Including Maintenance Of Fluidized Bed Patents (Class 432/15)
  • Patent number: 9108884
    Abstract: Methods for preparing metakaolin-enhanced industrial minerals. Mixing and heating kaolinite clay with an industrial mineral, such as activated carbon, that is between 750° F. and 1400° F. results in a metakaolin/activated carbon complex that provides good mercury sorbent qualities while producing a fly ash (after use as a sorbent in emissions applications) that has a lower foaming index.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2015
    Assignee: Pneumatic Processing Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Michael A. Jones
  • Patent number: 8876970
    Abstract: In the method according to the invention for producing cement clinker, raw cement meal is preheated in a preheater, the preheated raw cement meal is precalcined in a calciner and the precalcined raw cement meal is burnt in a kiln, fuel and combustion air having an oxygen content of at least 75 mol % being used in the calciner, and the raw cement meal being precalcined in a fluidised bed in the calciner. The exhaust gases occurring in the kiln are delivered to the preheater, bypassing the calciner, and the exhaust gases of the calciner are delivered to a CO2 preparation device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: Polysius AG
    Inventor: Detlev Kupper
  • Patent number: 8784097
    Abstract: The present invention concerns an apparatus for the production of clinker from raw meal, comprising: a rotary kiln (8), optionally a precalciner; a multi-stage cyclone preheater (9) connected downstream of said rotary kiln (8) with respect to the direction of flow of the fumes (11) of a combustion taking place in said kiln (8); an electrofilter (10) connected downstream of said preheater (9) with respect to said direction of flow of the combustion fumes (11); characterized in that it comprises a first inlet (17) for feeding raw meal to said combustion fumes (11), said inlet (17) being arranged downstream of said preheater (9) and upstream of said electrofilter (10) with respect to said direction of flow of the combustion fumes (11), and in that it comprises a second inlet (18) for feeding partially preheated raw meal (14) from said electrofilter (10) to said preheater (9). The present invention also concerns an improved process for the production of clinker from raw meal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Italcementi S.p.A.
    Inventors: Roberto Fedi, Antonio Clausi, Giovanni Cinti
  • Patent number: 8579014
    Abstract: A conveyor for moving hot material at temperatures on this order of 1000° F. or higher along a conveyor trough receiving the material has one or more coolant liquid flow vessels extending over but spaced from the outer surface of a trough inner wall to indirectly cause cooling of the inner wall. A heat transfer path is established between a separate coolant flow vessel and the hot trough defined by a packed together mass of heat conductive beads interposed to controllably transfer heat into the coolant liquid flowing through the flow vessel to prevent boiling of the coolant while allowing heat to be transferred from the through into the coolant in the separate flow vessel. The arrangement of a mass of heat conductive beads is also used to provide a non rigid mechanical support of fluid carrying tubing, the support having a predetermined thermal conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Inventors: Richard W. Kauppila, Raymond W. Kauppila
  • Patent number: 8116992
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2012
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: J. Christopher Ludlow, James L. Spenik
  • Patent number: 7862332
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for reducing air pollutants associated with dry process, precalciner cement manufacturing is shown. Raw feed meal used in cement production is heated in a special heating chamber to drive off volatile compounds, such as organic materials and salts of ammonia. Preferably, the feed meal is heated to a temperature of at least 350° F. The gases that are driven off flow to the precalciner where they are combusted and rendered harmless. Heat is provided by diverting at least a portion of the exhaust gases from the cement pyroprocessing kiln to the special heater. The raw feed meal is indirectly heated using a heat exchange wall between the feed meal and the kiln exhaust gas flow. In addition, a base-containing material such as lime or precalcined feed meal, may be added to the raw feed before treatment meal to promote the breakdown of inorganic ammonium compounds, thereby releasing gaseous ammonia which is also destroyed upon subsequent combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: EnviroCare International, Inc.
