Wood Patents (Class 48/111)
  • Patent number: 10059882
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for drying and pyrolyzing carbon-containing materials to produce valuable products including char, oil, gas and thermal energy. The present invention involves a method whereby carbon-containing material 1 is maintained in a heated region predominantly free of oxidizing gases to promote pyrolysis reactions, and the thermal energy required to drive the process is provided via the combustion of a proportion of the volatilized matter with an oxygen containing gas in the same chamber 3. The arrangement of the chamber 3 eliminates the need for any form of solid physical barrier between the concurrent pyrolysis and combustion reactions occurring in the process, and also avoids any requirement for external means of recirculating the gaseous volatilized matter. The present invention also relates to a method for improving the transfer of thermal energy from the combustion to pyrolysis zones via radiative and convective heat transfer mechanisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Inventors: Philip John Sanderson, Adrian Lindsay Morphett
  • Patent number: 9738841
    Abstract: A gasified gas production system of the present disclosure includes a gasification furnace which produces a gasified gas by gasifying a gasification raw material, a flow passage through which the gasified gas produced in the gasification furnace flows, a catalyst-holding unit which holds a catalyst which promotes reforming of tar included in the gasified gas inside the flow passage, and an oxidation agent supply unit which supplies an oxidation agent with a temperature of 200° C. to 900° C. to the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: IHI Corporation
    Inventor: Hiroaki Ohara
  • Patent number: 9523053
    Abstract: A fuel gasification system including a gasification furnace including a fluidized bed formed by fluidizing reactant gas for gasifying fuel charged into gasification gas and flammable solid content, a combustion furnace for combustion of the flammable solid content into which the flammable solid content produced in the furnace is introduced together with bed material and that includes a fluidized bed formed by fluidizing reactant gas, a material separator such as hot cyclone that separates bed material from exhaust gas introduced from the combustion furnace, the separated bed material being fed through a downcomer to the gasification furnace, and a tar decomposing mechanism that heats the gasification gas produced in the furnace to decompose tar contained in the gasification gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2016
    Inventors: Takahiro Murakami, Koubun Kyo, Toshiyuki Suda
  • Patent number: 9499753
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a gasification process and system, wherein a dryer integrated with a water-gas-shift catalyst is disposed in front of a gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2016
    Inventors: Jong Sung Park, Ji Sung Park, Cheon Seong Lee, Gyoo Tae Kim, Jae Wook Shin, Yong Jeon Kim
  • Patent number: 9057031
    Abstract: A process for the co-gasification of carbonaceous solids (coal, coke) and biomass in which the biomass material is pyrolyzed to provide a biomass pyrolysis oil and biomass char or coke which are then mixed with the carbonaceous solid to form a slurry. This slurry is then heated if necessary to achieve a viscosity which can be processed conveniently in the gasifier. The heat required for pyrolyzing the biomass can conveniently be obtained from the heat exchanger used to cool the hot synthesis gas product emerging from the gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 16, 2015
    Inventors: Ramesh Varadaraj, John L. Robbins, Michael Siskin
  • Patent number: 9045706
    Abstract: A process is provided for producing syngas that is effective for use in downstream processes. The process for producing syngas includes operating a gasification apparatus in a start-up mode until the gasification apparatus and equipment downstream of the gasification apparatus are adequately warmed up to a first target temperature. Upon reaching a first target temperature, the process is then operated in a production mode to produce a second syngas with a higher CO/CO2 molar ratio. Operation in a start-up mode until reaching a first target temperature, provides a process that is effective for reducing fouling in downstream equipment and for providing a second syngas can be more effectively cooled and cleaned.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: INEOS BIO SA
    Inventors: Ching-Whan Ko, Michael Sean Slape, Peter Simpson Bell, Kim Ocfemia
  • Patent number: 9045704
