Source Patents (Class 378/119)
  • Patent number: 10522316
    Abstract: Disclosed is an X-ray source, including: a cathode; an anode positioned on the cathode so as to face the cathode; emitters formed on the cathode; a gate electrode positioned between the cathode and the anode and including openings at positions corresponding to those of the emitters; an insulating spacer formed between the gate and the anode; and a coating layer formed on an internal wall of the insulating spacer, and including a material having a lower secondary electron emission coefficient than that of the insulating spacer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2019
    Assignee: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    Inventors: Jin-Woo Jeong, Yoon-Ho Song
  • Patent number: 10524344
    Abstract: A laser-plasma-based acceleration system includes a focusing element and a laser pulse emission directing a laser beam to the focusing element to such that laser pulses transform into a focused beam and a chamber defining a nozzle having a throat and an exit orifice, emitting a critical density range gas jet from the exit orifice for laser wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. the critical density range gas jet intersects the focused beam at an angle and in proximity to the exit orifice of the nozzle to define a point of intersection between the focused beam and the critical density range gas jet. In intersection with the critical density range gas jet, the pulsed focused beam drives a laser plasma wakefield relativistic electron beam. A corresponding method of laser-plasma-based acceleration is also described. The critical density range may include 2×1020 cm?3 to 5×1021 cm?3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2019
    Assignee: University of Maryland, College Park
    Inventors: Howard M. Milchberg, Andrew Goers, George Hine, Fatholah Salehi, Linus Feder, Bo Miao
  • Patent number: 10433412
    Abstract: This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to laser plasma accelerators. In one aspect a block of material defines a gas inlet, a chamber in fluid communication with the gas inlet, a throat in fluid communication with the chamber, a channel in fluid communication with the throat, and a gas outlet in fluid communication with the channel. The throat is configured to generate a supersonic flow of a gas when the gas flows through the throat. The channel includes a ramp that is positioned proximate the gas outlet, with the ramp being inclined at an angle with respect to a direction of a flow of the gas proximate a surface of the channel prior to the ramp at the gas outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Hann-Shin Mao, Wim Leemans, Stepan Bulanov
  • Patent number: 10420197
    Abstract: A radiation source apparatus comprising: a container for being pressurized with a gaseous medium in which plasma which emits plasma emitted radiation is generated following excitation of the gaseous medium by a driving radiation, wherein said container is operable substantially to remove radiation with a wavelength of 10-400 nm from said plasma emitted radiation before said plasma emitted radiation exits said container as output radiation. In an embodiment the container comprises: an inlet radiation transmitting element operable to transmit said driving radiation from outside said container to inside said container, and an outlet radiation transmitting element operable to transmit at least some of said plasma emitted radiation from inside said container to outside said container as output radiation; wherein at least one of said inlet and outlet radiation transmitting elements comprises a plane parallel plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2019
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventor: Martijn Petrus Christianus Van Heumen
  • Patent number: 10365230
    Abstract: Metrology methods and modules are provided, which comprise measuring intensity spatial distributions and peaks of spots at the pupil plane of a metrology system that correspond to various diffraction orders scattered from target cells and calculating overlay(s) of the target cell(s) from the measured intensity spatial distributions and peaks. For example, intensity peak or distribution of zeroth diffraction orders from four cells, first diffraction orders from two cells as well as diffraction orders from a single cell may be used to derive an overlay estimation, which may also be compared to standard overlay measurements for different purposes. Intensity spatial distributions may also be used to derive weight function for adjusting measurements or the metrology system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2019
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Corporation
    Inventors: Eran Amit, Tzahi Grunzweig
  • Patent number: 10297359
    Abstract: An x-ray illumination beam system includes an electron emitter and a target having one or more target microstructures. The one or more microstructures may be the same or different material, and may be embedded or placed atop a substrate formed of a heat-conducting material. The x-ray source may emit x-rays towards an optic system, which can include one or more optics that are matched to one or more target microstructures. The matching can be achieved by selecting optics with the geometric shape, size, and surface coating that collects as many x-rays as possible from the source and at an angle that satisfies the critical reflection angle of the x-ray energies of interest from the target. The x-ray illumination beam system allows for an x-ray source that generates x-rays having different spectra and can be used in a variety of applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2019
    Assignee: Sigray, Inc.
