Molten Media Patents (Class 423/DIG12)
  • Patent number: 6066771
    Abstract: A process for treating carbon-containing material contaminated with toxic elements utilises smelting of the material in a top-submerged lancing reactor. The material has its carbon content present as elemental or free carbon. Smelting is conducted so as to form, or in the presence of, a fluid slag. In the course of smelting, free-oxygen-containing gas is injected into the slag by top-submerged injection, to combust the carbon content of the material. Volatilizable toxic elements are discharged in reactor off-gas, while non-volatilizable elements are substantially fully incorporated into the slag.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Ausmelt Limited
    Inventors: John M Floyd, Carl P Jeppe, Robert W Matusewicz, Kenneth R Robilliard
  • Patent number: 5993756
    Abstract: A method for the preparation of sodium tungstate by the oxidation of hard metal scrap and/or heavy metal scrap in a molten salt mixture of hydroxide and sodium sulfate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: H.C. Starck, GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventor: Michael Lohse
  • Patent number: 5885326
    Abstract: A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: James M. Leitnaker, Lee D. Trowbridge
  • Patent number: 5866095
    Abstract: A method and system is disclosed for converting a feed, such as a carbonaceous waste, to dissolved atomic constituents for subsequent oxidation of the dissolved atomic constituents. The feed is injected into a molten bath which, at a sufficient temperature, causes conversion of essentially all of the feed to its atomic constituents, such as atomic carbon. Essentially all of the atomic constituents which are to be oxidized in the molten bath dissolve in the molten bath. An oxidant is injected into the molten bath at a rate sufficient to cause the oxidant to exothermically react with the dissolved atomic constituents to heat at least a portion of the molten bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Casey E. McGeever, Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5843391
    Abstract: Silicon sulfide is manufactured from the fine powder of silicon having a particle size in the range of 60 to 100.mu., covered thoroughly with sulfur at lower temperature less than 700.degree. C. in vacuum. In order to produce the silicon sulfide, silicon should be ground in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to prevent the formation of a silicon oxide layer that remains in the product and degrades the purity of the product. The silicon powder is dispersed sufficiently in the molten sulfur. At this time, the quantity of added sulfur needs more than 1.1 times in comparison with the stoichiometric quantity of silicon sulfide. All surfaces of silicon powder should be covered with sulfur to avoid sintering between silicon particles in the whole process of the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignee: Furukawa Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazutomi Yamamoto, Nobuhiko Ikeda
  • Patent number: 5745861
    Abstract: Mixed radioactive wastes, such as those that include a radioactive component and a dissolved salt component, are treated by directing the waste through at least one ion-exchange medium that binds at least a portion of the radioactive component. A liquid discharge stream from which the radioactive component has been separated, and which includes the dissolved salt component, is directed into a molten bath that causes at least a portion of at least one dissolved salt component of the liquid discharge stream to be reductively vaporized and thereby form at least one vaporized product. A gaseous discharge stream is generated by the molten bath that includes at least one vaporized product. In one specific embodiment, the mixed radioactive waste includes radioactive cesium as the radioactive component and sodium nitrate as the dissolved salt component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1998
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Jimmy T. Bell, James W. Snider
  • Patent number: 5744117
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus produce a product in at least one phase from an organic component in a feed gas stream. The method includes forming a process zone including a process molten bath and a process gas space disposed over the process molten bath. Molten droplets of said molten bath are then dispersed across the process gas space. The feed gas stream is then directed into the process gas zone, wherein the organic component is exposed to said molten droplets, thereby converting at least a portion of the organic component to a product in at least one phase.The apparatus of the invention comprises a reactor which includes a gas formation section, having a feed inlet, and means for retaining a solid feed component within the gas formation section. The apparatus also includes a process section, disposed in the reactor, having a process gas space, a gas outlet and a process molten bath disposed therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1998
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark A. Wilkinson, Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5735930