    Abstract: A gasification reactor for producing crude gas, containing CO or H2, by gasification of ash-containing fuel with oxygen-containing gas, at temperatures above the melting temperature of the ash, has a reaction chamber formed by a membrane wall through which coolant flows, within a pressure container, is provided, with a narrowing transition channel into a gas cooling chamber, and spin-reducing, cooled bulkheads in the transition channel. The, wall that carries the bulkheads makes a transition, below the bulkheads, into a cylinder wall that is reduced in diameter, by way of a step having a corrugated surface. The cylinder wall, which is reduced in diameter, is enclosed by a further cylindrical wall, which is enlarged in diameter, which wall forms a second slag drip edge at its end, in the direction of gravity. The further cylindrical wall is disposed to be adjustable in its vertical position, with reference to the first drip edge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH
    Inventors: Eberhard Kuske, Johannes Dostal, Reinald Schulze Eckel, Lothar Semrau
  • Publication number: 20150135594
    Abstract: A gasification apparatus can produce hydrogen-containing gas from biomass with high thermal efficiency at low costs without severe trouble caused by tar generated by pyrolyzing the biomass, while maximizing the gasification rate of the tar. The gasification apparatus includes a biomass pyrolyzing zone for heating biomass in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, and a gas reforming zone for heating the resulting pyrolyzed gas in the presence of steam. A plurality of preheated granules and/or lumps is moved from the gas reforming zone to the biomass pyrolyzing zone, the apparatus reforms the gas generated by pyrolyzing the biomass and pyrolyzes the biomass, using the heat of the granules and/or lumps. The biomass pyrolyzing zone and the gas reforming zone is provided in a single vessel, and at least one partitioning plate is provided between the biomass pyrolyzing zone and the gas reforming zone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Applicant: JAPAN BLUE ENERGY CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Naoki Dowaki, Kiyoshi Dowaki, Yasuie Takeda, Hiroshi Ikeda, Kousuke Suda, Fumie Kagaya, Hisashi Kamiuchi, Mitsuo Kameyama
  • Patent number: 8999019
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process and system for gasifying biomass or other carbonaceous feedstocks in an indirectly heated gasifier and provides a method for the elimination of condensable organic materials (tars) from the resulting product gas with an integrated tar removal step. More specifically, this tar removal step utilizes the circulating heat carrier to crack the organics and produce additional product gas. As a benefit of the above process, and because the heat carrier circulates through alternating steam and oxidizing zones in the process, deactivation of the cracking reactions is eliminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC
    Inventor: Mark A. Paisley
  • Publication number: 20150075071
    Abstract: A biofuel gasification reactor for producing gases that are combustible in an internal combustion engine. The reactor includes a vessel with a loading port and cover, sized to receive biofuel of at least eight by twenty inches. A storage zone provides biofuel via gravity feed only to a plasma zone that oxidizes the biofuel into char and precursor gases. Air nozzles provide air to the plasma zone from a helical air preheater. A char zone receives the precursor gases and char. The precursor gases are substantially converted to effluent gases of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A grating below the char zone holds the char until it is oxidized to ash. The grating covers the entire bottom of the char zone. The grating is disposed in a substantially fixed and immovable configuration during the operation of the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2013
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventor: Joseph T. Williams
  • Publication number: 20150059245
    Abstract: Apparatuses, systems, mobile gasification systems, and methods for gasifying residual biomass are described. An example system may include a mobile gasification system configured to gasify feedstock generated from residual biomass to provide syngas. The mobile gasification system may be configured to generate electrical power using the syngas. The mobile gasification system may be configured to be installed in a transportable structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 4, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Philip W. Appel, Thomas D. Weir, Jacob M. Culley, Timothy E. Farley, Daniel A. Howard, Sarah E. Love
  • Publication number: 20150040565
    Abstract: The present application provides a reactor for: converting feedstock material into gases; or disassociating or reforming a chemical compound; and/a a mixture to its constituent elements; and/to other chemical forms, and; finally a heating device. The reactor comprises a heating device for discharging an ionized gas into the reactor, a feedstock feeder for injecting the feedstock material into the reactor, and a shell forming a chamber that encloses a portion of the heating device and a portion of the feedstock feeder. The application also provides a method for converting hydrocarbon material into synthetic gases. The method comprises: providing the hydrocarbon material to a burner inserted into a reactor, a second step of supplying ionized gases into the reactor, and a third step of subjecting the burner to a flame of the ionized gases such that molecules of the hydrocarbon material are dissociated to forming synthetic gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2012