    Inventors: Wenbing Yun, Sylvia Jia Yun Lewis, Janos Kirz, David Charles Reynolds, Alan Francis Lyon
  • Patent number: 10289006
    Abstract: A beam delivery apparatus is used with a laser produced plasma source. The beam delivery apparatus comprises variable zoom optics (550) operable to condition a beam of radiation so as to output a conditioned beam having a configurable beam diameter (b) and a plurality of mirrors (530a, 530b) operable to direct the conditioned beam of radiation to a plasma generation site. The beam delivery apparatus enables control of the axial position of the beam where the beam has a particular diameter, with respect to the beam's focus position (570). Also, a method is used to control the axial position of the location at a plasma generation site where a beam has a particular diameter, with respect to the beam's focus position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2019
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Jan Bernard Plechelmus Van Schoot, Markus Franciscus Antonius Eurlings, Hermanus Johannes Maria Kreuwel
  • Patent number: 10247865
    Abstract: A bandpass filter may include a set of layers. The set of layers may include a first subset of layers. The first subset of layers may include hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H) with a first refractive index. The set of layers may include a second subset of layers. The second subset of layers may include a material with a second refractive index. The second refractive index may be less than the first refractive index.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2019
    Assignee: VIAVI Solutions Inc.
    Inventors: James Switzer, III, Georg J. Ockenfuss
  • Patent number: 10242837
    Abstract: Provided is an anode for an X-ray generating tube, which reduces a drop in the quality of an emitted X-ray due to the history of X-ray emitting operation. A target layer is formed on the inside of the edge of a support substrate. An end portion of an extended portion of a joining member, which protrudes over a support surface of the support substrate, is covered with a conductive member higher in melting point than the joining member. The conductive member is electrically connected to the target layer, thereby electrically connecting the joining member to the target layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2019
    Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Shuji Yamada, Nobuhiro Ito, Takao Ogura
  • Patent number: 10236090
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for the production of radioisotopes utilizing an energy recovery linac. The ERL system is composed of an electron beam source, multiple superconducting radio frequency cavities operating at 4.5 K, a thin radiator, a target material, and a beam dump. The accompanying method discloses the use of the ERL system to generate desired radioisotopes via target interaction with bremsstrahlung photons while allowing recovery of a substantial portion of the electron beam energy before the beam is extracted to the beam dump.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 4, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2019
    Assignee: JEFFERSON SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, LLC
    Inventors: Hari Areti, Andrew Kimber, Andrew Hutton, David Douglas, Rui Li, Geoff Krafft
  • Patent number: 10217596
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to multi-layer X-ray sources having decreased hydrogen within the layer stack and/or tungsten carbide inter-layers between the primary layers of X-ray generating and thermally-conductive materials. The resulting multi-layer target structures allow increased X-ray production, which may facilitate faster scan times for inspection or examination procedures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2019
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Yong Liang, Vance Scott Robinson
  • Patent number: 10074503
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electron gun for generating a flat electron beam, comprising a cathode with an emission surface which is curved about a central axis and which is designed to emit electrons. The electron gun further comprises an accelerating device for accelerating the electrons in a radial direction towards a target region on the central axis. Furthermore, the emission surface has a width in the azimuth direction and a height oriented perpendicularly to the width, said width being at least ten times greater than the height.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2018
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Oliver Heid
  • Patent number: 10068742
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a radiation generating tube. The radiation generating tube includes an envelope including an insulating tubular member having at least two openings, a cathode connected to one of the openings of the insulating tubular member, and an anode connected to the other of the openings of the insulating tubular member. At least one of the cathode and the anode and the insulating tubular member are bonded at a bonded portion with an electrically conductive bonding member; and the bonded portion bonded with the electrically conductive bonding member is coated with a dielectric layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2018
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Koji Yamazaki, Yasue Sato, Kazuyuki Ueda
  • Patent number: 10051720
    Abstract: Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for generating electrons. For example, certain embodiments comprise a charge gating diamond QED based electron source, which can be suspended within the RF cavity of an electron injection system in a superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) electron accelerator. Embodiments of the disclosed technology are capable of producing low temperature (cold) electron beams, where “temperature” refers to the transverse energy in the extracted electron beam (or beam emittance). Embodiments of the disclosed technology can also exhibit enhanced charge replenishment capabilities by virtue of the material selected to suspend the electron source within the RF cavity of the electron injection system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignee: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Roger Shurter, Jose Taccetti
