Including Feed Compartment For Introducing Nutrient Patents (Class 422/253)
  • Publication number: 20140335009
    Abstract: The present invention is used to produce long carbon nanotubes used, for example, in automobile and/or aircraft industry. An object of the invention is to obtain bundles of multi-walled and well oriented nanotubes of sufficient length and provide stability of continuous nanotubes producing process. The method comprises introducing a carbon-bearing component, a promoter and a precursor of a carbon nanotube growth catalyst in a carrier gas stream to form a mixture of these components; passing said mixture through the a reactor heated to an operating temperature of 1000° C. to 1200° C. and removing nanotubes formed in the reactor into a product receiver. The mixture is fed in the reactor from the bottom upwards at a linear flow velocity of 50 mm/c to 130 mm/c. When the temperature in the reactor reaches said operating temperature, the linear flow velocity of the mixture is decreased to 4-10 mm/c, and the linear flow velocity is increased to 30-130 mm/c at the outlet of the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Applicant: INFRA TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
    Inventors: Vladimir Zalmanovich Mordkovich, Aida Razimovna Karaeva, Maxim Alexandrovich Khaskov, Eduard Borisovich Mitberg
  • Patent number: 8702863
    Abstract: A method for the evaporative production of phenol-BPA adduct crystals in a crystallizer is provided. First, a supersaturated BPA solution is introduced into a crystallizer that includes a cylindrical vessel and a concentrically-disposed draft tube that defines an annular space between the vessel and tube. Next, the BPA solution is circulated through the draft tube and annular space while a coolant is uniformly distributed in the circulating flow by radially injecting a volatile hydrocarbon compound at between about 30% and 60% of a radial extent of the annular space of to form a BPA mixture. Phenol-BPA adduct crystals are produced in the vessel by evaporating the volatile hydrocarbon compound out of the BPA mixture. The method provides a consistent and uniform concentration of coolant across the surface of the boiling zone that prevents or at least reduces unwanted crystal nucleation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Badger Licensing LLC
    Inventor: Stephen W. Fetsko
  • Patent number: 8652257
    Abstract: A melting furnace, mounted adjacent a growth furnace, comprises a receiving container for melting therein raw material in a particle or powder form falling in it from a feeder. The receiving container accommodates a set of slope-wise plates providing a distributed sliding of partially melted raw material particles over the surface of these plates and their complete melting while moving downward; eventually the melted raw material flows into the crucible of the growth furnace through a conveying tube extending slantingly from the bottom of the receiving container to the crucible through coaxial openings in housings of both furnaces. The rate of feeding is given solely by the feeder, and at continuous feeding the raw material flows continuously by gravity from the feeder to the crucible of the growth furnace, first in a solid state (powder, granules, pellets, etc.) and then in a liquid state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2014
    Inventors: Lev George Eidelman, Vladimir Ilya Zheleznyak
  • Patent number: 8431084
    Abstract: A crystallizer for the evaporative production of phenol-BPA adduct crystals is provided that achieves more uniform crystal growth while suppressing undesired crystal nucleation. The crystallizer includes a cylindrical vessel; a draft tube concentrically disposed within the cylindrical vessel such that an annular space is defined between the vessel and tube; an impeller that circulates liquid in the vessel through the draft tube and the annular space, and a plurality of nozzles mounted around an inner wall of said cylindrical vessel that introduce an evaporative coolant into the vessel. Each of the nozzles includes a discharge end disposed between about 30% and 60% of a radial extent of the annular space, and is located below an upper end of the draft tube a distance of between about 50% to 150% of the diameter of the vessel. Such a nozzle arrangement provides a consistent and uniform concentration of coolant across the surface of the boiling zone that prevents or at least reduces unwanted crystal nucleation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: Badger Licensing LLC
    Inventor: Stephen W. Fetsko
  • Patent number: 7850915
    Abstract: The invention contemplates apparatuses for recognition of proteins and other biological molecules by imaging morphology, size and distribution of crystalline and amorphous dry residues in droplets (further referred to as “crystallization patterns”) containing predetermined amount of certain crystal-forming organic compounds (reporters) to which protein to be analyzed is added. Changes in the crystallization patterns of a number of amino-acids can be used as a “signature” of a protein added. Also, changes in the crystallization patterns, as well as the character of such changes, can be used as recognition elements in analysis of protein molecules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: George Mason Intellectual Properties, Inc.