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Inventor: Lien Chiow Tan
  • Publication number: 20150013224
    Abstract: A method and a device for producing synthesis gas from biomass, wherein the biomass is decomposed into pyrolysis coke and pyrolisis gas in at least one pyrolisis reactor, the pyrolysis coke is introduced into the fluidised bed of a synthesis gas reactor and the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidisation gas for the synthesis gas reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 25, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventor: Karl-Heinz Tetzlaff
  • Publication number: 20140318013
    Abstract: A method, apparatus, and system for a solar-driven chemical plant that may include a solar thermal receiver having a cavity with an inner wall, where the solar thermal receiver is aligned to absorb concentrated solar energy from one or more of 1) an array of heliostats, 2) solar concentrating dishes, and 3) any combination of the two. Some embodiments may include a solar-driven chemical reactor having multiple reactor tubes located inside the cavity of solar thermal receiver, wherein a chemical reaction driven by radiant heat occurs in the multiple reactor tubes, and wherein particles of biomass are gasified in the presence of a steam (H2O) carrier gas and methane (CH4) in a simultaneous steam reformation and steam biomass gasification reaction to produce reaction products that include hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas using the solar thermal energy from the absorbed concentrated solar energy in the multiple reactor tubes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 8, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Inventors: Wayne W. Simmons, Christopher Perkins, Zoran Radojica Zovanovic
  • Patent number: 8850715
    Abstract: What is described is a process and an installation for drying articles, in particular painted vehicle bodies, in which the articles are moved through a drying zone in which they are hardened in an inert-gas atmosphere. Inert gas is taken from the drying zone constantly or intermittently and is first of all conducted along a first face which is at a first temperature at which higher-boiling contaminants condense out. The condensate that forms in the process is discharged. After that, the inert gas which has been pre-cleaned in this way is conducted along at least one second face which is at a lower temperature than the first face. Lower-boiling contaminants are precipitated at this point. These condensates, too, are then discharged. This process and installation work more favorably, energy-wise, and with higher cleaning efficiency than known processes and installations of a similar type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: Eisenmann AG
    Inventors: Werner Swoboda, Andreas Keller
  • Publication number: 20140290593
    Abstract: The invention relates to a reactor (1) for gasifying biomass, in particular wood, comprising a feeder chute (7) and an ash bed arranged beneath the feeder chute (7). According to the invention, a device is provided by means of which biomass adhering to the feeder chute (7) can be detached, and/or a heat exchanger is provided by means of which a product gas generated from the biomass gives oil heat to the biomass subsequently conveyed in the feeder chute (7) and to oxidation air. The invention further relates to a fine filter (29) for cleaning a product gas generated from biomass. According to the invention, the filter medium contains biomass. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for gasifying biomass in a reactor (1), in particular a reactor (1) according to the invention, to form a product gas. According to the invention, biomass adhering to the feeder chute (7) is detached and/or heat is given off to biomass and to oxidation air by the product gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 24, 2012
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Inventor: Franz Krammer
  • Publication number: 20140259925
    Abstract: A gasification system including: a casing defining: a solid material inlet; a fixed bed drying zone proximal the solid material inlet; a fixed bed pyrolysis zone arranged below the drying zone along a gravity vector, distal the solid material inlet across the pyrolysis zone; a kinetic bed combustion zone surrounded by the pyrolysis zone; and a fluidization channel extending through the drying zone and pyrolysis zone and fluidly connected to the combustion zone, the fluidization channel defining a kinetic bed reduction zone fluidly isolated from and thermally connected to the pyrolysis zone and the drying zone by the fluidization channel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 17, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: All Power Labs, Inc.