    Abstract: A method of refining magma, which includes silicon carbide, basaltic clay, and other insoluble components, including the steps of blending the magma with monovalent alkali hydroxides and a chemical oxidizing agent, melting the magma, and injecting oxygen into the melted magma. The melted magma is electrolyzed to separate metals contained in the melt, which are recovered by gravity separation followed by centrifugation. Soluble silicates are recovered by crystallization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1998
    Inventors: Fritz W. Wanzenberg, Frederick Wheelock Wanzenberg, Andrew Kimball Wanzenberg, Mark Brooks Wanzenberg
  • Patent number: 5716592
    Abstract: A process for producing chlorine by reaction of gaseous hydrogen chloride with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst prepared by reaction of chromium trioxide and cerous chloride with ethanol and calcination of the resulting reaction product, or, alternatively, prepared by reaction of chromium trioxide with ethanol, and calcination and impregnation of the resulting chromic oxide with aqueous solution of cerous chloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1998
    Assignee: Korea Institute Of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Byoung Sung Ahn, Dong Ju Moon, Kun You Park, Moon Jo Chung
  • Patent number: 5679132
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for injecting vaporizable material, such as a vaporizable waste, into a molten bath. A gas is injected into the molten bath at a rate which is sufficient to cause the gas and the molten bath to form a gaseous dispersion. The gas component of the gaseous dispersion occupies a sufficient fraction of said dispersion to cause a significant portion of the vaporizable material, at a rate at which the vaporizable material is injected into the molten bath, to volatilize, combust or decompose during exposure to said gas component. A vaporizable material, such as a particulate solid or hazardous liquid waste, is injected into the gaseous dispersion at a rate which cases a significant portion of the vaporizable material to volatilize, combust or decompose during exposure of said vaporizable material to the gas component of said gaseous dispersion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1997
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rick M. Rauenzahn, Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5665220
    Abstract: In the electrolytic production of magnesium from an electrolyte comprising magnesium chloride and impurity quantities of magnesium oxide which adversely affects the efficiency of cell operation, the magnesium oxide is chemically and electrolytically removed from the electrolyte by sparging the electrolyte with hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon gas adjacent the anode such that MgO reacts with H.sub.2 or, e.g., CH.sub.4 and Cl.sub.2 (generated at the anode) under the electrical potential of the cell to form magnesium chloride. Similarly, magnesium oxide may be mixed and stirred in molten magnesium chloride and reacted with Cl.sub.2 and H.sub.2 (and/or hydrocarbon) to form anhydrous MgCl.sub.2 for use in magnesium production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventor: Ram Autar Sharma
  • Patent number: 5660810
    Abstract: In the method for the chemical reaction of gaseous educts the educts are brought to reaction in a phase contact apparatus 1 in the presence of a catalytically active corrosive liquid. This corrosive liquid is delivered hydropneumatically in an intermittent cycle in the circuit from a sump vessel 4 connected to the lower end of the phase contact apparatus 1 to a supply vessel 9, connected to the upper end of the phase contact apparatus (delivery cycle), from which the corrosive liquid drains through the phase contact apparatus 1 and a connecting line 11 connected at its lower end and then collects in the sump vessel 4 (drainage cycle).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1997
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans-Ulrich Dummersdorf, Helmut Waldmann, Helmut Harle, Franz-Rudolf Minz, Fritz Gestermann
  • Patent number: 5640706
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for producing a product, such as hydrogen halide gas or sulfuric acid, in a regenerator furnace subsystem from a waste containing a non-gasifiable impurity. The method of the invention includes directing a waste, containing a non-gasifiable impurity into a reaction zone, containing a molten metal bath, in a reactor maintained under conditions sufficient to dissociate the waste and to form a gasified feed component and a non-gasifiable impurity. The gasified feed component is then directed from the reactor to a regenerator furnace subsystem, maintained under conditions sufficient to convert the gasified feed component to the desired product.The apparatus of the invention includes a reactor having a waste inlet and a gaseous effluent, a reaction zone containing a molten-metal bath for dissociating the waste, containing a non-gasifiable impurity, and forming a gasified feed component, and a lance for injecting the waste into the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1997
