is transmitted through a fiber optic cable, is received by a thin-film multi-wavelength modulator, and is detected by an optical detector array. More specifically, the pyrometer includes means for conveying light; an optical lens; an optical fiber; means for optically modulating the wavelength of light; means for optically detecting the modulated light; means for transforming the optically detected wavelengths into electrical signals; and means for processing and recording the electrical signals. The means for optically modulating the wavelength includes at least one piezoelectric film deposited by an electrostatic self-assembly method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2002
    Assignee: PhotoSonic, Inc.
    Inventors: Yaosheng Chen, Richard O. Claus, Yanjing Liu
  • Patent number: 6299346
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for active pyrometric measurement of the temperature of a body whose emissivity varies with wavelength. The emissivity is inferred from reflectivity measured at two wavelengths in an irradiation wavelength band and extrapolated to a wavelength in an emission wavelength band. The extrapolated emissivity is used to correct a blackbody estimate of the temperature of the body in the emission wavelength band. The extrapolation, being temperature-dependent, is done iteratively. Both reflectivity and emission measurements are performed via a common optical head that is shaped, and is positioned relative to the body, so that the optical head has a sufficiently large solid angle of acceptance that the measured temperature is independent of superficial roughness of the body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: C. I. Systems LTD
    Inventors: Yaron Ish-Shalom, Yael Baharav
  • Patent number: 6293696
    Abstract: A method and system for calibrating radiation sensing devices, such as pyrometers, in thermal processing chambers are disclosed. The system includes a reflective device positioned opposite the radiation sensing devices and a calibrating light source which emits light energy onto the reflective device. The system is designed so that each radiation sensing device is exposed to the same intensity of light being reflected off the reflective device, which has a preset value. The radiation sensing devices are then used to measure the amount of light energy being reflected which is then compared to the preset value for making any necessary adjustments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2001
    Assignee: Steag RTP Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Julio L. Guardado
  • Publication number: 20010006530
    Abstract: A temperature sensor for measuring a temperature of a substrate in a thermal processing chamber is described. The chamber includes a reflector forming a reflecting cavity with a substrate when the substrate is positioned in the chamber. The temperature sensor includes a probe having an input end positioned to receive radiation from the reflecting cavity, and a detector optically coupled to an output end of the probe. The radiation entering the probe includes reflected radiation and non-reflected radiation. The detector measures an intensity of a first portion of the radiation entering the probe to generate a first intensity signal and measures an intensity of a second portion of the radiation entering the probe to generate a second intensity signal. The detector is configured so that a ratio of the reflected radiation to the non-reflected radiation is higher in the first portion than the second portion. The two intensity signals are used to calculate the temperature and emissivity of the substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 8, 2001
    Publication date: July 5, 2001
    Applicant: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce Adams, Aaron Hunter, Alex Rubinchik, Mark Yam, Paul A. O'Brien
  • Patent number: 6222111
    Abstract: A thermopile radiation detector (10) has an optical filter layer (16) that supports a thermopile detector (22) and, in addition, filters undesired wavelengths. The filtering is accomplished by selectively absorbing electromagnetic radiation at predetermined wavelengths. The use of the thermopile radiation detector simplifies the overall construction of a system that incorporates the detector by eliminating one focal point in the optical system. By altering the filter material, the number of layers of filter material, etc., a plurality of detectors can be constructed, each responsive to a different wavelength. In forming the detector, the filter can be deposited on a thin backing material such as aluminum. Examples of suitable filter materials include alternating layers of zinc selenide/magnesium fluoride or germanium/magnesium fluoride. After the filter is deposited, the backing is etched away and suitable thermocouples, such as bismuth/antimony, are deposited on one side of the filter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: Mark T. Kern
  • Patent number: 6074087
    Abstract: The subject invention relates to a technique employing a calibrated thermal radiometer, and the radiation characteristics of ionic crystals to measure the temperature distribution of crystals during crystal growth. When in high temperature, the ionic crystals often exhibit a transparent region having low reflectance, and low absorption in the spectrum between the short-wavelength absorption edge and the long-wavelength absorption edge. In addition, these crystals have an opaque spectral region having low reflectance and high absorption, i.e. have surface radiation of high emissivity when the spectrum is in the range between the long-wavelength absorption edge and the onset of the Reststrahlen band. The spectral emissivity of the ionic crystal may not change significantly with a variation of temperature in this opaque region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: National Security Council