    Inventor: James Mason
  • Publication number: 20140223822
    Abstract: A method and system for producing synthesis gas comprising CO, CO2, and H2 from a carbonaceous stream using an oxygen containing stream. A stream containing a carbonaceous material, and a stream containing oxygen are injected into a gasification reactor, where the carbonaceous stream is partially oxidised to obtain a raw synthesis gas. The raw synthesis gas is removed from the gasification reactor and directed into a quenching section wherein a liquid, preferably water, is injected in the form of a mist.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 4, 2014
    Publication date: August 14, 2014
    Applicant: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Robert Erwin VAN DEN BERG, Franciscus Gerardus VAN DONGEN, Thomas Paul VON KOSSAK-GLOWCZEWSKI, Hendrik Jan VAN DER PLOEG, Pieter Lammert ZUIDEVELD
  • Publication number: 20140223824
    Abstract: An apparatus for one stage thermo-catalytic plasma gasification and vitrification of organic material comprising: a generally funnel-shaped reactor having an upper section and a lower section, the lower section comprising a first, wider portion connected by a frustoconical transition to a second, narrower portion, and being suitable to receive a catalyst bed, and the upper section having at least one gas exhaust port; a plurality of inlets for the material from a plurality of directions located at the upper part of the lower section for introducing material into the upper portion of the lower section; a gas inlet system disposed around the lower section to provide gas into the lower section through one or more intake ports in the lower section; and a plurality of plasma arc torches mounted in the lower section to heat the catalyst bed and material, along with a method for plasma treatment of biomass.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 12, 2013
    Publication date: August 14, 2014
    Applicant: Solena Fuels Coproration
    Inventors: Robert T. Do, Sylvain A. Motycka
  • Publication number: 20140196369
    Abstract: Embodiments are directed to a gasifier that electrodynamically agitates charged chemical species in a reaction region of a reaction vessel of a gasifier and related methods. In an embodiment, a gasifier includes a reaction vessel configured to gasify at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material to synthesis gas. The reaction vessel includes an inlet(s) for receiving a gasification medium that reacts with the at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material and an outlet for allowing the synthesis gas to exit from the reaction vessel, and a reaction region. The gasifier includes at least one electrode positioned to be in electrical communication with the reaction region, and a voltage source operatively coupled to the at least one electrode. The voltage source and the at least one electrode are cooperatively configured to generate a time varying electric field in the reaction region to effect electrodynamic mixing of charged chemical species therein during gasification.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 13, 2014
    Publication date: July 17, 2014
    Applicant: ClearSign Combustion Corporation
    Inventor: Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Publication number: 20140182490
    Abstract: Disclosed here are example gasifiers for gasification of solid carbon fuel. An example gasifier includes a vertical vessel that includes feeding means for introducing a fuel at a top and along a first vertical axis in the vessel. The example vessel also includes a pyrolysis zone for pyrolysis of the fuel, a combustion zone for burning pyrolysis gases from the pyrolysis zone, a reduction zone for gasifying carbonized fuel from the pyrolysis zone and an outlet for collecting gases produced in the reduction zone. In addition, the example vessel includes a horizontal plate fixedly mounted between the feeding means and the pyrolysis zone for receiving and retaining the fuel introduced into the vessel. Also, the example vessel includes a movable pusher mounted between the feeding means and the horizontal plate, the movable pusher to push the fuel retained on the horizontal plate into the pyrolysis zone and positioned or positionable above the horizontal plate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2014
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Applicant: Xylowatt, S.A.
    Inventors: Frederic Bourgois, Alexandre Bacq, Johan Klein, Michael Haube
  • Publication number: 20140102000
    Abstract: Gasifiers for the gasification of solid carbon-based fuels are disclosed herein. An example gasifier includes an inlet chamber for introducing fuel into the gasifier and a pyrolysis region for pyrolyzing the fuel introduced into the vessel. The pyrolysis region includes first means for admission of a pyrolysis agent. The example gasifier also includes a combustion region for incinerating pyrolysis gases originating from the pyrolysis region, where the combustion region includes second means for admission of a gasifying agent. Also, the example gasifier includes a reduction region for gasifying carbonized fuel originating from the pyrolysis region, an outlet for collecting gases originating from the reduction region, and a region for collecting and discharging ashes. In addition, the example gasifier includes active transfer means to actively transfer solid material from the pyrolysis region to the reduction region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2013
    Publication date: April 17, 2014
    Inventors: Michael Haube, Johan Klein, Frederic Bourgois, Alexandre Bacq