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher J. Nagel, William M. Haney, III, Ian C. Yates
  • Patent number: 5640708
    Abstract: A method of treating inorganic solid waste in a bath of molten metal contained in a vessel (3) which has a space above the bath and a waste gas outlet (11) is disclosed. The method comprises injecting waste into the bath to form a primary reaction zone (13) in which there are reactions between the waste and the bath or in which the waste undergoes a change of phase to convert the waste into more readily recoverable or disposable products. The method further comprises injecting oxygen-containing gas towards the surface of the bath to form a secondary reaction zone (17) in a section above the bath through which oxidisable products released from the primary reaction zone (13) flow to reach the waste gas outlet (11) in the vessel (3) and in which the oxidisable products are oxidised and the heat released by such oxidation is transferred into the bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1997
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Limited
    Inventors: David Stewart Conochie, Robin John Batterham, Terry Alan Matthews
  • Patent number: 5634341
    Abstract: A process and apparatus are disclosed for generating hydrogen gas from a charge of fuel selected from the group consisting of lithium and alloys of lithium and aluminum. The charge of fuel is placed into an enclosed vessel, then heated until it is molten. A reactant consisting of water is introduced into the vessel, as by spraying from a nozzle, for reaction with the charge of fuel resulting in the production of hydrogen gas and heat which are withdrawn from the vessel. Prior to initiation of the process, an inert gas atmosphere, such as argon, may be imparted to the interior of the vessel. A sufficiently large mass flow of the reactant through the nozzle is maintained to assure that there be no diminution of flow resulting from the formation on the nozzle of fuel and chemical compounds of the fuel. Optimum charges of the fuel are application specific and the ranges of the constituents are dependent upon the particular use of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1997
    Assignee: The Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Martin Klanchar, Thomas G. Hughes
  • Patent number: 5628894
    Abstract: A method for the production of nitrogen trifluoride (NF.sub.3) and hydrogen (H.sub.2) gas, starting with a molten flux including at least ammonia (NH.sub.3), a metal fluoride, and hydrogen fluoride (HF), including the steps of: circulating the molten flux from an electrolyzer, to an ammonia solubilizer, to a nitrogen trifluoride reactor, to a hydrogen fluoride solubilizer, and back to the electrolyzer; maintaining the quantity of the molten flux substantially constant by adding ammonia (NH.sub.3) and a carrier gas to the ammonia solubilizer and by adding hydrogen fluoride (HF) and a carrier gas to the hydrogen fluoride solubilizer; producing fluorine (F.sub.2) gas and hydrogen (H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Florida Scientific Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Gregorio Tarancon
  • Patent number: 5585532
    Abstract: A method and a system is disclosed for treating a gaseous discharge stream formed from a waste in a molten metal bath. The waste is directed into a reactor containing a molten metal bath. The molten metal bath has operating conditions which are sufficient to dissociate the waste and form a gaseous discharge stream including a dissociation product. The gaseous discharge stream is cooled in a cooling section and the dissociation product is separated, as a particulate, from a gaseous component of the gaseous discharge stream. The fluid particulate stream is recirculated to the gaseous discharge stream in a reaction section of the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5545390
    Abstract: A process for the destruction of a halocarbon, which process comprises reacting the halocarbon with molten sodium at an elevated temperature to produce the corresponding sodium halide or halides in a sludge in the molten sodium and separating the sludge from the molten sodium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignees: EA Technology Limited, Manweb PLC
    Inventors: Frederick G. Drakesmith, Andrew R. Jones
  • Patent number: 5520891
    Abstract: Disclosed are a fixed-bed, cross-flow catalytic reactor wherein reaction heat can be exchanged against a heat exchange medium circulating indirectly through the catalyst bed, and a catalytic process comprising operation of the cross-flow reactor. The reactor comprises a catalyst bed having internally embedded banks of heat exchange tubes. An inlet distributor distributes reactants along the axial length of the bed. The distributed fluid passes through the bed in a cross-flow path wherein a catalytic reaction occurs. The reaction effluent is then collected from the bed by an outlet product collector. A heat exchange medium circulated through the internal heat exchange tubes adds or removes reaction heat as required for enhanced conversion in the reactor. Multiple heat exchange tubes can be used, and inlet and discharge manifolds are provided for distributing the circulating heat exchange medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1996
