Processes Patents (Class 48/197R)
  • Patent number: 6162266
    Abstract: An apparatus and a process for cooling a feed injector of a gasification reactor that produces synthesis gas is described. Cooling fluid is injected into a channel in the feed injector adapted for circulating the fluid. The injection pressure is maintained near or above the gasification reactor pressure. The fluid is withdrawn from the channel through an outlet at an outlet pressure between about 515 KPa above to about 1030 KPa below the gasification reactor pressure. The fluid is cooled, degassed, and injected back into the channel in the feed injector. The pressure on the cooling system is variable and tracks the gasification reactor pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2000
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Paul S. Wallace, Kay A. Johnson, DeLome D. Fair, Fred C. Jahnke
  • Patent number: 6152975
    Abstract: A method for converting liquid organic material in a mixture into a product utilizing a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2000
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Douglas C. Elliott, Todd R. Hart
  • Patent number: 6120567
    Abstract: A heating system for producing heat by the gasification of solid, organic biomass materials. A mass of such materials is maintained on a grate in a primary oxidation chamber of the catalytic type, and materials in such mass are gradually heated in a deficiency of oxidation for full oxidation of such materials to produce a gaseous, combustible effluent. The gaseous combustible effluent is transferred through an insulated exit duct to a secondary oxidation chamber where it is further oxidized to a fully oxidized state by burning. In one embodiment, the insulated exit duct has a restricted inlet portion within the primary oxidation chamber to serve as a flame deflector. The gaseous effluent from the secondary oxidation chamber is used as a heat source for a water tube boiler. A storage hopper is provided to store the biomass feed materials for delivery to the primary oxidation chamber. The bottom of the storage hopper is inverted and reciprocating plates are provided along the bottom of the storage hopper.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignee: Enviro-Combustion Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Henry L. Cordell, David G. Galer
  • Patent number: 6117199
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for gasifying of a solid carbonaceous material in a fluidized bed reactor in which the solid particles entrained by the gases being removed from the upper part of the reactor are separated and returned to the lower part of the reactor. oxygenous gas is supplied into the lower part of the reactor and the non-reacted carbonaceous material separated from the gases is oxidized in the lower part of the reactor. The carbonaceous material is introduced above the oxidizing zone into a zone substantially free of oxygen and the carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed and reduced by means of the hot gases and particles rising from the lower part of the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventor: Seppo K. Ruottu
  • Patent number: 6096106
    Abstract: An endothermic reaction furnace includes one or more elongated reaction tubes defining therein an endothermic reaction flow path and a combustion flow path for providing heat to drive the endothermic reaction. The combustion flow path is arranged so that fuel and combustion air are separately heated by the heat inside the furnace preferably to significantly above their autoignition temperature before being combined in a combustion zone where they mix, autoignite and burn. The fuel is introduced into the combustion zone by a plurality of tubes having outlet ends arranged to produce annular shrouds of flame around each reaction tube that are directed countercurrent to the endothermic reaction product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: The Standard Oil Company
    Inventors: Robert C. Ruhl, Stephen Hardman, Michael R. Kenyon, Roderick A. McFarlane
  • Patent number: 6093372
    Abstract: The system for controlling oxygen flow in a gasification process of the instant invention comprises a suction control valve located between the oxygen source and the oxygen compressor. The suction control valve is adapted in order to open to deliver oxygen from the source to the compressor through the first pipe and to move to a reduced flow position to prevent excess delivery of oxygen from the source to the compressor. The system also comprises a second pipe which operably connects the oxygen compressor to a port of a gasifier. The system comprises a normally closed vent valve located between the oxygen compressor and the port of a gasifier. The system comprises a means located in the gasifier or in the gasifier effluent for detecting when it is necessary to change the oxygen flow to the gasifier and to actuate the suction control valve sufficient to change the oxygen flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Paul S. Wallace, Kay A. Johnson, Delome D. Fair
  • Patent number: 6074447
