Nuclear Excited Patents (Class 378/120)
  • Patent number: 8744048
    Abstract: An integrated X-ray source is provided. The integrated X-ray source includes a target for emitting X-rays upon being struck by one or more excitation beams, and one or more total internal reflection multilayer optic devices in physical contact with the target to transmit at least a portion of the X rays through total internal reflection to produce X-ray beams, wherein the optic device comprises an input face for receiving the X rays and an output face through which the X-ray beams exit the integrated X-ray source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2014
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Susanne Madeline Lee, Peter Michael Edic, Forrest Frank Hopkins, Alfried Haase, Eberhard Neuser
  • Publication number: 20130051515
    Abstract: A craser device, imaging system utilizing a craser device, and a method of imaging. The craser device includes a gain medium with excited gain medium atoms that emit x-ray and/or gamma-ray photons, a transmission medium abutting the gain medium, and a reflecting mirror comprising one or more lower refractive index layers and abutting the transmission medium. The transmission medium has a higher refractive index than the gain medium and at least one of the materials in the reflecting mirror. The x-ray and/or gamma-ray photons are confined to the transmission medium via total internal reflection and interact multiple times with the excited gain medium atoms through evanescent waves producing amplified stimulated emission leading to formation of a high intensity incoherent or coherent x-ray and/or gamma-ray beam.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2011
    Publication date: February 28, 2013
    Inventor: Susanne Madeline Lee
  • Publication number: 20120163547
    Abstract: An integrated X-ray source is provided. The integrated X-ray source includes a target for emitting X-rays upon being struck by one or more excitation beams, and one or more total internal reflection multilayer optic devices in physical contact with the target to transmit at least a portion of the X rays through total internal reflection to produce X-ray beams, wherein the optic device comprises an input face for receiving the X rays and an output face through which the X-ray beams exit the integrated X-ray source.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 28, 2010
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Inventors: Susanne Madeline Lee, Peter Michael Edic, Forrest Frank Hopkins, Alfried Haase, Eberhard Neuser
  • Publication number: 20100111246
    Abstract: An x-ray beam processor and system that includes an x-ray beam generator for generating x-ray beams; a mirror shield for shielding the x-ray beams from select areas; a cylindrical waveguide for guiding x-ray beams traveling through the waveguide, which includes a plurality of entry ports and exit ports; a plurality of ring-shaped mirrors disposed adjacent to and generally parallel with the entry ports and the exit ports and sharing a common axis “X” with the waveguide; and mountings for mounting the mirrors to the waveguide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 30, 2009
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Inventor: Kenneth Oosting
  • Publication number: 20100051831
    Abstract: A system and a method of generating radiation and/or particle emissions are disclosed. In at least some embodiments, the system includes at least one laser source that generates a first pulse and a second pulse in temporal succession, and a target, where the target (or at least a portion the target) becomes a plasma upon being exposed to the first pulse. The plasma expand after the exposure to the first pulse, the expanded plasma is then exposed to the second pulse, and at least one of a radiation emission and a particle emission occurs after the exposure to the second pulse. In at least some embodiments, the target is a solid piece of material, and/or a time period between the first and second pulses is less than 1 microsecond (e.g., 840 ns).
