Employing Catalytic Particles Patents (Class 48/198.7)
  • Patent number: 10287507
    Abstract: A method of producing fuel from CO2 comprising introducing natural gas, steam, and recovered CO2 to a reformer to produce unshifted syngas characterized by a molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide of from about 1.7:1 to about 2.5:1; introducing the unshifted syngas to a water gas shift unit to produce a shifted syngas, wherein an amount of CO2 in the shifted syngas is greater than in the unshifted syngas; separating the CO2 from the shifted syngas to produce recycle CO2 and a hydrogen-enriched syngas; recycling the recycle CO2 to the reformer; introducing the unshifted syngas to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) unit to produce an FT product, FT water, and FT tail gas, wherein the FT product comprises FT liquids and FT wax; and separating the FT liquids from the FT product to produce a fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2019
    Assignee: Fluor Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Ravi Ravikumar
  • Patent number: 10233552
    Abstract: This invention is a method and apparatus for operating electrochemical reactors with multi-phase feeds, in which a liquid feed stream is dispersed in a second fluid to form a spray, mist or emulsion before entering the reaction zone. The invention is applicable to both electro-synthesis and fuel cell reactors, with particular utility in mixed-reactant fuel cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2019
    Assignee: 0798465 B.C. LTD.
    Inventors: Colin Oloman, Amin Aziznia, Elod Gyenge
  • Patent number: 10193170
    Abstract: A fuel cell unit of a fuel cell module includes a fuel cell stack, a reformer, an evaporator, an exhaust gas combustor, a start-up combustor, and an air preheater. The fuel cell module further includes an air supply channel, a first fuel supply channel, a second fuel supply channel, a switching valve, and an exhaust gas channel. In the exhaust gas channel, the start-up combustor and the air preheater are arranged in the order recited toward the downstream side in a flow direction of a combustion exhaust gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Takayuki Yamada
  • Patent number: 9780385
    Abstract: A process for producing an oxygen reducing catalyst including a step of heat-treating, in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, a catalyst precursor including a compound (i) supplying a carbon element and a nitrogen element by heating in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, and a compound (ii) containing at least one element of iron and cobalt. Also disclosed is an oxygen reducing catalyst, a fuel cell catalyst layer including the oxygen reducing catalyst, an electrode including the fuel cell catalyst layer, a membrane-electrode assembly including the electrode and a fuel cell including the membrane-electrode assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: SHOWA DENKO K.K.
    Inventors: Kazunori Ichioka, Takuya Imai, Chunfu Yu
  • Patent number: 9770706
    Abstract: A catalyst for performing carbon dioxide reforming of methane to produce syngas, that includes cobalt, nickel and magnesium oxides disposed a support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2017
    Assignee: SAUDI BASIC INDUSTRIES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Chandra Mondal Kartick, Mayank Harishbhai Vyas, Sankar Sasmal
  • Patent number: 9616414
    Abstract: Disclosed is a hydrocarbon gas reforming supported catalyst, and methods for its use, that includes a catalytic material capable of catalyzing the production of a gaseous mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide from a hydrocarbon gas, and a support material comprising an alkaline earth metal/metal oxide compound having a structure of D-E, wherein D is a M1 or M1M2, M1 and M2 each individually being an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Ba, and Sr, E is a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of Al2O4, SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and CeO2, wherein the catalytic material is attached to the support material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2017
    Assignee: SABIC Global Technologies B.V.
