Fluidization Patents (Class 423/DIG16)
  • Patent number: 6120745
    Abstract: Method for the oxidation of at least one alkali metal, according to which this alkali metal is subjected in molten condition to an oxidation by a reaction with oxygen, characterized in that the molten alkali metal is dispersed in a fluidized bed (6) and is subjected to an oxidation by a reaction with oxygen in this bed (6), whereby the oxides formed in this manner are subjected to a carbonation by a reaction with carbonic gas supplied to the aforementioned bed (6).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignee: Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, CEN
    Inventors: Andre Henri Alain Joseph Rahier, Veerle Harriet Josepha Van Alsenoy
  • Patent number: 5993765
    Abstract: The process for dry desulfuration of a combustion gas includes providing an electrostatic precipitator (12) or an inertia force separator for dedusting; dedusting the combustion gas at temperatures of 100.degree. C. to 180.degree. C. in the electrostatic precipitator or at temperatures of 100.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in the inertia force separator to form a partially dedusted combustion gas with a solids content of 5 to 40 g/Nm.sup.3 ; mixing the partially dedusted combustion gas with CaO and/or Ca(OH).sub.2 and optionally CaCO.sub.3 to form a gaseous mixture; providing a circulating fluidized bed device including a fluidized-bed reactor (8) and a downstream solids separator (7) with a return line (17) to the fluidized-bed reactor (8), the solids separator (7) being either another electrostatic precipitator or a bag filter; feeding the gaseous mixture and water into the fluidized-bed reactor (8); cooling the gaseous mixture in the fluidized-bed reactor (8) to a temperature of 50.degree. C. to 90.degree.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans Beisswenger, Bernhard Thone, Wolfram Klee
  • Patent number: 5968460
    Abstract: The present invention is a process for feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed reactor operated at greater than atmospheric through a standpipe wherein the ratio of the absolute pressure where the standpipe enters the fluidized bed reactor to the absolute pressure where the particulate material enters the standpipe is at least about 1.5 and gas is injected into the standpipe at a velocity which is about 20-80 percent of the minimum fluidization velocity of the particulate material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Donald H. Eastham, Ted M. Knowlton, Melvyn B. Pell, James W. Reeves
  • Patent number: 5618430
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for performing chemical and/or physical and/or biological reactions, in which the reactants are brought into operative connection with reaction particles 13 promoting or making possible the reaction. The invention furthermore relates to reaction particles 13 as such. It is proposed to use as reaction particles 13 essentially planar particles with a thickness of about 5 .mu.m to about 1500 .mu.m and an area of about 5 (mm).sup.2 to about 1000 (mm).sup.2. Reaction particles 13 can be used, e.g., as growth surface for biomass. In particular, they can be introduced in a waste-water reactor 1 and thoroughly mixed with the waste water. Reaction particles 13 have a very high specific surface, which, moreover, is easily accessible. Furthermore, reaction particles 13 can be easily set in motion, e.g., by a stirrer 12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1997
    Assignee: Linde Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Uwe Fuchs
  • Patent number: 5500195
    Abstract: A method for reducing gaseous emission of halogen compounds in a fluidized bed reactor in which the fine particles entrained in flue gases are used to form a temporary layer of particles on the baghouse filter to absorb halogen gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1996
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Juan A. Garcia-Mallol
  • Patent number: 5490976
    Abstract: In a continuous process for reacting particulate ore with a liquid reagent in a counter-current vertical column the improvement comprising:(a) providing an upper and lower chamber for the vertical column;(b) maintaining sufficient upward flow of liquid reagent in The upper chamber so that the particulate ore is wetted and deaerated, at least some fine particles thereof are carried overhead for removal, and the remainder thereof settle and enter the lower chamber; and(c) maintaining sufficient fluidization and retention time in the lower chamber so that the desired amount of reaction with the ore takes place, at least some of the fine ore particles which are generated from the reaction process and/or which are introduced with the particulate ore are entrained and carried upward for removal, and the reacted particulate ore exits the lower chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Foster W. Rennie, Tze Chao, Donald H. Eastham, James V. Tarbell
  • Patent number: 5474592
    Abstract: Residual metallurgical materials which contain zinc and lead are reprocessed by a thermal treatment in a circulating fluidized bed. The required heat is generated in that solid carbon is combusted in the fluidized bed reactor of the circulating fluidized bed. A solid carbon content of 5 to 30% is maintained in the lower part of the fluidized bed. Oxygen-containing gases are supplied to the upper part of the fluidized bed reactor, and CO.sub.2 is formed only in such an amount that zinc metal will not be reoxidized. Substantially all solids are removed from the discharged suspension in a recycle cyclone and are recycled. The gas is cooled to a temperature at which zinc metal is oxidized to ZnO. The dustlike compounds of zinc and lead are separated from the gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1995