  • Patent number: 10039441
    Abstract: An extra-oral dental imaging apparatus for obtaining an image from a patient has a radiation source and a digital imaging sensor that provides, for each of a number of image pixels, at least a first digital value according to a count of received photons that exceed at least a first energy threshold. A mount supports the radiation source and the digital imaging sensor on opposite sides of the patient's head. There can be a computer in signal communication with the digital imaging sensor for acquiring one or more two-dimensional images.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2018
    Assignee: Trophy
    Inventors: Jean Marc Inglese, Sylvie M. Bothorel, Donna K. Rankin-Parobek
  • Patent number: 10032597
    Abstract: An anode member includes a first metal tube and a second metal tube having a coefficient of thermal expansion that is larger than that of the first metal tube. A peripheral portion of a target is bonded to the anode member via a bonding material that is arranged so as to extend over the first metal tube and the second metal tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2018
    Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Yasuo Ohashi, Kazuyuki Ueda
  • Patent number: 10028367
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device (100) for generating UV or X-ray radiation (R) by means of a plasma (10), comprising a first compartment (110), a dispensing device (5), which is adapted to provide a target material (80) in the first compartment (10), an excitation light source (13) for providing an excitation light beam (90), and a buffer gas inlet (130) and/or a buffer gas outlet (140) for providing a buffer gas flow (B) along the direction (D) of the excitation light beam (90) in the first compartment (110), wherein the first compartment (110) is adapted to be at least partially heated by a heating device (150). The invention further relates to a method for generating UV or X-ray radiation (R) by means of the device (100).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: ETH ZÜRICH
    Inventors: Markus Brandstätter, Reza Abhari, Bob Rollinger
  • Patent number: 10008358
    Abstract: Disclosed is an X-ray source, including: a cathode including a shielding channel through which an X-ray passes; emitters formed on an upper surface of the cathode, and arranged around the shielding channel; an anode positioned so as to face the cathode, and including an anode target in which an E-beam is focused; and a gate electrode positioned between the cathode and the anode, and including gate holes at positions corresponding to those of the emitters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    Inventors: Jin-Woo Jeong, Yoon-Ho Song
  • Patent number: 9993217
    Abstract: The disclosure is related an apparatus and method for producing a panoramic radiograph of a target object using a three dimensional (3D) radiograph of the same object. The apparatus may include a communication circuit and a processor. The communication circuit may be configured to receive 3D radiograph digital data of the 3D radiograph. The processor may be configured to generate a plurality of x-ray projection images of the target object by performing forward-projection on voxels associated with the target object, and to combine the generated x-ray projection images to produce the panoramic radiograph of the target object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2018
    Assignees: VATECH Co., Ltd., VATECH EWOO Holdings Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Woong Bae, Sang Og Na
  • Patent number: 9989863
    Abstract: A lithographic system including a lithographic apparatus with an anamorphic projection system, and a radiation source configured to generate an EUV radiation emitting plasma at a plasma formation location, the EUV radiation emitting plasma having an elongate form in a plane substantially perpendicular to an optical axis of the radiation source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2018
    Assignee: ASML NETHERLANDS B.V.
    Inventors: Jan Bernard Plechelmus Van Schoot, Andrei Mikhailovich Yakunin
  • Patent number: 9986628
    Abstract: A method of generating radiation for a lithography apparatus. The method comprises providing a continuously renewing fuel target (50) at a plasma formation location (12) and directing a continuous-wave excitation beam (6) at the plasma formation location such that fuel within the continuously renewing fuel target is excited by the continuous-wave excitation beam to a radiation generating plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2018
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Erik Roelof Loopstra, Andrei Mikhailovich Yakunin, Vadim Yevgenyevich Banine, Andrey Nikipelov, Edgar Alberto Osorio Oliveros, Alexander Matthijs Struycken, Bert Pieter Van Drieënhuizen, Jan Bernard Plechelmus Van Schoot
  • Patent number: 9986627
    Abstract: A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2018
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventor: Christopher P. J. Barty
  • Patent number: 9972473
    Abstract: In an envelope rotation type X-ray tube apparatus, a cathode releases electrons, and the electrons released from the cathode are deflected by deflection coils. A target generates X-rays by being bombarded with the electrons deflected by the deflection coils. Here, a shield ring, while allowing passage through a ring interior of those of the electrons deflected by the deflection coils that head for an area of the target set beforehand, blocks electrons heading outward of the area. Consequently, the electrons are inhibited from bombarding on areas of the target outward of the area and an envelope. This can prevent damage to the envelope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2018
    Assignee: SHIMADZU CORPORATION
    Inventor: Tatsuya Yoshizawa
  • Patent number: 9947501