  • Publication number: 20140093447
    Abstract: Disclosed is an apparatus and method for capturing the hot humid gases from a gypsum board dryer and utilizing those gases in the production of a synthetic gas (referred to as “syngas”). The syngas produced can then be utilized within a gypsum board plant to reduce the amount of natural gas needed. The method utilizes the heated water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) found within the flue gas of a board dryer. The H2O and CO2 are used in a gasification process to yield the syngas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2013
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Inventor: John W. College
  • Publication number: 20140083010
    Abstract: A process for producing fuel gas and for carrying out a metallurgical process includes providing first and second process stages. In the first process stage, biomass is reacted with an oxygen-containing gas so as to obtain a fuel gas containing at least one of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and steam. The fuel gas is cooled to a temperature in a range from 300 to 600° C. The cooled fuel gas is subjected to a solids separation. In the second process stage, the fuel gas after the solids separation is directly supplied to at least one burner of the metallurgical process, the temperature of the fuel gas being maintained above the condensation temperature of tar and within the range from 300 to 600° C. by supplying heat.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2012
    Publication date: March 27, 2014
    Applicant: OUTOTEC OYJ
    Inventors: Andreas Orth, Agnes Von Garnier
  • Publication number: 20140069010
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates generally to novel biomass pyrolysis processes and systems that decrease entrainment of char and other contaminants with the pyrolysis vapors. In certain embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods and systems to prevent entrainment of particles of char and heat carrier with pyrolysis vapors leaving a reactor, while allowing rapid upgrading of the vapors by catalyst(s) that are held in a an upgrading reactor and protected from contact with the char.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2013
    Publication date: March 13, 2014
    Applicant: Phillips 66 Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Hughes, Tie-Pan Shi, Richard D. Sadok, Samuel T. Jones, Johnathan T. Gorke, Natalie A. Rebacz, Liang Zhang, Martin L. Perkins
  • Publication number: 20140053465
    Abstract: A gasification furnace for gasifying a biomass resource in a manner producing a low quantity of tar. The gasification furnace (10) is provided with a punching plate (11) partitioning the furnace interior into upper and lower spaces; a biomass resource supply port (10a) for supplying the biomass resource over the punching plate (11); a first oxidizer supply port (10c) and a second oxidizer supply port (10d) for supplying an oxidizer into the furnace; a first oxidizer supply path supplying the oxidizer from the first oxidizer supply port (10c) from above towards below the punching plate (11); a second oxidizer supply path distributing and supplying to a plurality of locations within a predetermined area in the vicinity of the punching plate (11) from the second oxidizer supply port (10d); and a dry distillation gas output (10b) for discharging dry distillation gas generated by the pyrolysis and partial oxidation of the biomass resource on the punching plate (11) to the outside.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 7, 2011
    Publication date: February 27, 2014
    Applicants: ZE ENERGY INC.
    Inventor: Yasuharu Matsushita
  • Patent number: 8641991
    Abstract: The present invention is generally directed to methods and systems for processing biomass into usable products, wherein such methods and systems involve an integration into conventional refineries and/or conventional refinery processes. Such methods and systems provide for an enhanced ability to utilize biofuels efficiently, and they can, at least in some embodiments, be used in hybrid refineries alongside conventional refinery processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: William L. Schinski
  • Publication number: 20130291437
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and apparatus (10) for use in rarefying a syngas so as to improve a calorific value of the syngas through the reduction of a concentration of tar from the syngas. The apparatus (10) comprises a gasification/pyrolysis means (12) such as a kiln (11), for generation of a flow of syngas from a raw material, and a cracking means (14). The cracking means (14) comprising a body (42) having an insulated internal volume (44) adapted to hold a heated bed of char. The flow of syngas from the kiln (11) is directed through the cracking means (14) where it comes into contact with the heated bed of char. Heavy long-chained carbon based molecules within the syngas undergo a cracking reaction and are broken into constituent lighter carbon based molecules. The method and apparatus of the present invention provides a rarefied output flow of syngas having an improved calorific quality and a substantially reduced concentration of tar.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2011
    Publication date: November 7, 2013
    Applicant: ANSAC PTY LTD
    Inventors: Michael Joseph Martella, Dongke Zhang
  • Patent number: 8529644
