Polymer In Developer Patents (Class 430/904)
  • Patent number: 7419759
    Abstract: The photoresist composition of the present invention includes a solvent mixture, a resin, a photo acid generator, and a quencher, the solvent mixture comprising a first solvent containing an ether compound and a second solvent having a polarity stronger than the first solvent, wherein an amount of the first solvent is in a range of about 61% to about 79% by weight, and an amount of the second solvent is in a range of about 21% to about 39% by weight based on a total weight of the solvent mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kyoung-Mi Kim, Jae-Ho Kim, Yeu-Young Youn, Youn-Kyung Wang
  • Patent number: 7303858
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a photoacid generating polymer represented by Formula 1 below: wherein R1 is a C1-10 hydrocarbon or a C1-10 hydrocarbon in which the hydrogen atoms are wholly or partly replaced by fluorine atoms; R2 is hydrogen or a methyl group; and a, b, c and d represent the mole fraction of each monomer and are in the range between about 0.05 and about 0.9, such that the sum of a, b, c, and d equals one. Since the photoacid generating polymer of Formula 1 is not water-soluble and acts as a photoacid generator, it can be used to prepare a top anti-reflective coating composition for immersion lithography.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2007
    Assignee: Hynix Semiconductor Inc.
    Inventors: Jae Chang Jung, Cheol Kyu Bok, Chang Moon Lim, Seung Chan Moon
  • Patent number: 6211287
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of resin particles comprising: adding a mixture of at least one free radical reactive monomer continuously to a heated aqueous solution of a water soluble free radical initiator and a water soluble salt to form latex emulsion particles and aggregates thereof; and wherein the rate of continuous addition of said monomer is greater than the rate at which monomer is consumed by polymerization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2001
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Anthony J. Paine, Alfred Rudin, Florin Vlad
  • Patent number: 6146803
    Abstract: In a liquid toner for use in imaging processes which comprises pigmented polymer particles, at least one charge director and a hydrocarbon liquid toner carrier, the polymer is a blend of at least two distinct polymer components, the blend being characterized in that in a 40% non-volatile mixture with a hydrocarbon liquid toner carrier, it has on a semi-logarithmic viscosity vs. temperature cooling curve, a break-point at a temperature below about 65.degree. C. at a viscosity of between about 3.times.10.sup.5 centipoises and about 5.times.10.sup.6 centipoises. The polymer blend and an electrostatic imaging process (particularly one using an intermediate transfer member) utilizing the above toner are also claimed. Use of such polymer blends enables liquid toner to be applied in such processes at no more than and in some cases less than the customary processing temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: Indigo N.V.
    Inventors: Benzion Landa, Peretz Ben-Avraham, Becky Bossidan
  • Patent number: 6114076
    Abstract: A reactive melt mixing process for the preparation of a low fix temperature toner resin, comprising:(a) mixing a reactive base resin, an initiator, and a polyester with amine functionality, and(b) crosslinking the resulting polymer melt under high shear to form a crosslinked toner resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Peter G. Odell, Stephan V. Drappel, Michael S. Hawkins
  • Patent number: 6011119
    Abstract: A resin composition is provided for an electro-photographic toner. The composition comprises 5 to 95 parts by weight of a high molecular weight vinyl copolymer polymer and 95 to 5 parts by weight of a low molecular weight vinyl copolymer. The former ethylene polymer has a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of from 200,000 to 1,000,000 and a ratio (Mw/Mn) of the weight average molecular weight (Mw) to a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from 8 to 300, and the latter vinyl copolymer has a weight average molecular weight of from 3,000 to 20,000. At least one of the former and latter vinyl copolymer, preferably, the former vinyl copolymer is an ethylene polymer which has been obtained by conducting polymerization in the presence of a monomer having an ionization potential of from 10.0 to 15.0 eV and a difference of from 9.0 to 15.0 eV in level between a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), both determined by computational chemistry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Katsuru Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Hirayama, Eishi Tanaka, Junko Tobita
  • Patent number: 5945246
