Evaporative Coating With Superconducting Material Patents (Class 505/732)
  • Patent number: 8268386
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a high-temperature superconducting conductor includes providing an elongate substrate to a reactor, the reactor having a longitudinal flow distributor. The longitudinal flow distributor has an entrance, a plurality of exits, and an interior distribution member provided between the entrance and the plurality of exits. The method further includes heating at least a portion of the substrate to a temperature sufficient to facilitate the formation of one of a superconducting material and a predecessor to a superconducting material. Further, the method includes flowing at least one precursor into the longitudinal flow distributor, through the entrance thereof, past an internal distribution member, and out through a plurality of exits, thereby longitudinally distributing the at least one precursor to form the superconducting material or predecessor thereof on the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2012
    Assignee: SuperPower Inc.
    Inventors: Venkat Selvamanickam, Hee-Gyoun Lee
  • Patent number: 7387811
    Abstract: A CVD apparatus capable of substantially simultaneously processing multiple portions of at least one substrate or substantially simultaneously processing portions of multiple substrates or substantially simultaneously processing multiple portions of at least one substrate and portions of multiple substrates, the CVD apparatus is described. The CVD apparatus includes a reactor, at least one substrate heater, at least one precursor supply system, at least one precursor injector, optionally, communicating with at least one temperature regulated manifold, at least one reactants mixer, and, optionally, at least one controller communicating with at least one substrate heater, the at least one precursor supply system, the at least one precursor injector, the at least one temperature regulated manifold, and combinations thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2008
    Assignee: Superpower, Inc.
    Inventor: Venkat Selvamanickam
  • Patent number: 7090889
    Abstract: Boride thin films of conducting and superconducting materials are formed on silicon by a process which combines physical vapor deposition with chemical vapor deposition. Embodiments include forming boride films, such as magnesium diboride, on silicon substrates by physically generating magnesium vapor in a deposition chamber and introducing a boron containing precursor into the chamber which combines with the magnesium vapor to form a thin boride film on the silicon substrates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2006
    Assignee: The Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Zi-Kui Liu, Zhi-Jie Liu, Xiaoxing Xi
  • Patent number: 6524643
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for preparing a layered structure comprising a lower thin film composed of an oxide superconductor and an upper thin film composed of a material different from the oxide superconductor on a substrate. The lower thin film is deposited by a molecular beam deposition process and the upper thin film is deposited by a process having a deposition rate faster than that of the molecular beam deposition process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2003
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Nakamura, Michitomo Iiyama
  • Patent number: 6265353
    Abstract: In a method for producing laminate, a buffer layer is applied to a substrate, with the buffer layer material being evaporated from the buffer layer material dispensing devices at an angle &agr;1≠0 at the normal to the substrate surface onto the latter, before an oriented thin layer is evaporated. According to the invention, provision is made such that (a) following evaporation of the buffer layer and prior to the evaporation of the oriented thin layer, at least one cover layer is evaporated under deposition conditions that vary from those under which the buffer layer was applied, especially at a different pressure, different temperature, different rate, and/or different angle &agr;2≠&agr;1, especially &agr;2<&agr;1, preferably &agr;2≈0° to the substrate surface normal, and/or is evaporated on the buffer layer in such fashion that the buffer layer has a biaxial texture and/or facets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2001
    Assignee: Theva Duennschichttechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Helmut Kinder, Markus Bauer, Joachim Schwachulla
  • Patent number: 6242387
    Abstract: High temperature superconductor composite thin film devices with easily moved Josephson vortices are described having high Tc and good magnetic vortex properties. A preferred composite material was YBCO/CeO2 thin film on a MgO substrate. The superconductor composites were preferably formed by off-axis co-sputtering. A surprising recovery in properties was seen after plasma etching with oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Edward J. Cukauskas, Laura H. Allen
  • Patent number: 6218341
    Abstract: A process for preparing a superconductor which is a low anisotropy, high temperature superconductor, includes providing a target in molded form comprised of one of the superconductor or constituent elements of the superconductor, the superconductor having a layered crystal structure, having a superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of 110 K or more, and having a composition expressed by Cu1−zMzAe2Cax−1CuxOy where M is at least one member selected from the group consisting of (a) a trivalent ion of Tl, and (b) polyvalent ions of Mo, W, and Re, Ae is at least one of Ba and Sr, x ranges from 1 to 10, and y ranges from 2x+1 to 2x+4, and z ranges from 0<z≦0.5; and forming a film of the superconductor from the target on a substrate by one of sputtering or laser abrasion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Hideo Ihara, Masayuki Hirabayashi, Akira Iyo
  • Patent number: 6194353
    Abstract: A process for preparing an oxide superconductor thin film which has a high crystalline, clean and excellent superconductive surface on a substrate by MBE. The MBE is effected under a condition that the substrate is heated and an oxidizing gas is locally supplied to the proximity of the substrate so that the pressure of the proximity of the substrate becomes 6×10−6 to 8×10−5 Torr at a background pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2001
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd.