    Abstract: A method for storing and releasing hydrogen fuel includes providing a hydrogenated material in a chamber, introducing a catalyst into the chamber, heating the chamber to about 190.degree. C., separating at least part of the material into dehydrogenated material and hydrogen and releasing the hydrogen from the chamber. A preferred catalyst is a transition metal complex, such as the iridium based complex IrH.sub.4 {2,6C.sub.6 H.sub.3 (CH.sub.2 P(C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2).sub.2 }. To reverse the process, a hydrogen pressure of about 10 atmospheres or more is provided, and the dehydrogenated material and hydrogen are combined at about or at least 100.degree. C. to regenerate the hydrogenated material. The small, lightweight system for carrying out the present method includes a chamber containing hydrogenated material and a catalyst, and having an outlet with a selectively permeable membrane for releasing hydrogen and containing hydrogenated material and a homogenous catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: University of Hawaii
    Inventor: Craig M. Jensen
  • Patent number: 6068673
    Abstract: A hydrogen production plant includes an electrochemical autothermal reformer (EATR) that provides hydrogen to an electrochemical hydrogen compressor. The EATR includes an autothermal reformer region, a mixed ion conductor membrane or metal or metal alloy membrane, and an anode supply region. An anode gas loop between the anode supply region of the EATR and anode section of the electrochemical hydrogen compressor cell circulates a mixture of hydrogen and a carrier gas therebetween. The carrier gas ensures proper partial pressures of hydrogen in the two regions. A difference in operating temperature between the EATR and the electrochemical hydrogen compressor is exploited by heat exchangers which efficiently enable certain heating and cooling functions within the combined system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation
    Inventor: David P. Bloomfield
  • Patent number: 6067915
    Abstract: A method of charging a pyrolytic gas-producing reactor with waste fuel wherein the waste fuel is forced into the reactor by a ram and wherein air is prevented from entering the reactor and pyrolysis gases are prevented from escaping from the reactor by means of an ablative seal which is positioned between the fuel and the ram and which is forced by the action of the ram on the fuel charge into the reactor whilst in sealing engagement with the internal walls of the reactor, the seal being made of a material which will resist the high temperature and chemical conditions in the reactor for at least as long a period as is required for the seal to perform its sealing function and which is thereafter thermally decomposed into products which are not detrimental to the pyrolytic process or to the pyrolytic gases produced by the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Compact Power Limited
    Inventor: John Ernest Elsom Sharpe
  • Patent number: 6063355
    Abstract: A method of treating wastes includes partially combusting the wastes in a fluidized bed reactor at a relatively low temperature followed by separate gasification of gaseous material and char from the first gasification in a separate relatively high temperature reactor. This forms synthesis gas that is cooled, subjected to a conversion operation to produce hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignees: Ebara Corporation, UBE Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshio Hirayama, Shosaku Fujinami, Shuichi Nagato, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Takahiro Oshita, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Toshio Fukuda
  • Patent number: 6051048
    Abstract: A first, solid, carbon-containing fuel is gasified and iron is melted in a gasifier-melter. A first flow of resulting fuel gas is employed to form the iron in a vertical shaft furnace by direct reduction of iron ore. A second flow of resulting fuel gas is mixed with fuel gas produced by separately gasifying a second carbon-containing fuel in a second gasifier, in which no iron is melted and which supplies essentially no carbonaceous solid fuel to the first gasification stage. This mixing helps to dampen fluctuations in the flow rate of the second flow of the resulting fuel gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: The BOC Group plc
    Inventor: Brian Anthony Keenan
  • Patent number: 6033447
    Abstract: Coal gasifiers using technology developed by Texaco Development Corporation, use coal slurry and oxygen as feed stocks. During start-ups, the raw gas produced in the gasifier must be flared until the downstream clean-up and recovery plants can be started. In order to reduce emissions through the flare during start-up, a technique was developed to start the gasifiers and downstream plants on a sulfur free, liquid, organic fuel. Once downstream plants are on-line, the fuel feed is switched to coal slurry on the same burner. The switch is accomplished while maintaining pressure and without interrupting to the fuel feed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: Eastman Chemical Company
    Inventors: Nathan West Moock, William Lewis Trapp
  • Patent number: 6033448
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a gasified fuel. The fuel is gasified by partial oxidation of a fuel layer obtained from a raw fuel which contains water and has decreased viscosity. The fuel layer is subjected to partial oxidation by being exposed to oxygen, producing a gasified fuel having a low water content. The separation of the raw fuel into a water layer and a fuel layer can be accelerated by adding an emulsion breaker to the raw fuel or by applying an electric field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaki Iijima, Satoshi Uchida, Osamu Shinada