    Abstract: The toner for electrophotography contains a binder resin, wherein the binder resin has a condensation polymerization-type resin for forming a matrix and an addition polymerization-type resin for forming a dispersed domain. The dispersed domain with a cross-sectional diameter of not more than 2 .mu.m has an areal proportion of not less than 90%, based on the total cross-sectional area of the dispersed domain. This toner is stable, which is capable of maintaining a suitable tribo electric charge, thereby providing a high image quality in which the formed images do not undergo deterioration even under severe environmental conditions. Moreover, in a fixing method using a heat roller; fixing at a low temperature can be performed without using an offset inhibiting liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: KAO Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kawaji, Eizi Morimoto, Ken-ichi Suenaga, Tetsuhiro Semura, Katsutoshi Aoki, Kuniyasu Kawabe
  • Patent number: 5866290
    Abstract: A toner composition comprised of a polyester resin with hydrophobic end groups, colorant, optional wax, optional charge additive, and optional surface additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Guerino G. Sacripante, Robert D. Bayley, Carol A. Fox, Thomas R. Hoffend, Bernard Grushkin
  • Patent number: 5853939
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a toner for electrostatic image development comprising:a lubricant having a DSC determined endothermic peak at 50.degree.-130.degree. C., with the half value width of said endothermic peak being not more than 15.degree. C., and represented by the formula (I): ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 represents an alkyl or alkoxyl group having 10 or more carbon atoms, and R.sup.2 represents an alkyl group having 10 or more carbon atoms or a group represented by --X--COOR.sup.3 wherein X represents an alkylene group and R.sup.3 represents an alkyl group having 10 or more carbon atoms;a binder resin comprising a styrene-based resin in which tetrahydrofuran soluble matter has the weight-average molecular weight of not less than 50,000, and has one or more peaks of molecular weight in the range of not more than 5.times.10.sup.4 and the range of 1.times.10.sup.5 to 1.times.10.sup.7 respectively, on the gel permeation chromatogram; anda coloring agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Akihiko Yanagibori, Hitoshi Ono, Noriaki Takahashi
  • Patent number: 5830979
    Abstract: A polyester resin for a toner, wherein a maximum molecular weight is in a range of 1.times.10.sup.3 to 8.times.10.sup.3, Mw/Mn is in a range of 20 to 200, a proportion of component having a molecular weight of 1.times.10.sup.5 or less is comprised at a range of 80 weight % or greater, and at least one component selected from the group consisting of polycarboxylic acid having more than 3 carboxyl groups and polyalcohol having more than 3 hydroxyl groups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1998
    Assignee: Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koji Nakayama, Haruo Okutani
  • Patent number: 5792583
    Abstract: The present invention provides a toner for developing an electrostatic latent image comprising:a colorant; and binder resin including a low-molecular component having a weight-average molecular weight from 3,000 to 15,000 which is obtained by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), said low-molecular component being included from 60 percent-by-weight to 80 percent-by-weight with respect to the binder resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1998
    Assignee: Minolta Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tetsuo Sano, Yoshitaka Sekiguchi
  • Patent number: 5780195
    Abstract: A toner resin composition and a method of making the same are disclosed. The toner resin composition comprises a polyester resin formed from a reaction between a polybasic acid or anhydride and a polyhydric alcohol, and a polyfunctional epoxy resin which is crosslinked to the polyester resin. The crosslinking is effected in the presence of a catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 14, 1998
    Assignee: Reichhold Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventor: Hildeberto Nava
  • Patent number: 5750301
    Abstract: The invention provides toner for a two-component type developer containing toner particles including a binder resin and magnetic powder dispersed in the binder resin. The binder resin in the toner is prepared from a composition including at least one of (1) a polymer having an anionic group and a wax grafted portion and (2) a mixture of a polymer having an anionic group and a polymer having a wax grafted portion. The magnetic powder is contained in the toner particles at a proportion ranging between 0.1 and 5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the binder resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: Mita Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masatomi Funato, Yoshitake Shimizu, Seijiro Ishimaru, Norio Kubo, Kazuya Nagao, Terumichi Asano
  • Patent number: 5741617