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Wolfgang Bresser, Martin Hirsch, Albert Kaune, Uwe Harter
  • Patent number: 5464597
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating gas introduced into a vessel containing a particulate material at a temperature less than that of the gas in a manner so that said material reduces the temperature of the gas and the gas entrains at least a portion of the material. The entrained material is then separated from the gas and passed to a heat exchanger to cool the material while the separated gas is passed to a turbine to drive same. At least a portion of the exhaust gas from the turbine is passed to the heat exchanger in a manner to fluidize the material in the heat exchanger and the cooled separated material is returned back to the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: John T. Tang
  • Patent number: 5425799
    Abstract: Refractory gold ores are roasted at temperatures from 500.degree. to 650.degree. C. in an oxidizing atmosphere in a fluidized bed, which is supplied with a carbonaceous additional fuel. To effect a substantially complete combustion of the additional fuel to form CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O, methanol is added as a carbonaceous fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Walter Koch, Bodo Peinemann
  • Patent number: 5330544
    Abstract: The average size of ammonium sulfate crystals is increased by passing undersized ammonium sulfate crystals through a multistage apparatus in which the crystals are contacted with an aqueous ammonium sulfate spray in a first heated chamber to increase the average size of the crystals, the enlarged crystals thereafter passing through a second heated chamber to dry the enlarged crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignee: BASF Corporation
    Inventors: Walter G. Thomson, Jonathan K. Kramer
  • Patent number: 5320815
    Abstract: In a fluidized bed process having a bed of fluidized particulate material which is susceptible to having at least some of the particulate material being entrained in the gases exiting the bed, the entrainment is reduced by introducing the particulate material into the process, in the substantial absence of a gas which transports the particulate material, at one or more points which are below the surface of the bed of fluidized particulate material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1994
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Ran Abed, James W. Reeves
  • Patent number: 5302318
    Abstract: This invention concerns the addition of fibrous alumina material to a phosphor or phosphor mixture before fluidization as a means of increasing the cohesiveness of the phosphor or phosphor mixture. The increase in cohesiveness can be controlled by varying the concentration of the fiber in the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: GTE Products Corporation
    Inventors: Arunava Dutta, Leonard V. Dullea
  • Patent number: 5302361
    Abstract: A packed mass transfer tower for establishing intimate gas/liquid contact and efficient mass transfer that is less susceptible to gas or liquid channeling, gas surging and uneven distribution of gas or liquid across the cross-sectional area of the tower. The packed tower includes a packing arrangement including a lower bed of mobile packing elements, and an adjacent upper bed of fixed packing elements. The packed bed of fixed packing elements acts as a gas distributor, as well as causing good gas/liquid contact, to provide an even flow of gas across essentially the entire cross-sectional area of the packed bed of mobile packing elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Ari Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Gary J. Nagl
  • Patent number: 5236688
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are a method for batchwisely calcining and activating infusibilized spherical pitch beads in an upper stage and a lower stage fluidized beds formed on respective perforated plates, by calcining the pitch beads in the upper stage at 600-800.degree. C. with a heated exhaust gas from a space for the lower stage, discharging activated carbon beads of the previous batch from the space for the lower stage, stopping the fluidization of the upper stage by guiding the exhaust gas from the space for the lower stage to the space for the upper stage through a bypass line so that the calcined beads can fall down to the space for the lower stage through the holes of the perforated plate of the upper stage, and activating the falling calcined beads at 800-1200.degree. C. while forming the lower stage fluidized bed with a heated calcining and activating gas, and a furnace used for the above method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1993
    Assignee: Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kunio Watanabe, Takao Ishihara, Yasuo Sakaguchi
  • Patent number: 5213768
    Abstract: A fluidized bed apparatus (1) having a fluidization grid (2) below which is positioned a tuyere (5) for guiding fluidization gas to the fluidization grid (2). The tuyere (5) comprises a widening pipe the wider end (6) of which is positioned towards the fluidization grid (2) and has an area which is substantially the same as the cross-sectional area of the fluidized bed apparatus (1) and is 2 to 30 times that of the area of the narrower end (7) of the widening pipe. The process for feeding fluidization gas to a fluidized bed using such apparatus enables a good gas distribution across the bed to be achieved with a modest additional pressure drop. The invention is particularly useful for apparatus e.g. greater than 3 m in diameter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1993
    Assignee: BP Chemicals Ltd.