    Inventors: James J. Schwab, Ronald L. Hawks
  • Patent number: 7767161
    Abstract: A fluidized bed apparatus for batch-by-batch or continuous process control is provided that allows the processes in the fluidization region to be influenced as desired, especially in terms of material movement and dwell time. The fluidized bed apparatus is formed from at least two processing regions and the processing regions are connected to each other by overflow channels. The first processing region is provided with a solids inlet and the last processing region is provided with a solids outlet. For influencing the dwell time, the material to be treated is supplied to at least two processing regions one after the other and flows through these regions, wherein the material transport direction is a cross flow relative to the flow of the fluidization means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignee: Glatt Ingenieurtechnik
    Inventors: Michael Jacob, Karlheinz Rümpler, Mike Waskow
  • Patent number: 7753678
    Abstract: Apparatus for batch processing source material into charcoal in a battery of kilns, each of which use forced convection of process gases through the source material to shorten the process cycle time, and all of which use an external combustor to burn the process waste gases from each kiln to provide the primary source of applied energy for the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2010
    Assignee: Nucor Corporation
    Inventors: Gerald A. Teeter, Jared S. Kaufman, John L. Pressly, Christopher Adam Goebel, Paul David Debski
  • Patent number: 7694432
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method and apparatus for dehumidifying, drying or the like of different materials. The invention is developed primarily for dehumidification of sewage sludge (7), but it may be utilized for many different materials including foodstuffs as crispbread and pasta. The sludge (7) or other material is dehumidified or dried in a chamber (1) by means of thermal radiation. The thermal radiation is given by means of one or more elements (2) for thermal radiation. The thermal radiation is concentrated to one or more distinct wavelength ranges at which water has peaks for absorption of radiation energy. Air is circulated in the chamber (1), to take up moisture evaporated from the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2010
    Inventors: Niclas Eriksson, Lars Svenningsson
  • Publication number: 20100059148
    Abstract: A modular air fluidized sand bed for the heat treatment of metal products is disclosed. This technology provides for the heat-treatment of steels, particularly long products, and other alloys and shapes using fluidized-sand heat transfer media. The technology directs gas burners into U-tube assemblies suspended in the media. The fluidizing agent is hot exhaust gas recovered from the U-tubes. Blended exhaust gases and cool air can maintain fluidizing gas, plenum and retort temperatures at nearly the same temperature as the sand. Constant volume and pressure of fluidizing gas maximizes heat transfer between sand and product. For extreme heating applications, a thermally insulated cover held in direct contact with the hot fluidized sand improves energy efficiency. A sand return system returns sand lost from the bed exit to entrance. The modular air fluidized sand bed includes a fluidization pressure and volume that are altered independent of a fluidization media temperature.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2008
    Publication date: March 11, 2010
    Inventor: Thomas Wilson Tyl
  • Patent number: 7662351
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for producing metal oxide from metal compounds, in particular metal hydroxide or metal carbonate, in which the metal compound is conveyed into a reactor (25) with fluidized bed, heated there to a temperature of 650 15 to 1150° C. by combustion of fuel, and metal oxide is generated, as well as to a corresponding plant. To improve the utilization of energy, it is proposed to introduce a first gas or gas mixture from below through a gas supply tube (26) into a mixing chamber (20) of the reactor (25), the gas supply tube (26) being at least partly surrounded by a stationary annular fluidized bed (27) which is fluidized by supplying fluidizing gas, and 20 to adjust the gas velocities of the first gas or gas mixture and of the fluidizing gas for the annular fluidized bed (27) such that the Particle-Froude numbers in the gas supply tube (26) lie between 1 and 100, in the annular fluidized bed (27) between 0.02 and 2, and in the mixing chamber (20) between 0.3 and 30.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2010
    Assignee: Outotec Oyj
    Inventors: Martin Hirsch, Werner Stockhausen, Michael Ströder
  • Patent number: 7624691
    Abstract: An air nozzle has an attachment arrangement for solid fuel burners with fluidized beds. The air nozzle has a body having an inlet and an outlet defined therein. A pipe end is inserted into the inlet. The attachment arrangement secures the pipe end inside the body. The attachment arrangement has a first part engaging a through hole of the body and a second perpendicular part that engages a cavity of the pipe end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2009