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 9, 2007
    Publication date: March 4, 2010
    Inventors: Yezheng Tao, Mark S. Tillack
  • Publication number: 20080317207
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and device which are intended for remote control and communication using nuclear isomers. Several samples of nuclides that can have a metastable state are irradiated together and simultaneously with cascade gamma-rays emitted from a radioactive source or a particle accelerator. According to quantum mechanics, the gamma-rays produced are entangled, and said entanglement is transferred to the nuclear isomers. When the samples are separated and one of said samples, namely the master, is stimulated using a standard gamma- or X-ray irradiation method, the other samples, namely the slaves, are also deexcited. There is no known method for interference between the masters and slaves. Only the slave(s) can receive the signal instantly from the master through any medium and over any distance. The method and device are particularly suitable for communication and control applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2005
    Publication date: December 25, 2008
    Inventors: Robert Desbrandes, Daniel Lee Van Gent
  • Patent number: 7427757
    Abstract: X-ray monochromators and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) systems using such monochromators are disclosed. A turretless x-ray monochromator may have a cassette of reflectors instead of a turret. The cassette stores a plurality of reflectors that can be inserted into a conventional Rowland circle monochromator geometry. A transfer mechanism selectively moves reflectors from the cassette to a reflector positioner. The use of the cassette allows each reflector to be placed closer to a source of x-rays, thereby allowing a larger solid angle for x-ray collection. An alternative x-ray monochromator uses a non-focusing reflector that can be fixed, scanned axially or scanned radially to provide large solid angle detection of x-rays at various energies with a single reflector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2008
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Gary R. Janik, Jeffrey A. Moore
  • Patent number: 7217939
    Abstract: A method and an arrangement for generating x-ray or EUV radiation are disclosed. Target material is supplied from a container for target material to a jet-forming orifice in an interaction chamber by means of a flexible capillary tubing of considerable length, wherein the orifice is an integral part of the capillary tubing. A jet formed by urging target material through the orifice is made to interact with a beam of energy, thus producing a radiating plasma emitting the desired electromagnetic radiation. The use of a flexible capillary tubing for supplying target material from a source of target material to an orifice, which is integrated with the tubing, within an interaction chamber, in order to form therein a jet of target material for interaction with an energy beam to generate x-ray or EUV radiation, is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2007
    Assignee: Jettec AB
    Inventors: Göran Johansson, Hans Hertz, Jaco De Groot
  • Patent number: 7197171
    Abstract: A method for producing a nuclear medicine image utilizing emission data in an iterative reconstruction process. The starting point for the iterative process is based on internal structure information. The internal structure information can be based on data that is different from the nuclear emission data used in the reconstruction itself, for example CT X-Ray attenuation data, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound Imaging or nuclear transmission data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2007
    Assignee: Elgems Ltd.
    Inventors: Isabella Yuzefovich, Michael Wilk
  • Patent number: 7027555
    Abstract: A material analyzer for identifying quantities of one or more elements in a material has a container for holding a material to be analyzed, a resonant gamma ray source unit for directing resonant gamma rays into the material in the container, and at least one detector for detecting gamma rays resonantly scattered by at least one predetermined element in the material. The resonant gamma ray source unit has an outer housing of gamma ray shield and neutron shield material, with an inner chamber and an aperture directed towards the container, a moving gamma ray generator source of a predetermined material mounted in the chamber, the material being selected from a predetermined group of materials which emit resonant gamma rays when exposed to neutrons, the source being directed towards said aperture, and a neutron source positioned in the chamber adjacent the gamma ray generator source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2006
    Inventor: Raymond J. Proctor
  • Patent number: 6710341
    Abstract: An electron microscope is offered which is fitted with an X-ray spectrometer having a compact optical system and high resolution. The spectrometer has a spectrometer chamber whose inside is evacuated by a vacuum pumping system. A diffraction grating having unequally spaced grooves is placed in the chamber. An X-ray detector is mounted to an end of the chamber. The X-ray spectrometer is mounted to the sidewall of the electron microscope via a gate valve. A specimen is irradiated with an electron beam and emits characteristic X-rays, which are made to impinge on the face of the grating at a large angle with respect to the normal line to the face. Diffracted X-rays from the grating reach the X-ray detector and are detected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2004
    Assignee: JEOL Ltd.