    Inventors: Jean A. Maurel, Frederic R. M. M. Morterol, Charles Raufast
  • Patent number: 5211802
    Abstract: A method of producing single-crystal silicon is disclosed. Polycrystalline silicon rod is formed from polycrystalline silicon granules, lumps or a mixture thereof by continuous casting through electromagnetic induction. Then, silicon single cyrstal is grown from the polycrystalline silicon rod by the FZ method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1993
    Assignee: Osaka Titanium Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kyojiro Kaneko, Hideyuki Mizumoto, Teruoki Misawa
  • Patent number: 5202099
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for maintaining the purity of solid/granular product and dispensing high purity granular product from a vessel. A noncontaminating surface is provided by a cup, cylinder, or other structure having a surface of silicon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, sialon, or similar materials and preferably operates as an angle of repose valve in a pressurized system to prevent contamination by undue contact of the high purity product with conventional gastight valves such as ball valves, butterfly valves, pinch valves, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1993
    Assignee: Ethyl Corporation
    Inventors: James E. Boone, David W. Owens, Robert E. Farritor, Wesley D. Blank
  • Patent number: 5162107
    Abstract: A zinc- and lead-containing residue from a metallurgical plant is reprocessed by a thermal treatment in a circulating fluidized bed system. A major part of the heat demand is satisfied by a combustion of solid carbonaceous material in the fluidized bed reactor of the circulating fluidized bed system. A reducing fluidizing gas, which is virtually free of free oxygen, is fed to the lower part of the fluidized bed reactor. A solid carbon content of from 5 to 30% is adjusted in the fluidized bed in the lower portion of the fluidized bed reactor, which is supplied in its upper portion with oxygen-containing gases and in which CO.sub.2 is formed only at such a rate that zinc metal is not reoxidized. Substantially all solids are removed in a recycling cyclone from the suspension discharged from the reactor and the removed solids are recycled. The gas is cooled to a temperature at which zinc metal is oxidized to ZnO. The dust-like zinc compounds and lead compounds are removed from the gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Martin Hirsch, Albert Kaune, Alpaydin Saatci, Karlheinz Broj, Uwe Harter, Walter Meichsner
  • Patent number: 5118479
    Abstract: A novel design for a fluidized bed reactor is provided. The fluidized bed reactor includes a baffle system to ensure the proper residence time of the feed materials. The fluidized bed reactor also provides a novel method for reducing the negative effects of thermal expansion in the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1992
    Assignee: Iron Carbide Holdings, Limited
    Inventors: Frank M. Stephens, Jr., John P. Hager, Frank A. Stephens
  • Patent number: 5112593
    Abstract: Chlorine is produced by reacting hydrogen chloride and oxygen in the presence of a catalyst composed of a chromium oxide as a principal component. The reaction is carried out in a fluidized bed reactor equipped at vertical intervals not greater than 100 cm with a plurality of perforated horizontal plates having a perforation rate of 10-60% in a reaction zone in which the catalyst is fluidized in operation. The reaction zone is above a gas diffuser plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1992
    Assignee: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Itoh, Yoshitsugu Kono, Isao Kikuchi, Shinji Takenaka, Masanobu Ajioka
  • Patent number: 5108713
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the manufacture of high purity, ultra-fine aluminum nitride powder by the carbo-nitridization of alumina. In the method, agglomerates uniform in both size, chemical composition and porosity are formed containing a stoichiometric mixture of alumina and carbon, and a small amount of catalyst, and furnaced in a controlled manner in a well-mixed two chamber reaction vessel having optional top or bottom fluidizing gas feed to achieve a uniform and consistent level of conversion. Milling of the as-reacted agglomerates under a controlled atmosphere will produce high purity, micron sized aluminum nitride powder. The reactor is an automatically controlled fluid bed reactor for treatment of refractory materials with a hot fluidizing gas having a two chamber design in which the lower furnace chamber and reactor bed are removable from the bottom of the reactor. With unique reactor, unusually high reaction temperatures of up to 2000.degree. C. are obtainable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1992
    Assignee: The Carborundum Company
    Inventors: Jonathan J. Kim, Viswanathan Venkateswaran, Randolph Kujawa
  • Patent number: 5102647
    Abstract: A method of producing vapor growth carbon fibers which are grown in a rection space by thermally decomposing gaseous hydrocarbon and by using transition metal fine particles as the catalyst, wherein the reaction space is filled with ceramic granules which serve as a radiation heat transfer medium and are moved to prevent an intermingling of the growing carbon fibers, so that the grown carbon fibers are conveyed from the reaction space by a gas stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1992
    Assignee: Showa Denko K.K.