    Inventor: Jing M. Lee
  • Patent number: 5494652
    Abstract: A fine metal oxide powder is prepared by a method comprising the steps of (1) preparing a hydroxide precursor of a metal oxide, (2) mixing the precursor with an inorganic compound having a melting point lower than the crystallization temperature of the metal oxide, and (3) subjecting the resulting mixture to a high temperature thermal treatment to form the fine metal oxide powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1996
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventor: Jean C. Robert
  • Patent number: 5455015
    Abstract: Sulfur oxides are removed from a gas containing same by contacting the gas with a system including ammonium, potassium, and/or sodium salts in a solid phase and ammonium, sodium, and/or potassium hydrogen sulfate in a liquid phase. The sulfur oxides react with the solid phase to form a hydrogen sulfate in a liquid phase. The hydrogen sulfate is regenerated and returned to the reaction zone as a sulfate. Sulfuric acid may be produced as a byproduct. Ammonia injection into the gas stream which optionally contains nitrogen oxides, converts the nitrogen oxides into nitrogen. The excess ammonia reacts with the sulfur oxides to precipitates in the sulfur oxides reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1995
    Inventor: Igor Zhadanovsky
  • Patent number: 5437854
    Abstract: Zirconium tetrachloride containing hafnium tetrachloride is selectively reduced with liquid metallic tin to produce zirconium trichloride. The hafnium tetrachloride is then separated as a vapor from a slurry of zirconium trichloride and other solids, including stannous dichloride, in liquid metallic tin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 1, 1995
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Roy G. Walker, Carlos L. Aguilar
  • Patent number: 5435982
    Abstract: A method for dissociating waste to its atomic constituents in a molten metal bath wherein the molten metal bath includes a refractory packing. The refractory packing is disposed in the molten metal bath to restrict the flow of waste and waste dissociation products through the molten metal and around the refractory packing to tortuous flow paths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1995
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Mark A. Wilkinson
  • Patent number: 5436210
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for injecting liquids into a molten bath. The method includes forming a suitable liquid dispersion of a liquid phase disposed in a gas phase. The liquid phase has a ratio of surface area to volume which is sufficient to cause an accumulated amount of the liquid phase in the molten bath to be significantly less than that which would occur by injection of a continuous stream of the liquid into the molten bath. The liquid dispersion is directed into the molten metal bath, whereby the liquid volatilizes or decomposes. The rate at which the liquid dispersion is injected into the molten bath is sufficient to cause the liquid of the liquid phase to volatilize or decompose at a rate which is sufficient to cause the accumulation of the liquid phase in the bath to be significantly less than that which would occur by injection of a continuous stream of the liquid into the molten bath. The apparatus includes an atomizer which is disposed at a reactor containing the molten bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1995
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark A. Wilkinson, Rick M. Rauenzahn, Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5380406
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: James A. Horton, H. Wayne Hayden
  • Patent number: 5376354
    Abstract: A process for the disposal of refuse is characterized by combustion of combustible, solid, pasty or liquid waste materials in a combustion plant with a combustion gas containing at least 50% oxygen. Combustible waste materials are burned in the presence of at least one material selected from the group consisting of non-ferrous metals, non-ferrous metal oxides, alkali compounds, and alkaline earth compounds. The aforementioned combustion is accomplished by burning materials which produce at least one material of the aforementioned class of materials together with the waste materials, by introducing at least one of the materials of the class into the combustion plant together with the input of waste materials or into the hot gas stream, or any combination of these which achieves a desired waste composition. The by-products of the process are cleaned flue gas and a slag in which hazardous materials present in the input waste material are mineralized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Noell Abfall-und Energietechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Reinhard Fischer, Georg Menges
  • Patent number: 5301620