    Abstract: Disclosed are a method and a corresponding apparatus for converting a biomass reactant into synthesis gas. The method includes the steps of (1) heating biomass in a first molten liquid bath at a first temperature, wherein the first temperature is at least about 100° C., but less than the decomposition temperature of the biomass, wherein gas comprising water is evaporated and air is pressed from the biomass, thereby yielding dried biomass with minimal air content. (2) Recapturing the moisture evaporated from the biomass in step 1 for use in the process gas. (3) Heating the dried biomass in a second molten liquid bath at a second temperature, wherein the second temperature is sufficiently high to cause flash pyrolysis of the dried biomass, thereby yielding product gases, tar, and char. (4) Inserting recaptured steam into the process gas, which may optionally include external natural gas or hydrogen gas or recycled syngas for mixing and reforming with tar and non-condensable gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 10, 2013
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Mark A. Dietenberger, Mark H. Anderson
  • Publication number: 20130212944
    Abstract: A zirconium-based mixed oxide or zirconium-based mixed hydroxide which is capable of (a) at least 90% v/v conversion of naphthalene at atmospheric pressure at a temperature in the range 600-700° C. using a residence time of about 0.3 seconds, and/or (b) providing an initial heat of adsorption of ammonia of greater than 150 kJ/mol when measured by ammonia flowing gas microcalorimetry. Also, a method for purifying gas produced from the gasification of carbonaceous materials, comprising the step of bringing the gas into contact with such mixed oxides or mixed hydroxides.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2011
    Publication date: August 22, 2013
    Inventors: Hazel Stephenson, Heather Bradshaw, Pekka Simell, Anu Solla, Ella Ronkkonen, Outi Krause
  • Patent number: 8506917
    Abstract: In a circulating fluidized-bed gasification system, an ammonia-off gas 30 from an ammonia remover 25 is fed to a catalytic denitrator 15 with a flow rate regulated such that a molar ratio of the ammonia in the ammonia off-gas 30 from the ammonia recover 25 to nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas 6 from a combustion furnace 1 is kept within a setting range, and a reminder of the ammonia off-gas 30 is fed to the combustion furnace 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Assignee: IHI Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroaki Ohara, Koki Hamada
  • Publication number: 20130199093
    Abstract: In various embodiments, the present invention provides a reaction chamber, including a catalyst, and a heating chamber configured to receive light. The heating chamber is positioned underneath at least a portion of the reaction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Publication date: August 8, 2013
    Applicant: Regents of the University of Minnesota
    Inventor: Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Publication number: 20130185999
    Abstract: A device for converting a fuel including solid components, known as a solid fuel, into a gaseous fuel, includes a pyrolysis zone (2) for pyrolyzing solid fuel, having pyrolysis elements that are capable of decomposing the solid fuel into a pyrolysis gas and into a solid pyrolysis residue, known as coke, and a combustion zone (3), which is distinct from the pyrolysis zone (2), for burning the pyrolysis gas and having combustion elements (31, 32, 33). The device also includes elements for circulating pyrolysis gas from the pyrolysis zone (2) to the combustion zone (3), which is surrounded by the pyrolysis zone (2).
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 5, 2011
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Applicant: S3D
    Inventors: Li Chen, Anthony Kerihuel, Luc Gerun
  • Publication number: 20130133305
    Abstract: A system includes a gasifier having a first enclosure having a first inlet, a first outlet, and a first interior volume. The first inlet is configured to receive a first fuel feedstock into the first interior volume, and the first outlet is configured to output a first syngas away from the first interior volume. The system also includes a plasma gasifier disposed downstream from the first outlet and coupled to a waste stream produced by the gasifier from the first fuel feedstock.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2013
    Publication date: May 30, 2013
    Inventor: General Electric Company
  • Patent number: 8419902
    Abstract: Proposed are a system and method for wasteless pyrolytic processing and complete utilization of municipal and domestic wastes. The wastes are sequentially passed through units of sorting, grinding, drying, accumulating, and sending to a pyrolysis reactor for pyrolytic treatment. The syngas produced in the pyrolysis is passed through dry cleaning, dust catching, a first wet cleaning with water, a second wet cleaning with alkali, and a floatation unit for separation of water which is purified to an extent sufficient for technical use. The purified syngas is also passed through an absorber and is then used as a working medium for a power generation unit such as a gas turbine co-generator that generates electricity. Solid products of the pyrolysis reaction, such as coke, are returned to the reactor for afterburning, and the heat of the reaction can be utilized in a dryer, or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2013
    Assignee: Greenlight Energy Solutions, LLC
    Inventors: Arkady Feerer, Marat Hasbulatovich Kulakov, Denis Zagorsky
  • Patent number: 8398730