    Inventor: Masami Terauchi
  • Patent number: 6627908
    Abstract: A radiation source assembly and a connector press used in producing such assemblies. In the radiation source assembly, each of the cap connector and the female connector is provided with internal round threads on its pigtail fitting hole, thus engaging with the large-diameter coil of the pigtail at the internal round threads through a thread engagement prior to a compression process of the press. The assembly also allows a person to know whether both ends of the pigtail fully reach desired points within the two connectors, thus securing a precise compressing target portion during a compression process of the press. The inserted lengths of the pigtail relative to the two connectors are maximize accomplishing a desired linearity of the assembly. In the assembly, a target biasing spring is provided on the capsule lid and allows the disc targets within the source capsule to effectively maintain a desired condition as point sources regardless of the number of targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Assignee: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
    Inventors: Hyon Soo Han, Woon Kap Cho, Soon Buk Hong, Kyeong Deuk Jang, Ul Jae Park
  • Patent number: 6489617
    Abstract: Disclosed is a is an improved flood source, and method of making the same, which emits an evenly distributed flow of energy from a gamma emitting radionuclide dispersed throughout the volume of the flood source. The flood source is formed by filling a bottom pan with a mix of epoxy resin with cobalt-57, preferably at 10 to 20 millicuries and then adding a hardener. The pan is secured to a flat, level surface to prevent the pan from warping and to act as a heat sink for removal of heat from the pan during the curing of the resin-hardener mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2002
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Darrell R. Fisher, David L. Alexander, Stanley Satz
  • Publication number: 20020044629
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus is designed to produce X-ray or EUV radiation for use in lithography, microscopy, materials science, or medical diagnostics. The radiation is produced by urging a substance through an outlet (6) to generate a microscopic jet (2) in a direction from the outlet (6), and by directing at least one energy beam (1′) onto the jet (2), wherein the energy beam (1′) interacts with the jet (2) to produce the X-ray or EUV radiation. The temperature of the outlet (6) is controlled to increase the directional stability of the jet (2). The thus-achieved directional stability of the jet (2) provides for reduced pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the produced radiation, improved spatial stability of the radiation source, as well as high average power since the energy beam (1′) can be tightly focused on the jet (2), even at a comparatively large distance from the jet-generating outlet (6).
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 12, 2001
    Publication date: April 18, 2002
    Inventors: Hans Martin Hertz, Oscar Hemberg, Lars Rymell, Bjorn A.M. Hansson, Magnus Berglund
  • Patent number: 6372103
    Abstract: Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp3/Sp2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 &mgr;m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Michael D. Perry, Paul S. Banks, Brent C. Stuart
  • Patent number: 6215851
    Abstract: In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a proton beam target for generating gamma rays which are generated therefrom in response to an impinging proton beam. The proton beam target is provided with a 13C gamma reaction layer for generating the gamma rays therefrom. The proton beam target is further provided with a stopping layer for mitigating transmission of the proton beam therethrough. The stopping layer is formed of a refractory metal which is hydrogen soluble for dissolving implanted hydrogen molecules therewithin as a result of the impingement of the proton beam and which is chemically reactive with the 13C gamma reaction layer for chemically bonding therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Raymond John Meilunas, Stephan Taras Melnychuk, Frederick F. Zimmerman, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6157701
    Abstract: An X-ray generating apparatus in which X-rays are emitted from laser plasma, the X-ray generating apparatus including a strong magnetic field generating device for generating a magnetic field component substantially parallel with the target surface in the vicinity of the laser plasma. The magnetic field component is arranged to generate a magnetic force which acts directly on charged particles in the laser plasma to bend the tracks of the charged particles, causing the charged particles to be confined in a magnetic field formed by the magnetic field component. The magnetic flux of the strong magnetic field is directed to a direction which is different from the direction in which the laser plasma is generated. An X-ray supply object is disposed in the laser plasma generating direction. Charged particles, liable to be directed to the X-ray supply object, are mainly confined in the strong magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignees: Shimadzu Corporation, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