    Abstract: A toner for developing electrostatic images, which comprises a binder resin, a colorant and a wax composition, characterized in that the wax composition has a molecular weight distribution as measured by GPC, having a maximum in the region of molecular weight of from 350 to 850 and a maximum in the region of molecular weight of from 900 to 4,000; and the wax composition contains an ester wax with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of from 350 to 4,000 and a number average molecular weight of from 200 to 4,000.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1998
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Koji Inaba, Tatsuya Nakamura, Tatsuhiko Chiba, Takao Ishiyama
  • Patent number: 5714296
    Abstract: A graft copolymer of recurring units of (C.sub.6 -C.sub.18)alkyl (meth)acrylate (A), vinylpyridine (B), glycidyl (meth) acrylate (C), and glycidyl (meth) acrylate units esterified with (meth)acrylic acid (D) onto which polymeric side chains of units of vinylpyridine, (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3)alkyl acrylate, and optionally (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3)alkyl methacrylate are grafted. The polymer is suitable as a binder for colorless, positively chargeable liquid toners, in particular in combination with a copolymer of (C.sub.6 -C.sub.18)alkyl (meth) acrylate and hydroxyalkyl (meth)acrylate as charge control agents. After fixing of the electrophotographically produced toner image, the toners give colorless resist masks or printing screens with a high resistance toward etching agents and solvents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1998
    Assignee: Agfa-Gevaert AG
    Inventors: Raimund Josef Faust, Danuta Eva Allen
  • Patent number: 5712074
    Abstract: A toner for developing an electrostatic latent image including a binder resin, a colorant, and a modified polysiloxane having the general formula (1): ##STR1## In the above general formula, R.sup.1 to R.sup.4, which may be identical or different, each stands for an alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a phenyl group, or a naphthyl group; R.sup.5 and R.sup.6, which may be identical or different, each stands for a linear or branched, saturated hydrocarbon group having an average number of carbon atoms of from 16 to 600; and n and m each stands for a number of zero (0) or more.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Kao Corporation
    Inventors: Yukiya Sato, Masayuki Maruta, Yasushi Ito, Genichi Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5679489
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electrophotographic toner free of metal such as chromium. A novel electrostatic image developing toner is provided, comprising as a charge-controlling agent one or more selected from the group consisting of compounds represented by formulae (I) and (II): ##STR1## wherein A, B and R are as defined in the specification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1997
    Assignee: Hodogaya Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Osamu Mukudai, Yuuji Matsuura, Isao Niimura, Kayoko Watanabe, Keiko Iwasa
  • Patent number: 5665507
    Abstract: A magnetic particle brush developing carrier used for electrostatic latent image developing is disclosed, comprising a magnetic particle having a surface coating comprising two kinds of fluoro-type resins, with one of the resins having a higher critical surface tension than the other. The carrier maintains its triboelectric properties even after extended use, it reaches charge saturation after a short period of triboelectrification, and it has excellent charge stability against environmental change.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Takagi, Masahito Shinoki, Takayoshi Aoki
  • Patent number: 5658704
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of toner comprised ofi) flushing pigment into a sulfonated polyester resin, and which resin has a degree of sulfonation of from between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mol percent based on the repeat unit of the polymer;ii) dispersing the resulting pigmented sulfonated polyester resin in warm water, which water is at a temperature of from about 40.degree. to about 95.degree. C., and which dispersing is accomplished by a high speed shearing polytron device operating at speeds of from about 100 to about 5,000 revolutions per minute thereby enabling the formation of toner sized particles, and which particles are of a volume average diameter of from about 3 to about 10 microns with a narrow GSD;iii) recovering said toner by filtration;iv) drying said toner by vacuum; andv) optionally adding to said dry toner charge additives and flow aids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1997
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Raj D. Patel, Guerino G. Sacripante, Daniel A. Foucher
  • Patent number: 5641602