    Inventor: Takao Nakamura
  • Patent number: 6060433
    Abstract: The invention provides a structure comprising a high temperature superconducting layer deposited on a ceramic polycrystalline ferrite plate suitable for making commercial microwave devices. In one embodiment, the high temperature superconductor is yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), the ferrite is yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and the microwave device is a phase shifter. The method of making this embodiment comprises, polishing the YIG plate, depositing biaxially oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to form a crystalline template using an ion-beam-assisted-deposition technique, depositing a CeO.sub.2 lattice matching buffer layer using pulsed laser deposition, depositing YBCO using pulsed laser deposition, and annealing the YBCO in oxygen. Etching the YBCO to form a meanderline patterned waveguide results in a high figure-of-merit microwave phase shifter when the device is cooled with liquid nitrogen and an external magnetic field is applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: NZ Applied Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Yi-Qun Li, Hua Jiang
  • Patent number: 6037313
    Abstract: The method for forming superconducting films of complex oxide compounds in a process chamber according to the present invention includes the steps of:(a) placing a substrate near a target in a chamber so that the substrate is positioned to be generally perpendicular to a surface of the target, the target comprising a target material of complex oxide compounds; and(b) irradiating a laser beam to the surface of the target to vaporize or sublime the target material forming over the target a flame-shaped plume having on axis generally perpendicular to the surface of the target so that the target material is deposited onto a surface of the substrate, the surface of the substrate maintaining the position to be generally perpendicular to the surface of the target and being generally parallel to the axis of the plume, wherein the target rotates on an axis perpendicular to the surface of the target and the substrate rotates on an axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate (off-axis geometry), and wherein the l
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Tatsuoki Nagaishi, Hideo Itozaki
  • Patent number: 5972847
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for fabricating YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 superconductor layers with the capability of carrying large superconducting currents on a metallic tape (substrate) supplied with a biaxially textured oxide buffer layer. The method represents a simplification of previously established techniques and provides processing requirements compatible with scale-up to long wire (tape) lengths and high processing speeds. This simplification has been realized by employing the BaF.sub.2 method to grow a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7 film on a metallic substrate having a biaxially textured oxide buffer layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Energy
    Inventors: Roeland Feenstra, David Christen, Mariappan Paranthaman
  • Patent number: 5952271
    Abstract: The method for manufacturing superconducting elements according to the present invention includes the following steps of: (a) placing a substrate near a target in a chamber so that the substrate is positioned to face a surface of the target, wherein the target comprises a target material of a complex oxide superconducting compounds; (b) irradiating a laser beam to the surface of the target to vaporize or sublime the target material so that the target material is deposited onto a surface of the substrate, wherein the surface of the substrate maintains the position facing the surface of the target; and (c) fabricating the surface of the target material layer on the substrate to form a superconducting element by irradiating a laser beam to the surface of the substrate, without removing the substrate from the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Akihiro Moto, Tatsuoki Nagaishi, Hideo Itozaki
  • Patent number: 5945383
    Abstract: A method of producing a high temperature superconductor Josephson element and an improved SNS weak link barrier element is provided. A YBaCuO superconducting electrode film is deposited on a substrate at a temperature of approximately 800.degree. C. A weak link barrier layer of a nonsuperconducting film of N--YBaCuO is deposited over the electrode at a temperature range of 520.degree. C. to 540.degree. C. at a lower deposition rate. Subsequently, a superconducting counter-electrode film layer of YBaCuO is deposited over the weak link barrier layer at approximately 800.degree. C. The weak link barrier layer has a thickness of approximately 50 .ANG. and the SNS element can be constructed to provide an edge geometry junction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: Brian D. Hunt
  • Patent number: 5863869