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are a high-voltage generator for an x-ray source, an x-ray gun, an electron beam apparatus, a rotary vacuum seal, a target assembly for an x-ray source, a rotary x-ray emission target, and an x-ray source. These various aspects may separately and/or together enable the construction of an x-ray source which can operate at energies of up to 500 kV and beyond, which is suitable for use in commercial and research x-ray applications such as computerised tomography. In particular, the high-voltage generator includes a shield electrode electrically connected intermediate of a first voltage multiplier and a second voltage multiplier. The electron beam apparatus includes control photodetectors and photo emitters having a transparent conductive shield arranged therebetween. The rotary vacuum seal includes a pumpable chamber at a position intermediate between high-pressure and low-pressure ends of a bore for a rotating shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2018
    Assignee: NIKON METROLOGY NV
    Inventor: Roger Hadland
  • Patent number: 9931522
    Abstract: Methods and system for facilitating rapid radiation treatments are provided herein and relate in particular to radiation generation and delivery, electron source design, beam control and shaping/intensity-modulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2018
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Vinod Bharadwaj, Valery A. Dolgashev, Rebecca Fahrig, Billy Wiseman Loo, Peter G. Maxim, Sami Tantawi, Cecile Limborg, Ludovic Nicolas
  • Patent number: 9879967
    Abstract: A method for compensating measurement errors caused by the deformation of a component defining a slide axis in a measurement machine, comprising the steps of calculating the curvature of the component as a function of the difference between the current temperature Tc and a reference temperature Tr at which the geometric compensation map of the machine has been obtained, calculating correction values for the compensation parameters stored in the compensation map as a function of the curvature, and updating the compensation map with these correction values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2018
    Assignee: HEXAGON METROLOGY S.P.A.
    Inventors: Lorenzo Merlo, Emanuele Ricci
  • Patent number: 9865423
    Abstract: An emitter for a cathode of an X-ray tube is provided that includes a shaped emitting surface. The emitting surface is shaped in a suitable process in order to enable the emitting surface to focus electron beams emitted from the emitting surface on a focal spot on a target of less than 1.0 mm without the need for any additional focusing elements in the X-ray tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Sergio Lemaitre, Ben David Poquette, Ryan James Lemminger, Donald Robert Allen, Judson Sloan Marte, Gregory Alan Steinlage, Richard Michael Roffers
  • Patent number: 9854657
    Abstract: An x-ray generator device includes a housing at least partially holding a specific fluid pressure, with an arm positioned to be able to strike a strike plate within the housing. The housing contains an x-ray window. The arm is magnetically actuated in at least one direction by a magnetic field generator outside of the housing. A striking portion of the lever arm and/or the strike plate may be a polymeric material with embedded metal or metal alloys.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: Tribogenics, Inc.
    Inventor: Carlos Camara
  • Patent number: 9824787
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray source having a cathode with an elongated blade oriented substantially transverse with respect to a longitudinal axis of the cathode. The blade can be pointed towards an anode. In another embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray source having a window with an annular-shape, forming a hollow-ring. A convex portion of a half-ball-shape of an anode can extend into a hollow of the annular-shape of the window. In another embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray source having an anode with a dome shape having a concave side facing the electron emitter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Inventors: Eric Miller, Bill Hansen
  • Patent number: 9818571
    Abstract: An X-ray generation tube includes: an anode including a target configured to generate X-rays under irradiation of electrons, and an anode member electrically connected to the target; a cathode including an electron emitting source configured to emit an electron beam in a direction towards the target, and a cathode member electrically connected to the electron emitting source; and an insulating tube extending between the anode member and the cathode member. The anode further includes an inner circumferential anode layer electrically connected to the anode member, the inner circumferential anode layer extending along an inner circumferential face of the insulating tube, and is remote from the cathode member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2017
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takashi Shiozawa, Kazuya Tsujino, Koichi Tsunoda, Nobuhiro Ito, Kazuhiro Sando, Yoichi Ikarashi
  • Patent number: 9782136
    Abstract: Intraoral tomosynthesis systems, methods, and computer readable media for dental imaging can include an x-ray source containing multiple focal spots spatially distributed on one or multiple anodes in an evacuated chamber, an x-ray detector for positioning inside a mouth of a patient, a device for determining imaging geometry of the intraoral tomosynthesis system; and control electronics configured to regulate the x-ray source, by sequentially activating each of the multiple focal spots, such that multiple two dimensional (2D) projection images of the mouth of the patient are acquired from multiple viewing angles. In some aspects, the device for determining the imaging geometry can comprise a plate connectedly attached to the x-ray detector, at least one light source connectedly attached to the x-ray source, and a camera configured to capture at least one light spot produced by a projection of at least one light beam onto the plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2017
    Assignees: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Xintek, Inc.