    Abstract: Intermediate binder composition for use in toner compositions, comprising (a) a block copolymer comprising one predominantly poly(monovinyl aromatic) block per molecule and one predominantly poly(conjugated diene) block per molecule, the latter blocks being selectively hydrogenated to a residual unsaturation degree of 20% or lower, in an amount of from 5 to 35% by weight relative to the weight of the intermediate binder composition, and a microcrystalline wax, having a weight average molecular weight of from 1000 to 10,000, and having a drop point of 75.degree. C. or higher (measured according to ASTM D 3104), in an amount of from 95 to 65% by weight relative to the weight of the binder composition. Also covered are electrophotographic toner compositions containing the intermediate binder composition and magnetizable particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Catherine Augusta Louis Maris, Olivier Roumache, Hans Ferdinand Vermeire
  • Patent number: 5629122
    Abstract: Disclosed is a toner for developing an electrostatic image. The toner comprises a binder resin and a wax, and the value of weight average molecular weight/number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn) of the wax is not more than 1.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hirohide Tanikawa, Shinji Doi, Masaki Uchiyama
  • Patent number: 5629123
    Abstract: A toner for developing electrostatic images is disclosed which comprises a coloring agent, a styrene homopolymer or copolymer with a vinyl monomer or monomers, and polypropylene in an amount between about 0.02 and 40 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the styrene homopolymer or copolymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Konica Corporation
    Inventors: Makoto Tomono, Noriyoshi Tarumi, Masayuki Sato
  • Patent number: 5580691
    Abstract: The invention provides toner for a two-component type developer containing toner particles including a binder resin and magnetic powder dispersed in the binder resin. The binder resin in the toner is made of a composition including a low molecular weight polymer and a high molecular weight polymer both having an anionic group. The magnetic powder is contained in the toner particles in the range of 0.1 to 5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the binder resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1996
    Assignee: Mita Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masatomi Funato, Yoshitake Shimizu, Seijiro Ishimaru, Norio Kubo, Kazuya Nagao, Terumichi Asano
  • Patent number: 5571655
    Abstract: Low fix temperature toners are fabricated by a two step melt mixing and reactive melt mixing process wherein there is initially prepared, for example, using a melt mixing device, a composite of pigment and resin, followed by crosslinking of the resin component at high temperature and high shear to produce a partially crosslinked toner with substantially no unpigmented gel domains. The toners are particularly suitable for high speed fusing, show excellent offset resistance and wide fusing latitude, and superior vinyl offset properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Hadi K. Mahabadi, Michael S. Hawkins, Gerald R. Allison, Sheau V. Kao, Paul J. Gerroir, Nam S. Ro, Enno E. Agur
  • Patent number: 5571652
    Abstract: The encapsulated toner for heat-and-pressure fixing which includes a heat-fusible core material containing at least a thermoplastic resin and a coloring agent, and a shell formed thereon so as to cover the surface of the core material is produced by a process having the step of carrying out in situ polymerization using a thermoplastic resin as a main component of the shell to form a shell having a structure in which a part of the heat-fusible core material is incorporated therein, the thermoplastic resin having a mechanical loss tangent (tan .delta.) in the range of from 1.0 to 20.0 based on a dynamic viscoelasticity, when measured with a sine stress having an angular frequency of 25 rad/s at a temperature of from 80.degree. to 120.degree. C. By using the encapsulated toner, good offset resistance can be obtained in the resulting toner even when its fixing speed is slow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Kao Corporation
    Inventors: Tetsuya Asano, Mitsuhiro Sasaki, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kuniyasu Kawabe
  • Patent number: 5565297
    Abstract: A liquid developer comprised of a liquid, thermoplastic resin particles, a nonpolar liquid soluble charge director comprised of at least one oxygen containing group with from 1 to 5 oxygen atoms covalently bound to a quaternized ammonium nitrogen in an AB diblock copolymer or an ABA triblock copolymer wherein the A block is polar and is an ammonium containing polymer, and the B block is nonpolar and is a nonpolar fluid soluble polymer, and wherein the A blocks possess a number average molecular weight range of from about 200 to about 10,000 and the B blocks possess a number average molecular weight range of from about 2,000 to 50,000 and the ratio of weight average molecular weight M.sub.w to number average molecular weight M.sub.n is 1 to 5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1996