    Abstract: A reactor for dissociating waste in a molten metal bath includes a vertical reaction section for containing a molten metal bath and a horizontal separation section extending from an upper portion of the vertical reaction section. A waste is directed into the vertical section of the reactor. An oxidant is directed into the reactor for reaction with dissociation products of the waste to form gaseous, vitreous and molten metal reaction products in the molten metal bath. The horizontal separation section has discharge outlets for proximate and separate discharge of vitreous and molten metal product streams from the reactor at a location which is remote from the vertical reaction section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher J. Nagel, Mark A. Wilkinson, James E. Johnston
  • Patent number: 5298233
    Abstract: A method and a system for catalytically converting a hydrogen component in a hydrogen- and carbon-containing feed to dissolved hydrogen and for oxidizing the dissolved hydrogen to water is disclosed. Hydrogen- and carbon-containing feed, such as municipal garbage, low grade fuel oil and organic or inorganic sludge, is introduced to a molten bath system. The molten bath system includes first and second immiscible molten metal phases. Carbon and hydrogen component in the feed are converted to dissolved carbon and dissolved hydrogen, respectively. The dissolved carbon is oxidized in the first molten metal phase to carbon monoxide, which then migrates out of the first molten metal phase. As dissolved hydrogen accumulates in the first molten metal phase, it nucleates and migrates to the second molten metal phase, where it is oxidized and forms water vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 29, 1994
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5244592
    Abstract: A heat transfer liquid in the form of a molten salt mixture includes a mixture of potassium nitrate and lithium nitrate, and added calcium nitrate and/or anhydrous salts if appropriate. This is done in order to achieve a low melting point, a low toxicity and in particular a low viscosity. The heat transfer liquid may be used in the vulcanization of rubber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1993
    Assignee: Metzeler Automotive Profiles GmbH
    Inventor: Werner Michel
  • Patent number: 5236690
    Abstract: A chemical vapor purification process for preparing metal fluorides. The process involves melting a metal selected from the metals forming fluorides suitable for use in fluoride glass and thermodynamically partitionable from cation contaminants, for example aluminum, gallium, or indium. Chlorine, bromine, or iodine is bubbled through a stoichiometric excess of the melt, under reaction conditions selected to result in generation of a gaseous halide of the metal. The gaseous halide is then isolated from the melt and reacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent to form a solid fluoride of the metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1993
    Assignee: GTE Laboratories Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert C. Folweiler, Barry C. Farnsworth
  • Patent number: 5191154
    Abstract: A method and a system is disclosed for controlling chemical reaction of a feed. The feed is directed into a reactor containing a molten bath to at least partially chemically react the feed to form an intermediate component. A portion of the intermediate component is combined with an off-gas which is emitted from the molten bath. At least a portion of the intermediate is then separated from the off-gas and returned to the molten bath. The returned intermediate component is then substantially converted to its atomic constituents. The atomic constituents subsequently exothermically react with other components of the molten bath for reaction to form compounds which are substantially stable at the operating conditions of the system, thereby allowing control of chemical reaction of the feed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1993
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5177304
    Abstract: A method and a system for converting carbon-containing feed to atomic carbon and for oxidizing atomic carbon to carbon dioxide is disclosed. Carbon-containing feed, such as municipal garbage, low grade fuel oil and organic or inorganic sludge is introduced to a molten metal bath. The molten metal bath includes a first molten metal phase having a significant solubility of atomic carbon and a second molten metal phase, substantially immiscible in the first molten metal phase and having a solubility of atomic carbon less than that of the first molten metal phase. Carbon in the carbon-containing feed is catalytically converted to atomic carbon. The atomic carbon are oxidized in the first molten metal phase to carbon monoxide which is then directed to the second molten metal phase. Carbon monoxide in the second molten metal phase is oxidized to form carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher J. Nagel
  • Patent number: 5096689
    Abstract: A molten blend of an alkali metal halide containing tungsten is treated with solid particulate carbonaceous reactants, such as natural flake graphite. Tungsten monocarbide is produced having a large percentage of relatively coarse crystals. The crystal morphology is blocky or thick bladed with some equant forms and the carbon is present in the correct stoichiometric amount of 6.13% by weight, thus eliminating any need for carbon additions prior to sintering.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Kennametal Inc.