    Inventors: Victor Morozov, Charles L. Bailey, Nikolai N. Vsevolodov, Adam Elliott
  • Publication number: 20090311666
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a microfluidic device comprising at least one crystallization chamber adapted for comprising a solution in which at least one compound is present according to a concentration gradient, and wherein the geometry of said crystallization chamber allows for convection phenomena to be limited. The invention also relates to the use of said device, in particular for crystallization by counter diffusion and to a crystallization method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 19, 2007
    Publication date: December 17, 2009
    Applicant: CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE-CNRS
    Inventors: Claude Sauter, Bernard Lorber, Richard Giège, Anne Theoblad-Dietrich, Chantal Kahn-Malek, Bernard Gauthier-Manuel, Gaël Thuillier, Rosaria Ferrigno
  • Patent number: 7520932
    Abstract: A method of analyzing carbon concentration in crystalline silicon includes providing a section from a zoned and annealed silicon core. The zoned and annealed core is extracted from a polycrystalline silicon composition and has a columnar shape. The zoned and annealed core includes a single crystalline silicon region and a freeze-out melt region. The freeze-out melt region is disposed adjacent to the single crystalline silicon region, and the regions are spaced along a length of the columnar shape. Specifically, the section is provided from the freeze-out melt region, with the entire freeze-out melt region in the section. A carbon concentration of the section is determined. By providing the section from the freeze-out melt region, as opposed to the polycrystalline silicon composition, determination of carbon concentration in the crystalline silicon is enabled with a sensitivity at less than or equal to 10 parts per billion atomic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: Dow Corning Corporation
    Inventor: Doug Kreszowski
  • Publication number: 20080019888
    Abstract: A crystallization device is for protein crystallization with a small amount of a sample in the liquid to liquid diffusion method. It is easy to fill the device with protein solution and precipitant solution and easy to pick up grown crystals from the device. The device comprises a channel plate made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the first and second cover sheets made of polyethylene terephthalate. The channel plate includes at least one elongated channel having one side which extends in the longitudinal direction of the channel, the one side being exposed at the bottom surface of the channel plate. The channel has both ends which communicate with a protein solution inlet and a precipitant solution inlet respectively. The channel also communicates midway with a gel inlet and a vent hole. When picking up grown crystals from the device, the second cover sheet is cut off with a cutter knife so that the channel is exposed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2007
    Publication date: January 24, 2008
    Applicants: Rigaku Corporation, JAPAN AEROSPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY
    Inventors: Tomokazu Hasegawa, Kensaku Hamada, Masaru Sato, Moritoshi Motohara
  • Patent number: 7316805
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for molecular and macromolecular crystallization. More particularly, the device comprises a well and a transparent cap for growing diffraction-quality protein crystals by conventional vapor diffusion techniques. The present device is particularly advantageous in that it allows the pre-filling of the well with a solution for transport and handling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2008
    Assignee: QIAGEN, Inc.
    Inventors: Jean-Pascal Viola, Christian Houde
  • Patent number: 7122083
    Abstract: This invention relates to a novel system for making uniform crystals. The system, by virtue of the nature of its crystal product, is useful in various chemical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and biotechnology applications. The invention features physically separated and controlled crystal nucleation and growth zones useful in industrially scaled crystallization processes. The invention also provides a method to preferentially nucleate and crystallize a desired category of crystal structure (enantiomer, solvate, polymorph) of non-chiral and chiral compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2006
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Daniel Albert Green
  • Patent number: 7008599
    Abstract: A filtration assembly operable in connection with a crystal form screening workstation that provides for automated crystal form screening is disclosed. The assembly includes first and second valves, with each valve having an internal passage and first, second and third ports. A filter line is interposed between the first and second valves in fluid communication with the second port of the first valve and the second port of the second valve. A filter medium is in disposed in or at the end of the filter line and adapted to filter a drug-containing suspension flowing through the filter line. The filter medium is operable to filter fluids under both positive and negative pressure conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2006
    Assignee: SmithKline Beecham Corporation
    Inventors: David Leroy Carlton, Om Parkash Dhingra, David Harlan Igo, Phillip William Waters
  • Patent number: 7005008
    Abstract: The invention relates to a reaction vessel (1) for producing a sample, in particular a crystal, from a substance in solution or in liquid form, having several reaction chambers (6) each forming a separate gas chamber, consisting of at least one housing part, and each reaction chamber (6) has a reservoir (7) and several reaction areas (8) co-operating therewith, connected to one another and to the reservoir (7) in order to exchange gas. The reservoirs and the reaction areas co-operating with them are disposed immediately adjacent to one another in rows, distributed in a predeterminable, identical manner, these rows running parallel with one another. Each row of reservoirs (7) therefore co-operates with at least one row of reaction areas (8).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignees: Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft e.V.