    Inventors: Lawrence D'Souza, Vinu Viswanath
  • Patent number: 9409774
    Abstract: A process for converting a hydrocarbon feedstock into a synthesis gas includes: (i) passing a first stream including a hydrocarbon and steam to externally-heated catalyst-filled tubes in a heat exchange reformer where steam reforming reactions take place to generate a first reformed gas mixture, (ii) passing a second stream including a hydrocarbon and steam, after a heating step, to an autothermal reformer, where it is combined with an oxidant gas containing free oxygen and autothermally reformed to generate a second reformed gas mixture, (iii) mixing the second reformed gas mixture and the first reformed gas mixture to form a combined reformed gas mixture, and (iv) using the combined reformed gas mixture to heat the catalyst filled tubes in the heat exchange reformer to form a partially-cooled combined reformed gas mixture, wherein the partially-cooled combined reformed gas mixture is used to pre-heat the second stream fed to the autothermal reformer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2016
    Assignee: JOHNSON MATTHEY PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY
    Inventor: Peter William Farnell
  • Patent number: 9162887
    Abstract: A reformer reactor is provided for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen rich gas by auto-thermal reaction process having a cylindrically shaped and double walled, housing with two side faces forming a reaction chamber of the reformer. Additionally, a fuel inlet is provided in one of the two side faces for providing hydrocarbon fuels into the reaction chamber, wherein further a fuel preheating means is provided which preheats the hydrocarbon fuel before the hydrocarbon fuel enters the reaction chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2015
    Assignee: POWERCELL SWEDEN AB
    Inventors: Anders Karlsson, Lars Pettersson, Bärd Lindström
  • Patent number: 9028568
    Abstract: A system includes a carbon dioxide treatment system that includes a catalyst configured to treat carbon dioxide to produce a treated carbon dioxide. The system also includes a gasifier injector configured to inject the treated carbon dioxide, a fuel, and oxygen into a gasifier. The gasifier injector may be coupled to or located inside the gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Raymond Douglas Steele, Pradeep Stanley Thacker
  • Patent number: 8986405
    Abstract: A gas generator and process for converting a fuel into an oxygen-depleted gas and/or hydrogen-enriched gas. The gas generator is preferably used for generating protection gas or reducing gas for start up, shut down or emergency shut down of a SOFC or SOEC. The process for converting fuel into oxygen-depleted gas and/or a hydrogen-enriched gas includes combusting the fuel in a primary catalytic burner with an oxygen-containing gas to produce a flue gas with oxygen, combusting or partially oxidizing the flue gas comprising oxygen with excess fuel in a secondary catalytic burner to produce a gas with hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and reducing the trace amounts of oxygen from the gas comprising traces of oxygen and obtaining an oxygen-depleted gas, or reducing the carbon monoxide present in the gas by conversion to carbon dioxide or methane to obtain a hydrogen-enriched gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S
    Inventor: Hassan Modarresi
  • Patent number: 8956428
    Abstract: A process for treating offshore natural gas includes processing the natural gas on an off-shore processing facility by, (i) liquefying and fractionating the natural gas to generate a liquefied natural gas stream and a higher hydrocarbon stream, (ii) vaporizing at least a portion of the higher hydrocarbon stream, (iii) passing the vaporized higher hydrocarbon stream and steam over a steam reforming catalyst to generate a reformed gas mixture comprising methane, steam, carbon oxides and hydrogen, (iv) passing the reformed gas mixture over a methanation catalyst to generate a methane rich gas, and (v) combining the methane-rich gas with the natural gas prior to the liquefaction step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: Johnson Matthey PLC
    Inventors: Peter John Herbert Carnell, Ginny Yuen Che Ng
  • Patent number: 8916737
    Abstract: Process for performing an endothermic reaction in a reactor containing catalyst tubes, the catalyst tubes containing a catalyst promoting the endothermic reaction, the process comprising the steps of, a. contacting the catalyst contained in the catalyst tubes with a feed flow passing through the channels from an entrance end to an exit end, b. contacting an outer surface of the catalyst tubes with a flow of a heating medium having an initial heating temperature and flowing co-currently with the flow of feeds to heat the surface by convection, c. mixing at least part of the heating medium after having been contacted with the catalyst tubes with a flow of fresh heating medium having a start temperature higher than the initial heating temperature to form the co-current heating medium having the initial heating temperature and reactor for carrying out the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2014