    Assignee: Metso Power AB
    Inventor: Lennart Nordh
  • Patent number: 7549859
    Abstract: The invention relates to an installation comprising a combustion chamber (15) provided with means (53) which are used to introduce the mineral load and are connected to a pre-heater (27), combustion means (55) for maintaining the chamber (15) at a temperature of between 700° C. and 900° C., means (57) for introducing a treatment gas having a controlled carbon dioxide content in order to oppose the dissociation of the carbonate in the chamber (15), and means (61) for removing the calcinated mineral load guided into a cooler (31). The chamber (15) comprises means (51) for forming a fluidised bed. The means (57) for introducing treatment gases are supplied at least partially by a line (91) or deriving part of the combustion flue gases of the chamber (15) emitted by means for discharging (21) said flue gases into the atmosphere. The invention can be used for the production of a cement-type hydraulic binder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: Technip France
    Inventor: Jacques Dupuis
  • Publication number: 20090084036
    Abstract: The invention relates to heat exchanger tubes acting like resonant tubes of a Helmholtz resonator and used as swirl tubes. They are capable of drastically increasing heat transfer in the boundary layers determining the heat flow to be exchanged as a result of their geometrically deformed surfaces.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 12, 2008
    Publication date: April 2, 2009
    Inventor: Oliver Neumann
  • Patent number: 7503286
    Abstract: A method of combusting oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed boiler. Fuel, including oil shale, is introduced into a furnace of the circulating fluidized bed boiler, primary oxygenous gas is introduced through a bottom grid of the furnace, and secondary oxygenous gas is introduced to the furnace at a first level above the level of the bottom grid. The primary oxygenous gas is introduced to the furnace at a rate providing below the first level a fluidizing velocity of less than 2.5 m/s, and the primary and secondary oxygenous gases are introduced to the furnace in such a way that a circulating fluidized bed is formed, and the fluidizing velocity at the first level is less than 70% of the fluidizing velocity in the upper portion of the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2009
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventors: Matti Hiltunen, Pertti Kinnunen, Juha Sarkki
  • Patent number: 7350318
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for continuous heat treatment of granulated materials, especially to the crystallization of polymer granulate, such as polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) for example. The device comprises several adjacent fluidization chambers respectively provided with a sieve plate through which a fluidization gas used to fluidize the granulate can be insufflated into the respective chamber from below via a gas inlet, the gas being able to escape via a gas outlet in the top area of the device. The first chamber takes up the greater part of the overall volume of all chambers and neighboring chambers are, respectively, fluidically connected by product throughflow openings in the separating walls arranged therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2008
    Assignee: Buhler, AG
    Inventors: Christian Dachauer, Camille Borer, Hans Geissbühler
  • Patent number: 7287477
    Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for operating a circulating fluidized bed reactor having a furnace with a discharge port for exhaust gas, and a particle separator having an inlet connected to the exhaust gas discharge port and an outlet duct for the exhaust gas and a return duct for separated solids. The method includes the steps of arranging a bypass duct bypassing the particle separator, and conducting a partial flow of exhaust gas along the duct for increasing the fly ash content in the exhaust gas after the separator. The bypass duct is advantageously provided with means for controlling the flow of exhaust gas in the bypass duct.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2007
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Ponnusami K. Gounder
  • Patent number: 7100301
    Abstract: A system for drying grain includes a receiving bin defining a cavity therein and further includes intake and outlet ports. A conduit is operably connected to the receiving bin that includes a plurality of check valves and a stop valve. The system further includes a mechanism for introducing air at a selected flow rate into the conduit and a combustion source that includes a pilot gas light wherein fire is created that burns between 2000–3000 degrees Fahrenheit. The combustion source includes a flue positioned thereabove and a drain outlet extending substantially orthogonal to the conduit. A heat exchanger is connected to the combustion source including a fan and a filter operably connected thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2006