    Inventors: Günther Knebel, Lajos Nyársik, Holger Friedrich Heinrich Eickhoff, Hans Lehrach
  • Patent number: 6703479
    Abstract: A process and apparatus is disclosed for heating or cooling polymer solids in a dispensing section of a solid-state polycondensation reactor. Gas is delivered to the dispensing section of the reactor in which it cools polymer solids in the dispensing section by direct heat exchange. Part of the gas is withdrawn at a point proximate to the dispensing section of the reactor and is cooled. The rest of the gas ascends through a reactive section of the reactor and purges polymer solids of impurities. The gas withdrawn from the reactive section of the reactor is oxidized of impurities and dried and then combined with the gas withdrawn proximate to the dispensing section of the reactor. To achieve uniform heating or cooling of the polymer solids in the dispensing section, a preferred ratio of mass flow rate of gas to the mass flow rate of solids is recommended.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2004
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: James F. McGehee, Giuseppina R. Boveri, Paul A. Sechrist
  • Patent number: 6454853
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to a process for the purification of an organic product by fractionated crystallization, characterized in that the organic product is purified by circulation in filled tubes by varying the circulation rate at each purification and concentration stage. The invention also pertains to an apparatus for the purification of an organic product by fractionated crystallization designed for the implementation of said process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Befs Prokem S.A.
    Inventors: Guenaël Drouglazet, René Genin, Edouard Schwartzman
  • Patent number: 6334878
    Abstract: An apparatus for crystallization, which contains a crystallization vessel, a seed supplying device, a feed solution supplying device and a tube baffle disposed within the crystallization vessel. The tube baffle is provided with a crystallization portion in an inner area and a lower area thereof, and the tube baffle and the crystallization vessel define a classification portion there between. The apparatus further contains an agitating fan for agitating the seed crystals and the feed solution, and a plurality of plate baffles disposed within the classification portion which define a buffer portion and a gravitational settling portion. The apparatus further contains a device for generating a rising velocity of a slurry containing fine crystals in the gravitational settling portion by discharging the slurry so that the rising velocity of the slurry is greater than a settling velocity of the fine crystals and an outlet for discharging the crystallized material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2002
    Assignee: Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Ichiro Miyahara, Tatsuo Kitamura, Masato Yokoyama, Takashi Koko
  • Patent number: 6258331
    Abstract: A simple and economic apparatus for crystal growth effective in crystallization of a biological macromolecule such as protein is provided. The apparatus for crystal growth includes first liquid storage parts and for holding a liquid to be used for crystal growth, passages and for transporting the liquid from the first liquid storage parts and to other places, and a second liquid storage part for receiving the liquid transported by the passages and. The first liquid storage parts and are formed on a substrate formed of a general-purpose material such as glass. The second liquid storage part is formed on a doped silicon substrate. Crystal growth occurs on the surface of the silicon substrate having a certain electric state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: Akira Sanjoh
  • Patent number: 6179912
    Abstract: Provided is a system and continuous flow process for producing monodisperse semiconductor nanocrystals comprising reservoirs for the starting materials, a mixing path in which the starting materials are mixed, a first reactor in which the mixture of starting materials is mixed with a coordinating solvent and in which nucleation of particles occurs, a second reactor in which controlled growth of the nanocrystals occurs, and a growth termination path in which the growth of the nanocrystals is halted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2001
    Assignee: BioCrystal Ltd.