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: James R. Larson, John W. Spiewak
  • Patent number: 5556732
    Abstract: A process for preparing low fix temperature toner resin mixture comprising melt blending a resin mixture comprised of a first polyester resin with a low gloss value, and a second polyester resin with a high gloss value, to form a toner resin mixture having an intermediate gloss value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1996
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Che C. Chow
  • Patent number: 5521045
    Abstract: A toner in which a small amount of magnetic powder is disposed in a resin medium for fixing which comprises a cationic polar group-containing copolymer resin or a resin composition. A distinguished feature resides in that the toner does not contain a charge control agent. The toner is positively charged and exhibits very good spent resistance. The toner further exhibits favorable electrophotographic properties such as transfer efficiency despite there is contained no charge control agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1996
    Assignee: Mita Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masatomi Funato, Yoshitake Shimizu, Seijiro Ishimaru, Kazuya Nagao
  • Patent number: 5518851
    Abstract: The present specification discloses a toner for electrophotography.This toner comprises two or more kinds of binder resins, and is characterized in that the surface tension of each of the binder resins and the melt viscosity thereof, both at a temperature of 200.degree. C., are respectively below 30 dyne/cm and 100 poises or more, and the melt viscosity thereof and the storage modulus thereof, both at a temperature of 125.degree. C., are respectively below 5000 poises and below 40000 dyne/cm.sup.2, a toner comprising a surface tension reducing agent and a binder resin. Because the melt viscosity of the binder resin at a temperature of 200.degree. C. is 30 poises or more, a toner having an excellent void resistance can be obtained without a worsening of the fixability and blocking resistance thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1996
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Yoshimichi Katagiri, Yuzo Horikoshi, Norio Sawatari
  • Patent number: 5491043
    Abstract: An electrostatic toner contains a polymeric binder and as a charge stabilizer a polyamine whose average molecular weight is from 150 to 15,000 and wherein the nitrogen atoms are separated from each other by C.sub.1 -C.sub.13 - alkylene, which may be phenyl-substituted, or by phenylene, which may be C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 -alkyl-substituted, and are substituted by C.sub.1 -C.sub.13 -alkyl, which may be phenyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-substituted, phenyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 -alkanoyl, benzoyl, C.sub.1 - C.sub.6 - alkylcarbamoyl, phenylcarbamoyl or a radical of the formula CO-L-CO, where L is C.sub.2 -C.sub.8 -alkylene, the last case resulting in the crosslinking of two polyamine units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Johannes P. Dix, Ulf Baus, Karin H. Beck, Friedrich-Wilhelm Raulfs
  • Patent number: 5484679
    Abstract: A negatively charged liquid developer comprised of a nonpolar liquid, thermoplastic resin particles, a charge adjuvant, pigment, and an ABA polymer charge director wherein A and B represent the polymer segments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: John W. Spiewak, James R. Larson
  • Patent number: 5460915
    Abstract: A charge controller for an electrophotographic toner is disclosed which comprises a graft or block copolymer comprising:(a) a polymer moiety having an alkyl group containing 6-50 carbon atoms and a carboxyl group, said moiety being selected from the group consisting of: a moiety of a polymer or a copolymer containing at least 5 mol. % of monomer units of a monoalkyl ester of an .alpha.,.beta.-ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, containing 6-50 carbon atoms in the alkyl group; and a moiety of a copolymer containing 5-75 mol. % of monomer units of a carboxylic group-containing .alpha.,.beta.-ethylenically unsaturated monomer, and 6-80 mol. % of monomer units of an ethylenically unsaturated monomer having an alkyl group containing 6-50 carbon atoms; and(b) a polymer moiety, bound graft-wise or block-wise thereto, said moiety (b) being selected from the group consisting of a styrenic polymer moiety, and a polyester moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1995
    Assignee: Sanyo Chemical Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideo Nakanishi, Tohru Ohama, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Naoki Takase, Akira Kodani
  • Patent number: 5455315