    Inventors: Jason C. Humphrey, Robert E. Pitts
  • Patent number: 7029273
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for preparing activated carbon from a wood or wood residue feedstock using fluidized bed technology. The fluidized bed apparatus has a number of wood residue inlets that allow differing residence times in the fluidized bed apparatus appropriate for the wood or wood residue feedstock to be carbonized. The carbonized material may then be activated to form activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
    Inventors: Paul Y. H. Fung, Adrian I De Vos, Velauthapillai Muruganathan, Hoc S Ng
  • Patent number: 6993857
    Abstract: A cyclone which includes an upper cylindrical portion opening into the wider end of a lower frustro-conical portion, with a primary air inlet such that the inlet air is substantially tangential to the circumference of the cyclone, and an exhaust outlet at or adjacent the top of the cylindrical portion; a control valve is associated with the exhaust outlet and can be used to partially or completely shut off the outlet; a secondary air inlet is associated with the narrow end of the frustro-conical portion and is provided with an air flow stabilising device adapted to admit a stream of air substantially along the longitudinal axis of the cyclone; also including means for withdrawing processed product from the frustro-conical portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2006
    Assignee: Eco Technology International (2000) Limited
    Inventors: Graeme Douglas Coles, Karen Millicent Rafferty, legal representative, Andrew James Rafferty, deceased
  • Patent number: 6808390
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for preparing activated carbon from a wood or wood residue feedstock using fluidized bed technology. The fluidized bed apparatus has a number of wood residue inlets that allow differing residence times in the fluidized bed apparatus appropriate for the wood or wood residue feedstock to be carbonized. The carbonized material may then be activated to form activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2004
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
    Inventor: Paul Y H Fung
  • Publication number: 20030108842
    Abstract: This describes a method for producing cement clinker using petroleum coke with a sulfur content over 4.5% by weight, in conventional equipment and facilities, wherein said method comprises the treatment of the raw mixture to synergistically improve its physical-chemical characteristics combined with the parameter control of the process, in such a way as to obtain a reduction of the clinkering temperature, all as a heretofore-unappreciated way to reduce, as a result, the concentration of SO3 in the calcinated material fed to the rotating kiln, and also usefully increasing with this the calcium sulfate content in the clinker.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 13, 2002
    Publication date: June 12, 2003
    Inventors: Homero Ramirez-Tobias, Alberto Lazaro-Franco, Juan C. Martinez-Burckhardt, Walter Lopez-Gonzalez
  • Publication number: 20030059735
    Abstract: A method of producing a calcined raw meal and of producing additional steam in an existing steam generator comprises the following steps: pulverized raw meal, hydrocarbon, primary air and secondary air are fed to a calciner system (60), wherein the raw meal is calcined in a temperature range between 850 ° C. and 950 ° C., the calcined raw meal is separated from the calciner flue gases at the exit of the calciner system, the calcined raw meal is directed through a cooler (70), in which it exchanges its heat with the secondary air, the calciner exhaust gases are directed in the gas path of the backpass of the steam generator (1) at an appropriate temperature window and are used for steam production. The raw meal consists mainly of limestone (CaCO3) and the calcined material is mainly lime (CaO). The fuel feed (4) to the steam generator (1) is reduced during introduction of the exhaust gases into its backpass.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2002
    Publication date: March 27, 2003
    Inventors: Vassilios Burdis, Krzysztof Kietlinski, Enrico Malfa, Reinhard Schurian, Srivats Srinivasachar, Frank Steeze, Majed Togan
  • Patent number: 6506048
    Abstract: A parts container for minimizing oxidation of heat-treated parts during transfer in an oxygen-containing environment. The container includes: a heat-resistant vessel having an interior space and including oppositely positioned first and second apertures; a heat-resistant, porous support element fluidly connected to the first aperture to provide a bottom to for the vessel; and a disposed in the interior space a plurality of fluidizable granular solids and at least one heat-treatment part. The fluidizable granular solids provide a transient protective environment for the parts after heat treatment thereby minimizing exposure of the parts to oxygen in the surrounding environment. Additional embodiments and methods of use are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2003
    Assignee: Procedyne Corp.