    Inventors: Jyh-Chen Chen, Chieh Hu, Yeou-Chang Lee
  • Patent number: 5815410
    Abstract: An improved ratio type infrared thermometer utilizes integrating amplifiers for each waveband having the integration time automatically set so that the output voltage utilizes the full range of an analog to digital convertor. The gain and offset of the amplifiers is not ambient temperature dependent so accurate digital representations of the signal for each waveband are provided. The linearized output of each detector is optionally provided so that special or proprietary algorithms for computing the temperature of colored objects can be utilized. A special feature for downloading of updated new programs utilizes a "programming jumper" and an attenuation warning signal is provided for selected levels of attenuation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Raytek Subsidiary, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Heinke, Jose Ysaguirre, Steve King, Paul Carlson
  • Patent number: 5797682
    Abstract: A system (10) for simultaneously measuring temperature and CO, CO.sub.2 and HC gas content of vehicle (11) exhaust detects and analyzes a beam of infrared electromagnetic radiation (21) projected through a plume (13) of vehicle exhaust to assess the concentration of CO, CO.sub.2, and HC in the vehicle exhaust and detects and analyzes infrared electromagnetic radiation (15) emitted by the plume (13) to assess the temperature of the plume (13) and, consequently, whether the vehicle's (11) catalytic converter is operating in the cold or hot mode. Essentially simultaneous measurement is taken by intermittently interrupting the beam (21) of projected infrared electromagnetic radiation and detecting and analyzing the emitted infrared radiation (15) during the intervals of interruption when the beam (21) is not projected through the plume (13). Intermittent projection of the beam (21) is accomplished by insertion of a chopper wheel (22) between an infrared beam projector (20) and the plume (13).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1998
    Assignee: Envirotest Systems Corp.
    Inventors: John Kert, Robert Stephens, Michael D. Jack
  • Patent number: 5772323
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a totally novel device and process useful for the measurement of the temperature of a radiating body. More particularly, the present invention relates to a device that enhances the resolution and repeatability of the measured temperature of the radiating body by fitting a mathematical correlation to the emitted radiation spectra, generating calculated radiation intensities at specified wavelengths using the mathematical correlation, and then generating a suite of individual two-wavelength temperature values, which can be statistically evaluated and averaged for a final, measured temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1998
    Inventor: Ralph A. Felice
  • Patent number: 5769540
    Abstract: Thermal, optical, physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate (11) surface are determined with non-contact optical techniques that include illuminating (23) the surface with radiation having a ripple intensity characteristic (51), and then measuring the combined intensities (53) of that radiation after modification by the substrate surface and radiation emitted from the surface. Precise determinations of emissivity, reflectivity, temperature, changing surface composition, the existence of any layer formed on the surface and its thickness are all possible from this measurement. They may be made in situ and substantially in real time, thus allowing the measurement to control (39, 41) various processes of treating a substrate surface. This has significant applicability to semiconductor wafer processing and metal processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1998
    Assignee: Luxtron Corporation
    Inventors: Charles W. Schietinger, Bruce E. Adams
  • Patent number: 5764684
    Abstract: The output stability of an infrared thermocouple is improved by filtering the radiation received by the infrared thermocouple to pass only short wavelengths. The stability is further increased by providing a second infrared thermocouple having its input filtered to pass long wavelengths. The two outputs are combined to obtain an output signal which is substantially independent of emissivity. The linear range of an infrared detector through which its output closely follows that of a linear thermocouple is increased by a calibration method in which an initial offset is provided to a readout device. Calibration of the infrared detector is completed using an adjustable potentiometer. By providing removable apertures, the temperature range through which an infrared thermocouple may be used is extended. Elongated targets are efficiently viewed by an infrared thermocouple having an elongated thermopile flake and an imaging lens.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: Exergen Corporation
    Inventor: Francesco Pompei
