Generators Patents (Class 48/61)
  • Patent number: 11459235
    Abstract: A process can be used to treat a synthesis gas stream comprising steam reforming firstly in a primary reformer and subsequently in a secondary reformer. Crude synthesis gas exiting the secondary reformer may be cooled in a steam generator and then further cooled in a steam superheater. The crude synthesis gas stream after exiting the secondary reformer may be split into at least two gas substreams, of which only a first gas substream is fed to the steam generator. A second gas substream may be supplied to the steam superheater, bypassing the steam generator. Only the first gas substream, after flowing through the steam generator, may be subjected to a CO conversion reaction in a first CO conversion reactor before the first gas substream is supplied to the steam superheater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2022
    Assignees: THYSSENKRUPP INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS AG, THYSSENKRUPP AG
    Inventors: Joachim Johanning, Bernd Keil
  • Patent number: 11404706
    Abstract: Methods and devices for generating power using PEM fuel cell power systems comprising a rotary bed reactor for hydrogen generation are disclosed. Hydrogen is generated by the hydrolysis of fuels such as lithium aluminum hydride and mixtures thereof. Water required for hydrolysis may be captured from the fuel cell exhaust. Water is preferably fed to the reactor in the form of a mist generated by an atomizer. An exemplary 750 We-h, 400 We PEM fuel cell power system may be characterized by a specific energy of about 550 We-h/kg and a specific power of about 290 We/kg.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2022
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy Limited
    Inventors: Jason L. Stimits, Russell Barton, Douglas A. Knight, Iain M. Fraser, Hao Huang, Sandra H. Withers-Kirby, Piotr Marcin Kleszyk, Hossein Ostadi, Zachary Elliott
  • Patent number: 11345593
    Abstract: A hydrogen production system including a steam reformer unit, a steam addition line arranged to add steam upstream the steam reformer unit, a hydrogen membrane unit comprising a hydrogen permeable membrane and being arranged to allow at least a part of a reformed stream and a hydrocarbon feed stream to pass on different sides of a hydrogen permeable membrane, so that hydrogen passes from the reformed stream into the hydrocarbon feed stream, thereby forming said hydrogen enriched hydrocarbon stream, and a separation unit downstream the first side of the hydrogen membrane unit, where the separation unit is arranged to separating the reformed stream exiting the first side of the hydrogen membrane unit into a hydrogen product gas and an off-gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2022
    Assignee: HALDOR TOPSØE A/S
    Inventor: Peter Mølgaard Mortensen
  • Patent number: 11286437
    Abstract: An object is to curb damage localized in a slag capturing portion caused when slag passes therethrough. A slag discharge device includes: a screen mesh (6) that is a porous member including a plurality of through-holes (6a) formed therein; and a crushing device (7) that crushes water-granulated slag (S2) captured by the screen mesh (6). The crushing device has a crusher head (12) that breaks, with a pressure, and thus crushes the water-granulated slag (S2), a hydraulic cylinder (13) that reciprocates the crusher head in a predetermined direction, a guide plate (14) that restricts movement of the crusher head caused by the hydraulic cylinder, and a plurality of crushing spaces (15) in which the water-granulated slag (S2) is crushed. A communication opening that causes the crushing spaces (15) to communicate with each other is formed in a partitioning wall guide plate (14a) of the guide plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2022
    Assignee: MITSUBISHI POWER, LTD.