    Inventors: H. Kenneth Staffin, Marc Glasser, Karin Bickford, James Bickford
  • Patent number: 6368884
    Abstract: A method is provided for manufacturing, the method including processing a workpiece in a plurality of processing steps and measuring characteristics of the processing performed on the workpiece in at least two of the plurality of processing steps. The method also includes displaying the characteristics measured by overlaying the characteristics measured at each of the at least two of the plurality of processing steps to display a final resulting workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2002
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Greg Goodwin, Anastasia Lynn Oshelski
  • Publication number: 20020022207
    Abstract: Cement clinker production apparatus having a precalcination stage connected upstream of a rotary kiln, in which precalcination stage a CO-containing reduction zone in the rotary kiln off-gas duct is employed for the purpose of reducing the pollutant NOx. In order to make certain that the quantitative ratio of O2 in the rotary kiln off-gas to fuel admitted by a deNOx burner, and thus control the effectiveness of NOx reduction, a pivoting throttle valve (33) is positioned in the precalcination stage to control the quantity of rotary kiln off-gas and thus the O2 content in the kiln off-gas. The throttle valve (33) is positioned in the rotary kiln off-gas duct (15) above the deNOx burner (19), above the raw meal inlet (13), and before the confluence of the tertiary air substream with the rotary kiln off gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 18, 2001
    Publication date: February 21, 2002
    Inventors: Norbert Streit, Carsten Eckert, Ralf Filges, Horst Schilling
  • Publication number: 20010044089
    Abstract: A kiln is provided with oxidant injection locations upstream of air blowers which blow air into the kiln. The addition of oxygen into the kiln increases the cooling capacity of a clinker cooler, and enhances combustion in the kiln.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 9, 2001
    Publication date: November 22, 2001
    Inventors: Ovidiu Marin, Mahendra L. Joshi, Olivier Charon, Jacques Dugue
  • Publication number: 20010038989
    Abstract: In order to create, for cement clinker production lines, a calcinator that is connected upstream from the rotary tubular kiln and is equipped with two firings, which enables on the one hand a high-grade calcinated raw meal and on the other hand an exhaust gas with very low NOx emissions, as well as a burning that is as complete as possible of remaining CO-containing NOx reduction zones, it is provided that a combustion point with sub-stoichiometric fuel combustion be arranged both in the rotary kiln exhaust gas ascending line and also in the cooler outgoing air line which form a first and section portion, respectively, of the calcinator and that downstream in a flow direction of the suspension, additional combustion air discharges into the calcinator which combustion air is branched off from the tertiary air line coming from the clinker cooler via at least one branch line.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 22, 2001
    Publication date: November 8, 2001
    Inventors: Hubert Ramesohl, Michael Brachthauser, Andreas Hand, Stephan Kuhnke
  • Patent number: 6264465
    Abstract: A combustion apparatus for use as a boiler wherein RDF is burned as the fuel, or as an incinerator for burning municipal waste. The apparatus is diminished in the quantities of NOx produced, permits a dust collector to achieve an improved efficiency in separating off a free-flowing medium and assures a fluidized-bed furnace of effective fluidization of a medium. The apparatus comprises a fluidized-bed furnace (1), a cyclone (2) disposed downstream from the furnace (1) for separating a free-flowing medium and a combustion residue discharged from the furnace (1) from combustion gases and collecting these solids, and a medium-residue return channel (3) provided between the cyclone (2) and the furnace (1) for returning the free-flowing medium and the combustion residue collected by the cyclone (2 )to the furnace (1) therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2001
    Assignee: Hitachi Zosen Corporation
    Inventor: Michio Ishida
  • Publication number: 20010006769
    Abstract: The method is applicable to a combustion system of the circulating fluidized bed type which system includes a hearth and a cyclone, and operates using fuel that is inserted into the bottom of the hearth, where a reducing atmosphere is created and where the fuel undergoes pyrolysis with separation into two phases, namely a solid phase made up of grains of coke, and a gaseous phase containing volatile matter. Provision is made for a primary air injection, secondary air injections, and a late air injection to be performed at different levels. The late air injected between the top of the hearth and the inlet of the cyclone is used to increase the efficiency with which the cyclone collects the particles that reach the top of the hearth unburnt, and thus to increase the combustion efficiency of the system. The system includes air injection means making it possible to implement the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 13, 2000
    Publication date: July 5, 2001
    Inventors: Francois Malaubier, Patrick Duche
  • Publication number: 20010004516
    Abstract: In a combustion installation for burning a fuel, which installation includes a hearth operating as a circulating fluidized bed, and in which installation at least a fraction of the flow of solid particles resulting from the combustion of the fuel in the hearth is returned to the hearth via a heat exchanger operating as a fluidized bed, the method of decreasing nitrogen oxide emissions consisting in the heat exchanger being fed with a fluidization gas which is considerably poorer in oxygen than air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2000
    Publication date: June 21, 2001
    Inventors: Francois Malaubier, Eugene Guilleux
  • Patent number: 6168424
    Abstract: An installation for quick thermal treatment of suspended powder substances, in particular for flash calcining of mineral substances, comprises modules advantageously arranged in mobile units including elements for supplying powder substances, a combustion chamber wherein the substances are introduced suspended in a hot air flux and a cooling assembly where the calcined substances are recuperated to pre-heat the combustion air. The substances are pneumatically transported in the heated air downstream of the supplying elements, via a pre-heating device up to the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Assignee: Demeter Technologies
    Inventors: Gilbert Raynaud, Olivier Pons, Pierre Valmalette, Sylvain Salvador
  • Patent number: 6125552
    Abstract: A fluid bed processing system in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention includes a product chamber, a fluid supply system, and a discharge gate. The product chamber has an open top and an open bottom and the fluid supply system has an outlet positioned to direct a first fluid into the product chamber. The outlet of the fluid supply system is spaced from the open bottom of the product chamber to define a discharge opening which extends substantially around the open bottom of the product chamber and the outlet of the fluid supply system. The discharge gate is movable to a first position covering the discharge opening and to a second position exposing the discharge opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Genencor International, Inc.