    Inventors: Charles J. Terry, Harold C. Newman
  • Patent number: 5091001
    Abstract: Spent oxidic catalyst, such as vanadium pentoxide from a sulphuric acid manfacturing process, is rendered into an environmentally acceptable non-leachable form suitable for disposable by incorporation into a vitrified amorphous slag formed of oxidic slag forming agents such as CaO, SiO.sub.2, FeO and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The vitrified slag may be formed as part of a conventional ferrous or non-ferrous smelting process, or may employ a pre-existing slag from such a process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1992
    Inventor: Pierre L. J. Schumacher
  • Patent number: 5085764
    Abstract: In a process for reducing the sulfur and ash contents of coal, coal is sequentially contacted with fused alkali metal caustic, wash water, and acid. Contacting the coal with the caustic produces water-soluble compounds. Sufficient wash water is used to reduce the temperature of the caustic treated coal and dissolve the bulk of the water-soluble compounds before the water-soluble compounds convert to water-insoluble compounds that precipitate on the caustic-treated coal. Caustic removed from the coal by the water is recovered as anhydrous caustic for again contacting coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1992
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Robert A. Meyers, Walter D. Hart, Loren C. McClanathan
  • Patent number: 5059307
    Abstract: In a process for reducing the sulfur and ash contents of coal, coal is sequentially contacted with fused alkali metal caustic, water, carbonic acid, and a strong acid. Caustic removed from the coal by the water and the carbonic acid is recovered as anhydrous caustic for again contacting coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignees: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Robert A. Meyers, Walter D. Hart, Leslie J. Van Nice, deceased, Leslie J. Van Nice, heir
  • Patent number: 5041193
    Abstract: Actinides metals are recovered from spent nuclear fuel oxides containing fission products by a pyrochemical process. The process comprises, in part, electrorefining the metal complex from an anode by electrolytically oxidizing actinides into a salt and then electrodepositing actinides onto a cathode to form an actinide metal deposit. The actinide metal deposit is then melted to separate the salts and the actinide metals. The separated salt is recycled into an electrorefiner and the actinide metals are recovered and then transferred to a fuel fabrication system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1991
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: LeRoy F. Grantham
  • Patent number: 5009878
    Abstract: 1. Unstablized or stablized zirconium dioxide powder and processes for its preparation.2.1 The use of aqueous solutions and the isolation of precipitates are substantial disadvantages of conventional processes for the preparation of zirconium dioxide powders. Furthermore, the products often do not have the desired flow properties, compression properties and sinter properties owing to the lack of microcrystallinity.2.2 By melting zirconyl chloride optionally with a stabilizer or with a precursor of a stabilizer in the presence of a diol of the general formula HO--X--OH, in which X represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical having 2 to 5 carbon atoms, evaporating off water and hydrogen chloride, calcining the reaction product at elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing gas and optionally milling the calcined residue, an unstabilized or stabilized zirconium dioxide powder having good properties can be prepared without the use of disadvantageous process measures.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1991
    Assignee: Huels Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Helmut Scharf
  • Patent number: 4943426
    Abstract: A method for regulating the temperature at which two or more substances combine to form end product in the reactor, at least one of said substances produced from two or more reactants in the reactor, said method comprising: combining at least some of the reactants in a vessel thermally isolated from the reactor to produce substance in the vessel; and transferring substance from said vessel to the reactor. The invention constitutes an improved method for producing magnesium chloride by heating magnesium carbonate in packed bed reactor; passing carbon monoxide and chlorine gas through the packed bed; and withdrawing carbon dioxide from above the packed bed and molten magnesium chloride from below said bed. This improvement consists essentially of reacting at least some carbon monoxide and chlorine in a continuously-cooled vessel to form phosgene; and substituting a sufficient amount of phosgene from the vessel for the carbon monoxide and chlorine gas otherwise passed through said packed bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 24, 1990
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: LeRoy E. Dastolfo, Jr., Vito Cedro, III.
  • Patent number: 4921531
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the production of fine powder materials and the products of that process. The process involves the in-situ precipitation of second phase particles, such as ceramic or intermetalics, within a metal matrix, followed by separation of the particles from the matrix to yield a powder comprising the second phase particles. Particles formed by this process are typically in the size range of 0.01 to 10 microns and have controlled morphology, narrow size distribution, well defined stoichiometery and relatively high purity. Exemplary of second phase particles formed by this process are metal borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides and beryllides, including TiB.sub.2, ZrB.sub.2, VB.sub.2, MoB.sub.2, TiC, WC, VC, TiN, ZrSi.sub.2, MoSi.sub.2, Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3, and TiBe.sub.12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Corporation
    Inventors: Dennis C. Nagle, John M. Brupbacher, Leontios Christodoulou
  • Patent number: 4919913
    Abstract: The process for producing silicon suitable for use in solar cells is improved by reacting a gaseous silicon compound with aluminum wherein a finely dispersed molten surface of pure aluminum or an aluminum/silicon alloy is intensively contacted with the gaseous silicon compound during the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1990