    Inventors: Tatsuya Kume, Haruto Shinoda, Yoshiaki Arakawa, Yoshinori Koyama, Yasunari Shibata, Yasuyuki Miyata, Masashi Kitada
  • Patent number: 11267701
    Abstract: A catalytic device includes a hollow body, a piston housed in the hollow body, a catalyst of a gas generation reaction based on bringing a reactive liquid into contact with the catalyst, the catalyst being housed in a catalysis chamber, the piston and the hollow body defining a hermetic compression chamber for containing a compressible fluid, and being mobile relative to one another between a closed position in which the catalysis chamber is tight to the reactive liquid, and an open position for the entry of the reactive liquid into the catalysis chamber. The catalytic device is conformed to switch from the open position to the closed position, respectively from the closed position to the open position, when the compressible fluid is contained in the compression chamber and a force applied to the piston is greater than or equal to, respectively less than, a closure force.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2022
    Assignee: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Michael Bouvier, Philippe Capron, Jerome Delmas, Vincent Mathieu, Isabelle Rougeaux
  • Patent number: 11255020
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide reduction system comprises: an electrolytic unit including an electrolysis cell having a cathode to reduce a first substance containing carbon dioxide and thus produce a first product containing a carbon compound, and an anode to oxidize a second substance containing water or hydroxide ions and thus produce a second product containing oxygen, a detection unit to acquire data defining operation states of the electrolysis cell, and an electrolytic regulator to regulate electrolysis conditions of the electrolysis cell; a compression unit including a compressor to compress the first product, and a compressor regulator to regulate compression conditions of the first product by the compressor; and a controller programmed to predict a flow rate of the carbon compound discharged from the electrolysis cell in accordance with the data to control regulation of the compression conditions in accordance with the predicted flow rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2022
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Akihiko Ono, Yuki Kudo, Ryota Kitagawa, Masakazu Yamagiwa, Jun Tamura, Satoshi Mikoshiba, Yoshitsune Sugano, Asahi Motoshige, Takayuki Tsukagoshi
  • Patent number: 11254568
    Abstract: Integrated liquid fuel catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reformer and fuel cell systems can include a plurality or an array of spaced-apart CPOX reactor units, each reactor unit including an elongated tube having a gas-permeable wall with internal and external surfaces. The wall encloses an unobstructed gaseous flow passageway. At least a portion of the wall has CPOX catalyst disposed therein and/or comprising its structure. The catalyst-containing wall structure and open gaseous flow passageway enclosed thereby define a gaseous phase CPOX reaction zone, the catalyst-containing wall section being gas-permeable to allow gaseous CPOX reaction mixture to diffuse therein and hydrogen rich product reformate to diffuse therefrom. The liquid fuel CPOX reformer also can include a vaporizer, one or more igniters, and a source of liquid reformable fuel. The hydrogen-rich reformate can be converted to electricity within a fuel cell unit integrated with the CPOX reactor unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2022
    Assignee: WATT Fuel Cell Corp.
    Inventors: Caine M. Finnerty, Paul DeWald
  • Patent number: 11186482
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a solid fuel, a system and a method for generating hydrogen. The solid fuel comprises sodium borohydride, catalyst loaded fibres and a binder, wherein the catalyst loaded fibres and the binder form a scaffold structure within which the sodium borohydride is positioned. The system comprises a fuel cartridge containing the solid fuel of the present invention for generating hydrogen gas, a reactor configured to house the fuel cartridge, a tank for storing water, a pump and a liquid conduit for conveying water from the tank to the fuel cartridge housed within the reactor to induce a hydrolysis reaction of the solid fuel contained in the fuel cartridge and a controller for regulating flow of the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2021
    Assignee: TEMASEK POLYTECHNIC
    Inventors: Lei Wang, Ming Han, Yunzhong Chen, Ee Ho Gareth Tang
  • Patent number: 11161579
    Abstract: A submersible vehicle for collecting material from a seafloor includes a chassis. A module may be supported on the chassis, the module including an electric power supply. A drive system may be supported on the chassis, the drive system including a battery, and a propulsion assembly, the battery in electrical communication with the electric power supply and the propulsion assembly, and the propulsion assembly operable to locate the chassis relative to a seafloor. A power tool may be coupled to the chassis, the power tool operable to collect material from the seafloor. A reactor may be supported on the chassis, the reactor defining a reaction chamber. A valve assembly may be actuatable to move a hydrogen-containing gas from the reaction chamber and direct the hydrogen-containing gas to one or more of the electric power supply or the power tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2021
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2021
    Assignee: LTAG SYSTEMS LLC
    Inventors: Alexander H. Slocum, Jonathan T. Slocum
  • Patent number: 11149531
    Abstract: A method of producing temperature and pressure conditioned fluids using a fuel cell. The fuel cell generates an anode exhaust stream of water vapour and carbon dioxide. The water in the exhaust stream is condensed and separated to produce a stream of water and a stream of carbon dioxide. A first portion of the stream of water is heated to produce a stream of steam, which is combined with the fuel to form the anode input stream. A stream of condensed carbon dioxide is obtained by condensing at least a portion of the carbon dioxide in the stream of carbon dioxide. At least one fluid is heated and compressed to a target temperature and pressure for each fluid, the at least one fluid comprising a second portion of the stream of water or at least a portion of the condensed carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2021
    Assignees: 1304342 Alberta Ltd., 1304338 Alberta Ltd.