  • Patent number: 5730527
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for measuring a true temperature using a consumable optical fiber, wherein received light emitted from a high temperature liquid is divided into two light beams through a branching filter. A light of a first wave band from a first light beam of the two light beams is detected by a first radiation thermometer, and the light of the first wave band is converted into temperature to output a first temperature. A light of a second wave band from a second light beam of the two light beams is detected by a second radiation thermometer, and the light of the second wave band is converted into temperature to output a second temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1998
    Assignee: NKK Corporation
    Inventors: Takamitsu Takayama, Yoshiro Yamada
  • Patent number: 5704712
    Abstract: A method for remotely measuring the temperature of a target maintained at a first relatively low temperature while at the same time the target is heated by thermal radiation from a source spaced from the target and maintained at a second relatively high temperature which employs a two wavelength radiometer and a computer. First and second wavelengths are selected for use. The second wavelength is shorter than the first wavelength, both source and target exhibiting appreciable radiation at the first wavelength, the source emitting appreciable radiation while the target emits essentially no radiation at the second wavelength. The radiation of the source at the first wavelength and at the second wavelength are measured. These two source radiation measurements are stored in the computer. The radiation of the target at the first wavelength and at the second wavelength are measured. These two target radiation measurements are stored in the computer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1998
    Assignee: Quantum Logic Corporation
    Inventor: Alexander Stein
  • Patent number: 5690429
    Abstract: Self calibrating a pyrometer includes taking two different temperatures thereby generating two voltage spectra, calculating the spectra ratio R of the two voltage spectra, determining the slope of the plot of the logarithm of the spectrum ratio versus c.sub.2 /.lambda. to arrive at a relationship between T.sub.1 and T.sub.2, solving for T.sub.1 within the spectra ratio, and arriving at a value for T.sub.2 by substituting experimentally measured values for R into the spectra ratio equation. This method is then repeated for the determination of T.sub.2. The pyrometer calibration constant h.sub..lambda. can then be determined by dividing the measured voltage spectra by the planck function at the known temperature (i.e., T.sub.1 or T.sub.2). Measurement of subsequent temperatures can now be determined by measuring the voltage spectra and dividing by the calibration constant h.sub..lambda. which will result in a planck function L.sub..lambda. (T) which can be solved to yield the surface temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1997
    Inventor: Daniel Ng
  • Patent number: 5549756
    Abstract: A temperature measurement system for use in a thin film deposition system is based on optical pyrometry on the backside of the deposition substrate. The backside of the deposition substrate is viewed through a channel formed in the susceptor of the deposition system. Radiation from the backside of the deposition substrate passes through an infrared window and to an infrared detector. The signal output by the infrared detector is coupled to electronics for calculating the temperature of the deposition substrate in accordance with blackbody radiation equations. A tube-like lightguide shields the infrared detector from background radiation produced by the heated susceptor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1996
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Carl A. Sorensen, Wendell T. Blonigan
  • Patent number: 5507576
    Abstract: A bichromatic pyrometer for detecting the high temperature of a surface element of an object comprises two photodiodes (18, 19) receiving radiation from the object, each of the photodiodes having a large forbidden band and being sensitive to radiation in a given range of wavelengths, said sensitivity ranges being different and being situated in the visible or near visible regions of the spectrum, said ranges being obtained by selecting the value of the forbidden band of the material constituting each of the photodiodes (18) and (19), said forbidden band being greater than or equal to that of silicon (.gtoreq.1.11 eV). The pyrometer is capable of measuring rapidly changing surface temperatures with great accuracy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: European Gas Turbines SA
    Inventor: Jacques Fally
  • Patent number: 5490728
    Abstract: Thermal, optical, physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate (11) surface are determined with non-contact optical techniques that include illuminating (23) the surface with radiation having a ripple intensity characteristic (51), and then measuring the combined intensities (53) of that radiation after modification by the substrate surface and radiation emitted from the surface. Precise determinations of emissivity, reflectivity, temperature, changing surface composition, the existence of any layer formed on the surface and its thickness are all possible from this measurement. They may be made in situ and substantially in real time, thus allowing the measurement to control (39, 41) various processes of treating a substrate surface. This has significant applicability to semiconductor wafer processing and metal processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: Luxtron Corporation