    Abstract: Superconducting transition metal oxide films are provided which exhibit very high onsets of superconductivity and superconductivity at temperatures in excess of 40.degree. K. These films are produced by vapor deposition processes using pure metal sources for the metals in the superconducting compositions, where the metals include multi-valent nonmagnetic transition metals, rare earth elements and/or rare earth-like elements and alkaline earth elements. The substrate is exposed to oxygen during vapor deposition, and, after formation of the film, there is at least one annealing step in an oxygen ambient and slow cooling over several hours to room temperature. The substrates chosen are not critical as long as they are not adversely reactive with the superconducting oxide film. Transition metals include Cu, Ni, Ti and V, while the rare earth-like elements include Y, Sc and La. The alkaline earth elements include Ca, Ba and Sr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1999
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, Richard Joseph Gambino, Roger Hilson Koch, James Andrew Lacey, Robert Benjamin Laibowitz, Joseph Michael Viggiano
  • Patent number: 5674813
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for preparing a layered structure made up of a plurality of thin films composed of different compositions, in which the method involves using a reactive co-evaporation technique to deposit a first thin film on a substrate using a first set of evaporation sources, and then depositing another thin film of a different composition on the first thin film, using a second set of evaporation sources that has no evaporation sources common with the first set of evaporation sources. In the method, the first thin film is deposited in a first deposition sub-chamber and the second thin film is deposited in a second deposition subchamber, both of which are part of a single vacuum chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1997
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Nakamura, Michitomo Iiyama
  • Patent number: 5672210
    Abstract: The method for manufacturing superconducting elements according to the present invention include the following steps of: (a) placing a substrate near a target in a chamber so that the substrate is positioned to face a surface of the target, wherein the target comprises a target material of a complex oxide superconducting compounds; (b) irradiating a laser beam to the surface of the target to vaporize or sublime the target material so that the target material is deposited onto a surface of the substrate, wherein the surface of the substrate maintains the position facing the surface of the target; and (c) fabricating the surface of the target material layer on the substrate to form a superconducting element by irradiating a laser beam to the surface of the substrate, without removing the substrate from the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1997
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Akihiro Moto, Tatsuoki Nagaishi, Hideo Itozaki
  • Patent number: 5650378
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a polycrystalline thin film deposit acting as a substrate material composed of grains of a cubic structure in which the intergranular misorientation, defined as the orientation difference between the a-axes (or b-axes) of the neighboring grains, is less than 30 degrees. Such a substrate base is produced by depositing a target material on a base material by sputtering while irradiating the substrate base with ion beams at an oblique angle to the base. The preferred range of the oblique angle is between 40 to 60 degrees. Examples are presented of application of such textured polycrystalline substrate base for the production of superconducting oxide thin layer of outstanding superconducting properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1997
    Assignee: Fujikura Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Iijima, Nobuo Tanabe
  • Patent number: 5648321
    Abstract: Described is a process for manufacturing thin films by periodically depositing (DEP) a number of block layers consisting of different base materials on a substrate (multilayer deposition), wherein the thickness of the layers (LT) is restricted to one to 20 monolayers and deposition as well as crystallization of the thin film is completed at approximately constant temperature without performing a separate annealing step. The method can be used to produce thin films of high-T.sub.c -superconductors. It allows a better control of the crystal growth of ternary or higher compounds with comparatively large unit cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Johannes Georg Bednorz, Andrei Catana, Jean Pierre Locquet, Erich Maechler, Carl Alexander Mueller
  • Patent number: 5629268
    Abstract: A process for depositing successively a plurality of thin films on a bottom superconductor layer made of oxide superconductor deposited on a substrate in a single chamber under a condition, the bottom superconductor layer is heated in ultra-high vacuum at a temperature which is lower than the oxygen-trap temperature (T.sub.trap) at which oxygen enter into the oxide superconductor but higher than a temperature which is lower by 100.degree. C. than the oxygen-trap temperature (T.sub.trap -100.degree. C.) and then the first thin film is deposited thereon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: So Tanaka, Takao Nakamura, Michitomo Iiyama
  • Patent number: 5622918
    Abstract: A process for preparing an YBCO oxide thin film which has a crystalline, clean and smooth surface on a substrate. The process is conducted by using an apparatus comprising a vacuum chamber in which an oxidizing gas of O.sub.2 including O.sub.3 can be supplied near the substrate so that pressure around the substrate can be increased while maintaining high vacuum near an evaporation source and K cell evaporation sources arranged in the vacuum chamber wherein the substrate is heated, molecular beam of constituent atoms of the oxide excluding oxygen are supplied from the K cell evaporation sources, and a chilled oxidizing gas is locally supplied to the vicinity of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1997