    Inventors: Jose Lourenco, Mackenzie Millar
  • Patent number: 11078846
    Abstract: A fuel delivery system includes a turbine, a pump, and an oxygen removal unit. The turbine is adapted to receive and expel fuel at different pressures. The pump is in fluid communication with, and mechanically coupled to, the turbine, and is configured to expel and receive the fuel at about the respective different pressures. The turbine is configured to convert pressure energy of the fuel to kinetic energy to drive the pump. The oxygen removal unit is in fluid communication with at least one of the turbine and the pump, and is configured to remove oxygen from the fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2021
    Assignee: HAMILTON SUNSTRAND CORPORATION
    Inventors: Morgan O'Rorke, Erick Ramos
  • Patent number: 11063283
    Abstract: A fuel cell system and method of operating, the system including a fuel cell stack configured to generate electricity and anode exhaust, a mixer configured to mix fuel received from a fuel source with steam and the anode exhaust, a low-temperature pre-reformer configured to at least partially reform fuel received from the mixer at a temperature of less than about 420° C., and an anode recuperator configured to heat fuel received from the low-temperature pre-reformer using the anode exhaust and to provide the fuel to the fuel cell stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2021
    Assignee: BLOOM ENERGY CORPORATION
    Inventor: David Weingaertner
  • Patent number: 10981786
    Abstract: A process for direct compression of hydrogen separated from a hydrocarbon source is described herein. The process comprises a first zone wherein a hydrocarbon reaction that produce hydrogen occurs, a ceramic proton conductor which under an applied electric field transport hydrogen from said first zone to said second zone, and a second zone where compressed hydrogen is produced. The heat energy generated by ohmic resistance in the membrane is partially recuperated as chemical energy in the hydrocarbon reforming process to generate hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2021
    Assignee: COORSTEK MEMBRANE SCIENCES AS
    Inventors: Christian Kjølseth, Harald Malerød-Fjeld, Per Kristian Vestre
  • Patent number: 10888834
    Abstract: The invention relates to an exchanger-reactor comprising at least three stages with at least one stage comprising both: millimetric channels at least partially covered with a catalyst for stimulating a steam reforming reaction, and millimetric channels at least partially covered with a catalyst for stimulating a water gas reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2021
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide, Société Anonyme pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procédés Georges Claude
    Inventors: Matthieu Flin, Marie Basin, Olivier Dubet, Daniel Gary, Laurent Prost, Solène Valentin, Marc Wagner
  • Patent number: 10822560
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for gasifying raw material. The method includes feeding the raw material into an upper part of a fixed-bed gasifier, introducing the raw material from the upper part of the gasifier to a pyrolysis zone of the gasifier to form the fixed-bed and pyrolyzing the raw material in the presence of pyrolysis air to form a pyrolysis product. Introducing the pyrolysis product from the pyrolysis zone to a lower part of the gasifier, introducing primary air countercurrently to the lower part, carrying out a final gasification in a lower part of the gasifier in order to form a gasified gas. Introducing the gasified gas to a catalytic oxidation part and through a catalyst layer of the catalytic oxidation part, and reforming the gasified gas by way of the catalytic oxidation in the presence of reforming air in the catalytic oxidation part, forming a gaseous product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2020
    Assignee: Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy
    Inventors: Esa Kurkela, Ilkka Hiltunen
  • Patent number: 10807692
    Abstract: The present invention includes an underwater vehicle power unit and method of operating the same comprising: a fuel and waste stack comprising one or more reactant or fuel storage bladders and one or more waste storage bladders that are volumetrically and gravitationally balanced during operation; a fuel reactor that generates hydrogen; a fuel cell capable of generating an electrical current when exposed to hydrogen; and a controller that controls the flow of fuel into the hydrogen generator, the flow of hydrogen into the fuel cell and the flow of waste from the hydrogen generator, and/or the fuel cell into the one or more waste storage bladders.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2020
    Assignee: Lynntech, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan Reeh, Jady Stevens, Tiffany Jefferson, Justin McIntire, Chris Hadley, John Zbranek, Jeffrey S. Parkey, Ashwin Kumar Balasubramanian, Jibi Varughese, Geoffrey D. Hitchens, Marc W. Penny
  • Patent number: 10800692
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method for heating a biomass moving along an industrial treatment line including an inlet (91) for the incoming biomass, a pressure pump (93), a heating unit (94) and a treatment station (95). According to an embodiment, steam is injected into the line between the pressure pump (93) and the heating unit (94) such as to pre-heat the biomass by condensing the steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignee: SUEZ INTERNATIONAL
    Inventors: Pierre Emmanuel Pardo, Jean-Louis Bourdais
  • Patent number: 10749193
    Abstract: A device includes a container having a top plate containing an array of oxygen limiting pinholes and a chamber to hold a chemical hydride fuel, a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly supported within the container between the top plate and the chamber positioned to receive oxygen from the pinholes and hydrogen from the chamber, and a valve assembly positioned to regulate additional flow of oxygen to the fuel cell proton exchange membrane electrode assembly responsive to hydrogen pressure in the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2020
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Steven J. Eickhoff, Jeffrey Michael Klein, Jason Wiebesick
  • Patent number: 10717040
    Abstract: Hydrogen purification devices and their components are disclosed. In some embodiments, the devices may include at least one foil-microscreen assembly disposed between and secured to first and second end frames. The at least one foil-microscreen assembly may include at least one hydrogen-selective membrane and at least one microscreen structure including a non-porous planar sheet having a plurality of apertures forming a plurality of fluid passages. The planar sheet may include generally opposed planar surfaces configured to provide support to the permeate side. The plurality of fluid passages may extend between the opposed surfaces. The at least one hydrogen-selective membrane may be metallurgically bonded to the at least one microscreen structure. In some embodiments, the devices may include a permeate frame having at least one membrane support structure that spans at least a substantial portion of an open region and that is configured to support at least one foil-microscreen assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: Element 1 Corp.