    Abstract: An in situ process for the preparation of resin particles comprising: preparing a seed particle latex by aqueous emulsion polymerization of a first mixture comprised of at least one monomer, an optional chain transfer agent, and a water soluble free radical initiator, wherein the reaction of the free radical initiator and monomer produces oligomeric radicals which provide in situ stabilization to the resulting first generation seed particles; optionally diluting the first seed particle latex with water; heating and starve feed adding to the first generation seed particles a second mixture comprised of at least one monomer, an organic soluble free radical initiator, an optional chain transfer agent, an optional water soluble free radical initiator, and an optional surfactant to form a third mixture comprised of second generation seed particles; heating and starve feed adding to the second generation seed particles additional said second mixture to form a fourth mixture comprised of third generation seed partic
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Anthony J. Paine, Kevin J. O'Callaghan, Alfred Rudin
  • Patent number: 5449719
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of an unsaturated polyester which comprises the first reaction of a phthalate and a glycol to provide a transesterified product, and subsequently a second reaction comprising reacting said product with an unsaturated dicarboxylate monomer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Guerino G. Sacripante, Enno E. Agur, Michael S. Hawkins
  • Patent number: 5427883
    Abstract: The present invention provides a toner composition mainly comprising a binder resin (D) which contains at least 20% by weight of an urethane-modified polyester resin (C) obtained by reacting a polyester resin (A) with an isocyanate compound (B) and whose gel fraction ranges from 2 to 75% by weight. The toner composition exhibits good melting properties upon heating suitable for fast reproduction such as a low lower limit of the fixing temperature and a wide range for permitted fixing temperature and is further excellent in resistance to blocking, resistance to carrier contamination and image-forming properties. The binder resin as the main component of the toner composition can be prepared according to a method comprising the step of continuously adding an isocyanate compound (B) to a polyester resin (A) in an equivalent ratio, NCO/OH, of the amount of the NCO groups of the isocyanate compound (B) to that of OH groups of the polyester resin (A) ranging from 0.3 to 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1995
    Assignee: Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated
    Inventors: Akira Misawa, Kazuo Hisamatsu, Keiichi Ishikawa, Kazuo Hagiwara, Masaaki Shin
  • Patent number: 5422707
    Abstract: A toner for developing an electrostatic image, comprises a binder resin and a colorant. The toner has a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 65.degree. C. or lower. The binder resin comprises a styrene-acrylic copolymer formed from at least a styrenic monomer and a mixture of two or more acrylic monomers. The binder resin contains 10% by weight or more of THF insolubles. The amount of the styrenic monomer remaining in the toner is 0.005 part or less by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the binder resin component in the toner (50 ppm), and the amount of the acrylic monomers remaining in said toner is 0.001 part by weight based on 100 parts by weight or less of the binder resin component in the toner (10 ppm). At least one component of the mixture of acrylic monomers has a Q-value of 0.5 to less than 1.0 and the other has a Q-value of 0.3 to less than 0.5.This toner is excellent in the anti-off-set property to a fixing roller surface, good in fixability, giving high image density and little odor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1995
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tsuyoshi Takiguchi, Tsutomu Kukimoto, Koichi Tomiyama, Hiroshi Yusa, Tetsuhito Kuwashima
  • Patent number: 5418103
    Abstract: A toner prepared by allowing finely-divided particles of a vinyl resin having an alkali-reactive group to react with a fluorine-containing quaternary ammonium salt to obtain surface-modified finely-divided particles; mixing the surface-modified finely-divided particles and core particles composed of a resin and a coloring agent; and filming the above core particles with the finely-divided particles of the surface-modified vinyl resin with application of mechanical energy thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1995
    Assignee: Ricoh Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenkichi Muto, Hiroyuki Fushimi, Akihiro Kotsugai, Yoichiro Watanabe, Ian Harpur
  • Patent number: 5409796