    Inventors: Charles W. Schietinger, Bruce E. Adams
  • Patent number: 5372426
    Abstract: A thermal condition sensor system monitors equipment such as aircraft engines. The thermal condition sensor system includes a collector which collects radiation from the equipment and a detector assembly which detects collected radiation over a discriminating spectral band region in at least three spectral bands and generates signals representative of detected radiation in each spectral band. A processor receives the signals and generates a report of the thermal conditions of the equipment using interband comparison of the at least three spectral bands.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Robert M. Broudy, Edward C. Goldstick, David A. Holm, Federick B. Holt, Alan N. Iverson, Dietrich E. Riemer
  • Patent number: 5355845
    Abstract: Temperatures along the surfaces of water tubes in an operating steam boiler are determined by detecting infrared radiation emitted from the tube surfaces in one or more narrow pass-bands founds to be available despite the presence of hot and turbulent flue gases between the sensor and the tube surface to be measured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: AT&T Bell Laboratories
    Inventors: James J. Burgess, Richard T. LaGrotta, Frank A. Magnotti, Walter V. Werner
  • Patent number: 5326173
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for remotely measuring emissivity and hence temperature of a surface of an object. The apparatus includes a detector having a radiation receptor for measuring infra-red radiation, an integrating cavity surrounding the receptor for receiving radiation from a surface facing the cavity and delivering the radiation to the receptor, at least two sources of infra-red containing radiation (e.g. light from an incandescent lamp) within the integrating cavity positioned to produce separate beams of the radiation which strike the surface at different angles suitable for reflection to the receptor, and a processor for determining the temperature of the surface from the radiation measured by the detecting means. The use of at least two mutually angled radiation beams compensates for surface anisotropy of the surface whose temperature is to be measured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1994
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Dan Evans, Matthew J. Fairlie, Karam Kang, Serge Zouikin
  • Patent number: 5326171
    Abstract: A method for sensing the temperature of a remote object within a chamber that is heated from outside the chamber, includes sensing radiation from the object within the chamber through a window in the wall of the chamber that exhibits different transmissivity than the wall of the chamber to radiation in a selected waveband relative to the waveband of the radiation supplied through the wall of the chamber to heat the object within the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1994
    Assignee: A G Processing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas E. Thompson, Eugene R. Westerberg
  • Patent number: 5265036
    Abstract: A pyrometer system for use in measuring the temperature of components in an operating jet engine corrects for random interference in the pyrometer temperature signal caused by radiation from the combustor flame. An optical beam from a periodically moving target engine component such as a turbine blade is provided to a detector module which splits the beam into two beams, one of which has a spectral width less than that of the target beam. Temperature signals are generated by a multiple spectral area pyrometer which are provided to a signal processor for correction. The signal processor compares present target temperature signal values sampled at selected phases during the target period with corresponding ones taken in an earlier period. Previous signals are averaged or replaced with current values if these meet criteria involving one or two temperature signals, noise band and magnitude.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1993
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Ernesto Suarez-Gonzalez, Raymond L. Oglukian, Christopher Steinauer
  • Patent number: 5203631
    Abstract: A narrow-band pyrometric system measures the temperature of an object (1), such as a semiconductor wafer (1), that is coated with a film (2) having an absorption band. The thermal radiation emitted by the coated object (1) passes through a lens (3) and aperture (4), and then a filter (5). The passband of this filter (5) falls within the absorption band of the film (2). The transmitted radiation is then collected by the radiation detector (6), which measures the intensity. The detected radiation is at a wavelength where the heated object (1) is substantially opaque, and the effect of uncertainties in the emissivity on the temperature measurement is minimized. Thus, a method is provided to coat the object (1) with a film (2) of material having an absorption band encompassing the filter (5) passband, and a thickness sufficiently great that the object (1) appears opaque when viewed through the filter (5).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1993
    Assignee: Varian Associates, Inc.