    Inventors: Ryszard Braun, Antti Kosola, Iiro Uskonen
  • Patent number: 6042369
    Abstract: A method for rapid heat treatment, quenching and aging of an article includes placing the article in a fluidized bed and conveying the article through the bed. Heat treatment, quenching and aging of the part can be done in less than two hours using this method. The method also includes removing fluidizing media from the article as the article is removed from the fluidized bed. An elevator is used to remove the article from the fluidized bed. The elevator may include a conveyor for moving the article into another fluidized bed. The article can then be placed into the second fluidized bed and conveyed through that bed. Each fluidized bed is controlled so that a specific heat treatment can be applied to the article by the fluidized bed. The fluidized bed can be used as a portion of an automated production line. The retort of the fluidized bed includes a system for recycling the air passed through the fluidizing media in the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Assignee: Technomics, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles H. Bergman, Steve I. Krause
  • Patent number: 5954000
    Abstract: Apparatus for cooling ash exiting from circulating fluidized bed equipment includes an enclosure having a floor, a plurality of walls disposed around the floor and a ceiling. The enclosure also has an inlet and an outlet. The outlet is disposed in one of the walls near to the floor and the apparatus also includes tubing disposed within the enclosure for heat exchange relationship with ash entering the inlet of the ash cooler. In some forms of the invention the floor is planar and is disposed in oblique relationship to a horizontal plane. The outlet may be disposed proximate to the floor at the lowest elevational part thereof. The enclosure may be generally rectangular and may have first and second opposed sides and opposed third and fourth sides. The first and second sides are longer than the third and fourth sides. In some cases the ratio of the length of each of the first and second sides to the length of the third and fourth sides is two or three to one.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul J. Panos
  • Patent number: 5788482
    Abstract: An apparatus for sintering a cement clinker in which preheated powdered raw materials are granulated and sintered in a single fluidized bed granulating and sintering furnace. The apparatus includes a first classifying station having a discharging grooved portion extending from the fluidized bed furnace to an opening in a radial direction and communicating with a gas distributor. The space above the discharging grooved portion diverges from the opening to a fluidized bed upstream of the gas distributor so that the total velocity of air blown through the opening and from nozzles in the discharging groove is constant. A second classifying station is in communication with the opening for blowing back small particles to the fluidized bed. In a third classifying station, a discharge chute is connected to a fluidized bed cooling unit for quenching granulated and sintered clinker while small particles are blown back to the granulating and sintering furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignees: Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Isao Hashimoto, Shozo Kanamori, Mikio Murao, Norio Yokota, Nichitaka Sato, Katsuji Mukai
  • Patent number: 5782973
    Abstract: A process of treating dust from a cement manufacturing operation. The process comprises adding carbon bearing material to the dust catch from a cement manufacturing operation to form a mixture, which is formed into nodules and sizing the nodules to obtain a feed material having a selected size range. The nodules are directed as feed material to a fluidized bed which is maintained by passing air for combustion upwardly through a bed of material. The material is thermal processed within the fluidized bed in a reducing atmosphere by supplying fuel for combustion in the fluidized bed to maintain temperatures sufficient to volatilize alkali and sulfur compounds in the feed material and produce a product having an increased concentration of cement forming compounds and reduced alkali and sulfur compounds as compared to the feed material. The reduced clinker is then re-oxidized to minimize/reverse adverse color and mineralogy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1998
    Assignee: Fuller Company
    Inventors: Sidney M. Cohen, Michael E. Prokesch
  • Patent number: 5711234
    Abstract: A process for the continuous fluidized bed agglomeration of a solid in powder form, wherein the powder, a granulating liquid and propelling air are fed through a three-substance nozzle into the center of a fluidized bed to form a three-phase mixture in the center of the fluidized bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans Uhlemann, Josef Schmoll, Manfred Bucheler
  • Patent number: 5688472