    Assignee: Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
    Inventor: Peter Hubertus Kösters
  • Patent number: 8859831
    Abstract: A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H2, CH4, CO, CO2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Terry L. Marker, Larry G. Felix, Martin B. Linck, Michael J. Roberts
  • Patent number: 8784515
    Abstract: A process of catalytic partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon fuel with an oxidant to produce partially-oxidized reaction products including hydrogen, with simultaneous in-situ coke removal. The process involves feeding a hydrocarbon fuel and an oxidant to a reactor in a fuel-rich feed ratio; reacting the fuel and oxidant for a fuel-rich cycle-time so as to produce a partially-oxidized reaction product; varying the fuel feed, or the oxidant feed, or both feeds to produce a fuel-lean feed to the reactor; maintaining the fuel-lean feed for a fuel-lean cycle-time sufficient to reduce coke deposits while maintaining a substantially constant yield of partially-oxidized reaction product; and alternating between the fuel-rich and fuel-lean operating cycles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignees: Precision Combustion, Inc., Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Subir Roychoudhury, Richard Mastanduno, David Spence, Jun Iwamoto, Go Motohashi
  • Patent number: 8784516
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for the production of hydrogen from a hydrocarbon feedstock and water vapor comprising: A stage for the production of a synthetic gas in a vapor reforming unit of the hydrocarbon feedstock in the presence of water vapor, with a fuel that provides the heat that is necessary to the reaction, A stage for conversion to vapor of the synthetic gas that is obtained in the preceding stage producing a hydrogen stream that contains methane and carbon dioxide, A stage for recovering carbon dioxide that is present in the stream that is obtained in the stage for conversion to vapor, making it possible to separate the carbon dioxide from the hydrogen stream, A stage for recovery and recycling to the vapor reforming stage of impurities that are present in the hydrogen stream, comprising a decompression phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Beatrice Fischer, Fabrice Giroudiere, Jean-Louis Ambrosino, Michel Thomas
  • Patent number: 8728181
    Abstract: The inventive stage system for producing hydrogen consists of at least two upstream/downstream stages, respectively, each of which comprises, optionally, a catalytic reactor (C1 to C5) followed by a separator comprising a space (E1 to E4) for circulation of a gaseous mixture contacting at least one oxygen extracting membrane and a hydrogen collecting space, wherein the reactor (C1) of the upstream stage is connected to a reaction gaseous mixture source, the circulation stage (E1) of the upstream stage separator is connected to the reactor (C2) of the downstream stage and the spaces for extracting/collecting oxygen from two separators are connected to a hydrogen collecting circuit (TC, 8) which is common for two stages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: Compagnie Europeenne des Technologies de l'Hydrogene (C.E.T.H.)
    Inventors: Eric Gernot, Arnaud Deschamps
  • Patent number: 8624069
    Abstract: Methods for converting a carbon-containing feedstock into a fluid transportation fuel are described. The methods may include converting the carbon-containing feedstock into a producer gas comprising H2, CO, CO2, and N2, and reacting the producer gas with a substrate catalyst to produce a combination of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) products, the F-T products including the fluid transportation fuel. A portion of the F-T products may be catalytically cracked to produce additional amounts of the fluid transportation fuel. A portion of the F-T products may also be hydrogenated to produce additional amounts of the fluid transportation fuel. Apparatuses are also described or converting a carbon-containing feedstock into a fluid transportation fuel. The apparatuses may include a producer gas reactor, a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, a cracking reactor, and a hydrogenation reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Afognak Native Corporation
    Inventors: James P. Diebold, Steve Sherwood, Arthur W. Lilley, Robb R. Walt
  • Patent number: 8502007
    Abstract: The invention provides processes for generating a methane-enriched gas from a gas mixture comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen such as gas streams generated by gasification of an alkali metal catalyst-loaded carbonaceous feedstock, and a char methanation catalyst useful in such processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: Greatpoint Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Edwin J. Hippo, Vincent G. Reiling, Earl T. Robinson, Pattabhi K. Raman, Jeffery Smith, Charles Mims, Nicholas Charles Nahas
  • Patent number: 8486166