    Inventors: Emilio Barbera-Guillem, Marlin O. Thurston
  • Patent number: 6080374
    Abstract: An apparatus for performing centrifugal crystallization of organics, which unifies all the individual steps for the removal of impurities into a single operation. The apparatus consists of two coaxial rotors and stationary parts. A crystallizable feed stock is mixed under pressure with a suitable refrigerating solvent and injected into a rotating liquid ring of the process materials. A faster drum-shaped outer rotor rotates the process materials while a slower frame-shaped inner rotor distributes the combined feed, collects refined product and recycles crystal fines as seeds. Advantage is taken of the centrifugal force and of the radial pressure gradient for gradual adiabatic evaporation of the solvent and simultaneous crystallization of the substance to be purified, as well as for the separation of phases, counter-current crystal washing with its own melt, followed by product melting by external heat, and withdrawal of a product from the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Inventor: Vratislav Nenicka
  • Patent number: 6060028
    Abstract: An apparatus for formation of fat crystals by standing, which has a container, distribution pipes and crystallization trays arranged in parallel, the container being divided into plural compartments with vertical partitions each upper part of which has an opening to permit a fat-and-oil feedstock to be fed into each compartment, the compartments communicating with each other at a certain height from the bottom of the container so that the fat-and-oil feedstock can be uniformly fed into respective compartments, and the distribution pipes being connected to the bottoms of respective compartments so that the fat-and-oil feedstock to be fed therein can be distributed to the crystallization trays, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: Fuji Oil Company, Limited
    Inventors: Shin Yoneda, Kiyoyuki Higuchi, Atsushi Taniguchi, Yuji Kuwabara
  • Patent number: 5961934
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for dynamically controlling the crystallization of proteins including a crystallization chamber or chambers for holding a protein in a salt solution, one or more salt solution chambers, two communication passages respectively coupling the crystallization chamber with each of the salt solution chambers, and transfer mechanisms configured to respectively transfer salt solution between each of the salt solution chambers and the crystallization chamber. The transfer mechanisms are interlocked to maintain the volume of salt solution in the crystallization chamber substantially constant. Salt solution of different concentrations is transferred into and out of the crystallization chamber to adjust the salt concentration in the crystallization chamber to achieve precise control of the crystallization process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Biospace International Inc.
    Inventors: Leonard Arnowitz, Emanuel Steinberg
  • Patent number: 5362455
    Abstract: A direct contact cryogenic crystallizer having a vertically oriented draft tube into which cryogenic fluid is injected at a high velocity along with warm gas and through which a crystal slurry is drawn for subsequent cooling and agitation for the production of crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Alan T. Cheng
  • Patent number: 5344618
    Abstract: A crystal refining apparatus having a refining column containing a plurality of vertical shafts having screw blades provided therearound. Each blade rotates in a opposite direction, thereby carrying refined solid crystals upward. The reflux ratio of this apparatus can be much greater than that of the prior art, and highly refined crystals are obtained.The separated liquid extraction chambers are disposed at the bottom and the side of the refining column and a pressure reduction line is connected thereto so that the separated liquid is extracted at a high rate, accordingly the reflux ratio has become great in value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Inventor: Shigeru Saitoh
  • Patent number: 5338519
    Abstract: A process is provided for the separation of substances by melt crystallization. The organic mixtures which are difficult to crystallize are heated to a temperature sufficient to obtain a melt with the melt then being moved through a three-dimensional crystallization matrix having a large specific area. The melt is slowly cooled over a temperature range so as to achieve a selective crystallization from the supersaturated melt in the carrier matrix. A deposited crystal phase is thereafter melted and separated from the carrier matrix and removed by centrifugation. The carrier matrix may have a crystallization-promoting microstructure surface and may consist of an openpored foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1994
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventors: Slobodan Jancic, Evangelos Sakellariou
  • Patent number: 5292486
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus are proposed for pulling crystals from the melt. The recharging of the melt (4) is performed such that the crucible (3) is raised and lowered with respect to the crystal pulling system while keeping the position of the melt surface (25) constant with respect to the crystal pulling system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1994
    Assignee: Leybold Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Dieter Drechsel
  • Patent number: 5290395