  • Patent number: 6024774
    Abstract: The chemical reaction apparatus of the present invention can increase the producing rate of the main product gas by effectively removing carbon dioxide from the reaction site, the carbon dioxide generated together with the main product as the raw material gas is made to react at a high temperature of 400.degree. C. The reaction apparatus comprises a reactor for generating a main product gas and a byproduct gas which is carbon dioxide, by making a raw material gas to react, and lithium zirconate granular material placed in the reactor, to react with the byproduct carbon dioxide gas, thereby preparing a carbonate salt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2000
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Kazuaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Ohzu, Toshiyuki Ohashi, Yoshihiro Akasaka, Norihiro Tomimatsu
  • Patent number: 6022387
    Abstract: A method for maximizing the power in regard to the fuel quality when burning solid fuels, especially biomass and peat. The maximizing of the power is performed within the limits for the plants maximum permitted power production, and at the same time with regard to the maximum achievable power with the fuel quality in use. The maximizing of the power with regard to the fuel may either be controlled by the temperature changes in the fuel gas emerging from the fuel bed or by the fuel moisture content with regard to the fuel actually processed in the gasifier. The maximum allowable gasification air flow in regard to the fuel quality can either be theoretically or empirically evaluated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2000
    Inventor: Frank Asplund
  • Patent number: 6005149
    Abstract: The invention provides a practical and efficient method and apparatus for thermally processing organic based raw materials of either primary or secondary (recycled) origin, in order to extract volatile organic vapors and to selectively produce either condensable hydrocarbon gases or, more preferably, non-condensable synthesis gases that are rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide for use as a raw material in chemical processes, or as a fuel. In particular, the invention provides a single rotary reactor having two contiguous hearth reaction areas, i.e., a drying and volatizing area and a reformation area, the areas being separated from each other by a bed-retaining refractory weir. The weir has an aperture for fluidly connecting the two hearth reaction areas of the single reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Engineering, Separation & Recycling, Ltd. Co.
    Inventor: Norman G. Bishop
  • Patent number: 6001144
    Abstract: A process of gasifying waste containing organic substances which may be combusted or gasified by means of partial oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen and steam. The gasification process includes the step of adjusting the molar ratio of steam/carbon (H.sub.2 O/C) for supplied steam and the organic substances containing carbon to a desired ratio. The process continues with partial oxidation at about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. and discontinuing the steam supply while continuing only air or oxygen supply to combust the remaining combustibles having carbon as their major component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Takeuchi, Akira Satou
  • Patent number: 5984987
    Abstract: Aqueous black liquor is gasified in a molten salt by spraying the black liquor into an enclosed zone above the surface of a turbulent molten salt pool. The black liquor is dried by means of hot gases rising from the surface of the pool and the resulting solid particles falling into the turbulent molten salt pool are dispersed and converted into a combustible gas and a reduced melt in which sulfide comprises at least about 95% of the total sulfur present. In a preferred embodiment the product gas is purified, burned and utilized in a gas turbine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Boeing North American, Inc.
    Inventor: Arthur L. Kohl
  • Patent number: 5984986
    Abstract: The invention provides a process for operating a system for water vapor reforming of methanol in which, in a mixture preparation step, a water vapor/methanol mixture is prepared from water and methanol and is introduced into a reforming reactor. According to the invention, the mixing ratio of the water vapor/methanol mixture is adjusted as a function of the load condition and/or load changes of the system so that a CO-concentration is obtained in the reformate which remains constant over the whole load range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: DaimlerChrysler AG
    Inventors: Norbert Wiesheu, Christian Duelk, Rainer Autenrieth, Uwe Benz
  • Patent number: 5980840
    Abstract: The present invention relates to devices for conducting, simultaneously, exothermic and endothermic chemical conversions with transfer of heat therebetween. More particularly, this invention relates to autothermic modules using oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic membranes to separate, selectively, oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas and supply it directly to partial combustion of gaseous organic compounds. Processes using autothermic modules in accordance with this invention are, advantageously, used for production of synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen which synthesis gas is substantially free of deleterious and/or inert gaseous diluents such as nitrogen. In particular, for conversions, within the integral autothermic module, of natural gas or other forms of gaseous lower alkanes to synthesis gas by means of partial combustion followed by reforming.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: BP Amoco Corporation