    Abstract: Fuel reforming catalysts 28 generate a hydrogen-containing reformed gas when they come into contact with exhaust gas that contains a reforming fuel. Upstream and downstream air-fuel ratio sensors 58, 60 are respectively installed upstream and downstream of the fuel reforming catalysts 28. The upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 58 outputs a upstream sensor signal in accordance with oxygen concentration. The downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 60 outputs a downstream sensor signal in accordance with oxygen concentration and hydrogen concentration by using zirconia's oxygen detection capability and a change of a diffusion layer's hydrogen-concentration-dependent oxygen detection capability. An ECU 50 detects the hydrogen concentration without being affected by the oxygen concentration through the use of the upstream sensor signal in which only the oxygen concentration is reflected and the downstream sensor signal in which the oxygen concentration and hydrogen concentration are reflected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hideo Yahagi, Isamu Nakada, Keiichiro Aoki, Takanori Sasaki
  • Patent number: 8486163
    Abstract: A micro reforming reactor includes a first substrate with a micro channel having a width of less than 1,000 ?m bonded to a second substrate to form a micro tunnel. An adhesive layer is formed on the internal walls of the micro tunnel using a flow coating method. A catalyst may then be optionally formed on the adhesive coated internal walls of the micro tunnel, also using a flow coating method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignees: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd., Seoul National University Industry Foundation
    Inventors: Ju-Yong Kim, Ho-Jin Kweon, Jae-Jeong Kim, Oh-Joong Kwon, Sun-Mi Hwang
  • Publication number: 20130097929
    Abstract: A process for producing a hydrogen-containing product gas with reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production processes. A hydrocarbon and steam are reformed in a reformer and the resulting reformate stream is shifted in at least two shift reactors. The shifted mixture is separated to form a CO2 product stream, the hydrogen-containing product gas, and a pressure swing adsorption tail gas. A fuel gas comprising the pressure swing adsorption tail gas and a supplemental fuel are combusted in the reformer furnace. The H2 concentration in the fuel gas ranges from 35 volume % to 70 volume % and the supplemental fuel provides 5% to 15% of the firing rate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2012
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Hoanh Nang Pham, Eugene S. Genkin
  • Patent number: 8414666
    Abstract: Reformer and method for producing hydrogen and steam where steam is used for steam-assisted extraction of heavy hydrocarbons. Steam is injected into a hydrocarbon-containing reservoir. Hydrocarbons are extracted from the reservoir along with produced water. Hydrogen is produced in a catalytic steam hydrocarbon reformer. Combustion product gas from the reformer is used to generate wet steam in a once-through steam generator from produced water recycled from the reservoir. The wet steam is used for the steam-assisted extraction of heavy hydrocarbons. The reformer has a heat exchanger section including a first heat exchanger and a second heat exchanger downstream of the first heat exchanger. The second heat exchanger is suitable for processing the produced water by once-through steam generation and is suitable for mechanical cleaning. The reformer also has a first exhaust downstream of the second heat exchanger and a closeable second exhaust downstream of the first heat exchanger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: John Eugene Palamara, David Anthony Zagnoli, William Frederick Baade
  • Patent number: 8404007
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a reforming apparatus and the like capable of uniformly mixing water (steam) and a raw material together, of preventing the precipitation of carbon without using a temperature controller, and of efficiently heating the water and the mixture by heating gas. Accordingly, the reforming apparatus has the following configuration. The reforming apparatus includes: a first vaporizer (05) that is cylindrically shaped and includes a first flow passage; a second vaporizer (06) that is cylindrically shaped and includes a second flow passage; a duct (027) that connects an outlet of the first flow passage to an inlet of the second flow passage; a raw-material mixing portion (028) formed at a certain point of the duct. The first vaporizer and the second vaporizer are concentrically disposed. An interstice between the first vaporizer and the second vaporizer serves as a heating-gas flow passage (024).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Naohiko Matsuda, Katsuki Yagi, Keiji Tanizaki, Akira Goto
  • Patent number: 8394154
    Abstract: A process for preparation of synthesis gas and/or hydrogen by counter-currently providing an oxidation reactant stream through an oxidation chamber and a reforming reactant stream through a steam reforming chamber is described. Also provided is a reactor for conducting the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Lixin You, Curtis Krause, Kevin Nguyen, Amanda Vincent
  • Patent number: 8388708