    Inventors: Otto Z. Zhou, Jianping Lu, Jing Shan, Andrew Tucker, Pavel Chtcheprov, Enrique Platin, André Mol, Laurence Rossman Gaalaas, Gongting Wu
  • Patent number: 9778213
    Abstract: Methods and systems for performing simultaneous X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements over a desired inspection area of a specimen are presented. SAXS measurements combined with XRF measurements enables a high throughput metrology tool with increased measurement capabilities. The high energy nature of x-ray radiation penetrates optically opaque thin films, buried structures, high aspect ratio structures, and devices including many thin film layers. SAXS measurements of a particular location of a planar specimen are performed at a number of different out of plane orientations. This increases measurement sensitivity, reduces correlations among parameters, and improves measurement accuracy. In addition, specimen parameter values are resolved with greater accuracy by fitting data sets derived from both SAXS and XRF measurements based on models that share at least one material parameter. The fitting can be performed sequentially or in parallel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Corporation
    Inventors: Michael S. Bakeman, Andrei V. Shchegrov, Kevin Peterlinz, Thaddeus Gerard Dziura
  • Patent number: 9779847
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray source having a cathode with (1) a pointed end or (2) an elongated blade oriented substantially transverse with respect to a longitudinal axis of the cathode. The pointed end or blade can be pointed towards an anode. In another embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray source having a window with an annular-shape, forming a hollow-ring. A convex portion of a half-ball-shape of an anode can extend into a hollow of the annular-shape of the window.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: Moxtek, Inc.
    Inventors: Eric Miller, Bill Hansen
  • Patent number: 9741523
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, an X-ray tube includes an elongated anode target, a cathode, and a vacuum envelope. The cathode includes an electron emission source and a converging electrode including a trench portion. The trench portion includes a closest inner circumferential wall, an upper inner circumferential wall, and a lower inner circumferential wall. The electron emission source projects towards a opening of the trench portion from a boundary between the closest inner circumferential wall and the upper inner circumferential wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: Toshiba Electron Tubes & Devices Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Kanasaki, Hideyuki Takahashi, Keiichi Mimori, Masataka Ueki
  • Patent number: 9706631
    Abstract: A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2017
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventor: Christopher P. J. Barty
  • Patent number: 9693439
    Abstract: Methods and systems for realizing a high brightness liquid metal droplet based x-ray source suitable for high throughput x-ray metrology are presented herein. A high power laser bombards a solid target material to generate liquid metal droplets. The laser generated liquid metal droplets are excited with a focused, high power excitation beam such as an electron or laser beam. The excitation beam is synchronized with the stream of liquid metal droplets stimulated by the high power laser to achieve a stable x-ray emission generated by the excited liquid metal droplets. In some embodiments, x-ray optics are designed to efficiently collect and focus radiation within a desired emission band onto a measurement target. Reliability is improved by shielding the excitation source and the x-ray optics from the region of interaction between the excitation beam and the liquid metal droplet anode by a localized curtain of shielding gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2017
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Corporation
    Inventors: Guorong V. Zhuang, Michael S. Bakeman, Andrei V. Shchegrov, Jonathan M. Madsen
  • Patent number: 9678431
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography process. The process includes loading a wafer to an EUV lithography system having an EUV source; determining a dose margin according to an exposure dosage and a plasma condition of the EUV source; and performing a lithography exposing process to the wafer by EUV light from the EUV source, using the exposure dosage and the dose margin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Yen-Cheng Lu, Jeng-Horng Chen, Shun-Der Wu, Anthony Yen
  • Patent number: 9679736