    Inventors: Hirokazu Yamada, Yukio Fukuyama
  • Patent number: 5071590
    Abstract: This invention concerns the addition of fibrous alumina material to a phosphor or phosphor mixture before fluidization as a means of increasing the cohesiveness of the phosphor or phosphor mixture. The increase in cohesiveness can be controlled by varying the concentration of the fiber in the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1991
    Assignee: GTE Products Corporation
    Inventors: Arunava Dutta, Leonard V. Dullea
  • Patent number: 5063032
    Abstract: Synthetic rutile is prepared from titaniferous slags containing alkaline-earth metal impurities, such as magnesium oxide, by a method comprising contacting the slag with chlorine at a temperature of at least about 800.degree. C., and then leaching the chlorine-treated slag with hydrochloric acid at a temperature of at least about 140.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1991
    Assignee: QIT-Fer et Titane, Inc.
    Inventor: Michel Gueguin
  • Patent number: 5059404
    Abstract: Resonant tubes of a pulse combustor are immersed in a bed of solid particles in a reaction zone to provide indirect heat from the pulsating combustion gases to the solid particles of the bed. The bed is maintained in an agitated state by a gas or vapor flowing through the bed. Reactant materials are introduced into the agitated bed and undergo reaction at enhanced rates resulting from heat transfer coefficients at least about twice as high as those of steady flow combustors and an intense acoustic pressure level propagated from the pulsating combustor into the reaction zone. The apparatus is useful, for example, to steam reform heavy hydrocarbons and to gasify carbonaceous material, including biomass and black liquor to produce combustible gas at relatively low temperatures, with steam being usilized as the bed fluidizing medium. Black liquor gasification, utilizing sodium carbonate as bed solids, results in liquor energy and chemical content recovery without smelt production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignee: Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc.
    Inventors: Momtaz N. Mansour, Kanda-Swamy Durai-Swamy, David W. Warren
  • Patent number: 5032143
    Abstract: A method of treating process gases by cooling the process gas in the reactor so as to bring the process gas into contact with fluidized solid particles which are separated from the process gas after treating and mainly recirculated back to the reactor, in which method the process gas to be treated is mixed either simultaneously or at a short interval with both recirculated solid particles and gas, which gas, at least partly, is process gas which has been treated and from which solid particles have been separated after treatment, and in which method at least one of the components, i.e. solid particles or gas, to be mixed with the treated gas is cooler than the process gas to be treated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1991
    Assignee: A. Ahlstrom Corporation
    Inventor: Pekka Ritakallio
  • Patent number: 5023060
    Abstract: A process for adsorbing gold from a leach pulp by means of activated carbon is described in which the leach pulp (the leach solution together with the subdivided gold bearing ore) is diluted to a specific gravity of less than that of the activated carbon and is subsequently passed upwardly through a multistage liquid/solid contacting column. The contacting column is of the type having perforated plates or trays defining a series of vertically adjacent stages and the operation of the column has a cycle which includes a first part during which upward flow of diluted pulp fluidizes the activated carbon, a second part in which the carbon is allowed to settle on the trays and a third part during which a reverse flow of diluted pulp carries carbon downwardly through the column from one stage to another. In the third part of the cycle, loaded carbon is removed from the lowermost stage and treated to recover adsorbed gold therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1991
    Assignee: Council for Mineral Technology
    Inventor: Ahmet Mehmet
  • Patent number: 4988433
    Abstract: Monobasic carboxylic acids or salts thereof are used to remove metals, particularly calcium and iron, from hydrocarbonaceous feedstocks. An aqueous solution of the acid is used to extract the metals from the feedstock prior to processing. Acetic acid is the preferred carboxylic acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1991
    Assignee: Chevron Research Company
    Inventors: John G. Reynolds, David C. Kramer
  • Patent number: 4938946
    Abstract: A manufacturing plant and process for production of hydrogen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feedstock is the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. The regolith contains up to about 150 ppm (wt.) hydrogen presumably derived from the "solar wind". The regolith is screened and fines of less than 200 micron size are recovered. The 200 micron, and smaller, particles are introduced into a fluidized bed reactor and fluidized in a hydrogen gas stream at a temperature of about 600.degree. C. The off-gas is passed through an absorber to separate by-product gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, which may be generated in the process, part of the hydrogen is removed to storage, and the remainder is recycled to fluidize the reactor. The recovered raw product gas is preferably further treated using combinations of selected membrane permeations and cryogenic distillations to purify product hydrogen and recover byproduct .sup.3 He, .sup.4 He, N.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1990