    Inventors: Michelangelo Delfino, David T. Hodul
  • Patent number: 5188458
    Abstract: Dual pyrometric detectors and method measure the temperature of a remote heated object in the presence of ambient radiation. One detector measures emitted radiation from both the remote object and from the environment, and the other detector measures radiation predominantly from the environment alone. The output signals from the two detectors are processed electronically to yield the detected radiation from the remote object alone. The result can then be electronically processed to display the pyrometrically-measured temperature of the remote object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1993
    Assignee: A G Processing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas E. Thompson, Eugene R. Westerberg
  • Patent number: 5180226
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a system for measuring the temperature of a first object, such as wafer 112, in the presence of a second radiating object, such as a heating lamp 118, is disclosed herein. A heating lamp 118 is provided for heating the wafer 112 for device processing. Both the wafer 112 and the lamp 118 emit radiation. A first detector 120 detects radiation emitted by both the wafer 112 and the lamp 118. A second detector 122 which detects radiation from only the heating lamp 118 may also be used. A modulation source 126 is provided for modulating the heater 118 to a selected modulation depth M.sub.L such that the temperature of the lamp 118 varies with the selected AC modulation and the temperature of the wafer 112 remains substantially constant. Also, circuitry is provided for determining the fraction of radiation emitted by the lamp and collected by the first detector 120 (lamp interference signal) based upon the heating lamp modulation and then calculating the precise temperature of the wafer 112.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1993
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventor: Mehrdad M. Moslehi
  • Patent number: 5165796
    Abstract: Apparatus for optically determining the temperature of an object in an environment at elevated temperature provides enhanced measurement accuracy by sensing radiation from the object in two or more different wavebands of radiation. The information derived therefrom is cyclically sampled and processed to provide corrected emissivity of the object. The temperature of the object is accurately determined from the corrected emissivity and sensed radiation therefrom. The apparatus includes a radiation detector for receiving radiation during an interval, an optical filter structure with a plurality of optical filters of different radiation transmissive characteristics, and sampling circuits for receiving the radiation signal from the detector during a selected period within the interval during which radiation is supplied to the detector; wherein the selected period is shorter than the interval, is determined in response to the cyclic operation of the filter structure, and contains the least amlitude gradient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1992
    Assignee: AG Processing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Arnon Gat, Michael French
  • Patent number: 5110217
    Abstract: A method for remotely measuring an unknown temperature Ts of a transparent medium by comparison with the known temperature Tr of a transparent reference material consisting of the steps ofcombining the outputs of a continuous-wave (CW) laser and a high intensity pulsed laser to form a combined laser output beam, wherein the high intensity pulse component of the output beam exceeds the intensity required to produce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the transparent medium;splitting the combined laser output beam into first and second sub-beams;amplifying the CW components of the first sub-beam to an intensity exceeding the intensity required to produce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the reference material while simultaneously suppressing the pulse components in the first sub-beam;directing the first sub-beam with the amplified CW component into the reference material and thereby generating a CW phase-conjugate beam;directing the second sub-beam into the transparent medium and generating a pulse
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Assignee: GTE Government Systems Corporation
    Inventor: Harold E. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 5061084
    Abstract: Dual pyrometric detectors and method measure the temperature of a remote heated object in the presence of ambient radiation. One detector measures emitted radiation from both the remote object and from the environment, and the other direction measures radiation predominantly from the environment alone. The output signals from the two detectors are processed electronically to yield the detected radiation from the remote object alone. The result can then be electronically processed to display the pyrometrically-measured temperature of the remote object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 29, 1991
    Assignee: AG Processing Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas E. Thompson, Eugene R. Westerberg
  • Patent number: 4980847
    Abstract: A temperature measuring device is disclosed which comprises a light source for emitting light the spectrums of which are constant with respect to time, a photoelectric transducer for sensing the emitted light with a plurality of predetermined different wavelengths to generate electrical outputs for each wavelength, and a microcomputer for computing a ratio based on the outputs generated from the transducer and for generating an output signal representing temperature corresponding to the ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: Omron Tateisi Electronics Co.