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for pulling a compound single crystal from a raw material molten solution is constructed to cause the solution to flow into a second crucible provided in a first crucible containing the raw material molten solution which is continuously synthesized from a plurality of raw materials, through a communicating hole formed in the bottom portion of the second crucible. The single crystal is pulled while the raw material molten solution is continuously synthesized from the plurality of raw materials, whereby it is possible to pull a long single compound crystal through a single pulling step from the raw material molten solution which is contained in the second crucible. An excellent state of a solid-liquid interface is maintained to obtain a quality single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Masami Tatsumi, Tomohiro Kawase
  • Patent number: 5288366
    Abstract: A method for growing multiple high-purity single crystals from a replenished melt by maintaining the purity of molten source material in the melt held in a crucible in a furnace of the type used for growing high-purity single crystals. The method includes the steps of growing at least one crystal from the source material in the crucible, extracting a portion of a volume of the melt remaining in the crucible, adding high-purity source material to the melt, and growing at least one more single crystal. Extractor apparatus used in the method includes an insulated receptacle having an inlet tube for conducting molten source material into the receptacle. A vacuum attached to the receptacle is used to draw the source material into the receptacle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Holder
  • Patent number: 5266284
    Abstract: An arrangement for mixing fluids and for growing crystals by the vapor diffusion method under conditions of weightlessness has an exterior housing containing a mixing part and a reaction part. The mixing part has two cylinders in which the starting fluids are stored until the reaction is to be performed. Each cylinder has a piston associated therewith, and internal bores permit the starting fluids to be pumped between the respective cylinders to mix them. Following mixing, the fluids are pumped through a central bore to a cylinder in the reaction part, which also has a piston associated therewith. Withdrawal of the cylinder relative to the piston causes the formation of a drop, permitting the crystallization to take place. Following completion of the reaction, the cylinder is returned to its original position, sucking the fluid into it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1993
    Assignee: Dornier GmbH
    Inventors: Franz Heilig, Lothar Potthast
  • Patent number: 5242531
    Abstract: In the Czochralski crucible pulling of crystal ingots, in particular those of silicon and having particularly large crystal diameters, the degree of filling of the crucible is kept approximately constant during the pulling process by continuously adding solid or liquid recharging material. According to the invention, the known disadvantages of thermal disturbances and the introduction of impurities and particles are overcome by a recharging system with a gas-tight seal, comprising additional crucible, stock container for semiconductor material and dopant having the appropriate feedlines and an exhaust gas line. In addition, the process makes possible a regulatable and separate recharging of dopant via the additional crucible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 7, 1993
    Assignee: Wacker-Chemitronic Gesellschaft fur Elektronik-Grundstoffe m.b.H.
    Inventors: Herbert Klingshirn, Reinhard Lang
  • Patent number: 5229083
    Abstract: Crystals are grown in ribbon shapes by an apparatus for supporting a film of source material, capacitive electrodes contacting the film and heat pipes in thermal contact with the electrodes for first heating the material through the electrodes to near its melting temperature and then for controllably cooling the electrodes, an rf heater using the electrodes for melting the film in a zone, a heat pipe for causing solidification along one surface of the melt zone to form a ribbon, a pulling mechanism for moving the ribbon from the melt zone, a heater for melting bulk replenishing material to replenish the melt, and an auxiliary heating device for heating the ribbon after leaving the zone to prevent dendritic growth by maintaining low axial temperature gradients.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1993
    Inventor: Carl E. Bleil
  • Patent number: 5213772
    Abstract: An apparatus for forming silver halide grains comprises a reaction vessel for causing the nucleus formation and the crystal growth of silver halide grains. The apparatus further includes: a mixer disposed outside of the reaction vessel and having a high-speed stirring blade; conduits for supplying an aqueous solution of a water-soluble silver salt, an aqueous solution of water-soluble halide, and an aqueous protective colloid solution to the mixer while controlling the rotational speed of the high-speed stirring blade to form fine, silver halide grains; and a conduit for connecting the mixer to the reaction vessel for immediately supplying the fine grains in the mixer to the reaction vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1993
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasunori Ichikawa, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Shigeharu Urabe, Akira Kojima, Akira Katoh
  • Patent number: 5178840
    Abstract: A wafer chuck is used to support a circular silicon wafer, which was formed from a single wafer casting process, in order to perform monocrystalline silicon regrowth. The cast wafer, having a monocrystalline silicon seed, located at its center, rests atop raised portions of the chuck and is held in place by vaccum at the center and the perimeter. The rest of the underside of the wafer is physically separated from the chuck surface by pressurized gas. An annular laser beam is then used to melt the silicon from the seed outward to grow the wafer into a monocrystalline form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1993
    Assignee: Sematech, Inc.