    Abstract: A method of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) includes providing a gasification reactor having a cavity defined at least partially by a first wall. The reactor also includes a first passage defined at least partially by at least a portion of the first wall and a second wall, wherein the first passage is in heat transfer communication with the first wall. The reactor further includes a second passage defined at least partially by at least a portion of the second wall and a third wall. The method also includes coupling the cavity in flow communication with the first and second passages. The method further includes producing a first synthetic gas (syngas) stream within the cavity. The method also includes channeling at least a portion of the first syngas stream to the first and second passages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Paul Steven Wallace, Arnaldo Frydman
  • Patent number: 8372166
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The system may be a modular system housed within a frame facilitating relatively easy transportation. The system may include a reactor vessel with distinct reaction zones that facilitate greater control and a more efficient system. The system may include a syngas heater channeling syngas collected downstream of the carbon layer support and to the pyrolysis reaction zone. The system may also include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The system may further include an agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Patent number: 8372167
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor with an agitator drive assembly for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel. The agitator drive assembly may include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The syngas separation chamber may feed syngas downstream to a syngas heater in a pyrolysis reaction zone in the reactor vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Publication number: 20130019529
    Abstract: A method for producing synthesis gas, including: 1) pre-processing a biomass raw material; 2) pyrolyzing the biomass raw material to yield a pyrolysis gas and a carbon powder; 3) separating the pyrolysis gas from the carbon powder and a solid heat carrier; 4) separating the carbon powder away from the solid heat carrier via a solid-solid separator; 5) conveying the generated pyrolysis gas to a condensate tank for spray condensation, condensing a condensable part in the pyrolysis gas to generate biological fuel oil, pressurizing the generated biological fuel oil by a high pressure oil pump and feeding to a gasification furnace to be gasified; and 6) feeding one part of non-condensable pyrolysis gas to a combustion bed to combust with air, and conveying the other part of the non-condensable pyrolysis gas to the pyrolysis bed as a fluidizing medium.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2012
    Publication date: January 24, 2013
  • Patent number: 8317886
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for starved air gasification of solid organic materials, including biomass and other wastes, to convert the chemical energy stored in such materials to thermal energy or gaseous products that may be used in biochemical and/or chemical synthesis. Specifically, the system utilizes a gasifier having a “moving bed of ash” hearth wherein the feedstock is partially oxidized at a low temperature (less than 1500 degrees F.) in a square or rectangular chamber having a vaulted, tapered or flat roof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Nexterra Systems Corp.
    Inventors: Robert G. Graham, Jan Barynin, Kenneth M. Davison, Dave Berner
  • Patent number: 8216345
    Abstract: A gasification system is disclosed having a combustion or reaction vessel, a scrubber housing, and a filter housing. A carbonaceous fuel is partially combusted in the reaction vessel to generate a combustible gas. An improved ash support and removal system reduces clogging and other problems in the reaction vessel. The combustible gas passes through the scrubber housing to remove matter such as tar and oil, and the scrubbed gas passes through a hybrid blower to the filter housing. Wood chips are used in the filter housing to provide a relatively clean, dry gas. Wastewater and other waste products from the scrubber housing and filter housing are captured and returned to the reaction vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2012
    Assignee: Verde Reformation, Inc.
    Inventors: Jackie W. Rogers, Michael W. Rogers
  • Patent number: 8206471
    Abstract: Efficient biomass conversion systems, methods and apparatus utilize a fast pyrolysis unit installed at a sawmill or similar location where substantial quantities of biomass are generated, with the biomass generated at the sawmill fed into the fast pyrolysis unit under pyrolytic reaction conditions, and with exhaust gases containing entrained matter resulting from the pyrolytic reactions being separated into constituent char and bio-fuel constituents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2012
    Assignee: American Bio Energy Converting Corp.
    Inventor: Johnny M. Tharpe, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8084656
    Abstract: The various embodiments of the present invention relate generally to the process of gasification and the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, the various embodiments of the present disclosure relate to the process of biomass gasification and the reduction or elimination of tars from the hydrocarbon-rich product gas derived from biomass gasification. The present invention comprises systems and methods for the reduction of tar from a synthesis gas derived from biomass gasification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2011
    Assignee: Rentech, Inc.