    Abstract: A positively charged liquid developer comprised of thermoplastic resin particles, optional pigment, a charge director, and a charge adjuvant comprised of a polymer of an alkene and unsaturated acid derivative; and wherein the acid derivative contains pendant ammonium groups, and wherein the charge adjuvant is associated with or combined with said resin and said optional pigment.An example of a charge adjuvent copolymer compound containing alkylene and an unsaturated acid derivative such as acrylic acid and methacrylic acid containing pendent ammonium groups is represented, for example, by the following general formula ##STR1## wherein Z is oxygen or substituted nitrogen; Y is alkyl; R is hydrogen, alkyl or aryl; and X is an anion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Timothy J. Fuller, James R. Larson, John W. Spiewak, David H. Pan, Ralph A. Mosher, Frank J. Bonsignore
  • Patent number: 5406357
    Abstract: The present invention provides a developer which is comprised of the magnetic toner having the specific binder resin component and low-molecular weight wax and the additives of the fine silica powder, metal oxide powder and fluorine-containing fine resin powder which are used in combination in given amounts. Hence, it is possible to prevent the melt-adhesion of toner to the surfaces of the contact charging member and contact transfer member, to cause no faulty images and to obtain images with the enjoyment of superior low-temperature fixing performance and anti-offset properties, even when copies are taken on a large number of sheets using the image forming method having contact charging and contact transfer systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1995
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Toshiaki Nakahara, Kazuyoshi Hagiwara, Minoru Shimojyo, Masami Fujimoto, Kiyoshi Mizoe
  • Patent number: 5401601
    Abstract: A toner composition comprised of pigment, an optional charge enhancing additive and a polyesteramide-siloxane resin of the following Formulas I,II or III ##STR1## wherein m, n and o represent the number of monomer segments present; R is independently selected from the group consisting of aryl and alkyl; and R' is independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkylene and oxyalkylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Guerino G. Sacripante, T. Brian McAneney
  • Patent number: 5395723
    Abstract: A low melt, low gloss toner resin with low minimum fix temperature and wide fusing latitude contains a linear portion and 20-45% by weight of a cross-linked portion containing high density, cross-linked microgel particles, but substantially free of low density, cross-linked polymer. The resin is particularly suitable for low gloss applications such as black only and highlighting and for high speed fusing, shows excellent offset resistance and wide fusing latitude and superior vinyl offset properties. The resin may be formed by reactive melt mixing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Hadi K. Mahabadi, Enno E. Agur, Edul N. Dalal
  • Patent number: 5393633
    Abstract: Provided is a liquid developer for electrostatic photography comprising resin particles dispersed in a highly insulating hydrocarbon medium wherein said resin particles are prepared by polymerizing a monomer which is soluble in the medium and becomes insoluble therein upon polymerization in the presence of a polymer which is soluble in the medium and has a chain transferable group at its terminal or on its side chain, thereby to form resin particles stably dispersed in the medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1995
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
    Inventors: Akira Furukawa, Nobuko Nakazima
  • Patent number: 5391695
    Abstract: A process for producing a binder resin is disclosed, which comprises blending in a reactor a raw monomer for a first polymerization system and a raw monomer for a second polymerization system which undergoes polymerization through a reaction path different from a reaction path of said first polymerization system and then conducting said first and second polymerization reactions in the same reactor. A toner and a developer composition employing the binder resin are also disclosed. The binder resin can easily be pulverized and can give toners and developer compositions which hold a good charge and from which an environmentally stable fixed image can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1995
    Assignee: Kao Corporation
    Inventors: Kuniyasu Kawabe, Yoko Matsumoto
  • Patent number: 5391452
    Abstract: A toner composition comprised of pigment, an optional charge enhancing additive and a side chain polymer comprised of a polyester present as a side chain on a polyalkylene of the following formula ##STR1## wherein m, n, and o represent the number of monomer segments present; R is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl; R' is independently selected from the group consisting of arylene and alkylene; R" is independently selected from the group consisting of alkylene and oxyalkylene; and wherein m is from about 10 to about 1,000, n is from about 1 to about 1,000 and o is from about 10 to about 1,000.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Guerino G. Sacripante, Bernard Grushkin, Stephan V. Drappel, Allan K. Chen
  • Patent number: 5389484
