Vacuum Treating Or Coating Patents (Class 505/730)
  • Patent number: 8227019
    Abstract: The present invention provides a high-throughput system for the ex-situ formation of a superconducting thin film, such as rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO), atop a continuous length of buffered metal substrate tape by heating a buffered metal substrate tape coated with precursors of REBCO These precursors, when heated and introduced to water vapor within a process chamber, decompose to form a functional superconducting thin film epitaxial to the buffer layer. A chamber such as a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor having showerhead and substrate heater assemblies designed for the creation of a long and wide deposition zone is well suited for use in the process the system. The chamber could be of cold-wall type where the walls are not heated or could of hot-wall type where the walls are heated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: SuperPower Inc.
    Inventor: Venkat Selvamanickam
  • Patent number: 8124171
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a tape-formed oxide superconductor, in which a tape-formed wire material (6 in FIG. 1) is extended between a pair of reels (5a and 5b). Besides, a reactive gas is supplied form the gas supply ports of a reactive gas supply pipe (3a) vertically to the upper side film surface of the tape-formed wire material (6), so as to react the film body of this tape-formed wire material into a superconducting layer, while at the same time, a gas after the reaction is discharged from the gas discharge ports of discharge pipes (4a and 4b) for discharging the gas after the reaction. Likewise, the reactive gas is supplied vertically to the lower side film surface of the tape-formed wire material (6), so as to react the film body of this tape-formed wire material into a superconducting layer, while at the same time, the gas after the reaction is discharged from the gas discharge ports of discharge pipes (4c and 4d) for discharging the gas after the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2012
    Assignees: International Superconductivity Technology Center, The Juridical Foundation, SWCC Showa Cable Systems Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yuji Aoki, Hiroshi Fuji, Sukeharu Nomoto, Ryo Teranishi, Teruo Izumi, Yuh Shiohara
  • Patent number: 8026197
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for manufacturing superconducting tape through an integrated process, including the steps of: heat-treating a substrate wound on a drum in a reaction chamber; continuously depositing components, constituting a buffer layer, a superconducting layer, a contact resistance layer, and a protective layer of the superconducting tape, which are supplied from a deposition chamber, on the substrate; and heat-treating the substrate deposited with the components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2011
    Assignee: Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute
    Inventors: Ho Seop Kim, Sang Soo Oh, Hong Soo Ha, Kyu Jung Song, Dong Woo Ha, Rock Kil Ko
  • Patent number: 7893006
    Abstract: Under one aspect, a method of making a superconductor wire includes providing an oxide superconductor layer overlaying a substrate; forming a substantially continuous barrier layer over the oxide superconductor layer, the barrier layer including metal; depositing a layer of metal particles over the barrier layer, said depositing including applying a liquid including metal particles over the barrier layer; and sintering the layer of metal particles to form a substantially continuous metal layer over the barrier layer. In one or more embodiments, the oxide superconductor layer is oxygen-deficient, and the method may include oxidizing the oxygen-deficient oxide superconductor layer. At least a portion of the sintering and the oxidizing may occur simultaneously, for example by performing them at an oxygen partial pressure and a temperature sufficient to both sinter the metal particles and to oxidize the oxygen-deficient oxide superconductor layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: American Superconductor Corporation
    Inventors: Yibing Huang, Thomas Kodenkandath, Joseph Lynch, Martin W. Rupich, Wei Zhang
  • Patent number: 7718574
    Abstract: Methods for depositing, at a very high deposition rate, a biaxially-textured film on a continuously moving metal tape substrate are disclosed. These methods comprise: depositing a film on the substrate with a deposition flux having an oblique incident angle of about 5° to about 80° from the substrate normal, while simultaneously bombarding the deposited film using an ion beam at an ion beam incident angle arranged along either a best ion texture direction of the film or along a second best ion texture direction of the film, thereby forming the biaxially-textured film, wherein a deposition flux incident plane is arranged parallel to a direction along which the biaxially-textured film has a fast in-plane growth rate. Superconducting articles comprising a substrate, a biaxially-textured film deposited on said substrate by said methods above; and a superconducting layer disposed on the biaxially-textured film are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2010
    Assignee: SuperPower, Inc.