    Inventors: David J. Edlund, Koji Hoshi, Robert Todd Studebaker, Robert Jacob Studebaker
  • Patent number: 10427130
    Abstract: A method of continuous hydrothermal carbonization of sludge containing organic matter involves a step of hydrothermal reaction carried out in a reactor, and at least one cooling step in which the sludge having undergone the hydrothermal reaction step is cooled. The hydrothermal reaction step includes: a step of injection of sludge in which the sludge is injected into the reactor by a first inlet; a step of injection of steam in which steam is injected into the reactor by a second inlet, the second inlet being distinct from the first inlet; a step of circulation, in which a mixture consisting of the sludge and the steam injected into the reactor is placed in circulation within the reactor; a step of continuous extraction of at least a portion of the mixture contained in the reactor by a sludge outlet. Also disclosed is a device for carrying out such a method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: SUEZ INTERNATIONAL
    Inventors: Pierre Emmanuel Pardo, Jean-Louis Bourdais
  • Patent number: 10181615
    Abstract: A method of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system comprises directing hydrogen gas generated on the negative side of the redox flow battery system to a catalyst surface, and fluidly contacting the hydrogen gas with an electrolyte comprising a metal ion at the catalyst surface, wherein the metal ion is chemically reduced by the hydrogen gas at the catalyst surface, and a state of charge of the electrolyte and pH of the electrolyte remain substantially balanced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2019
    Assignee: ESS Tech, Inc.
    Inventors: Yang Song, Craig E. Evans
  • Patent number: 10106404
    Abstract: The invention discloses residual gas heat exchange combustion-supporting system based on a methanol-water mixture reforming hydrogen production system and a method thereof, wherein the residual gas heat exchange combustion-supporting system comprises a reformer, a heat exchange tube and an air intake device; the reformer is provided with a reforming chamber, a separating device, a combustion chamber and an exhaust vent, the residual gas produced by the reformer is discharged from the exhaust vent to the first delivery passage of the heat exchange tube; the heat exchange tube has coaxial double-layer first and second delivery passages. The invention enables to fully reclaim the heat from the residual gas discharged by the reformer, so that the outside air is warmed before entering the reformer, which in turn makes the warmed outside air attain a very good combustion-supporting effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2018
    Inventor: Hua Xiang
  • Patent number: 9878908
    Abstract: A liquid fuel reformer (400) includes a fuel vaporizer (415) which utilizes heat from an upstream source of heat, specifically, an electric heater (406), operable in the start-up mode of the reformer (400), and therefore independent of the reforming reaction zone of the reformer, to vaporize fuel in a downstream vaporization zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2018
    Assignee: WATT AGENT, LLC
    Inventors: Caine M. Finnerty, Paul DeWald
  • Patent number: 9836075
    Abstract: A voltage detector operates to detect a system power supply voltage and generate a trigger signal. A control signal generator responds to the trigger signal and generates a control signal. A DC bias generator responds to the control signal by generating a DC bias. The control signal controls the DC bias to have a first value when the power supply voltage is a first voltage and have a second value when the power supply voltage is a second voltage different from the first voltage, wherein the first value is different from the second value. A dynamic DC bias is generated which can not only support a larger voltage scope, but also significantly improves signal to noise ratio. The system power supply detection may concern stop/start operation of an automobile engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2017
    Assignee: STMicroelectronics (Shenzhen) R&D Co. Ltd
    Inventors: Min Chen, Wen Liu, Hong Xia Li
  • Patent number: 9819036
    Abstract: A reformer is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a channel to convey a preheated plurality of reactants containing both a feedstock fuel and an oxidant. A plasma generator is provided to apply an electrical potential to the reactants sufficient to ionize one or more of the reactants. These ionized reactants are then conveyed to a reaction zone where they are chemically transformed into synthesis gas containing a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A heat transfer mechanism is used to transfer heat from an external heat source to the reformer to provide the heat of reformation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2017
    Assignee: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventors: Joseph J Hartvigsen, Singaravelu Elangovan, Piotr Czernichowski, Michele Hollist, Michael Boettcher
  • Patent number: 9780623
    Abstract: A compact biomass gasification-based power generation system that converts carbonaceous material into electrical power, including an enclosure that encases: a gasifier including a pyrolysis module coaxially arranged above a reactor module, a generator including an engine and an alternator, and a hopper. The generator system additionally includes a first heat exchanger fluidly connected to an outlet of the reactor module and thermally connected to the drying module, a second heat exchanger fluidly connected to an outlet of the engine and thermally connected to the pyrolysis module, and a third heat exchanger fluidly connected between the outlet of the reactor module and the first heat exchanger, the third heat exchanger thermally connected to an air inlet of the reactor module. The system can additionally include a central wiring conduit electrically connected to the pyrolysis module, reactor module, and engine, and a control panel connected to the conduit that enables single-side operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: All Power Labs, Inc.