    Inventors: Mark S. Kleefisch, Carl A. Udovich, Alakananda Bhattacharyya, Thaddeus P. Kobylinski
  • Patent number: 5980858
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating wastes by two-stage gasification recovers metals or ash content in the wastes in such a state that they can be recycled, and gases containing carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen gas (H.sub.2) for use as synthesis gas for ammonia (NH.sub.3) or production of hydrogen gas. The wastes are gasified in a fluidized-bed reactor at a low temperature. Then, gaseous material and char produced in the fluidized-bed reactor are introduced into a high-temperature combustor, and gasified at a high temperature and ash content is converted into molten slag. After water scrubbing and a CO conversion reaction, the gas is separated into H.sub.2 and residual gas. The residual gas is then supplied to the fluidized-bed reactor as a fluidizing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignees: Ebara Corporation, Ube Industries, Lt.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshio Hirayama, Shosaku Fujinami, Kazuo Takano, Masaaki Irie, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Shuichi Nagato, Takahiro Oshita, Toshio Fukuda
  • Patent number: 5968212
    Abstract: A device for utilizing combustion, residual and waste materials containing carbon and ash by gasification with an oxygen-containing oxidizing agent at temperatures above the melting point of the inorganic parts in a reaction chamber and at a pressure between ambient pressure and 60 bar. The reaction chamber contour is formed in part by a refractory-grade lining and in part by a cooling system comprising cooling coils connected in a gas-tight manner. The coils are coated with a thin layer of a ceramic mass that conducts heat well on a side facing the reaction chamber. The cooling coils are operated, while being cooled by pressurized water, below or above the boiling point of the cooling water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Noell-KRC Energie-und Umwelttechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Helmut Peise, Manfred Schingnitz, Dietmar Degenkolb
  • Patent number: 5964908
    Abstract: A closed loop energy conversion system for converting a non-fossil fuel energy source to a fossil fuel without generating air polluting emissions when the fossil fuel is combusted to provide energy to an external source. The closed loop energy conversion apparatus employed in this process includes a dissociation unit for dissociating water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas and separating hydrogen gas from oxygen gas. An energy source provides energy to the dissociation unit. Oxygen gas and hydrocarbon gas react in a hydrocarbon combustion unit to form a combustion product comprising carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. A first heat exchanger cools the combustion product and condenses water vapor from the combustion product. A carbon dioxide separator separates carbon dioxide gas from water condensed in the first heat exchanger. Carbon dioxide gas reacts with hydrogen gas in a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor to form a mixture comprising hydrocarbon gas and water vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Inventor: Mylan Malina
  • Patent number: 5961928
    Abstract: A system for generating a desired output gas from an input fuel for use in a downstream process is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of fuel processing units to generate the desired output gas, wherein each of the plurality of fuel processing units includes a reformer which uses waste gas output from the downstream process to facilitate the processing of the fuel. Each of the fuel processing units is operational over a range up to full capacity, wherein the plurality of fuel processing units are interconnected in an collective operating scheme to process the fuel. A control system is provided for controlling the plurality of fuel processing units in response to requirements of a dynamic load demand from the downstream operation. The control system is operative to adjust the operational level of each of the plurality of fuel processing units to produce individual responses from each of the fuel processing units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: International Fuel Cells Corporation
    Inventors: Valerie A. Maston, Leslie L. VanDine, Richard A. Sederquist, Raymond M. Smith, Paul A. Grubb, Theodore S. Malinowski
  • Patent number: 5961673