    Inventor: Masao Hirano
  • Patent number: 4973853
    Abstract: Apparatus for measuring the unknown subsurface temperature T.sub.s of a bulk transparent medium such as ocean water comprises a pulsed laser having a high intensity (power per unit area) output beam split into two sub-beams, one of which is a probe beam directed into the ocean water. The intensity of the output beam pulses exceeds a predetermined threshold sufficient to cause stimulated Brillouin scattering within the medium and to produce therefrom a phase-conjugate beam which propagates along the path of the first sub-beam but in the opposite direction. The second sub-beam is reflected by a mirror to and combines with the PC beam and the combined beams are mixed at the cathode of a photodetector which produces a heterodyne frequency that is proportional to the temperature T.sub.s. A frequency measuring instrument converts the heterodyne frequency into a temperature value equal to T.sub.s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1990
    Assignee: GTE Government Systems Corporation
    Inventors: Donald A. Leonard, Harold E. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 4962319
    Abstract: Apparatus is disclosed for remotely sensing the unknown subsurface temperature T.sub.s of a bulk transparent medium, such as ocean water, using a cw laser beam and a pulsed laser beam. In one embodiment the cw output of a continuous laser is split into two sub-beams. An optical amplifier periodically amplifies the first such sub-beam thereby generating an intense pulsed laser beam having a plurality of pulses with the same wavelength as the cw laser beam. The intensity level of the pulses is sufficient to produce stimulated Brillouin scattering when focussed into the ocean water. The pulsed laser beam is directed into the water thereby generating an intense return phase-conjugate beam propagating along the path of the pulsed laser beam but in the opposite direction thereto. The phase-conjugate beam and the second sub-beam are mixed at the cathode of a photodetector to produce a heterodyne frequency proportional to the temperature T.sub.s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1990
    Assignee: GTE Government Systems Corporation
    Inventors: Donald A. Leonard, Harold E. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 4948958
    Abstract: To remotely measure the unknown subsurface temperature T.sub.s of a bulk transparent medium such as ocean water, a high intensity pulsed laser beam is split into two sub-beams, a probe beam and a reference beam. The probe beam is directed into a sample of ocean water of unknown temperature, and the reference beam into a reference sample of water having a known temperature T.sub.r. The irradiance of the two pulse beams exceeds a predetermined threshold sufficient to cause stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) within the two samples and produce therefrom two return phase-conjugate (PC) beams. A photodetector mixes the two PC beams and produces a heterodyne frequency that is proportional to the difference in temperatures T.sub.s and T.sub.r. A frequency measuring instrument converts the heterodyne frequency into a temperature value equal to T.sub.s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: GTE Government Systems Corporation
    Inventor: Harold E. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 4817020
    Abstract: A laser materials processing system for computing a real time cooling rate experienced on a workpiece and responsively controlling the operation of a materials processing laser. An image of a point of laser beam-material interaction is transmitted via imaging optical fibers to ratio pyrometer apparatus which provides temperature proportional signals. The temperature signals are used to compute cooling rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1989
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Tushar S. Chande, Angel L. Ortiz, Jr.
  • Patent number: RE33857
    Abstract: An apparatus is described which is capable of producing an image of a smelt bed of inorganic chemicals collected at the bottom of a kraft pulp recovery boiler. The image produced is free of interferences of fume particles and gaseous radiation which have obscured prior attempts to view hot surfaces under such environmental conditions. The apparatus includes an industrial closed circuit video camera fitted with an infrared imaging detector or vidicon tube. An objective lens obtains the image. An optical filter interposed between the lens and the vidicon is a key element of the invention and is selected to reject radiation less than about a micrometer to avoid fume interference. The filter is further selected to reject all but limited ranges of radiation to avoid gaseous species overlying the smelt bed which are strongly emitting and absorbing. As an example, a spectral filter centered at 1.68 micrometers with a band width of 0.07 micrometer is suitable for imaging a kraft recovery smelt bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1992
    Assignee: Weyerhaeuser Company
    Inventors: Peter C. Ariessohn, Richard K. James