    Inventors: James Matthew Mason, Bear Kaufmann, Nick Bindbeutel, Julia Hasty, Ariel Fisk-Vittori
  • Patent number: 9737868
    Abstract: A reforming device according to the present invention has a compressor, a first heat exchanger, a desulfurization device, a reformer, a raw material gas branching line that extracts a compressed natural gas from a downstream side of the desulfurization device with respect to the flow direction of the natural gas and supplies the natural gas to the reformer, and a flue gas discharging line that discharges a flue gas generated in the reformer, wherein the first heat exchanger is provided in the flue gas discharging line, and the flue gas is used as a heating medium of the compressed natural gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.
    Inventors: Mikiya Sakurai, Naoya Okuzumi, Ryota Shimura, Shuichi Miyamoto, Yoshio Seiki, Hiroyuki Osora
  • Patent number: 9702548
    Abstract: A co-firing process is described using cleaned coal and processed biomass to reduce adverse by-products in a coal combusting apparatus. The coal feedstock comprises an aggregate blend of cleaned coal and processed biomass. The biomass feedstock comprises processed biomass pellets. The total energy density is predetermined and can be similar to the coal component or higher than the coal component. The intracellular salt in the processed biomass is at least 60 wt % less for the processed organic-carbon-containing feedstock used to make the processed biomass pellets than that of the starting un-processed processed organic-carbon-containing feedstock. The cleaned coal has a sulfur content that is 50 wt % less than that of un-cleaned coal before it passed through the coal-cleaning sub-system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2017
    Assignee: Biomass Energy Enhancements, LLC
    Inventors: Philip James Scalzo, Carleton Drew Tait, Doug M Van Thorre, Michael L Catto
  • Patent number: 9701535
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the production of a syngas mixture by catalytic partial oxidation. The syngas mixture is suitable as an intermediate in the production of hydrogen. According to the invention, the syngas is cooled, prior to a water gas shift reaction, with liquid water. This has the advantage of avoiding the problem of metal dusting, and it presents a gas mixture comprising water vapor that is particularly suitable for a water gas shift reaction in the production of hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2017
    Assignee: STAMICARBON B.V.
    Inventors: Gaetano Iaquaniello, Barbara Cucchiella, Elena Antonetti
  • Patent number: 9683738
    Abstract: A co-firing process is described using coal and processed biomass to reduce adverse by-products in a coal combusting apparatus. The coal feedstock is selected from coal, a coal substitute processed biomass, or an aggregate blend of coal and processed biomass. The biomass feedstock comprises processed biomass pellets. The total energy density is predetermined and can be similar to the coal component or higher than the coal component. The intracellular salt in the processed biomass is at least 60 wt % less for the processed organic-carbon-containing feedstock used to make the processed biomass pellets than that of the starting un-processed processed organic-carbon-containing feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2017
    Assignee: Biomass Energy Enhancements, LLC
    Inventors: Michael L Catto, Carleton Drew Tait, Doug M Van Thorre, Philip James Scalzo
  • Patent number: 9657243
    Abstract: A process for the gasification of wet biomass. The process comprises heating wet biomass at a pressure in the range of from 22.1 MPa to 35 MPa. The wet biomass is heated from a temperature of at most T1 to a temperature of at least T2 by heat exchange with a first heating fluid. The gasification product is further heated. The further heated gasification product is used as the first heating fluid, upon which the further heated gasification product is cooled down from a temperature of at least T3 to a temperature of at most T4. The temperatures T1, T2, T3 and T4 can be calculated by using certain mathematical formulae. Also claimed: a reaction apparatus for the gasification of wet biomass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: GENSOS HOLDING B.V.