    Abstract: The invention concerns a process and apparatus for gasifying carbon-containing products, in particular waste and residues conditioned or processed in a suitable way. Gasification takes place in a mixed flow composed of a counter flow, direct flow and transverse flow. A portion of the gasifying agent is introduced through an inclined grate in the form of a step grate and thrust grating and ash is removed at the bottom end of the grate. Fuel gas is drawn off above the upper level of the grate on the side opposite the lateral feed of the gasifying agent. The gasification apparatus is enclosed in a double-layer insulating/cooling system in which air is used as the insulator and coolant. The gasification process is regulated by the temperature profile of the gasification apparatus, the position of the principal gasification zone is adjusted by ash discharge, the gasification temperature is regulated by the flow of gasifying agent and the output is regulated by the width of the gasification zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: VER Verwertung und Entsorgung von Reststoffen GmbH
    Inventors: Norbert Topf, Guenter Reichert, Dieter Hahn, Guenter Liebisch
  • Patent number: 5943859
    Abstract: This invention provides a gas engine in which a natural gas reforming apparatus for thermally decomposing CH.sub.4 in a natural gas into a reformed fuel of CO and H.sub.2 is used to improve the thermal efficiency, CO.sub.2 in an exhaust gas being used for the thermal decomposition operation to reduce the CO.sub.2 content of the discharged exhaust gas and minimize the generation of NOx. An oxygen eliminating apparatus for removing O.sub.2 from CO.sub.2 separated from the exhaust gas can be provided in the natural gas reforming apparatus. In this natural gas reforming apparatus, a gas fuel case in which a gas fuel flows is provided on the outer side of an exhaust gas passage body in which the exhaust gas flows, and a surface of a porous member provided in the gas fuel case is coated with a catalyst. The oxygen eliminating apparatus comprises a porous carbon member provided in a CO.sub.2 passage so as to subject O.sub.2 in CO.sub.2 and C to a reaction and convert the same substances into CO and CO.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: Isuzu Ceramics Research Institute Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hideo Kawamura
  • Patent number: 5922090
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating wastes by gasification recovers useful resources including energy, valuables such as metals, and gases for use as synthesis gas for chemical industries or fuel. The wastes are gasified in a fluidized-bed reactor at a relatively low temperature. Gaseous material and char produced in the fluidized-bed reactor are introduced into a high-temperature combustor, and low calorific gas or medium calorific gas is produced in the high-temperature combustor at a relatively high temperature. The fluidized-bed reactor preferably is a revolving flow-type fluidized-bed reactor. The high-temperature combustor preferably is a swirling-type high-temperature combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1999
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Takahiro Oshita, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano
  • Patent number: 5912198
    Abstract: The ammonia content of fuel gas in an IGCC power generation system is reduced through ammonia decomposition, thereby reducing the NO.sub.x emissions from the plant. The power generation system includes a gasifier, a gas turbine and at least one catalytic reactor arranged between the gasifier and the gas turbine. The catalytic reactor may be either a three stage or two stage device. The three stage reactor includes a first catalyst which promotes water-gas-shift, a second catalyst which promotes CO methanation, and a third catalyst which promotes ammonia decomposition. The two stage reactor includes a first catalyst which promotes water-gas-shift and CO methanation and a second catalyst which promotes ammonia decomposition. The plural catalytic stages may be disposed in a single vessel or successively disposed in individual vessels, and the catalysts may be in a pelletized form or coated on honeycomb structures. Alternatively, fluidized bed reactors may be used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1999
    Assignee: Geneal Electric Company
    Inventors: Alan S. Feitelberg, Raul Eduardo Ayala, Stephen Lan-Sun Hung, David Joseph Najewicz
  • Patent number: 5900031
    Abstract: A hydrogen production plant includes an electrochemical autothermal reformer (EATR) that provides hydrogen to an electrochemical hydrogen compressor. The EATR includes an autothermal reformer region, a mixed ion conductor, and an anode supply region. The mixed ion conductor separates the autothermal reformer region from the anode supply region. An anode gas loop between the anode supply region of the EATR and anode section of the electrochemical hydrogen compressor cell circulates a mixture of hydrogen and a carrier gas therebetween. The carrier gas ensures proper partial pressures of hydrogen in the two regions. A difference in operating temperature between the EATR and the electrochemical hydrogen compressor is exploited by heat exchangers which efficiently enable certain heating and cooling functions within the combined system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Assignee: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation
    Inventor: David P. Bloomfield
  • Patent number: 5900224