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: Takao Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5622567
    Abstract: A thin film forming apparatus using laser includes a chamber (1), a target (5) placed therein, a laser light source (10) for emitting laser beam to target (5), and a substrate holder (3). When target (5) is irradiated with laser beam (16), a plume (15) is generated, and materials included in plume (15) are deposited on the surface of a substrate (2) held by substrate holder (3). The laser beam emitted from laser light source (10) has its cross section shaped to a desired shape when passed through a shielding plate (4804), for example, so that the surface of the target (5) is irradiated with the beam having uniform light intensity distribution. Therefore, a plume (15) having uniform density distribution of active particles is generated, and therefore a thin film of high quality can be formed over a wide area with uniform film quality, without damaging the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1997
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuyoshi Kojima, Tetsuya Takami, Kenichi Kuroda, Toshiyuki Oishi, Yukihiko Wada, Akihiko Furukawa
  • Patent number: 5607899
    Abstract: A thin film strongly orienting specific crystal axes is deposited on a polycrystalline or amorphous base material in accordance with laser deposition in a simpler device through a simpler process. A target is irradiated with a laser beam, for forming a thin film in accordance with laser ablation of depositing a substance scattered from the target on a base material. In order to form the thin film, prepared are conditions capable of forming a film orienting a specific crystal axis substantially perpendicularly to the base material in substantially parallel arrangement of the target and the base material. Under the conditions, a film is deposited on the base material which is inclined at a prescribed angle .theta. with respect to the target. It is possible to deposit a film strongly orienting a specific crystal axis in a plane substantially parallel to the base material surface by inclining the base material under the specific film forming conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Tokyo Electric Power Company Incorporated
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Kousou Fujino, Noriki Hayashi, Shigeru Okuda, Tsukushi Hara, Hideo Ishii
  • Patent number: 5585332
    Abstract: A perovskite type superconductor film having a high content, almost a single phase, of the high Tc phase is formed by the steps of: depositing at least one first film of a first material (e.g., a composite oxide of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system or Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O system) constituting a perovskite type superconductor over a substrate; depositing at least one second film of a second material containing an oxide or element (Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, Tl.sub.2 O.sub.3, PbO.sub.x, etc., particularly PbO.sub.x) having a vapor pressure of more than 10.sup.-4 Pa at 800.degree. C. at least as a main component over the substrate; to thereby form a stack of the first and second films; and heat treating the stack of the first and second films to form the perovskite type superconductor film on the substrate. Further, preferred compositions of the as-deposited films or stack are determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Atsushi Tanaka, Nobuo Kamehara, Koichi Niwa
  • Patent number: 5545613
    Abstract: A method of preparing a superconducting oxide by combining the metallic elements of the oxide to form an alloy, followed by oxidation of the alloy to form the oxide. Superconducting oxide-metal composites are prepared in which a noble metal phase intimately mixed with the oxide phase results in improved mechanical properties. The superconducting oxides and oxide-metal composites are provided in a variety of useful forms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Gregory J. Yurek, John B. VanderSande
  • Patent number: 5534489
    Abstract: An oxide superconducting film is formed using laser deposition of applying an excimer laser beam (1, 21) onto a target (3, 23) through a converging lens (2, 22) and depositing atoms and/or molecules scattered from the target (3, 23) on the base material (5). The converging lens (2) is prepared by a cylindrical lens, or the converging lens (22) is moved, so that a portion (4, 25) irradiated with the laser beam (1, 21) on the target (3, 23) is linearized. Thus, it is possible to form an oxide superconducting film which is homogeneous over a region having a relatively large area on the base material (5) not only in film thickness but also in property.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriki Hayashi, Noriyuki Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5447906