    Inventors: John Harinck, Klaas Gerrit Smit
  • Patent number: 9643843
    Abstract: A method for reforming hydrocarbon-containing feed gas into synthesis gas, involving processing of the feed gas by pre-reforming at least partially converting one or more higher hydrocarbons into methane, and heating the feed gas by exothermic catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons before the introduction thereof into the main reforming zone, and, subsequent to the pre-reforming, reforming the pre-reformed product with the addition of a controlled quantity of an oxidizing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: AIR LIQUIDE GLOBAL E&C SOLUTIONS GERMANY GMBH
    Inventors: Rainer Morgenroth, Andreas Bormann
  • Patent number: 9556025
    Abstract: In accordance with one or more embodiments, a tubular catalyst-containing reactor system is provided. The system includes a housing and a vaporizer unit in the housing comprising a helically wound tubular assembly for receiving and at least partially vaporizing a liquid chemical reactant stream. A reformer unit in the housing receives a vaporized chemical reactant stream from the vaporizer unit. The reformer unit comprises a helically wound tubular assembly connected to and positioned coaxially relative to the helically wound tubular assembly of the vaporizer unit. The helically wound tubular assembly of the reformer unit contains a catalyst for catalyzing formation of gas product stream from the vaporized chemical reactant stream. A burner unit heats the vaporizer unit and the reformer unit. The burner unit receives a fuel stream and an air stream and produces a flame generally inside the helically wound tubular assemblies of the vaporizer unit and the reformer unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2017
    Assignee: HydrIP, LLC
    Inventors: Charles W. Krueger, George M. Roberts, Edward G. Kelrikh, Michael Y. Leshchiner
  • Patent number: 9528057
    Abstract: A system for production of high-quality syngas comprising a first dual fluidized bed loop having a fluid bed conditioner operable to produce high quality syngas comprising a first percentage of components other than carbon monoxide and hydrogen from a gas feed, wherein the conditioner comprises an outlet for a first catalytic heat transfer stream comprising a catalytic heat transfer material and having a first temperature, and an inlet for a second catalytic heat transfer stream comprising catalytic heat transfer material and having a second temperature greater than the first temperature; a fluid bed combustor operable to combust fuel and oxidant, wherein the fluid bed combustor comprises an inlet connected with the outlet for a first catalytic heat transfer stream of the conditioner, and an outlet connected with the inlet for a second catalytic heat transfer stream of the conditioner; and a catalytic heat transfer material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2016
    Assignee: RES USA, LLC
    Inventors: George Apanel, Harold A. Wright
  • Patent number: 9505996
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to system and method for processing material to generate syngas. A reactor chamber is implemented with a plurality of electrodes that can generate an arc within the chamber when electricity is applied to them. The arc can be used to create free radicals which along with the heat and light of the arc breakdown material comprising carbonaceous material, such as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), into gas components that form syngas. The syngas can be extracted from the reactor chamber and be used for various commercial purposes. The reactor chamber may comprise a material feed system operable to move material from a material input opening in the reactor chamber towards the electrodes at a controlled rate. Further, the reactor chamber may comprise a water injection system within the reactor chamber operable to inject water into the reactor chamber while electricity is applied to the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2016
    Assignee: RESPONSIBLE ENERGY INC.