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating wastes by gasification recovers metals or ash content in the wastes in such a state that they can be recycled, and gases containing carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H.sub.2) for use as synthesis gas of ammonia (NH.sub.3). The wastes are gasified in a fluidized-bed reactor at a relatively low temperature, and gaseous material and char produced in the fluidized-bed reactor are introduced into the high-temperature combustor. The synthesis gas is produced in the high-temperature combustor at a relatively high temperature, CO and H.sub.2 O in the synthesis gas is converted into CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2, and then H.sub.2 is recovered by removing CO.sub.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Assignees: Ebara Corporation, Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshio Hirayama, Shosaku Fujinami, Shuichi Nagato, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Takahiro Oshita, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Toshio Fukuda
  • Patent number: 5876469
    Abstract: A reformed gas composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to be used for a fuel cell is produced by using a multi-tubular reformer provided with bayonet type double-wall catalyst tubes and feeding hydrocarbon gas such as natural gas and steam to the reformer. Porous media of a ceramic material are arranged in such a manner in a shell side flue gas inlet part of the interior of the reformer as to envelop the leading end parts of the catalyst tubes. The transfer of heat from the flue gas to the catalyst tubes is enhanced because the porous media accumulate the heat from the flue gas and radiate the accumulated heat in the direction of the walls of the outer tubes of the catalyst tubes. The otherwise possible uneven transfer of heat to the catalyst tubes is prevented because the wall effect and the channelling of the flue gas are repressed. This invention, therefore, permits effective utilization of the thermal energy of the flue gas for the reforming reaction and enables the reformer to be stably operated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Chiyoda Corporation
    Inventors: Nobuo Moriya, Takao Kawai, Hiroshi Yagi, Ryosuke Shimizu, Yasumasa Morita
  • Patent number: 5868805
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for integrated evaporation and gasification of spent liquor from the production of cellulose, the gasification taking place in a reactor (1) at a pressure of from atmospheric pressure up to about 150 bar and at a temperature of about 500.degree.-1600.degree. C., by partial combustion of the spent liquor, a gas phase and a phase of solid and/or smelted material being formed in the reactor and being removed therefrom. The invention is characterized in that the combustion gas obtained from the reactor (1) by partial combustion of the spent liquor is brought together in direct contact with spent liquor, which may have been pre-evaporated, in a first stage--for example a venturi scrubber--, with alkali metal compounds, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Assignee: Kvaerner Pulping AB
    Inventor: Bengt Nilsson
  • Patent number: 5869011
    Abstract: Disclosed are a fixed-bed, catalytic reactor wherein reaction heat can be exchanged against a heat exchange medium circulating indirectly through the catalyst bed, and a catalytic process comprising operation of the reactor. The reactor comprises a catalyst bed having internally embedded banks of heat exchange tubes. An inlet distributor distributes reactants for flow through the bed. The distributed fluid passes through the bed in a flow path wherein a catalytic reaction occurs. The reaction effluent is then collected from the bed by an outlet product collector. A heat exchange medium circulated through the internal heat exchange tubes adds or removes reaction heat as required for enhanced conversion in the reactor. Multiple heat exchange tubes can be used, and inlet and discharge manifolds are provided for distributing the circulating heat exchange medium. The heat exchange tubes can be spaced in accordance with the heat interchange required to optimize the reaction rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Inventor: Jing Ming Lee
  • Patent number: 5855631
    Abstract: A catalytic gasification process and system for producing medium grade BTU gas including a gasification reactor having an inner air gasification zone, an outer steam gasification zone, a synthetic coal reaction zone, and an upper lime treating zone. The process and system of the present invention further includes a synthetic coal heating vessel which provides superheated recycled synthetic coal to the gasification reactor and a limestone treating vessel which provides superheated air and CO.sub.2 to the gasification reactor. The novel process and system of the present invention provides for the production of a medium grade BTU gas and several commercially valuable by-products with virtually no solid or liquid waste products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1999
    Inventor: Arnold M. Leas
  • Patent number: 5849050
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for generating burnable gas by gasifying water- and ballast-containing organic materials, be it coal or garbage. The drying, low temperature carbonization and gasification steps are carried out separately. The heat taken form cooled gasified gas is supplied to the endothermic drying low temperature in low temperature carbonation stages. The low temperature carbonization gas is burned in a melting chamber furnace with air and/or oxygen or oxygen-rich flue gas and the liquid slag is evacuated, whereas the low temperature carbonization coke is blown into the hot combustion gases that leave the melting reactions which take place and give carbon monoxide and hydrogen reduce the carbon is removed from the gasified gas, supplied to the melting chamber furnace and completely burned.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1998