    Assignee: Carbotek, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael A. Gibson, Christian W. Knudsen
  • Patent number: 4917875
    Abstract: An improved continuous cyclic process for removing oxides of sulfur from a waste gas with a regenerable particulate adsorbent in which hot adsorbent particles pick up SOx in a first fluid transport riser, followed by separation of clean gas from sulfur-contained particles which are then recycled to a desorber in which they are contacted at elevated temperature with a mixture of reducing gas and water vapor for release of sulfur as hydrogen sulfide. The adsorbent particles are then recycled in the process. Means are provided for removing particulates in the waste gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1990
    Assignee: Englehard Corporation
    Inventors: Andrew S. Moore, David B. Bartholic, Dwight F. Barger, William J. Reagan
  • Patent number: 4790986
    Abstract: A fluid bed reactor for treatment of refractory materials with a hot fluidizing gas and a method to use same. Both the refractory materials and the fluidizing gas are introduced from the top of the reactor. Unusually high reaction temperatures of up to 2000.degree. C. are maintained in the reaction chamber due to the presence of heating elements within the reactor and due to countercurrent heat transfer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1988
    Assignee: Stemcor Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan J. Kim, Viswanathan Venkateswaran, Randolph Kujawa
  • Patent number: 4707350
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the decarbonation of minerals, in powdered form, in a fluidized bed. For example, the process applies to the production of quick lime and/or magnesia from lime stone and/or dolomite fines which are not rendered sufficiently valuable at present.The process comprises recycling a portion at least of the carbon dioxide produced to be used as sole fluidizing gas, the fluidized bed being heated to the desired decarbonation temperature by direct heat supply within the fluidized bed by means of electric devices.Production of decarbonated minerals and of CO.sub.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1987
    Assignee: Electricite de France - Service National
    Inventors: Francois Baudequin, Patrick Leclere
  • Patent number: 4704084
    Abstract: Nitrogen oxide pollutants are substantially reduced and sulfur dioxide minimized in multisolid fluidized beds by staged combustion of the fuel. The lower combustion region is operated at substoichiometric conditions such that NO.sub.x is reduced by carbon and carbon monoxide to nitrogen gas. The upper combustion region is operated at excess oxygen conditions to complete the combustion of char and carbon monoxide. Elevated temperature excursions in the upper region which deter sulfur capture are prevented by recycling cool entrained bed particles therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1987
    Assignee: Battelle Development Corporation
    Inventors: Ke-tien Liu, Herman Nack
  • Patent number: 4695443
    Abstract: There is disclosed a process for the production of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from a particulate carbon source. In one embodiment, an oxygen containing gas is reacted with a particulate carbon source in a one step process so as to provide the temperatures necessary for the reaction of the particulate carbon source with sulfur to produce carbon disulfide. In another embodiment, a source of hydrogen is introduced along with the oxygen containing gas and sulfur so as to produce hydrogen sulfide in a single step process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1987
    Assignee: Stauffer Chemical Company
    Inventor: Albert M. Leon
  • Patent number: 4663693
    Abstract: The method for magnetic stabilizing of fluidal layers consists in placing fluidal layers of ferromagnetic particles in a magnetic field that is axially gradient and oriented parallel to the direction of fluidizing. In order to achieve dynamic uniformity of the layer the magnetic field can be oriented colinearly to the direction of fluidizing. For manifold increase in the fluidizing flow the magnetic moment of the particles can be oriented against the direction of the fluidizing flow.This method can be used in heterogenic and physical processes with fluidal layers of ferromagnetic particles, f.e. catalytic processes, filtration etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1987
    Assignee: Vish Chimiko-Technologicheski Institute
    Inventors: Ivaylo A. Zrantchev, Todorka F. Popova
  • Patent number: 4650657