    Abstract: An encapsulated structure of an X ray generator with a cold cathode and method of vacuuming the same are disclosed. The X ray generator has a glass ball-tube having a base, a tungsten filament, a cold cathode, a focus cap, and an anode target inside, associated with a first electrode pin, a second electrode pin, a single-used pin, and anode pin extended out. The tungsten filament located at the periphery of the base has a first wire end connected with the second electrode pin and a second wire end connected with the single-used pin. While vacuuming the glass ball-tube before melting an end to seal, a voltage is exerting on the single use pin to heat the tungsten, and a high voltage is exerting on the anode target to accelerate the hot electrons emitting from the filament to bombard the inside wall of the glass ball-tube and the anode target so as to shorten the vacuuming time and increase the vacuum level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: Energy Resources International Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Wen-How Lan, Yi-Teng Shiu, Hung-Chiang Huang
  • Patent number: 9662081
    Abstract: This invention provides an X-ray CT image processing method that allows more flexible expression by expressing X-ray absorption coefficients probabilistically, makes it possible to acquire reconstructed images that are comparable to those obtained by conventional methods but involve lower X-ray doses, and can reduce beam-hardening artifacts. A probability distribution for the observation of projected X-rays is set and statistical inference is performed. Said probability distribution is expressed in terms of the process of observing a multiple-X-ray sum resulting from multiple projected X-rays being incident upon a detector. Bayesian inference in which the expected value of the posterior distribution is used for statistical inference is performed on the basis of a prior distribution for X-ray absorption coefficients, said prior distribution having parameters for the material and the observation process in terms of which the multiple-X-ray sum is expressed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2017
    Assignee: Kyoto University
    Inventors: Shinichi Maeda, Daigo Yoshikawa, Takumi Tanaka, Shin Ishii
  • Patent number: 9659740
    Abstract: A radiation generator is provided that includes a target, a cathode to emit electrons in a downstream direction toward the target, a first conductive member downstream of the cathode, and a second conductive member downstream of the cathode. The first and second conductive members have a potential difference with the cathode such that a resultant electric field accelerates the electrons toward the target. A diagnostic current in the second conductive member and a target current in the target may be measured, and an electrical property of the first conductive member may be adjusted based upon the diagnostic current and the target current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Matthieu Simon, Kenneth E. Stephenson
  • Patent number: 9653252
    Abstract: Provided is an X-ray generating tube with improved withstand voltage property by a simple structure, the X-ray generating tube including a cathode connected to one opening of an insulating tube and an anode connected to the other opening, in which a resistive film having a lower sheet resistance value than that of the insulating tube is disposed on an outer periphery of the insulating tube, and the cathode and the anode are electrically connected to each other via the resistive film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2017
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshihiro Yanagisawa, Yasue Sato, Noritaka Ukiyo, Kazuhiro Sando
  • Patent number: 9646801
    Abstract: In various embodiments, a multi-layer X-ray source target is provided having two or more layers of target material at different depths and different thicknesses. In one such embodiment the X-ray generating layers increase in thickness in relationship to their depth relative to the electron beam facing surface of the source target, such that X-ray generating layer further from this surface are thick than X-ray generating layers closer to the electron beam facing surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: George Theodore Dalakos, Mark Alan Frontera, Vance Scott Robinson, William Robert Ross, Xi Zhang
  • Patent number: 9629231
    Abstract: A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2017
    Assignees: JEFFERSON SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, LLC, ASML NETHERLANDS B.V.
    Inventors: David R. Douglas, Lucas J. P. Ament
  • Patent number: 9622332
    Abstract: In an extreme ultraviolet light generation apparatus, a target detection section may include a light source, a transfer optical system, an image sensor configured to output image data of an image that has been formed by irradiating a target outputted from a target supply device with light outputted from the light source on a light-receiving unit of the image sensor by the transfer optical system, and a processing unit, connected to the image sensor, configured to receive the image data, obtain a first optical intensity distribution along a first line that intersects with a trajectory of the target and a second optical intensity distribution along a second line that intersects with the trajectory, calculate a center of gravity position in the first optical intensity distribution and a center of gravity position in the second optical intensity distribution, and calculate an actual path of the target based on the calculated positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2017
    Assignee: GIGAPHOTON INC.