    Inventors: Hideo Hirose, Tamio Hara, Kozo Ando, Yoshinobu Aoyagi
  • Patent number: 6115452
    Abstract: An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Roscoe E. Marrs
  • Patent number: 6069937
    Abstract: An illumination apparatus for illuminating an object with X-rays. The illumination apparatus has a high illumination efficiency, and the numerical aperture of the X-rays is nearly uniform over an arcuate area, and is independent of the illumination position. The apparatus comprises an excitation energy light generation unit for generating excitation energy light rays and a target member having a curved surface and plurality of X-ray sources formed thereon that emit X-rays when irradiated by the light rays. The apparatus further comprises an illumination optical system that images X-rays from said plurality of X-ray sources onto the object to be illuminated. The target member curved surface may be cylindrical. The target member may also be tape-shaped and provided along the curved surface. Further, the target member may be metallic, particulate, liquid or gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventors: Tetsuya Oshino, Hiroyuki Kondo
  • Patent number: 5654998
    Abstract: A laser-excited X-ray source in which the efficiency of conversion of laser energy into X-ray energy, and the average X-ray output power, are increased by providing laser light, which is focussed on a target to generate X-rays, in the form of trains of very short pulses with a pulse duration in the range 1-10 picoseconds. Preferably it is arranged such that successive pulses in a train are focussed at adjacent but different points on the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1997
    Assignee: Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils
    Inventors: Ion Christian Edmond Turcu, Ian Norman Ross, Fergus O'Neill
  • Patent number: 5572559
    Abstract: Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the .sup.16 O(n,p).sup.16 N reaction using .sup.14 -MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the .sup.3 H(d,n).sup.4 He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second .sup.16 N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Donald L. Smith, Yujiro Ikeda, Yoshitomo Uno
  • Patent number: 5243638
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for generating x-ray photon radiation. A liquid cone anode and an extraction electrode spaced therefrom are disposed in a vacuum chamber. The liquid cone anode comprises a liquid material, a reservoir for holding the liquid material having an opening for passage of the liquid material, and a liquid material feeding and cone forming mechanism operatively associated with the reservoir for feeding liquid material through the opening in the reservoir and for forming a liquid cone from the liquid material A power supply is connected to the liquid cone anode and the extraction electrode for creating an electric field therebetween of sufficient strength to cause particles to be extracted from the liquid cone anode to form a plasma ball in the space between the liquid cone anode and the extraction electrode which emits x-ray photon radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1993
    Inventors: Hui Wang, Weimin Shi
  • Patent number: 5175757
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1992
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation-Org. 250
    Inventors: Arnold L. Augustoni, James B. Gerardo, Thomas D. Raymond
  • Patent number: 5068884
    Abstract: An X-ray generation system for an ultra fine lithography includes a center electrode having an adjusting member, peripheral electrode having gas flow holes, a metal disc having gas flow holes for generating the X-ray from a plasma, a large capacitor, a transparent cylinder, a discharge member, Be discharge and observing windows, a cylindrical insulator, exhaust holes, a metal container, large electric power spatial gap switches, a current returning wire, an exhaust pump, and gas feeding members. Thereby, the system provides continuous operation and increased stability, controlling and discharging quantity so that the X-ray system can be easily utilized for researching and commercial applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1991
    Assignee: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Young K. Choe, Jeon W. Yang, Jin H. Lee, Jae S. Lee, Kyu H. Shim, Jin Y. Kang
  • Patent number: 4935947
    Abstract: A device for generating X-rays is disclosed, which includes a portion for producing plasma in a predetermined space, for generation of the X-rays, and a wall uni effective to define a surface substantially surrounding the space, the wall unit including a portion which is made of a dielectric material and which is made movable so as to compensate for consumption of the dielectric material due to the production of the plasma by the plasma producing portion. Also, an X-ray exposure apparatus usable with a mask having a pattern and a wafer, for transferring the pattern of the mask onto the wafer, is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Mitsuaki Amemiya
  • Patent number: 4866517