    Inventor: Franz T. Geyling
  • Patent number: 5133829
    Abstract: A wafer chuck is used to support a circular silicon wafer, which has formed from a single wafer casting process, in order to perform monocrystalline silicon regrowth. The cast wafer, having a monocrystalline silicon seed, located at its center, rests atop raised portions of the chuck and is held in place by vacuum at the center and the perimeter. The rest of the underside of the wafer is physically separated from the chuck surface by pressurized gas. An annular laser beam is then used to melt the silicon from the seed outward to grow the wafer into a monocrystalline form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1992
    Assignee: Sematech, Inc.
    Inventor: Franz T. Geyling
  • Patent number: 5126115
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of a single crystal of a biopolymer by growth from a solution, which comprises continuously changing one factor having an influence on the conditions for crystallization of a solution of a biopolymer, fractionating the solution, and independently crystallizing the resultant fractions. The process may be carried out by an apparatus comprising a means for feeding a crystallizing agent solution, a means for feeding a biopolymer solution, a means for producing a series of changes of predetermined crystallization conditions, said means continuously changing at least one factor having an influence on the conditions for crystallization of the biopolymer solution, and means for fractionating the solution and independently crystallizing the resultant fractions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1992
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Shozo Fujita, Koji Asano, Takafumi Hashitani
  • Patent number: 5108720
    Abstract: The present invention is a float-zone process for forming particulate silicon into monocrystalline silicon. The process employs a reusable silicon conduit having a lower end heated to form a melt zone and an upper end provided with a means for delivering a controlled amount of particulate silicon to the melt zone. A monocrystal silicon seed is used to pull a monocrystalline silicon ingot from the melt zone and particulate silicon is added to the melt zone to replenish silicon removed as monocrystalline silicon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1992
    Assignee: Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Bourbina, James R. McCormick, Scott A. Wheelock
  • Patent number: 5102494
    Abstract: A novel capillary die and crystal growing method are provided for growing a hollow crystalline body by EFG. Inner and outer annular moats surround the die tip. Passageways are provided for supplying melt to those moats from a crucible, so that melt in said moats will wet and cover the inner and outer exterior surfaces of the die tip during growth of a hollow crystalline body. The novel die may be constructed so as to have a lower die tip and a shorter capillary than EFG dies heretofore used to successfully grow hollow bodies. The die design facilitates keeping the temperature of the die tip substantially uniform about its circumference, thereby improving the uniformity of thickness of the wall of the crystalline body grown from a film of melt on the die tip. The moats reduce the likelihood of the growth process being interrupted or adversely affected by flooding of the die.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1992
    Assignee: Mobil Solar Energy Corporation
    Inventors: David S. Harvey, Dana L. Winchester, Brian H. Mackintosh, Sankerlingam Rajendran
  • Patent number: 5078975
    Abstract: This invention relates to a crystal growth apparatus (10) generally used for growing protein crystals wherein a vapor diffusion method is used for growing the crystals. In this apparatus, a precipitating solution and a solution containing dissolved crystalline material are stored in separate vials (12, 14), each having a resilient diaphragm (28) across one end and an opening (24) with a puncturable septum (26) thereacross at an opposite end. The vials are placed in receptacles (30) having a manifold (41) with a manifold diaphragm (42) in contact with the vial diaphragm at one end of the receptacle and a hollow needle (36) for puncturing the septum at the other end of the manifold.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Percy H. Rhodes, Robert S. Snyder, Marc L. Pusey
  • Patent number: 5068092
    Abstract: Disclosed is a flow-through sodium chloride crystallizer comprised of a vertically-oriented crystallizer body having at least two segments of different cross-sectional area, at least two inlets for the introduction of saturated MgCl.sub.2 brine at minimum of two distinct vertical locations having different cross-sectional areas along the crystallizer body, at least two inlets for the introduction of a saturated NaCl brine at a minimum of two distinct vertical locations having different cross-sectional areas along the crystallizer body, at least one lower outlet for removal of NaCl crystals and at least one upper outlet for removal of spent brine. Also disclosed is an apparatus for producing hopper-shaped NaCl crystals and/or NaCl crystals of varying, segregated purity, and a process for producing the same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1991
    Assignee: Akzo N.V.