    Assignee: CRG Kohlenstoffrecycling Ges.mbH
    Inventor: Bodo Wolf
  • Patent number: 5846268
    Abstract: A process for producing liquid pig iron or liquid steel preproducts and sponge iron from iron ore. The iron ore in a first reduction zone (4) is directly reduced to sponge iron. The sponge iron in a meltdown gasifying zone (10) is melted under the supply of carbon carriers and an oxygen-containing gas, and a reducing gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is produced. The reducing gas is introduced into the first reduction zone (4), is reacted there, and is drawn off as an export gas. The drawn-off export gas is subjected to CO.sub.2 elimination as well as heating, and as a reducing gas, at least largely free of CO.sub.2, is fed to at least one further reduction zone (29) for the direct reduction of iron ore. In order to enable the export gas drawn off the further reduction zone (29) to be utilized as completely as possible, heat of the export gas leaving the further reduction zone (29) is used for heating the export gas derived from the first reduction zone (4).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Assignee: Voest-Alpine Industieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Jorg Diehl, Gerald Rosenfellner
  • Patent number: 5827336
    Abstract: A process for upgrading plastic material containing inorganic filler or reinforcement material for use as feedstock in a partial oxidation gas generator for the production of raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas. The plastic material is granulated and partially liquefied by heating in a closed autoclave at a temperature in the range of about 400.degree. F. to 495.degree. F. and a pressure in the range of about 150 psig to 750 psig while the plastic material is in contact with a pumpable hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent. A pumpable slurry is thereby produced comprising solubilized plastic, unsolubilized plastic, hydrocarbonaceous liquid solvent, separated inorganic material and unseparated inorganic material. After removing the separated inorganic material, the remainder of the slurry is then reacted by partial oxidation to produce said raw synthesis gas, fuel gas or reducing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Motasimur Rashid Khan, Christine Cornelia Gorsuch, Stephen Jude DeCanio
  • Patent number: 5824122
    Abstract: In a process and an apparatus for purifying flammable gas, in particular low-temperature carbonization gas, the gas is scrubbed and discharged as pure gas and condensate. The condensate is distilled in a distillation unit. Volatile constituents are admixed to the pure gas, so that the calorific value of the latter is increased. The non-volatile constituents are discharged. The non-volatile constituents can be fed to a low-temperature carbonization drum and carbonized therein at low temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Siemans Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gerd Baumgartel, Herbert Tratz
  • Patent number: 5814112
    Abstract: A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Douglas C. Elliott, John L. Sealock
  • Patent number: 5803937
    Abstract: A process and system for cooling a dust-laden raw or untreated gas from the gasification of a solid carbon-containing fuel in a pressurized reactor. The gas from the reactor is introduced into a quench pipe that has a cross-sectional area that is smaller than the cross-sectional area of the reactor, and to which is supplied a quenching medium for direct cooling. The gas emerging from the outlet end of the quench pipe is deflected essentially by 180.degree. and, counter to the flow of the gas in the quench pipe, is guided through a cooling section that surrounds the quench pipe and is incorporated in a water-steam circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: L. & C. Steinmuller GmbH
    Inventors: Ralf-Uwe Hartermann, Arno Hendricks, Leszek Gawlowski, Hubert Scheid
  • Patent number: 5788723
    Abstract: A process for the high-temperature gasification of possibly thermally pretreated heterogeneous wastes, in which oxygen is injected into the gasification bed with the aid of water-cooled oxygen lances. The oxygen is heated by an independent pilot flame and accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of sound. Accordingly, the oxygen lances cannot be plugged by melted charge components not susceptible to gasification because the pilot flame is driven independently of the oxygen-lance flow. A pulsing, phase-shifted impact from several oxygen lances arranged in a ring produces a circulating flow of material in the gasification zone, compensating the heterogeneity of the charge in the case of a waste gasification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: Thermoselect AG
    Inventor: Gunter H. Kiss
  • Patent number: 5788724
    Abstract: Process for the conversion of a hydrocarbon material having a high molecular weight, in particular petroleum residues or heavy crude oils or reduced crude oils, comprising the following steps:impregnating or mixing the hydrocarbon material with a catalyst;pyrolyzing the impregnated residue in a suitable zone at a temperature of between 450.degree. and 650.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: Eniricerche S.p.A.