    Abstract: A fluidized bed disproportionation of carbon monoxide is effected using ferrous metal component-containing catalysts in particulate form. The bed also contains an abradant to continuously remove from the surface of those particles a substantial quantity of the carbonaceous fibers formed on those surfaces. The method produces a carbonaceous material of desired carbon and ferrous metal content. The process allows the use of two beds in series for producing high carbon content products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1987
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: Edward F. Brooks
  • Patent number: 4619814
    Abstract: This invention relates to the development of a viable metallurgical process capable of treating low grade concentrates, bulk concentrates, dirty concentrates, or ore directly for the recovery of non-ferrous metals such as zinc, lead, copper, and precious metals and accordingly is significant to the development of massive fine grained sulphide ore bodies found throughout the world. The process involves the consecutive steps of sulphatizing roasting in a fluidized bed reactor, a two stage leach, metal recovery from solution by conventional processes such as electrowinning and precipitation, and recycling of residue wash waters and leach liquors containing high concentrations of iron and minor impurity elements to the roaster or a spray dryer for thermal decomposition. Simple and efficient rejection of iron from the circuit to residue as stable hematite is the net result of the recirculation and thermal decomposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1986
    Assignee: Provincial Holdings Ltd.
    Inventors: Robert S. Salter, Roy S. Boorman, Igor A. E. Wilkomirsky
  • Patent number: 4595576
    Abstract: Spent absorbents resulting from desulfurization of flue gas in a spray drying-absorption process contain substantial amounts of sulfite, e.g. calcium sulfite. Said sulfite is oxidized into sulfate by heating of the spent absorbent in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas, preferably at temperatures of 350.degree.-600.degree. C. Thereby the spent absorbents may be converted into materials having industrial utility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1986
    Assignee: A/S Niro Atomizer
    Inventors: Jens Andreasen, James R. Donnelly, Karsten S. Felsvang, Ebbe S. Jons, Preston L. Veltman
  • Patent number: 4589927
    Abstract: Continuous chemical and biological reactions may be carried out in a liquid fluidized reactor (1). Improved mixing and mass transport between gas/liquid/solid phases is provided by fluidizing large particles (2) with a liquid in a dense bed in the bottom of the reactor (1) while recirculating small entrained particles (3) and the liquid through the reactor (1), particle separator (9), external regenerator (10) and conduits (7) and (8) back through the dense bed of large particles (2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 20, 1986
    Assignee: Battelle Development Corporation
    Inventors: Billy R. Allen, William J. Huffman, Herman Nack
  • Patent number: 4585645
    Abstract: A process for transforming alumina hydrate into an anhydrous product comprising at least 10 wt % alpha alumina. Alumina hydrate is dehydrated, heated and transferred to a reactor where it is fluidized with steam and maintained at a temperature of about 900.degree.-1350.degree. C. Steam fluidization enhances crystal growth and results in a product having uniform quality and superior grinding characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1986
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: Steven W. Sucech
  • Patent number: 4560547
    Abstract: A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200.degree. to about 2000.degree. F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1985
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventors: Frank C. Schora, John C. Janka, Harlan L. Feldkirchner
  • Patent number: 4555388
    Abstract: Raw phosphate material is calcined to remove pollutants, such as organic compounds and sulphides, by heat treatment in two suspension calciners (3,5) arranged in series. Fuel supplied at burners (8) is burnt in the calciners with air, supplied in parallel through pipes (9) from a cooler (7) for the treated material. The material is preheated in a preheater, for instance a pipe (13) and cyclone (2) by exit gases from the calciner before entering the calciners and, after leaving the calciners, is separated from the gas streams in separators (4,6).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1985
    Assignee: F. L. Smidth & Co. A/S
    Inventor: Soren Hundebol
  • Patent number: 4548796
    Abstract: The subject of the invention is a process for the production of pure burnt lime using gaseous fuels produced from energy carriers, in particular industrial wastes, wherein the energy carriers are gasified in an installation consisting of a fluidized bed and a cyclone, and the noxious substances released during the thermal decomposition are separated off by means of adsorbents, before they come into contact with the lime being burned.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1985
    Assignee: SKW Trostberg A.G.