    Inventors: Xuming Xiong, Venkat Selvamanickam
  • Patent number: 7247340
    Abstract: A method of forming a superconducting conductor is disclosed. The method provides translating a substrate tape through a deposition chamber and along a helical path, where the helical path has multiple windings of the substrate tape and each winding of the substrate tape extends along a feed path and a return path. The method further provides depositing a HTS layer overlying the substrate tape within a deposition chamber, wherein the deposition chamber houses the substrate tape along the feed path but not the return path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2007
    Assignee: Superpower, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Martin Salagaj, Venkat Selvamanickam
  • Patent number: 6147032
    Abstract: An implant patterned superconductive device and a method for indirect implant-patterning of oxide superconducting materials is provided. The method forms a device having an oxide superconducting layer on a substrate, deposits a passivation layer atop the oxide superconducting layer, and implants chemical impurities in a selected portion of the superconducting layer through the passivation layer. This modifies the conductivity of the selected portion of the oxide superconducting layer and electrically isolates the selected portion from the non-selected portion of the oxide superconducting layer. The passivation layer is made of a material less susceptible to implant damage than the oxide superconducting layer to allow inhibition of the oxide superconducting layer while protecting the crystalline structure of the top surface of the oxide superconducting layer and keeping it planarized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: John R. LaGraff, Claire L. Pettiette-Hall, James M. Murduck, Hugo W-K. Chan
  • Patent number: 6072939
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are provided for effectively and controllably vaporizing solid material, in general, and specifically, solid precursor material for chemical phase deposition processes. The apparatus includes a hollow container member, capable of retaining solid material and having a longitudinal axis passing through a substantially open first end, that is reciprocally injected at a controlled rate through a heater capable of vaporizing the solid material so that vaporized material passes through the first end along the longitudinal axis of the container member and into the reaction chamber. Preferably, the apparatus includes a hollow body capable of pressure containment that is in fluid communication with the reaction chamber and an rod-shaped injector slidably disposed through the hollow body suitable for injecting the container member through the body and the injector is driven external to the body using a stepper motor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: David R. Atwell
  • Patent number: 5943471
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are provided for effectively and controllably vaporizing solid material, in general, and specifically, solid precursor material for chemical phase deposition processes. The apparatus includes a hollow container member, capable of retaining solid material and having a longitudinal axis passing through a substantially open first end, that is reciprocally injected at a controlled rate through a heater capable of vaporizing the solid material so that vaporized material passes through the first end along the longitudinal axis of the container member and into the reaction chamber. Preferably, the apparatus includes a hollow body capable of pressure containment that is in fluid communication with the reaction chamber and an rod-shaped injector slidably disposed through the hollow body suitable for injecting the container member through the body and the injector is driven external to the body using a stepper motor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1999
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: David R. Atwell
  • Patent number: 5764849
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are provided for effectively and controllably vaporizing solid material, in general, and specifically, solid precursor material for chemical phase deposition processes. The apparatus includes a hollow container member, capable of retaining solid material and having a longitudinal axis passing through a substantially open first end, that is reciprocally injected at a controlled rate through a heater capable of vaporizing the solid material so that vaporized material passes through the first end along the longitudinal axis of the container member and into the reaction chamber. Preferably, the apparatus includes a hollow body capable of pressure containment that is in fluid communication with the reaction chamber and an rod-shaped injector slidably disposed through the hollow body suitable for injecting the container member through the body and the injector is driven external to the body using a stepper motor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: David R. Atwell
  • Patent number: 5536705
    Abstract: A family of mercury-containing Sr-(Ca.cndot.Y)-Cu-O superconducting materials having a zero-resistance temperature, T.sub.c(zero), greater than 90 K so that they can be cooled to and maintain the desired superconducting characteristics using relatively less expensive liquid nitrogen, are disclosed. The high-temperature superconductor is represented by the formula of: (Pb.sub.0.5 Hg.sub.0.5)(Sr.sub.2-x Ba.sub.x)(Ca.sub.0.7 Y.sub.0.3)Cu.sub.2 O.sub.7-.delta. ; wherein the value of x ranges between about 0.1 and about 0.6, preferably between about 0.2 and about 0.3. These superconducting materials are prepared by first grinding and mixing in open air constituent oxide powders of PbO, HgO, SrO.sub.2, BaO.sub.2, CaO, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, and CuO. After mixing, the powder mixture is pressed under a pressure of about 5 ton/cm.sup.2 to form a pellet having a diameter of 8 mm and a thickness of 3 mm. Thereafter, the pressed pellet is wrapped with a gold foil (with a thickness of 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1996
    Assignee: Industrial Technology Research Institute
    Inventors: Ru-shi Liu, Der-Shiuh Shy, Chung-Ho Tai, Hui-Wen Lee
  • Patent number: 5534489
    Abstract: An oxide superconducting film is formed using laser deposition of applying an excimer laser beam (1, 21) onto a target (3, 23) through a converging lens (2, 22) and depositing atoms and/or molecules scattered from the target (3, 23) on the base material (5). The converging lens (2) is prepared by a cylindrical lens, or the converging lens (22) is moved, so that a portion (4, 25) irradiated with the laser beam (1, 21) on the target (3, 23) is linearized. Thus, it is possible to form an oxide superconducting film which is homogeneous over a region having a relatively large area on the base material (5) not only in film thickness but also in property.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriki Hayashi, Noriyuki Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5468806