    Inventor: Martin N. Aschauer
  • Patent number: 5037622
    Abstract: A novel capillary die and crystal growing method are provided for growing a hollow crystalline body by EFG. Inner and outer annular moats surround the die tip. Passageways are provided for supplying melt to those moats from a crucible, so that melt in said moats will wet and cover the inner and outer exterior surfaces of the die tip during growth of a hollow crystalline body. The novel die may be constructed so as to have a lower die tip and a shorter capillary than EFG dies heretofore used to successfully grow hollow bodies. The die design facilitates keeping the temperature of the die tip substantially uniform about its circumference, thereby improving the uniformity of thickness of the wall of the crystalline body grown from a film of melt on the die tip. The moats reduce the likelihood of the growth process being interrupted or adversely affected by flooding of the die.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: Mobil Solar Energy Corporation
    Inventors: David S. Harvey, Dana L. Winchester, Brian H. Mackintosh, Sankerlingam Rajendran
  • Patent number: 4970110
    Abstract: This invention is directed to a process for improving the run and snag resistance of hosiery such as nylons by treating the hosiery with a composition comprising a polymeric synthetic resin having average molecular weights ranging up to 100,000 in combination with an amine neutralizing agent, an alcohol amide, organic solvents, water, and propellant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1990
    Inventor: Carla Miraldi
  • Patent number: 4968491
    Abstract: In conducting a liquid phase epitaxial growth of a Zn crystal on a substrate wherein a batch of Se melt serving as a solvent is used and relying on a vapor pressure controlling technique and a temperature difference method, a Zn vapor pressure controlling region is disposed, via the Se melt, in a direction vertical to the surface of the substrate which is contained in the growth region, and a ZnSe source crystal is disposed in such a way that it is supplied into the Se melt in a lateral direction of this melt. Whereby, a ZnSe single crystal having a good cyrstal perfection, and a good linearity of the thickness of the grown crystal relative to time can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Assignee: Zaidan Hojin Handotai Kenkyu Shinkokai
    Inventor: Jun-ichi Nishizawa
  • Patent number: 4946739
    Abstract: This invention is directed to an enamel paint receptive flexible laminate and its method of manufacture. The laminate is useful for making banners, flags, signs and the like that are decorated with enamel poster paints. The laminates of the present invention comprise a base fabric material, a first film coating of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a second coating of thermosetting vinyl acrylic copolymer. The thermosetting vinyl acrylic copolymer promotes increased adhesion and decreased drying time of poster paints and lettering enamel when they are applied to the coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Assignee: Borden, Inc.
    Inventors: Dwight E. Chapman, David R. Morse
  • Patent number: 4940047
    Abstract: Textile sheet-like structure impregnated or coated with water-hardening synthetic resin, said textile comprising organic fibers with an elasticity modulus of 200 to 2500 daN/mm.sup.2 and having an extensibility in the longitudinal direction of at least 10% before hardening of said resin is useful in preparing orthopaedic support dressings, containers, filters, pipes, reinforcing material, stiffening material, filler or sealer material for hollow spaces or joints, insulating material, in preparing decorative and artistic articles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1990
    Assignees: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, Karl Otto Braun KG
    Inventors: Roland Richter, Wolfram Mayer, Gunter Langen, Willy Leyser
  • Patent number: 4940568
    Abstract: For the continuous melting of silicon granulate for a band drawing method, a melt reservoir in communication with the melt crucible based on the principle of communicating vessels, is provided in the form of a thermally insulated, annular crucible in whose center axis a rotary plate to be centrifugally accelerated is arranged, the speed thereof being continuously varied. Two pipe parts connected to one another at an angle between approximately 45.degree. to about 90.degree. are secured on the rotary plate, the one, vertical pipe part thereof serving as admission in the rotational axis and the other pipe part thereof forming the acceleration path for the granulate particles in the direction toward the annular melt crucible. On the basis of this arrangement, a uniform delivery and melting of the granulate particles in the melt surface is achieved and, thus, a continuous silicon band drawing with uniform layer thickness is enabled. The arrangement is used in the manufacture of silicon bands for solar cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1990
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gerhard Hoyler, Josef Grabmaier, Richard Falckenberg, Bernhard Freienstein
  • Patent number: 4921752
    Abstract: A laminated fabric having a face layer of plush fabric, an intermediate layer of foam material and a bottom layer of scrim fabric having an elasticity of at least 100% in the warp and fill or course direction of the fabric.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Milliken Research Corporation