    Inventor: Peter Weber
  • Patent number: 4548797
    Abstract: A process of removing pollutants from exhaust gases in a circulating fluidized bed, in which solids are circulated through a fluidized bed reactor, separated in a separator and returned via a return line, to the reactor. The exhaust gas is introduced as a fluidizing gas into a fluidized bed which consists of two solid fractions differing in particle size, namely, a coarse-grained fraction having a particle size d.sub.p 50 in the range of 150 to 500 microns and a fine-grained fraction having a particle size d.sub.p 50 below 10 microns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1985
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Harald Sauer, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Wolfgang Fennemann
  • Patent number: 4546552
    Abstract: Solids comprising a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed are transported in a direction transverse to the flow of the fluidizing fluid exiting the bed by contacting at least a portion of said solids with fluidizing fluid which enters the bed with a velocity component in the direction of solids flow; i.e. the transverse flow direction. In a preferred embodiment, the fluidizing fluid entering the bed is passed through a distribution means containing propulsion passages slanted in the desired direction of solids flow which serve to orient the fluidizing fluid in the transverse flow direction. Use of this invention eliminates the need for the costly and inconvenient pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical transport devices employed in the prior art. Solids attrition and elutriation are also reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1985
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Robert P. Cahn, Jeffrey H. Siegell
  • Patent number: 4543733
    Abstract: In a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed in which the bed particles continuously move transverse to the flow of the fluidizing fluid, the bed particles have increased fluidity when the bed is operated at or substantially near the locus of transition between the bubbling and stabilized regimes of said bed. More specifically, the particulate bed comprising a transverse flow magnetically stabilized fluidized bed process has greater fluidity when the bed is operated such that the ratio of the difference between the transition velocity and the operating velocity to the difference between the transition velocity and the normal minimum fluidization velocity ranges between -0.1 and +0.5. The increased fluidity facilitates the movement of solids within a vessel as well as the transfer of solids to other vessels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1985
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Jeffrey H. Siegell, Costas A. Coulaloglou
  • Patent number: 4544375
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1985
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventors: Amirali G. Rehmat, Jitendra G. Patel
  • Patent number: 4519987
    Abstract: In the fluidized bed chlorination of oxidic materials, for example minerals such as bauxite, tantalite, columbite, wolframite or scheelite, the separation of metal values giving vaporous chlorides at the reaction temperature is enhanced by maintaining a zone substantially free of chlorine in the fluidized bed, for example a zone at least 0.25 m in depth measured from the expanded bed surface. A high aspect ratio bed and counter current movement of the bed matter and the chlorine within the bed are preferably used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1985
    Assignee: Laporte Industries Limited
    Inventor: Michael Robinson
  • Patent number: 4504456
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the manufacture of chloride-free hypochlorous acid using hydrolyzing of chlorine with steam and water vapor, solid-gas stripping of the co-generated hydrochloric acid vapor in a fluidized bed reactor, equilibrium discharge of chloride particulate from the bed of the reactor, selective dissolving of the hypochlorous acid vapor into aqueous product solution in a packed bed absorber, and closed-loop recycling of the stripped product stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1985
    Assignee: Quantum Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert E. Yant, Richard J. Galluch
  • Patent number: 4424199
    Abstract: Method is provided for generating fine sized seed particles of silicon for use in the fluidized bed pyrolysis of silane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1984
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Sridhar K. Iya