    Abstract: Superconducting transition metal oxide films are provided which exhibit very high onsets of superconductivity and superconductivity at temperatures in excess of 40.degree. K. These films are produced by vapor deposition processes using pure metal sources for the metals in the superconducting compositions, where the metals include multi-valent nonmagnetic transition metals, rare earth elements and/or rare earth-like elements and alkaline earth elements. The substrate is exposed to oxygen during vapor deposition, and, after formation of the film, there is at least one annealing step in an oxygen ambient and slow cooling over several hours to room temperature. The substrates chosen are not critical as long as they are not adversely reactive with the superconducting oxide film. Transition metals include Cu, Ni, Ti and V, while the rare earth-like elements include Y, Sc and La. The alkaline earth elements include Ca, Ba and Sr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, Richard J. Gambino, Roger H. Koch, James A. Lacey, Robert B. Laibowitz, Joseph M. Viggiano
  • Patent number: 5447569
    Abstract: A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting oxide thin films provides a feed tube having a narrow slot along its length with a uniform mixture of powdered precursor materials packed inside the tube. The mixture composition is such that the resulting film has the desired stoichiometry. The tube moves downward at a controlled rate past a bank of heating lamps surrounded by a heat reflector. At each position of the tube this structure heats a localized section of the precursor material, with a sharp temperature gradient at the boundary of the section so that the heating is confined to this section. The precursor material in the heated section is substantially completely vaporized, with negligible decomposition and nonvolatile residue formation, and the vaporization rate is governed by the downward velocity of the tube. The vaporized material escapes through the longitudinal slot, and is swept by a carrier gas into a reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Inventors: Ronald Hiskes, Stephen DiCarolis
  • Patent number: 5447910
    Abstract: An oxide superconducting film is formed using laser deposition of applying an excimer laser beam (1, 21) onto a target (3, 23) through a converging lens (2, 22) and depositing atoms and/or molecules scattered from the target (3, 23) on the base material (5). The converging lens (2) is prepared by a cylindrical lens, or the converging lens (22) is moved, so that a portion (4, 25) irradiated with the laser beam (1, 21) on the target (3, 23) is linearized. Thus, it is possible to form an oxide superconducting film which is homogeneous over a region having a relatively large area on the base material (5) not only in film thickness but also in property.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriki Hayashi, Noriyuki Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5432151
    Abstract: A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Richard E. Russo, Ronald P. Reade, Stephen M. Garrison, Paul Berdahl
  • Patent number: 5423914
    Abstract: The invention provides a film deposition apparatus comprising a vacuum chamber provided with a partitioning means for dividing the vacuum chamber into a first sub-chamber and a second sub-chamber, the partitioning means including an opening for introducing a vacuum conductance for molecular flows between the first sub-chamber and the second sub-chamber so that a pressure difference can be created between the first sub-chamber and the second sub-chamber even when the opening is open. A gate valve is provided on the partitioning means for hermetically closing the opening of the partitioning means so as to shut off the molecular flows between the first sub-chamber and the second sub-chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1995
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Nakamura, Michitomo Iiyama
  • Patent number: 5413988
    Abstract: An oxide superconductor thin film of Y.sub.1.+-..alpha. Ba.sub.2.+-..beta. Cu.sub.3.+-..gamma. O.sub.7-.delta. with a smooth surface having a low density of particles being generated without decreasing superconductivity is produced by the steps of applying a pulsed laser beam to the target formed of an oxide material having an apparent density of 95% or more, substantially composed of Y.sub.1.+-..alpha. Ba.sub.2.+-..beta. Cu.sub.3.+-..gamma. O.sub.7-.delta., which is obtained from a molded body of an amorphous powder by subjecting it to partial melting, followed by gradual cooling, depositing and accumulating an irradiated and evaporated oxide material of the target on a substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Assignees: International Superconductivity Technology Center, Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
    Inventors: Kunihiko Hayashi, Shuichi Fujino, Youichi Enomoto, Shoji Tanaka
  • Patent number: 5389606
    Abstract: An in-situ process for preparing thin films which contain relatively volatile and involatile oxides is disclosed, in particular, crystalline thin films of oxides of conductors, superconductors or ferroelectric materials, wherein separate sources of the relatively volatile and involatile oxides during depositon of the thin film are employed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Dean W. Face
  • Patent number: 5376627