    Abstract: In a laser plasma X-ray device for use in generating X-rays by bombarding a target material by a pulsed laser beam, the target material is selected from materials which are in a gas phase at the room temperature and which are cooled in a selected one of liquid and solid phases. Such a selected phase of the target material is continuously supplied to a focal point of the pulsed laser beam to be subjected to bombardment and to generate the X-rays. On generation of the X-rays, the target material is rendered into the gas phase to be recycled into the selected phase. The X-rays are guided outside of the chamber through an X-ray gate unit opened in synchronism with a repetition frequency of the pulsed laser beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignees: Hoya Corp., Chiyoe Yamanaka
    Inventors: Takayasu Mochizuki, Chiyoe Yamanaka
  • Patent number: 4860328
    Abstract: Described herein is an improved target for use in a pulsed induced plasma X-ray lithography system. The target is formed as a disk shaped base having a series of concentric grooves formed on the side thereof incident to the focused laser beam. A plurality of small holes are fabricated through the base to the facing wall of the groove against which the laser beam is focused and a film, of a polyimide or silicon nitride material, covers the hole. A thin layer of metal target material is then placed on the film aligned with each hole. The thickness of the metal is selected to be sufficient to allow the complete ablation of the material during the existence of the X-ray emitting plasma. In this manner, a minimal amount of debris, either in the form of molten droplets or evaporated metal material, will be generated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Hampshire Instruments, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert D. Frankel, Jerry P. Drumheller
  • Patent number: 4771177
    Abstract: A point source for calibrating a gamma camera uses the nuclide cerium-141. The source is disposed in a shuttered, shielded housing. The shutter is incrementally advanceable to expose, over time, an increasing portion of the area of the source to maintain a relatively constant gamma ray flux therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Ronald C. Brown
  • Patent number: 4686694
    Abstract: An apparatus for analyzing metal alloys includes an electronic unit connected to a hand-held probe unit. The probe unit includes a radiation detector enclosed in a detector housing and a radiation source enclosed in a source housing. The detector housing is generally cylindrical in shape and has an aperture formed in its sidewall. The source housing is formed as a hollow, generally right triangular prism with an open base attached to the detector housing over the aperture and tapering to a tip having an aperture formed therein. The triangular shape of the source housing permits contact measurements in hard to get at places. A shutter drive mechanism is utilized to move a shutter means between a first position blocking radiation and a second position passing radiation from the source to the aperture in the tip of the source housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1987
    Assignee: Ramsey Engineering Company
    Inventors: Peter F. Berry, Wendell D. Miller, John L. Nethery, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4663567
    Abstract: An ionizable material is injected in the shape of concentric jet and cylindrical column of gases from a cathode-nozzle toward an anode and subjected to a very short, high voltage pulse of electrical current having sufficient magnitude to create a high magnetic field which implodes the cylindrical column of ionizable material and compresses the central jet of ionizable material to a very dense plasma that is relatively stable longitudinally that can be used as a gain medium for a long wave length X-ray laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1987
    Assignee: Physics International Company
    Inventor: Sik-Lam Wong
  • Patent number: 4370555
    Abstract: A device for storing a source of photons and for irradiating a body by the radiation from said source, comprisinga body for biological protection provided with a cylindrical cavity of circular section and two so-called first and second passages respectively, these passages opening at one and the other of their ends in said cavity and on the outer wall of the body,a disc for biological protection, whose shape is complementary of that of the cavity of the body and presenting, on the one hand, a housing centered on an axis perpendicular to the axis of the cavity, this housing opening out on the side wall of the disc,a source of Y radiation contained in said housing,a precollimator disposed at right angles to said first passage,means for rotating said disc between a first position for which said source is opposite the precollimator and a second position for which the source is in stored position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1983
    Assignees: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Societe CGR-MeV
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Brethon, Jean-Paul Guiho, Gerard Taniel, Georges Viel
  • Patent number: H1200
    Abstract: X-rays are created from a pulsed laser using a gaseous medium by focusing a aser pulse to a focal point in a gaseous medium causing a laser induced plasma in the gas which plasma emits x-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1993
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: Richard A. Neifeld