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system for fluidizing a dense phase bed of solid particles, preferably a dense bed of solid catalyst particles. The system includes a dense bed solids housing, a dense bed solids support within the housing, a fluid injection component which sends fluids toward the solids supported within the housing, and a stuctural component which is capable of decreasing the distance between the dense bed solids support and the fluid injection component as the fluid is sent toward the solids that are supported within the housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1997
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventor: William A. Wachter
  • Patent number: 5571747
    Abstract: A semiconductor commutator which is constructed by joining a semiconductor region of the first conductivity type and a semiconductor region of the second conductivity type, wherein there is provided a grain boundary which is located near a junction surface of the semiconductor region of the first conductivity type and the semiconductor region of the second conductivity type so as not to cross said junction surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Toru Koizumi, Hidemasa Mizutani
  • Patent number: 5536167
    Abstract: An apparatus for sintering cement clinker with a spouted fluidized bed granulating furnace and a fluidized bed sintering furnace is provided which includes a perforated distributor having a multiplicity of nozzle holes through which gas for granulating injected raw material for cement while spouting and fluidizing the same is introduced; a dropping port through which granulated raw material for cement is discharged and which is disposed to face a spouted fluidized bed, wherein classifying gas is introduced through the dropping port at a classifying flow velocity which is selected to be different from a flow velocity of gas to be introduced through the multiplicity of nozzle holes into the spouted fluidized bed granulating furnace, and means is provided therein to discharge the granulated raw material for cement while classifying the same by using the effect of the classifying gas which is introduced through the dropping port; and an injection chute for injecting the granulated raw material for cement from the
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1996
    Assignees: Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Sumitomo Cement Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Norio Yokota, Nichitaka Sato, Katsuji Mukai, Toshiyuki Ishinohachi, Isao Hashimoto, Mikio Murao, Shozo Kanamori, Chikanori Kumagai
  • Patent number: 5490469
    Abstract: A method of heating of bed material in a PFBC plant including a combustor and wherein bed level adjustment due to a load change is accomplished by injecting bed material into or discharging it from the combustor through feeding devices, the method including the steps of arranging two storage vessels, each adapted for injecting the bed material therefrom into the combustor and for storing bed material discharged from the combustor, and heating and maintaining the bed material in the storage vessels at the temperature corresponding to the bed temperature while maintaining the bed level of the combustor constant, by discharging bed material with the temperature of the bed from the combustor via the feeding device adapted for discharge of bed material, into one of the storage vessels with a predetermined feed speed and at the same time and at the same feed speed injecting bed material from the second storage vessel into the combustor via the feeding device adapted for injection of bed material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: ABB Carbon AB
    Inventors: Roine Brannstrom, Hjalmar Nevestveit
  • Patent number: 5441406
    Abstract: A method and system for introducing combustion gases to the upper portion of the dense phase or transition portion of a circulating fluidized bed reactor. The combustion gases are produced in a burner external to the dense phase portion of the reactor wherein the burner receives a mixture of liquid or gaseous fuel and air so as to initiate and maintain combustion within the burner. The combustion gases are then quenched prior to entering the dense phase portion of the reactor so as to reduce the temperature of the combustion gases thereby preventing overheating or sintering of the particulate and significant oxidation reduction in the dense phase portion of the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1995
    Assignee: Dorr-Oliver Incorporated
    Inventors: Stanley A. Bunk, George Tomasicchio
  • Patent number: 5376622
    Abstract: A melting-and-solidification manufacturing method for manufacturing an ingot of a high critical temperature superconductive oxide belonging, in particular, to the YBaCuO, BiSrCaCuO, or TlBaCaCuO families, wherein:an ingot of oxide having the appropriate stoichiometery is used;the ingot is held horizontally by levitation on a film of gas inside a furnace;the ingot is melted;a vertical thermal gradient is established inside said furnace such that nucleation starts at the bottom portion of said ingot;while maintaining said thermal gradient, the overall temperature of the furnace is lowered at a rate of not more than 0.1.degree. C./hour down to the temperature which corresponds to complete ingot solidification; andfinally, conventional oxygenation treatment is applied to said ingot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Alcatel Alsthom Compagnie Generale d'Electricite