    Abstract: A toner for developing electrostatic images has a binder resin having as a constituent an acid component with an acid value of from 0.5 mg.KOH/g to 100 mg.KOH/g, a colorant, and at least one of compounds represented by Formulas (I), (II) and (III).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuyoshi Hagiwara, Hirohide Tanikawa
  • Patent number: 5389485
    Abstract: The present specification discloses a toner for electrophotography.This toner comprises two or more kinds of binder resins, and is characterized in that the surface tension of each of the binder resins and the melt viscosity thereof, both at a temperature of 200.degree. C., are respectively below 30 dyne/cm and 100 poises or more, and the melt viscosity thereof and the storage modulus thereof, both at a temperature of 125.degree. C., are respectively below 5000 poises and below 40000 dyne/cm.sup.2, a toner comprising a surface tension reducing agent and a binder resin. Because the melt viscosity of the binder resin at a temperature of 200.degree. C. is 30 poises or more, a toner having an excellent void resistance can be obtained without a worsening of the fixability and blocking resistance thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Yoshimichi Katagiri, Yuzo Horikoshi, Norio Sawatari
  • Patent number: 5374495
    Abstract: A developer for electrostatic electrophotography which comprises a composition of colorant particles, an electric charge supplying agent and a resin binder dispersed in a dispersion medium. The resin binder is a copolymer which has a polyoxyethylene units at side chains thereof, so that the interaction with the electric charge supplying agent is improved. The resultant developer ensures good resolution, gradation and fixing property and is suitable for wet development to give high-quality images. When the copolymer used as the resin binder has styrene units therein, its solubility in the dispersion medium is improved. The developer is either liquid or solid depending on the type of dispersion medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1994
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Masafumi Ata, Koichi Kawasumi, Yuji Yakura, Haruo Watanabe
  • Patent number: 5366839
    Abstract: A toner for an electrostatic charge image, which has improved preservation stability and improved fixing properties. The toner contains a binder resin and a colorant as main components and further contains from 1% by weight to less than 10% by weight, based on the total weight of the toner, of an ethylene-acrylic ester-maleic anhydride terpolymer resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Nobuyuki Aoki
  • Patent number: 5364719
    Abstract: Toner for developing electrostatic images contains at least a colorant and a charge control dye in a binding resin which is the main component thereof, the toner having a surface dye density of less than 5.times.10.sup.-3 g/g and containing a monomer having a charge control polar group within the range of 0.01 to 5 weight percent based on the weight of the toner. The binding resin is preferably formed from at least one kind of monomer selected from a group consisting of vinyl aromatic monomers, acrylic type monomers, vinyl ester type monomers, vinyl ether type monomers, diolefin type monomers and monoolefin type monomers, and further preferably from at least one kind of monomer selected from a group consisting of styrene, ester acrylate and ester methacrylate. Also, the binding resin may be formed from at least one kind of monomer selected from a group consisting of polyester, phenol and epoxy resins. It is desirable that the colorant be used in 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1994
    Assignee: Mita Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideki Ohta, Tatsuo Imafuku, Masami Tsujihiro, Toshiro Tokuno, Hiroshi Shimoyama, Nobuhiro Hirano
  • Patent number: 5364722
    Abstract: A toner for developing electrostatic images is prepared from a binder resin and a hydrocarbon wax. The toner is provided with improved fixability and anti-offset characteristic by controlling the thermal characteristic of the hydrocarbon wax so as to provide a DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) curve, showing an onset temperature of heat absorption in the range of 50.degree.-110.degree. C. and at least one heat absorption peak P1 in the range of 70.degree.-130.degree. C. giving a peak temperature T.sub.P1 on temperature increase, and showing a maximum heat evolution peak temperature in the range of T.sub.P1 .+-.9.degree. C. on temperature decrease. Correspondingly, the toner provides a DSC curve showing a rising temperature of heat absorption of at least 80.degree. C., an onset temperature of heat absorption of at most 105.degree. C. and a heat absorption peak temperature in the range of 100.degree.-120.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1994
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hirohide Tanikawa, Hiroaki Kawakami, Masatsugu Fujiwara, Masashi Jinbo, Tsutomu Onuma