    Inventors: Angelo Carugati, Lorenzo Ippolito De Vita, Paolo Pollesel
  • Patent number: 5785721
    Abstract: The operating life of a fuel injector nozzle for a gasifier is prolonged by shielding the fuel injector nozzle with a preformed protective insulating sheath before the fuel injector nozzle is installed inside a preheated reaction chamber of the gasifier. The thermal insulating sheath has low thermal conductivity and is placed around the fuel injector nozzle body. The thermal sheath can also be positioned to cover a downstream end of the fuel injector nozzle that includes a nozzle portion. The thermal insulating sheath is supported by ceramic rope, solder or metal wire and is gradually consumable in the environs of the reaction chamber immediately after the fuel injector nozzle is installed. Before the thermal sheath is consumed, it moderates the temperature rise rate of the fuel injector nozzle while the fuel injector nozzle is being installed in the gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Donald Duane Brooker
  • Patent number: 5772707
    Abstract: Process and apparatus for methanol reforming in producing hydrogen gas for electric vehicle fuel cells in which the gas mixture to be reformed is passed through a catalyst-containing reaction compartment. The active length and/or the active inlet cross-section of an intake-side reaction compartment section which is temperature-controlled for high methanol conversion can be set as a function of the throughput of gas mixture to be reformed. Thereby, an essentially constant residence period of the gas mixture to be reformed results in the reaction compartment section which is temperature-controlled for high methanol conversion. The methanol reforming may thus be carried out even in the case of markedly fluctuating throughputs of gas mixture to be reformed with a constant level of methanol conversion rate and constantly low formation of undesirable carbon monoxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1998
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz AG
    Inventors: Norbert Wiesheu, Detlef zur Megede, Rainer Autenrieth
  • Patent number: 5769909
    Abstract: Sulfur and sulfur compounds are removed from a gas stream, such as a hydrocarbon fuel gas stream so as to render the gas stream suitable for use in a fuel cell power plant. Natural gas and recycled hydrogen enters the hydrodesulfurizer assembly at a temperature of about 120.degree. F. The gas stream is heated to a temperature of about 625.degree. F. whereupon it enters a desulfurizing bed formed from a mixture of platinum catalyst deposited on alumina pellets, and a pelletized zinc oxide hydrogen sulfide absorbent. The gas is cooled to an exit temperature of about 525.degree.F. as it passes through the desulfurizer bed. The desulfurizer bed is combined with a shift converter which reduces carbon monoxide in the desulfurized gas stream after the latter has passed through a steam reformer bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1998
    Assignee: International Fuel Cells Corp.
    Inventors: Stanley P. Bonk, Thomas J. Corrigan, Roger R. Lesieur, Richard A. Sederquist, Donald F. Szydlowski
  • Patent number: 5762659
    Abstract: A process for atomically converting gaseous waste materials into nonhazardous forms and a medium BTU gas is described. The reactor includes molten layers of iron and reactive slag in an upwardly flowing reactor operated under oxygen lean conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Inventors: Paul G. Katona, John Jasbinsek
  • Patent number: 5735934
    Abstract: A method of injecting gas-supersaturated fluids as a bubble-free effluent from a delivery system into a relatively low pressure, gas-depleted environment without cavitation or bubble formation. The method includes the steps of eliminating cavitation nuclei from within the delivery system, compressing a fluid and a gas at a high partial pressure to form a gas-supersaturated fluid, and ejecting the gas-supersaturated fluid through the delivery system into the environment without associated cavitation formation in the effluent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1998
    Assignee: Wayne State University
    Inventor: James Richard Spears
  • Patent number: 5720785
    Abstract: The invention is a method for reducing the hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content of a synthesis gas stream exiting a gasifier including mixing an iron-containing compound with a nitrogen-containing coal feed; gasifying the coal feed in the resulting mixture in an entrained flow gasifier have opposed burners under gasifying conditions thereby producing a gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide; and recovering the gas stream having substantially reduced amounts of hydrogen cyanide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1998
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventor: Daniel Clark Baker
  • Patent number: 5711770
    Abstract: A closed loop energy conversion apparatus including a dissociation unit for dissociating water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas and separating hydrogen gas from oxygen gas. An energy source provides energy to the dissociation unit. Oxygen gas and hydrocarbon gas react in a hydrocarbon combustion unit to form a combustion product comprising carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. A first heat exchanger cools the combustion product and condenses water vapor from the combustion product. A carbon dioxide separator separates carbon dioxide gas from water condensed in the first heat exchanger. Carbon dioxide gas reacts with hydrogen gas in a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor to form a mixture comprising hydrocarbon gas and water vapor. A second heat exchanger cools the mixture and condenses water vapor from the mixture. A hydrocarbon separator separates hydrocarbon gas from water condensed in the second heat exchanger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Inventor: Mylan Malina
  • Patent number: 5711771
    Abstract: A latent heat-ballasted gasifier suitable for converting biomass, coal, or low-quality fuels into a producer gas. Latent heat is stored in the reactor in ballasts containing a metal alloy with a melting point approximate the pyrolysis temperatures of the fuel. A fluidized bed reactor is used to enhance heat transfer between the latent heat material and the fuel. The latent heat-ballasts allows the reactor to be operated in a quasi-steady mode rather than a batch operation employed in the prior designs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert C. Brown