    Abstract: Provided herein is a method of efficiently preparing a thin film having a higher critical temperature as to an oxide superconducting material containing Tl. A thin film of an oxide containing Tl is formed and then heat treated at a temperature of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. for a short time, and thereafter further heat treated at a temperature, which is lower than the preceding heat treatment temperature, of at least about 750.degree. C. for a long time. The thin film is heat treated in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of not more than about 0.1 atm. In formation of a Tl superconducting thin film, on the other hand, a 1212 phase layer is reacted with an amorphous Ca--Cu--O layer to form a 1223 phase layer, or a layer containing volatile metal elements (Tl, Bi and Pb, for example) and oxygen is reacted with another layer containing other elements than the volatile metal elements to form a superconducting film having a high critical temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasuko Torii, Katsuya Hasegawa, Hiromi Takei
  • Patent number: 5372089
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method of forming a single-crystalline thin film having excellent crystallinity on a base material without depending on the material for and crystallinity of the base material. In this method, a base material is provided thereon with a mask which can prevent chemical species contained in a vapor phase from adhering to the base material. The base material is continuously moved along arrow A, to deliver a portion covered with the mask into the vapor phase for crystal growth. Thus, a thin film is successively deposited on the portion of the base material, which is delivered from under the mask, from the vapor phase. A crystal growth end is formed on a boundary region between a portion of the base material which is covered with the mask and that which is exposed to the vapor phase, so that a crystal having the same orientation as the growth end is grown on a portion of the base material newly exposed by the movement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Tokyo Electric Power Company Incorporated
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Kousou Fujino, Shigeru Okuda, Tsukushi Hara, Hideo Ishii
  • Patent number: 5362711
    Abstract: A process for forming a single crystal superconducting LnA.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x film, wherein Ln is at least one rare earth element and A is at least one alkaline earth element, is disclosed, which comprises simultaneously evaporating Ln, A and Cu in an atomic ratio of about 1:2:3 from discrete evaporation sources of Ln, A and Cu onto a heated substrate in a vacuum vessel while blowing an oxygen gas onto the substrate to form an oxygen-containing atmosphere, thereby forming the single crystal superconducting film on the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignees: Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Matsushita Electric Inductris Co., Ltd., NEC Corporation, Nippon Mining Co., Ltd., Nippon Steel Corporation, TDK Corporation, Tosoh Corporation, Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha, Seisan Kaihatsu Kagaku Kenkyusho, Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshio Takada, Takahito Terashima, Yoshichika Bando
  • Patent number: 5360785
    Abstract: In a method of preparing an oxide superconducting thin film having a composition of Y-Ba-Cu-O, for example, using laser ablation, which comprises the steps of applying a laser beam to a target containing components of an oxide superconductive material and depositing particles, being thereby scattered from the target, on a substrate, the oxygen gas flow rate during film deposition is set to be at least 50 SCCM, the oxygen gas pressure during film deposition is set to be 10 to 1000 mTorr, the distance between a target 9 and a substrate 10 is set to be 40 to 100 mm, the temperature of the substrate 10 is set to be 600.degree. to 800.degree. C., the energy density of a laser beam 7 on the surface of the target 9 is set to be at least 1 J/cm.sup.2, and the laser pulse energy is set to be at least 10 mJ.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Toyko Electric Power Company, Incorporated
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Shigeru Okuda, Noriki Hayashi, Tsukushi Hara, Kiyoshi Okaniwa, Takahiko Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5358927
    Abstract: A method, and the resulting structure, of growing a superconducting perovskite thin film of, for example YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x. A buffer layer of, for example, the perovskite PrBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-y, is grown on a crystalline (001) substrate under conditions which favor growth of a,b-axis oriented material. Then the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x layer is deposited on the buffer layer under changed growth conditions that favor growth of c-axis oriented material on the substrate, for example, the substrate temperature is raised by 110.degree. C. However, the buffer layer acts as a template that forces the growth of a,b-axis YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x, which nonetheless shows a superconducting transition temperature near that of c-axis oriented films.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1994
    Assignee: Bell Communications Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Arun Inam, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Charles T. Rogers, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5356872