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunter Kurz, Martin Abels, Ingo Schwirtlich, Peter Woditsch
  • Patent number: 4832930
    Abstract: A process for decomposing ammonium thiocyanate and equivalent compounds comprising mixing the compounds with molten ammonium sulfate at atmospheric pressure and about 310.degree. C. The compounds decompose giving off carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia and sulfur and leave a residue of ammonia salts but no organic materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1989
    Inventors: William M. Tekatch, Karol J. Balaz
  • Patent number: 4828814
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for producing a solid material which, in some cases, may have a resultant purity of 99.999% or better which comprises contacting the solid material at a temperature approaching the melting point of the solid material with a purifying agent which is substantially nonreactive with the solid material to cause the impurities in the solid material to enter the material. After cooling, the purified solid material may be separated from the purifying agent and the impurities therein by leaching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Assignee: SRI International
    Inventors: Angel Sanjurjo, Sylvia Pressacco
  • Patent number: 4814106
    Abstract: A product containing calcium sulfate hemihydrate and polynucleate basic metal hydroxysulfate complex in solid form provides a positively charged polynucleate complex possessing charge neutralizing properties in systems containing suspended or colloidal negatively charged particles when dissolved in water. Preferred materials contain polyaluminum hydroxysulfate complex and polyferrihydroxysulfate complex, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate. The invention also relates to a method for producing the product by mixing a molten aluminum or iron (III) sulfate and a calcium compound, allowing the mixture to react to form a product, and cooling the product to form a comminutable or grindable solid product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: General Chemical Corporation
    Inventor: Magnus Kvant
  • Patent number: 4728507
    Abstract: Transition metal, notably zirconium alloy, is melted (e.g., by a plasma) to form droplets within the size range of minus 20, plus 60 mesh. The droplets are exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere for a short period while cooling through the hydriding temperature range (e.g., 600.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.). A friable particulate of uniform size and hydrogen content, suitable for sintering or forming components, is recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1988
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Samuel A. Worcester
  • Patent number: 4666696
    Abstract: Cholinesterase inhibiting agents such as nerve gas agents and pesticide agents are destroyed by reaction with molten aluminum and the gaseous products are analyzed and recycled if they are not essentially free of such agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1987
    Assignee: Detox International Corporation
    Inventor: Clifford G. Shultz
  • Patent number: 4617029
    Abstract: A process for separating a gas from a mixture of gases comprises passing the gas mixture over a membrane, selectively permeable by the gas being separated, owing to the occurrence of one or more reversible oxidation-reduction reactions between a continuous layer of active molten material, immobilized in a rigid, porous, inert support therefor, and the gas being separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1986
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Guido P. Pez, Richard T. Carlin
  • Patent number: 4608235
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for recovering cobalt from an alloy containing other metals as chromium, tungsten, etc. The process involves first adding the alloy to fused sodium hydroxide at a temperature of from about 750.degree. C. to about 1000.degree. C. to form a reaction mixture, the amount of sodium hydroxide being sufficient to subsequently form sodium salts which are essentially those of chromium and tungsten and hydroxides which are essentially those of cobalt and nickel. The reaction mixture is then heated at a sufficient temperature for a sufficient time while introducing an oxidizing gas into the reaction mixture to form a melt which consists essentially of the sodium salts and the hydroxides, followed by cooling the melt. The cooled melt is then contacted with sufficient water to form a solution containing the major portion of the sodium salts and a solid containing the major portion of the hydroxides, followed by separating the solid from the solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1986
    Assignee: GTE Products Corporation
    Inventors: Clarence D. Vanderpool, Richard A. Scheithauer, Richard G. W. Gingerich
  • Patent number: 4563338
    Abstract: A selective chlorination method of a mixture of simple or complex metallic oxides, comprising at least one of the elements to be used, iron, aluminum, titanium and silicon, as well as the impurities accompanying said elements, said method consisting of a grinding, a calcination, a placing in suspension in a bath of melted salts of the mixture of said metallic oxides and of their impurities and of an introduction of chlorinating agents into said bath maintained at a temperature which assures the volatility of at least one of the metallic chlorides formed; characterized by the fact that, in order to selectively extract the metallic chlorides formed from the bath, specific chlorinating mixtures are introduced into this bath by successive steps, said mixtures having increasing chlorinating power, and the introduction is in a number at the most equal to the usuable elements to be chlorinated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: Aluminium Pechiney
    Inventors: Francoise Seon, Gerard Picard, Bernard Tremillon, Yves Bertaud
  • Patent number: RE32612
    Abstract: Tungsten monocarbide is prepared by sparging a molten composition comprising an alkali metal halide and an oxygen compound of tungsten with a gas comprising a gaseous hydrocarbon, particularly methane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Interior
    Inventors: John M. Gomes, Andrea E. Raddatz, Elizabeth G. Baglin