    Abstract: A process and device for the material utilization of soot from the waste water of a gasification appliance (heavy oil POX) in which a hydrogen- and carbon monoxide-containing (crude synthesis gas) is generated from relatively high-boiling hydrocarbons by partial oxidation, is disclosed. The soot-loaded waste water from the heavy oil POX is mixed with naphtha and is subsequently introduced into a separator (decanter) from which a substantially soot-free water fraction and a substantially water-free naphtha/soot mixture are taken off separately, where the naphtha/soot mixture is fed as feed to a further gasification appliance (naphtha POX), in which appliance predominantly naphtha is converted into a crude synthesis gas by partial oxidation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2013
    Assignee: Linde Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Juergen Glaser
  • Patent number: 8313544
    Abstract: In a process for the synthetic generation of methane from a feed gas mixture, a feed gas mixture including carbon monoxide, hydrogen, water vapor, CO2, volatile hydrocarbons comprising C2 and higher, unsaturated C2 components and aromatic hydrocarbons in the range of 1 to 10 vol % is provided. The feed gas mixture is contacted with a fluidized bed catalyst having catalyst particles having a catalytic active component selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal compound and combinations thereof. The contacting occurs at an elevated temperature in the range of 250 to 450° C., a feed gas pressure in the range of 0.8 to 70 bar, a gas hourly space velocity of 1000 to 50000 h?1, and a concentration of H2/CO in the gas mixture in the range of 0.25 to 5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Paul Scherrer Institut
    Inventors: Martin Seemann, Serge Biollaz, Samuel Stucki
  • Patent number: 8262753
    Abstract: An apparatus suitable for generating gaseous hydrocarbon fuel from a carbon based synthesis gas including a reaction chamber having a rotating shaft including a plurality of radial blades mixing and circulating carbon based synthesis gas and particulate catalyst upwardly generating gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, a stripping chamber located above the reaction chamber having a second axial rotating shaft including a plurality of radial blades driving hydrocarbon fuel radially outwardly, a source of hot stripping gas, an annular filter surrounding the stripping chamber and an annular gas collection chamber surrounding the filter. The blades in the stripping chamber are rotated independently at a greater velocity than the blades in the reaction chamber and the reaction is controlled by the temperature of the synthesis gas and the rotational velocity of the mixing blades in the reaction chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2012
    Inventor: Bayne Carew
  • Patent number: 8181445
    Abstract: The exhaust gas aftertreatment device according to the invention having a reforming unit for generating hydrogen by steam reforming, partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and/or mixed forms thereof is distinguished by the fact that the reforming unit is arranged directly in the main exhaust gas stream from an internal combustion engine. The steam and residual oxygen which are required for the reforming preferably originate from the exhaust gas. The step of providing the required reducing agents consists in briefly switching the internal combustion engine, which is predominantly operated in lean-burn mode and the exhaust gas from which is undergoing the aftertreatment, to rich-burn mode, allowing reforming by means of the reforming reactor according to the invention using the hydrocarbons that are present in the exhaust gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2012
    Assignee: Daimler AG
    Inventors: Frank Duvinage, Berthold Keppeler, Bernd Krutzsch, Markus Paule, Michel Weibel
  • Patent number: 8173083
    Abstract: A compact catalytic reactor defines a multiplicity of first and second flow channels arranged alternately in the reactor, for carrying first and second fluids, respectively, wherein at least the first fluids undergo a chemical reaction. Each first flow channel containing a removable gas-permeable catalyst structure (20) incorporating a metal substrate, the catalyst structure defining flow paths therethrough, with catalytic material on at least some surfaces of each such path. The catalyst structure also incorporates a multiplicity of projecting resilient lugs (22) which support the catalyst structure (20) spaced away from at least one adjacent wall of the channel (17).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2012
    Assignee: CompactGTL plc
    Inventor: Michael Joseph Bowe
  • Patent number: 8129304
    Abstract: A methanol-reforming catalyst containing a Ni3Al intermetallic compound as a main component that is superior in heat resistance and abrasion resistance and has a high activity and selectivity even at a high temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: National Institute for Materials Science
    Inventors: Ya Xu, Kyosuke Kishida, Masahiko Demura, Toshiyuki Hirano
  • Patent number: 8101141