    Abstract: An evaporation method of producing a new high Tc superconducting material using fullerene molecules as artificial pinning sites for any magnetic flux that may enter the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Walter Eidelloth, deceased, James T. Busch, legal representative, Richard J. Gambino, Rodney Ruoff, Claudia D. Tesche
  • Patent number: 5350453
    Abstract: In the device for producing thin films of metal oxides from organic metal compounds on a substrate, there is a truncated pyramidal hollow body (3) in an evacuable housing (1). Disposed concentrically with respect to the axis of symmetry (16) of the hollow body (3) in its base (7) are at least three furnaces (8) which have reception devices (9) for the metal compounds (10) to be evaporated. The reception devices (9) are provided with guide pipes (11) which project into the hollow interior of the hollow body (3) and are inclined towards its axis of symmetry (16). The casing (12) of the truncated pyramid merges into a pipe (13) above whose end there is disposed a heatable reception device (5) for the substrate (4). A gas feed pipe (6) terminates in the hollow interior [sic] of the hollow body (3) between the guide pipes (11) and the end of the pipe (13).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Ernst-Gunther Schlosser
  • Patent number: 5350738
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of manufacturing a high quality oxide superconductor film capable of controlling the film-forming rate and the film composition easily and forming the superconductor film safely and economically, over a wide region and homogeneously, wherein each of elements of R in which R represents one or more of elements selected from the group consisting of Y and lanthanide series rare earth elements, Ba and Cu is vapor deposited in the state of metal on a substrate under a high vacuum of lower than 10.sup.-8 Torr by a vacuum vapor deposition process to form a precursor comprising an amorphous metal and the precursor is oxidized and crystallized by applying a heat treatment without taking out the same into the atmospheric air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignees: International Superconductivity Technology Center, Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho, Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takashi Hase, Ryusuke Kita, Masato Sasaki, Tadataka Morishita
  • Patent number: 5334252
    Abstract: In order to enable formation of a smooth and dense oxide superconducting film with no clear appearance of grain boundaries in a fine structure even at a high film forming rate, a laser ablation method is employed to apply a laser beam 2 to a target 1 containing components of an oxide superconductive material and deposit particles, which are thus scattered from the target 1, on a substrate 3, while gaseous oxygen is supplied from a gaseous oxygen inlet 7 toward laser plasma 6, which is generated by the application of the laser beam 2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1994
    Assignee: Sumimoto Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Shigeru Okuda, Noriki Hayashi, Tsukushi Hara, Kiyoshi Okaniwa, Takahiko Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5330966
    Abstract: An oxide superconducting layer is formed on a base material of silver, whose single side is coated with MgO, or single-crystalline MgO for depositing a Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 phase in a crystallographically oriented state by sputtering, CVD or laser ablation. Metal lead or lead oxide is then laid thereon by sputtering to obtain a two-layer structure, and the two-layer structure is heat treated in the atmospheric air. Thus, a bismuth oxide superconducting film, which is excellent in crystal orientation as well as denseness and thereby having high critical current density, is formed on the base material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Inc., The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Noriki Hayashi, Satoshi Takano
  • Patent number: 5330968
    Abstract: A laser ablation process for preparing an oxide superconducting thin film characterized in that an electrode is arranged between a substrate and a target. While the film is formed by laser ablation, a bias voltage of 75-100 V is applied between the electrode and the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Tatsuoki Nagaishi, Nobuhiro Ota, Naoji Fujimori
  • Patent number: 5322817
    Abstract: In situ vapor phase growth of thallium containing superconductors is achieved by controlling thallium volatility. Thallium volatility is controlled by providing active oxygen at the surface of the growing material and by avoiding collisions of energetic species with the growing material. In the preferred embodiment, a thallium containing superconductor is grown by laser ablation of a target, and by provision of oxygen during growth. More specifically, a source of thallium, calcium, barium, copper and oxygen is created by laser ablation of a thallium rich target, generating an ablation plume that is directed onto a heated substrate through the oxygen, with the plume passing through oxygen having a pressure from 10.sup.-2 to ten torr. Epitaxial superconducting thin films of thallium, calcium, barium, copper and oxygen have been grown by this technique. Various superconducting phases may be engineered through use of this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1994