    Inventors: Robert Christian Jensen, Graham Campbell Houze
  • Patent number: 9416328
    Abstract: A system includes a gasifier having a first enclosure having a first inlet, a first outlet, and a first interior volume. The first inlet is configured to receive a first fuel feedstock into the first interior volume, and the first outlet is configured to output a first syngas away from the first interior volume. The system also includes a plasma gasifier disposed downstream from the first outlet and coupled to a waste stream produced by the gasifier from the first fuel feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Richard Anthony DePuy
  • Patent number: 9403679
    Abstract: A hydrogen generator that includes a solid fuel mixture, a liquid reactant, a liquid delivery medium (LDM), a movable boundary interface (MBI), a reaction zone, wherein the MBI provides constant contact between a reacting surface of the solid fuel mixture and the liquid reactant delivered by the LDM to form the reaction zone, and a product separation media, fluidly coupled to the reaction zone by a fluid junction, that degasses a product. The hydrogen generator may further include auxiliary LDMs disposed throughout the hydrogen generator, wherein said auxiliary LDMs may be operated based on a ratio of the liquid reactant flow rate to the hydrogen generation rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2016
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy Limited
    Inventors: Daniel Braithwaite, Matthieu Jonemann, Tibor Fabian
  • Patent number: 9359199
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus for generating hydrogen gas using a composition for generating hydrogen gas, which generates hydrogen gas (H2) from water (H2O) through spontaneous thermochemical reaction without supplying electricity using a composition for generating hydrogen gas which generates the hydrogen gas by spontaneous oxidation with water at room temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2016
    Inventor: Jung-Tae Park
  • Patent number: 9321638
    Abstract: A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2016
    Assignee: SAVANNAH RIVER NUCLEAR SOLUTIONS, LLC
    Inventors: Jose A. Cortes-Concepcion, Donald L. Anton
  • Patent number: 9260673
    Abstract: A method for operating a gasifier includes detecting a corrosive compound between a combustion chamber defined within the gasifier and an inner wall of a pressure vessel that at least partially surrounds the combustion chamber via a corrosion sensor and increasing the temperature of the inner wall of the pressure vessel to a temperature that is greater than a dew point of the corrosive compound via a heater that at least partially surrounds the pressure vessel. The method may also include adjusting a flow of at least one of a fuel, an oxidant and a diluent to the gasifier in response to the detection of the corrosive compound so as to modify the dew point of the corrosive compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2016
    Assignee: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventor: George Albert Goller
  • Patent number: 9240605
    Abstract: A reformer is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a channel to convey a preheated plurality of reactants containing both a feedstock fuel and an oxidant. A plasma generator is provided to apply an electrical potential to the reactants sufficient to ionize one or more of the reactants. These ionized reactants are then conveyed to a reaction zone where they are chemically transformed into synthesis gas containing a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A heat transfer mechanism is used to transfer heat from an external heat source to the reformer to provide the heat of reformation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2016
    Assignee: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventors: Joseph J Hartvigsen, Elangovan, Piotr Czernichowski, Michele Hollist, Michael Boettcher
  • Patent number: 9228490
    Abstract: In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, there is provided a device for generating electrical energy using a thermal cycle of a working gas. The device comprises at least one piston movably mounted in a container to form a working chamber between the at least one piston and the container, the working chamber containing the working gas performing the thermal cycle. An electrical circuit is mounted stationary relative to the container, the electrical circuit being electromagnetically coupled to provide a motive force to the at least one piston. An electronic power converter is electrically connected to the electrical circuit and to an electrical bus, and an electrical storage device is electrically connected to the electrical bus. The at least one piston is movably mounted such that its motion electromagnetically induces current in the electrical circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2016
    Assignee: Altor Limited LC
    Inventor: Jonathan R. Wood
  • Patent number: 9187324
    Abstract: Hydrogen generation assemblies, hydrogen purification devices, and their components are disclosed. In some embodiments, the devices may include a permeate frame with a membrane support structure having first and second membrane support plates that are free from perforations and that include a plurality of microgrooves configured to provide flow channels for at least part of the permeate stream. In some embodiments, the assemblies may include a return conduit fluidly connecting a buffer tank and a reformate conduit, a return valve assembly configured to manage flow in the return conduit, and a control assembly configured to operate a fuel processing assembly between run and standby modes based, at least in part, on detected pressure in the buffer tank and configured to direct the return valve assembly to allow product hydrogen stream to flow from the buffer tank to the reformate conduit when the fuel processing assembly is in the standby mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: Element 1 Corp.
    Inventor: David J Edlund
  • Patent number: 9169119
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides an apparatus for producing fuel for a fuel cell car which includes: a main reaction chamber including an aluminum coil and configured to produce gas; a sub-chamber including a sodium aqueous solution, the sub-chamber in fluid communication with the main reaction chamber to communicate the produced gas; a circulation pump configured to supply a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in the sub-chamber to the main reaction chamber when producing the fuel, and further configured to return the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in the main reaction chamber to the sub-chamber when stopping production of the fuel; and a separator configured to separate hydrogen gas from the produced gas, and supply the hydrogen gas to a fuel cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2015
    Assignees: The Industry & Academic Cooperation in Chungnam National University (IAC), Hyundai Motor Company
    Inventors: Chang Ho Kim, In Chul Hwang, Hong Youl Ryu, Jong Hyeon Lee, Seong Seok Cho, Kie Seo Bae, Moon Hee Han
  • Patent number: 9149774
    Abstract: A selective hydrogen adding equipment is provided by which living organism applicable hydrogen-contained fluid is obtained without changing properties of the living organism applicable fluid. Living organism applicable hydrogen-contained fluid is obtained through storing a hydrogen generating system, which contains a hydrogen generating agent as an essential component, in a hydrogen bubble forming implement which has a gas/liquid separating section including a gas-permeable film or an open-close type valve, causing the hydrogen generating system and a generating-purpose water to react in the hydrogen bubble forming implement, and supplying hydrogen gas generated in the hydrogen bubble forming implement into living organism applicable fluid via the gas/liquid separating section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2015
    Assignee: MIZ Co. LTD.