    Inventors: Toru Suzuki, Hiroshi Tanaka, Hideyuki Hayashi, Osamu Wakabayashi
  • Patent number: 9607909
    Abstract: An analysis device includes an X-ray generation part configured to generate four monochromatic X-rays with different energies to irradiate a sample, an electrically conductive sample stage configured to place the sample thereon and formed of an electrically conductive material, an electrode configured to detect an electric current carried by irradiating the sample with the four monochromatic X-rays with different energies, and an electric power source configured to apply a voltage between the electrically conductive sample stage and the electrode, wherein the four monochromatic X-rays with different energies are X-rays included within a range from an absorption edge of a compound semiconductor included in the sample to a higher energy side of 300 eV.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: FUJITSU LIMITED
    Inventor: Kenji Nomura
  • Patent number: 9609729
    Abstract: A method includes creating a gas flow in a gas cell and cooling a portion of the gas flow to create a thermally-induced temperature gradient in the gas flow. The method also includes directing at least one laser beam through at least a portion of the gas flow with the thermally-induced temperature gradient. The gas flow can be directed axially along a length of the gas cell or transverse to the length of the gas cell, and the at least one laser beam can be directed axially along the length of the gas cell through at least the portion of the gas flow. The gas flow may represent a first gas flow, and the method may further include creating a second gas flow in the gas cell and cooling a portion of the second gas flow to create a thermally-induced temperature gradient in the second gas flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: RAYTHEON COMPANY
    Inventors: Eric J. Griffin, Kalin Spariosu, David A. Vasquez
  • Patent number: 9588430
    Abstract: Energy output from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) system varies based on how well the laser beam is focused on droplets of target material to generate plasma at a primary focal spot. Maintaining droplets at the primary focal spot during burst firing is difficult because generated plasma from preceding droplets push succeeding droplets out of the primary focal spot. Current droplet-to-droplet feedback control to re-align droplets to the primary focal spot is relatively slow. The system and method described herein adaptively pre-compensate for droplet push-out by directing droplets to a target position that is offset from the primary focal spot such that when a droplet is lased, the droplet is pushed by the laser beam into the primary focal spot to generate plasma. Over time, the EUV system learns to maintain real-time alignment of droplet position so plasma is generated consistently within the primary focal spot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2017
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Jeroen van der Burgt, Matthew R. Graham, Charles Kinney, Wayne J. Dunstan
  • Patent number: 9590383
    Abstract: A technique for producing a coherent beam of hard X-rays is provided. This technique is based on a short wavelength undulator that uses the fields of an electromagnetic wave to deflect a relativistic electron beam along a sinusoidal trajectory in order to cause it to emit X-rays. The undulator consists of a slow-wave structure that is energized by a second counterpropagating electron beam. Cylindrical and planar structure configurations are provided and also a mechanism for electrical and mechanical tuning to allow control over the wavelength of the emitted X-ray beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2017
    Assignee: EUCLID TECHLABS LLC
    Inventors: Alexei Kanareykin, Chunguang Jing, Alexander Zholents
  • Patent number: 9570265
    Abstract: We present a micro-x-ray fluorescence (XRF) system having a high-brightness x-ray illumination system with high x-ray flux and high flux density. The higher brightness is achieved in part by using x-ray target designs that comprise a number of microstructures of x-ray generating materials fabricated in close thermal contact with a substrate having high thermal conductivity. This allows for bombardment of the targets with higher electron density or higher energy electrons, which leads to greater x-ray flux. The high brightness/high flux x-ray source may then be coupled to an x-ray optical system, which can collect and focus the high flux x-rays to spots that can be as small as one micron, leading to high flux density at the fluorescent sample. Such systems may be useful for a variety of applications, including mineralogy, trace element detection, structure and composition analysis, metrology, as well as forensic science and diagnostic systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2017
    Assignee: Sigray, Inc.
    Inventors: Wenbing Yun, Sylvia Jia Yun Lewis, Janos Kirz
  • Patent number: 9543109
    Abstract: A compact source for high brightness x-ray generation is disclosed. The higher brightness is achieved through electron beam bombardment of multiple regions aligned with each other to achieve a linear accumulation of x-rays. This may be achieved by aligning discrete x-ray sub-sources, or through the use of x-ray targets that comprise microstructures of x-ray generating materials fabricated in close thermal contact with a substrate with high thermal conductivity. This allows heat to be more efficiently drawn out of the x-ray generating material, and in turn allows bombardment of the x-ray generating material with higher electron density and/or higher energy electrons, leading to greater x-ray brightness. The orientation of the microstructures allows the use of an on-axis collection angle, allowing the accumulation of x-rays from several microstructures to be aligned to appear to have a single origin, also known as “zero-angle” x-ray radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: Sigray, Inc.
    Inventors: Wenbing Yun, Sylvia Jia Yun Lewis, Janos Kirz, Alan Francis Lyon