    Abstract: A unified fuel processing reactor for a solid oxide fuel cell can reform hydrocarbon-based fuel into hydrogen-rich gas, remove a sulfur component, and convert non-converted fuel and a low carbon (C2˜C5) hydrocarbon compound into hydrogen and methane in a single reactor. The reactor comprises a primary-reformer which reforms a hydrocarbon-base fuel and generates hydrogen-rich reformed gas, a desulfurizer which removes a sulfur component from the reformed gas, and a post-reformer which selectively decomposes a low carbon (C2˜C5) hydrocarbon in the desulfurized reformed gas into hydrogen and methane. The primary-reformer, desulfurizer and post-reformer are in the unified reactor and isolated, except for a fluid passage, from each other by internal partition walls. The primary-reformer is disposed at a center portion of the reactor. The post-reformer and the desulfurizer are concentrically disposed outside of the primary-reformer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2012
    Assignee: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Joongmyeon Bae, Sangho Yoon, Sunyoung Kim
  • Patent number: 8038960
    Abstract: A reformer that produces reformed gas from a hydrocarbon material includes a reforming chamber having an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder; a reforming catalyst filled in the reforming chamber; a burner that heats the reforming catalyst and fuel of reformed gas; a combustion gas outer flow channel through which combustion gas of the burner flows along an outer side surface of the reforming chamber; a combustion gas inner flow channel through which the combustion gas of the burner flows along an inner side surface of the reforming chamber; and a plurality of return pipes as a reformed gas flow channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2011
    Assignee: Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kazuyuki Higashino
  • Patent number: 8021446
    Abstract: Feedstock delivery systems and hydrogen-producing fuel processing assemblies and fuel cell systems containing the same. The feedstock delivery systems include a liquid pump that draws at least one liquid feedstock from a supply and delivers at least one feed stream containing the feedstock(s) to a fuel processor, such as to the hydrogen-producing region thereof. The feedstock delivery system further includes a recycle conduit that establishes a fluid flow path for the liquid feedstock(s) from a location downstream of the pump back to a location upstream of the pump. In some embodiments, the feedstock delivery system further includes a flow restrictor associated with the recycle conduit and a pressure-actuated valve that selectively permits the recycled feedstock to bypass the flow restrictor. In some embodiments, the pump is configured to draw a greater flow rate of the feed stream from the supply than is delivered to the fuel processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: Idatech, LLC
    Inventors: Patton M. Adams, David J. Edlund, Vernon Wade Popham, Mesa Scharf, R. Todd Studebaker
  • Patent number: 7972394
    Abstract: A method of operating a methanation reactor to reduce carbon monoxide concentration in a reformate stream in a fuel cell reformer. The reactor includes a flowpath with a noble metal catalyst supported by a ceramic support such that the reactor preferentially converts carbon monoxide via methanation over that of carbon dioxide. The reduced level of carbon monoxide present in the reformate stream after passing through the methanation reactor reduces the likelihood of poisoning of the catalyst used on the fuel cell anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2011
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Mark Robert Feaviour, Julia Margaret Rowe
  • Patent number: 7942943
    Abstract: A down-draft fixed bed gasifier is disclosed that produced clean producer or synthesis gas. The gasifier can be installed at a stationary location or can be scaled down to enable placing the gasifier on a trailer that can be moved to the site of biomass generation. The gasifier is vertically oriented and generally cylindrical, and the design allows for a continual input of feedstock into the gasifier with less clogging and without lowering the gas pressure inside the gasifier. The design incorporates an internal catalyst to clean tars from the produced gas, and uses heat from the combustion chamber of the gasifier to heat the catalyst. The flow of air may be either positive flow or negative flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2011
    Assignee: Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
    Inventor: Chandra S. Theegala
  • Patent number: 7938868
    Abstract: The inventive stage system for producing hydrogen consists of at least two upstream/downstream stages, respectively, each of which comprises, optionally, a catalytic reactor (C1 to C5) followed by a separator comprising a space (E1 to E4) for circulation of a gaseous mixture contacting at least one oxygen extracting membrane and a hydrogen collecting space, wherein the reactor (C1) of the upstream stage is connected to a reaction gaseous mixture source, the circulation stage (E1) of the upstream stage separator is connected to the reactor (C2) of the downstream stage and the spaces for extracting/collecting oxygen from two separators are connected to a hydrogen collecting circuit (TC, 8) which is common for two stages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: Compagnie Européenne des Technologies de l'Hydrogène (C.E.T.H.)