    Inventor: Herman Feldmann
  • Patent number: 8062392
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a system for biomass treatment which addresses the need to find economical solutions to transport biomass. In the present invention, small, distributed gasifiers convert the biomass into synthesis gas (“syngas”). The syngas is then transported via a pipeline network to a central fuel production facility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2011
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Paul F. Bryan, Yunquan Liu, Curtis L. Krause
  • Patent number: 7964026
    Abstract: A gasification system having a combustor vessel, an optional scrubber vessel, an optional fixer vessel, an optional cyclone vessel and an optional demister vessel. A wide variety of possibly moist solid or semi-solid carbonaceous fuels may be partially combusted in the combustor to generate a combustible gas and a mineral ash. An improved ash support and removal subsystem reduces clogging and other problems. The combustible gas is conveyed by optional heavy-duty blowers through the optional vessels to remove liquids and particulates and to undergo catalytic chemical reactions to provide a relatively clean, dry, highly-combustible hydrocarbon gas that captures a relatively high fraction of the potential heating value of the fuel. Internal gases, liquids and particulates from the vessels may be recycled inside the system to improve efficiency and prevent liquid waste. A portion of the internal liquids may also be extracted for other uses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignee: Power Reclamation, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael W. Rogers
  • Patent number: 7943014
    Abstract: An integrated combustion chamber and fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor. In one embodiment, the combustion chamber is cylindrical and the pyrolysis reactor is provided annularly about the combustion chamber with an annular wall that provides a common surface for heat transfer. A lift tube in fluid communication with the pyrolysis reactor is provided within the combustion chamber for circulating biomass and an inert fluidizable media upwardly through the lift tube; this advantageously increases heat transfer and leads to more rapid pyrolysis. The media and biomass exit the lift tube into either a freeboard area of the pyrolysis reactor or into a low density region of the fluidized bed. A condensable gaseous product is produced during pyrolysis that has economic value. The apparatus and process are especially well suited to the pyrolysis of low density agricultural biomass. The apparatus is compact and particularly well suited to mobile operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2011
    Assignee: Agri-Therm Inc.
    Inventors: Franco Berruti, Cedric Briens, Ronald Golden
  • Publication number: 20110083367
    Abstract: A method and a device for producing synthesis gas from biomass, wherein the biomass is decomposed into pyrolysis coke and pyrolisis gas in at least one pyrolisis reactor, the pyrolysis coke is introduced into the fluidised bed of a synthesis gas reactor and the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidisation gas for the synthesis gas reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 18, 2009
    Publication date: April 14, 2011
    Inventor: Karl-Heinz Tetzlaff
  • Patent number: 7918973
    Abstract: A process for treating solid organic materials, especially for recycling treated wood, uses energy provided by hot gases at the bottom of a reactor column to perform a distillation operation which ensures splitting of organic bonds in the material and uses, as the distillation operation progresses, constant control between a first temperature of the hot gases before they are introduced into the lower part of the reactor column and a second temperature of a layer of the material located in an area immediately above the grid of the reactor column. When the first temperature and the second temperature are identical or virtually identical, corresponding to removal of all the organic bonds of the material by evaporation and transport by the hot gases from the bottom to the top of the column, the layer of material at the second temperature is removed in order to collect a material that largely consists of carbon and constitutes a secondary raw material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Thermya
    Inventor: Jean-Sebastien Hery
  • Publication number: 20110041404
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing synthetic gas from bio-waste includes a chamber, a feeder, a plasma torch, a steam-providing and water-circulating system and a synthetic gas cleaner. The feeder is in communication with the chamber. The feeder feeds the bio-waste into the chamber. The plasma torch is in communication with the chamber. The plasma torch provides plasma into the chamber for gasifying the bio-waste into the synthetic gas. The steam-providing and water-circulating system circulates water for cooling the chamber and the plasma torch. Furthermore, the steam-providing and water-circulating system and provides steam into the plasma torch for the generation of the plasma. The synthetic gas cleaner is in communication with the chamber. The synthetic gas cleaner receives the produced synthetic gas and polishes it into fuel-class gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2008
    Publication date: February 24, 2011
    Inventors: Yuh-Jenq Yu, Chin-Ching Tzeng
  • Publication number: 20100326087
    Abstract: An apparatus which includes: a carbonizer (1) which pyrolyzes a biomass to yield a pyrolysis gas and a carbonization product; a furnace (2) in which the carbonization product supplied from the carbonizer (1) is burned; a closed vessel (3) which is disposed in the furnace (2) and holds therein a carbonate (4) which has been melted by the heat generated by the carbonization product burned in the furnace (2); an introduction pipe (5) disposed so that the pyrolysis gas is introduced into the molten carbonate (4) in the closed vessel (3); and a fuel gas supply pipe (6) disposed so that a fuel gas, which is the pyrolysis gas sent through the introduction pipe (5), passed through the molten carbonate (4), and purified by reaction with the molten carbonate (4), is sent from the closed vessel (3) to the outside of the furnace (2).
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2009
    Publication date: December 30, 2010
    Inventors: Makoto Kawase, Kazuyoshi Ichikawa, Maromu Ohtaka, Hiroshi Morita