    Inventor: Paul W. Eschenbach
  • Patent number: 4919900
    Abstract: A system for crystallogenesis by diffusion, intended in particular for use on board a space ship, and in which a substance to be crystallized contained in a crucible (18) is brought into contact with a precipitating agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1990
    Assignee: Aerospatiale Societe Nationale Industrielle
    Inventors: Gerard M. Martin, Manuel P. Claramonte, Jean-Claude Auffret, Guy M. Bonnet, Jean-Jacques Delarue
  • Patent number: 4806318
    Abstract: An apparatus for purifying crystals comprises a crystal purifying tower having a transverse cross-section of two partially overlapping circles, stirrers each comprising a rotational shaft passing through the center of each of the circles and having blade members disposed spirally on its surface, a solid-liquid separation plate disposed at the bottom portion of the tower, a liquid take out means disposed below the separation plate, a starting crude crystal feed means disposed above the separation plate, a purified crystal take out means disposed at the upper portion of the tower, heating means disposed in the tower in a multistage manner along the longitudinal direction of the tower, and purified crystal circulation means for cooling a portion of purified crystals taken out from the tower and feeding back the cooled crystals to the tower at at least one portion of the tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1989
    Assignee: Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeru Saitoh, Masaki Shimada
  • Patent number: 4769139
    Abstract: A heavy oil such as an atmospheric pressure residue, a reduced pressure residue of petroleum, etc. is heated to 400.degree. to 500.degree. C. to carry out polycondensation and provide a pitch containing mesophase microspheres. This pitch is once cooled to 200.degree. to 400.degree. C. and a turbulent flow is imparted thereto to cause agglomeration of the mesophase microspheres. The resulting agglomerates are separated to obtain a crystallizable material enriched with quinoline insolubles. Production of the crystallizable material is preferably conducted in a separation tank accommodating the lower part of a heating polycondensation reactor (6) and having a stirring device (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: Koa Oil Company, Limited
    Inventors: Kosaku Noguchi, Honami Tanaka, Yukimasa Kumura, Eiji Kitajima, Toshifumi Ishitobi, Hirokazu Teraoka
  • Patent number: 4762687
    Abstract: The inventive means includes a supply vessel (10) having a bottom opening (14), feed means (15 to 17) for supplying the vessel (10) with solid silicon and means (11 to 13) for heating the vessel, said vessel being placed above the crucible (1) containing the melt (8) so that the molten silicon in the vessel (10) flows out through the bottom opening (14) into the crucible (1) when the level (h) of the molten silicon in the supply vessel reaches a maximum value (20) and the replenishing flow stops when the level (h) has fallen to a minimum value (22). An application involving the deposition of a layer of polycrystalline silicon onto a carbon tape is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1988
    Assignees: Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine, Compagnie General d'Electricite
    Inventors: Christian Belouet, Michel Mautref
  • Patent number: 4755364
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for performing liquid phase epitaxy, mercury containment, substrate leveling, in situ annealing/doping and gas flushing in a liquid phase epitaxy growth of HgCdTe. The apparatus is a self contained unit comprising a transparent cover for providing access to the interior of the apparatus and for forming a gas impermeable seal between the apparatus and the cover. The apparatus also contains a leveling apparatus, a gas flushing apparatus, and an apparatus for the in situ doping/quench annealing of HgCdTe epitaxial films. The leveling apparatus comprises channels and leveling balls that travel therein which align themselves between scribe marks when the apparatus is in a level position. The gas flushing apparatus is comprised of a gaseous purge ball valve that opens and seals a flushing channel that leads from the interior of the invention to the external environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1988
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventors: Theodore J. La Chapelle, Jr., Thomas P. Weismuller
  • Patent number: 4678646
    Abstract: A crystallizer comprising a mixing zone of an organic solvent containing ions of a metal extracted therein and an aqueous separating solution provided at the upper part of a main crystallizer body, a lower-part opened organic solvent settling zone provided outside of the mixing zone for receiving and settling the organic solvent overflowing out of the mixing zone, a crystals developing zone having a downwardly narrowing cross section provided at the lower part of the main crystallizer body, a descending pipe extending from the lower end of the mixing zone to the lower part of the crystals developing zone, a crystals fluidizing medium inlet provided at the lower end of the crystals developing zone, a separating solution discharge pipe and a crystals discharge pipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1987
    Assignee: Solex Research Corporation of Japan
    Inventors: Morio Watanabe, Sanji Nishimura, Nobuatsu Watanabe