    Inventors: Eric Gernot, Arnaud Deschamps
  • Patent number: 7919057
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for producing a hydrogen-containing gas in a reformer where a furnace, which is independent of the reformer, heats the effluent from a prereformer prior to reacting the prereformer effluent in the reformer. The prereformer effluent may be heated in a heat exchange tube in the furnace where the heat exchange tube is positioned in the furnace to preclude direct radiation from any flames in the furnace thereby preventing local overheating of the heat exchange tube and preventing carbon formation in the heat exchange tube. Fuel and oxidant gas may be introduced into the furnace with significant excess oxidant gas, having a stoichiometric ratio of 1.8 to 2.8 for controlling the temperature of the heat exchange tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Eugene S. Genkin, Nitin Madhubhai Patel, Gregory David Snyder, Miguel Rafael Alvarez, Vladimir Yliy Gershtein
  • Patent number: 7862633
    Abstract: A system and method for creating reformate with decreased carbon deposition. The system is made up of a steam source, a superheater, a fuel injection device, a prereformer, and a reformer with catalyst linings. The system functions to superheat steam while maintaining the fuel at a lower temperature prior to injection and mixing with the steam. After injection and mixing, the steam and fuel mixture is then passed through a prereformer where catalysts treat a portion of the fuel and steam mixture. After these portions are treated with a catalyst, the mixture is passed through to a reformer where further treatment of the material by catalyst takes place.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Greg A. Whyatt, Christopher M. Fischer, James D. Davis
  • Patent number: 7842260
    Abstract: Provided is a reaction vessel for a fuel cell, and more particularly to a reaction vessel exhibiting improved thermal efficiency, and a reaction device for a steam reforming reaction for a fuel cell. The reaction device includes a cylindrical reaction catalyst chamber on which a target reaction catalyst for a predetermined target reaction is disposed; and a tubular oxidation catalyst chamber surrounding the reaction catalyst chamber, comprising an oxidation reaction catalyst therein. The reaction device according features an increased contact area between catalyst and gas, and rapidly heating of the gas in contact with the catalyst to a desired reaction temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2010
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Sung-chul Lee, Ju-yong Kim, Yong-kul Lee, Man-seok Han, Jun-sic Kim, Chan-ho Lee, Jin-goo Ahn
  • Patent number: 7824455
    Abstract: A method of reducing the amount of carbon monoxide in process fuel gas in a feed stream for a fuel cell. The method includes introducing a hydrocarbon feed stream into a primary reactor and reacting the hydrocarbon feed stream in effective contact with a reforming catalyst forming primary reactor products containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane; placing a high activity water gas shift catalyst system into a water gas shift converter, introducing the primary reactor products into the water gas shift converter in effective contact with the high activity water gas shift catalyst system, and reacting the carbon monoxide and water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen using a water gas shift reaction forming the feed stream for the fuel cell; and introducing the feed stream into the fuel cell. The high water gas shift catalyst system includes a noble metal, a support comprising a mixed metal oxide of cerium oxide and at least one of zirconium oxide or lanthanum oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Anca Faur-Ghenciu, Nathan Edward Trusty, Mark Robert Feaviour, Jessica Grace Reinkingh, Phillip Shady, Paul Joseph Andersen
  • Patent number: 7789920
    Abstract: A reactor, system and method for producing hydrogen features a reactor containing a heating stream channel and a hydrogen channel with a reaction channel positioned there between. A heat transfer sheet separates the heating stream channel and the reaction channel and a porous support plate separates the reaction channel and the hydrogen channel. A membrane constructed from palladium, vanadium, copper or alloys thereof covers the porous support plate. The heating stream channel receives a heating stream so that heat is provided to the reaction channel through the heat transfer sheet. A catalyst is positioned in the reaction channel and the reaction channel receives a reaction stream including a mixture of supercritical water and a hydrocarbon fuel so that hydrogen is produced in the reaction channel and is passed through the membrane into the hydrogen channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: Chart Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Zhijun Jia, Lawrence A. Stryker, Douglas Decker
  • Patent number: 7780749
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are unmixed fuel processors and methods for using the same. In one embodiment, an unmixed fuel processor comprises: an oxidation reactor comprising an oxidation portion and a gasifier, a CO2 acceptor reactor, and a regeneration reactor. The oxidation portion comprises an air inlet, effluent outlet, and an oxygen transfer material. The gasifier comprises a solid hydrocarbon fuel inlet, a solids outlet, and a syngas outlet. The CO2 acceptor reactor comprises a water inlet, a hydrogen outlet, and a CO2 sorbent, and is configured to receive syngas from the gasifier. The regeneration reactor comprises a water inlet and a CO2 stream outlet. The regeneration reactor is configured to receive spent CO2 adsorption material from the gasification reactor and to return regenerated CO2 adsorption material to the gasification reactor, and configured to receive oxidized oxygen transfer material from the oxidation reactor and to return reduced oxygen transfer material to the oxidation reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Parag Prakash Kulkarni, Zhe Cui