    Inventor: Christian Belouet
  • Patent number: 5376000
    Abstract: Apparatus and process for extracting simultaneously metal values from foundry sands, said apparatus comprising a thermostated column which is in flow communication with a controlled air supply source and with a heating system arranged to keep said column at a predetermined temperature; said column is adapted to receive the necessary components to form an aqueous pulp from which the metal values are to be extracted, and has a device for finely dividing the airflow coming from the supply source in order to obtain a suitable suspension and homogenization of said pulp.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Nucleares
    Inventor: Jaime V. Torres
  • Patent number: 5325607
    Abstract: A reactor for drying solids in a heated fluidized bed comprising over the fluidized bed a vapor-collecting space provided with a vapor outlet. Means for feeding the water-containing solids are provided over the vapor-collecting space. A conical distributor surface, which is rotatable about a vertical axis, is provided in the vapor-collecting space below the supplying means and slopes at an angle of 25.degree. to 70.degree. from the horizontal and is formed with at least one aperture. The aperture occupies 10 to 90% of the theoretical overall area of the distributor surface. The distributor surface is rotated at a speed of 20 to 250 revolutions per minute.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1994
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans-Jurgen Weib, Wolfgang Frank, Wladyslaw Lewandowski, Wolfgang Scheler
  • Patent number: 5279741
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for regenerating used foundry sand, whose original molding sand contained, as the molding material, inorganic binders such as, for example and especially, bentonite ("inorganic used sand") and/or organic binders such as, for example and especially, phenolic resins and/or furan resins ("organic used sand"), wherein the used sand to be reconditioned is impregnated with water and then transferred in the moist state into a heated fluidized bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1994
    Assignee: Kuttner GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventor: Klaus Schott
  • Patent number: 5253741
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor in which partitions disposed within a vessel form first and second furnace sections, first and second troughs and a heat exchange section such that the first trough is disposed between the first furnace section and the heat recovery section and the second trough is disposed between the second furnace section and the heat recovery section. A fluidized bed is formed in each of the furnace sections for the combustion of fuel to generate heat and to generate a mixture of combustion gases and entrained particulate solids. The mixtures from the furnace sections are received in first and second horizontal cyclone separators, both formed within the vessel for separating the entrained particulate solids from the combustion gases. Outlet means extend from the horizontal cyclones to discharge the separated solids to the first and second troughs respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Walter P. Gorzegno
  • Patent number: 5218931
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor in which partitions disposed within a vessel form first and second furnace sections, first and second troughs and a heat exchange section such that the first trough is disposed between the first furnace section and the heat recovery section and the second trough is disposed between the second furnace section and the heat recovery section. A fluidized bed is formed in each of the furnace sections for the combustion of fuel to generate heat and to generate a mixture of combustion gases and entrained particulate solids. The mixtures from the furnace sections are received in first and second horizontal cyclone separators, both formed within the vessel for separating the entrained particulate solids from the combustion gases. Outlet means extend from the horizontal cyclones to discharge the separated solids to the first and second troughs respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1993
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Walter P. Gorzegno
  • Patent number: 5202080
    Abstract: An apparatus is disclosed for heat treating a granular material. The apparatus includes a retort having a volume sized to receive a bed of fluidizing particles at a predetermined elevation within the volume and a plurality of electrically powered infrared radiation sources. The sources are submerged within the bed. The apparatus includes a deflector plate for deflecting granular material from an upper elevation of said bed to close proximity to said radiation sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1993
    Assignee: BGK Finishing Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: David E. Bannick, James S. Nelson