    Assignee: Superconductor Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy W. James, Boo J. L. Nilsson
  • Patent number: 5316585
    Abstract: Chemical reactions of superconducting raw materials with active oxygen atoms and their charged particles are accelerated by using at least oxygen plasma in the fabrication process of a superconductive body. Thereby an ionic crystal is grown in a short time, which provides stable superconducting materials of high quality such as high critical temperature and low resistivity. In another aspect, a substrate is irradiated simultaneously with streams of vapor of metal elements, of which a superconductive body is to be composed, and a stream of gas of ions generated in a plasma chamber and film growth is effected while keeping the substrate at a temperature higher than 400.degree. C. to produce a ceramic type superconductive thin film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1994
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukio Okamoto, Toshiyuki Aida, Katsuki Miyauchi, Kazumasa Takagi, Tokuumi Fukazawa, Shinji Takayama
  • Patent number: 5312803
    Abstract: In an oxide superconducting film wiring, when the line width is reduced, the evaporation of a component during firing becomes so vigorous that it becomes impossible to form a desired single crystal phase, which causes a significant lowering in the properties of the oxide superconducting wiring. This problem can be solved by preventing the evaporation of the evaporable component during the firing. Examples of this include a process wherein plate is placed above the superconductor forming material film wiring pattern on the substrate so as to face each other, the plate comprising a material having no chemical influence on the superconducting wiring, and a pattern of a material containing an evaporable component is arbitrarily formed, a process wherein a pattern having a smaller line width is sandwiched between patterns having a larger line width, and a process wherein the firing atmosphere or the concentration of the evaporable component in the pattern is varied depending upon the line width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1994
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Atsushi Tanaka, Kazunori Yamanaka, Nobuo Kamehara, Koichi Niwa
  • Patent number: 5306703
    Abstract: A method of forming thallium, barium, calcium, copper oxide films with smooth surfaces and chemical uniformity by sequentially depositing layers and annealing in the absence of a separate source of Tl.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: The University of Colorado Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Ali Naziripour, Allen M. Hermann
  • Patent number: 5300485
    Abstract: In order to enable formation of a smooth and dense oxide superconducting film with no clear appearance of grain boundaries in a fine structure even at a high film forming rate, a laser ablation method is employed to apply a laser beam 2 to a target 1 containing components of an oxide superconductive material and deposit particles, which are thus scattered from the target 1, on a substrate 3, while gaseous oxygen is supplied from a gaseous oxygen inlet 7 toward laser plume 6, which is generated by the application of the laser beam 2, and to a portion of the target irradiated with said laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: Samitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Shigeru Okuda, Noriki Hayashi, Tsukushi Hara, Kiyoshi Okaniwa, Takahiko Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5296455
    Abstract: A compound oxide superconductor represented by the general formula:Bi.sub.4+d (Sr.sub.1-x, Ca.sub.x).sub.m Cu.sub.n O.sub.p+yin which,"d" is an amount of excess bismuth and satisfies a range of 0<d.ltoreq.1.2,"m" is a number which satisfies a range of 6.ltoreq.m.ltoreq.10,"n" is a number which satisfies a range of 4.ltoreq.n.ltoreq.8,"p"=6+m+n,"x" is a number which satisfies a range of 0<x<1, and"y" is a number which satisfies a range of -2.ltoreq.<y.ltoreq.+2.A preferred example is a compound oxide system having the following general formula:Bi.sub.4+d Sr.sub.4 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.6 O.sub.20+yin which "d" is a number which satisfies the range 0.4.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.1.2 and "y" is a number which satisfies a range of -2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.+2. The critical current density (J.sub.c) is improved by increasing the amount of bismuth with respect to the stoichiometric amount. A superconducting thin film is deposited on a substrate by physical vapor deposition such as sputtering.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Keizo Harada, Hideo Itozaki, Kenjiro Higaki, Shuji Yazu
  • Patent number: 5296458
    Abstract: An epitaxial structure comprising a silicon containing substrate and a high T.sub.c copper-oxide-based superconducting layer, which may include an intermediate layer between the silicon substrate and the superconductor layer. Epitaxial deposition is accomplished by depositing a superconductor on a (001) surface of silicon in a manner in which the unit cell of the superconductor layer has two out of three of its crystallographic axes rotated 45 degrees with respect to the corresponding axes of the silicon unit cell, the remaining axis of the superconductor unit cell being normal to the Si (001) surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Franz J. Himpsel