  • Patent number: 7776113
    Abstract: The reaction of carbon monoxide with steam over an alkali-modified ruthenium-on-zirconia catalyst has been found to yield surprisingly high yields of hydrogen gas at relatively low temperatures. Catalyst structures, reactors, hydrogen production systems, and methods for producing hydrogen utilizing the alkali-modified ruthenium-on-zirconia catalyst are described. Methods of making catalysts are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2010
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Yong Wang, Anna Lee Y. Tonkovich
  • Patent number: 7763087
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method for use in controlling the apparatus are disclosed. The apparatus includes a purified hydrogen generator; at least one of a compression unit, a storage unit, and a dispensing unit; and a system controller. The system controller is capable of monitoring the operation of the hydrogen generator and the compression unit, storage unit, or dispensing unit at a system level and shutting down at least one of hydrogen generator and the compression unit, storage unit, or dispensing unit upon the detection of a dangerous condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2010
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Masoud Hajiaghajani, Vesna R. Mirkovic, Hongqiao Sun, W. Spencer Wheat, Gregory W. Laframboise, Tonya A. Betts
  • Patent number: 7736596
    Abstract: Feedstock delivery systems and hydrogen-producing fuel processing assemblies and fuel cell systems containing the same. The feedstock delivery systems include a liquid pump that draws at least one liquid feedstock from a supply and delivers at least one feed stream containing the feedstock(s) to a fuel processor, such as to the hydrogen-producing region thereof. The feedstock delivery system further includes a recycle conduit that establishes a fluid flow path for the liquid feedstock(s) from a location downstream of the pump back to a location upstream of the pump. In some embodiments, the feedstock delivery system further includes a flow restrictor associated with the recycle conduit and a pressure-actuated valve that selectively permits the recycled feedstock to bypass the flow restrictor. In some embodiments, the pump is configured to draw a greater flow rate of the feed stream from the supply than is delivered to the fuel processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: IdaTech, LLC
    Inventors: David J. Edlund, R. Todd Studebaker
  • Patent number: 7713319
    Abstract: A fluid recycling system includes a separator for physically separating glycol from at least a portion of other substances mixed with the glycol to produce a first effluent stream having separated glycol and a second effluent stream having the other substances and residual glycol. A catalytic reactor receives the second effluent stream and chemically reacts the other substances and residual glycol to produce a hydrogen stream and a remainder stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Assignee: Hamilton Sunstrand Corporation
    Inventors: Rakesh Radhakrishnan, Steven J. Moss, Per-Anders K. Lof, Michael K. Sahm, Joseph J. Sangiovanni, Thomas Henry Vanderspurt
  • Patent number: 7686856
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2010
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: John William Hemmings, Leo Bonnell, Earl T. Robinson
  • Patent number: 7666236
    Abstract: A hydrogen generator of the invention includes: a reformer for generating a hydrogen-rich gas from a feed gas and water by a reaction using a reforming catalyst body and sending it out from an outlet port; a material feed system for feeding the feed gas to the reformer; a burner for supplying, to the reforming catalyst body, heat generated by mixing a fuel gas with air and burning it; and an air supply system for supplying air to the burner; wherein, when purging an interior of the reformer using the feed gas in shutting down the hydrogen generator, an amount of the air supplied is increased to put out a flame of the burner, and a purge gas sent out from the outlet port by the purging is mixed and diluted with the air in the burner and is discharged outside.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2010
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshio Tamura, Akira Maenishi, Yuji Mukai, Tomonori Asou, Kunihiro Ukai
  • Patent number: 7655056
    Abstract: A hydrogen generating apparatus includes a chemical reaction chamber, a chemical solution reservoir, an unpowered pressure-producing member for moving a chemical solution from the chemical solution reservoir to the chemical reaction chamber, and a catalyst bed in the chemical reaction chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2010
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventor: John A. Devos
  • Patent number: 7650746
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention relates an exhaust treatment system having an SCR reactor following a NOx adsorber. Syn gas is used to regenerate the NOx adsorber. Another aspect relates to an LNT/SCR provided with an ammonia source separate from the LNT. A further aspect relates to a system comprising first and second LNTs and one or more SCRs downstream of the LNTs. A still further aspect relates to a device comprising first and second NOx adsorbers contained in a single housing. Another aspect relates to coating a surface of a moving part in an exhaust system with an oxidation catalyst to mitigate fouling. Additional aspects of the invention relate to strategies for controlling one or more of the time to initiate a regeneration cycle, the time to terminate a regeneration cycle, and the reductant injection rate during regeneration of LNT/SCR exhaust treatment systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2010
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventors: Haoran Hu, Thomas R. Stover