    Inventors: Fumitake Satoh, Tomoki Seo, Ryosuke Kurokawa, Bunpei Satoh
  • Patent number: 9150802
    Abstract: A method, apparatus, and system for a solar-driven chemical plant are disclosed. Some embodiments may include a solar thermal receiver to absorb concentrated solar energy from an array of heliostats and a solar-driven chemical reactor. This chemical reactor may have multiple reactor tubes, in which particles of biomass may be gasified in the presence of a carrier gas in a gasification reaction to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide products. High heat transfer rates of the walls and tubes may allow the particles of biomass to achieve a high enough temperature necessary for substantial tar destruction and complete gasification of greater than 90 percent of the biomass particles into reaction products including hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas in a very short residence time between a range of 0.01 and 5 seconds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2015
    Assignee: Sundrop Fuels, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher Perkins, Zoran Jovanovic, Steven Strand, Courtland Hilton, Donna Kelley
  • Patent number: 9120672
    Abstract: Living organism applicable hydrogen-contained fluid is obtained through storing a hydrogen generating system, which contains a hydrogen generating agent as an essential component, in a hydrogen bubble forming implement which has a gas/liquid separating section including a gas-permeable film or an open-close type valve, causing the hydrogen generating system and a generating-purpose water to react in the hydrogen bubble forming implement, and supplying hydrogen gas generated in the hydrogen bubble forming implement into living organism applicable fluid via the gas/liquid separating section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2015
    Assignee: MIZ CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Fumitake Satoh, Tomoki Seo, Ryosuke Kurokawa, Bunpei Satoh, Tatsuya Naito
  • Patent number: 9093682
    Abstract: Embodiments described herein generally relate to a reforming chamber housing a hydrocarbon-water mixture and receiving a control voltage signal to cause molecular breakdown of the mixture and create a feed of hydrogen and carbon and dioxide that can be supplied to fuel cells. The reforming chamber includes multiple electrodes positioned across from a ground plane inside a cylindrical support structure. An input tube receives and directs the mixture to the vertical cavity where the mixture rises past the electrodes. Mixture that is not broken down is recycled back to the bottom of the vertical cavity by a fan while the resultant hydrogen and carbon dioxide is allowed to rise to a trap that separates the hydrogen from the carbon dioxide. The hydrogen can then be directed to the fuel cells or other hydrogen-dependent devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2015
    Assignee: 19 Space Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Babak Fahimi, Daniel Christopher Dial
  • Patent number: 9090839
    Abstract: A feed gas comprising CO2, H2S and H2 is treated to produce an H2-enriched product and an H2S-lean, CO2 product. The feed gas is separated to provide the H2-enriched product and a stream of sour gas. The stream of sour gas is divided into two parts, one of which is processed in an H2S removal system to form one or more streams of sweetened gas, and the other of which bypasses the H2S removal system, the stream(s) of sweetened gas and the sour gas bypassing the H2S removal system then being recombined to form the H2S-lean, CO2 product gas. The division of the sour gas between being sent to and bypassing the H2S removal system is adjusted responsive to changes in the H2S content of the sour gas, so as to dampen or cancel the effects of said changes on the H2S content of the H2S-lean, CO2 product gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2015
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles Linford Schaffer, Andrew David Wright, Kevin Boyle Fogash, Jeffrey William Kloosterman, Jeffrey Raymond Hufton
  • Patent number: 9080116
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to system and method for processing material to generate syngas. A reactor chamber is implemented with a plurality of electrodes that can generate an arc within the chamber when electricity is applied to them. The arc can be used to create free radicals which along with the heat and light of the arc breakdown material comprising carbonaceous material, such as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), into gas components that form syngas. The syngas can be extracted from the reactor chamber and be used for various commercial purposes. The reactor chamber may comprise a material feed system operable to move material from a material input opening in the reactor chamber towards the electrodes at a controlled rate. Further, the reactor chamber may comprise a water injection system within the reactor chamber operable to inject water into the reactor chamber while electricity is applied to the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignee: RESPONSIBLE ENERGY INC.
    Inventors: Robert Christian Jensen, Graham Campbell Houze