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of manufacturing a thin film of an oxide superconductor represented by formula Sr.sub.1-x Nd.sub.x CuO.sub.2 on a substrate. The oxide superconductor has a tetragonal crystal structure, the lattice constant in a-axis falling within a range of between 0.385 nm and 0.410 nm, and the lattice constant in c-axis being an integer number of times as much as a level falling within a range of between 0.310 nm and 0.350 nm. The method includes the steps of forming by epitaxial growth a film of a crystal having lattice constants close to those of the crystal of said oxide superconductor on a substrate, and forming a thin film of the oxide superconductor of a tetragonal crystal structure represented by general formula (I) by a thin film-forming technique.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1995
    Assignees: The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Hitachi Ltd., Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, International Superconductivity Technology Center
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Sugii, Koichi Kubo, Michiharu Ichikawa, Hisao Yamauchi
  • Patent number: 5447569
    Abstract: A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting oxide thin films provides a feed tube having a narrow slot along its length with a uniform mixture of powdered precursor materials packed inside the tube. The mixture composition is such that the resulting film has the desired stoichiometry. The tube moves downward at a controlled rate past a bank of heating lamps surrounded by a heat reflector. At each position of the tube this structure heats a localized section of the precursor material, with a sharp temperature gradient at the boundary of the section so that the heating is confined to this section. The precursor material in the heated section is substantially completely vaporized, with negligible decomposition and nonvolatile residue formation, and the vaporization rate is governed by the downward velocity of the tube. The vaporized material escapes through the longitudinal slot, and is swept by a carrier gas into a reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Inventors: Ronald Hiskes, Stephen DiCarolis
  • Patent number: 5447906
    Abstract: Superconducting transition metal oxide films are provided which exhibit very high onsets of superconductivity and superconductivity at temperatures in excess of 40.degree. K. These films are produced by vapor deposition processes using pure metal sources for the metals in the superconducting compositions, where the metals include multi-valent nonmagnetic transition metals, rare earth elements and/or rare earth-like elements and alkaline earth elements. The substrate is exposed to oxygen during vapor deposition, and, after formation of the film, there is at least one annealing step in an oxygen ambient and slow cooling over several hours to room temperature. The substrates chosen are not critical as long as they are not adversely reactive with the superconducting oxide film. Transition metals include Cu, Ni, Ti and V, while the rare earth-like elements include Y, Sc and La. The alkaline earth elements include Ca, Ba and Sr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, Richard J. Gambino, Roger H. Koch, James A. Lacey, Robert B. Laibowitz, Joseph M. Viggiano
  • Patent number: 5439877
    Abstract: In-situ process are provided for 1) depositing on a substrate a crystalline thin film of a high temperature superconducting oxide by exposing the back surface of the substrate, i.e., the surface of the substrate opposite the surface on which the thin film is deposited, to radiation from a direct radiant heat source, thereby heating the substrate to the desired growth temperature, and maintaining the radiation and thereby the desired growth temperature during the deposition of the thin film, and 2) depositing a crystalline thin film of high temperature superconducting oxides onto both the front and back surfaces of a substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Dean W. Face
  • Patent number: 5403819
    Abstract: A method for preparing a thin film formed of an oxide superconductor on a substrate by emitting molecular beams of constituent elements of the oxide superconductor to the substrate under high vacuum, wherein at first a molecular beam of one of the constituent elements of the oxide superconductor, of which an oxide thin film can be deposited so as to have a smooth surface, is emitted so as to form the oxide thin film of one or two unit cells. And then, all the molecular beams of constituent elements of the oxide superconductor are emitted to the oxide thin film so as to form the oxide superconductor thin film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1995
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: Takao Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5389606
    Abstract: An in-situ process for preparing thin films which contain relatively volatile and involatile oxides is disclosed, in particular, crystalline thin films of oxides of conductors, superconductors or ferroelectric materials, wherein separate sources of the relatively volatile and involatile oxides during depositon of the thin film are employed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Dean W. Face
  • Patent number: 5376628
    Abstract: Herein is disclosed a method of improving or producing an oxide superconductor. An oxide superconductor or starting material of oxide superconductor as an object material is irradiated with active oxygen species. The irradiation process is carried out while keeping the object material at a temperature at which the object material is effectively oxidized with the active oxygen species. The active oxygen species are formed on the inside or in the peripheral portion of a nonequilibrium or equilibrium, high-temperature plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Anelva Corporation
    Inventors: Atsushi Sekiguchi, Hideo Mito
  • Patent number: 5376627
    Abstract: Provided herein is a method of efficiently preparing a thin film having a higher critical temperature as to an oxide superconducting material containing Tl. A thin film of an oxide containing Tl is formed and then heat treated at a temperature of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. for a short time, and thereafter further heat treated at a temperature, which is lower than the preceding heat treatment temperature, of at least about 750.degree. C. for a long time. The thin film is heat treated in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of not more than about 0.1 atm. In formation of a Tl superconducting thin film, on the other hand, a 1212 phase layer is reacted with an amorphous Ca--Cu--O layer to form a 1223 phase layer, or a layer containing volatile metal elements (Tl, Bi and Pb, for example) and oxygen is reacted with another layer containing other elements than the volatile metal elements to form a superconducting film having a high critical temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasuko Torii, Katsuya Hasegawa, Hiromi Takei
  • Patent number: 5374613
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing an oxide superconductor thin film is disclosed, which comprises the steps of: (1) preparing a substrate; depositing an oxide superconductor thin film on said substrate by directing a beam containing constituent elements of an oxide superconductor to said substrate; and supplying excited oxygen to or near a thin film deposition site on said substrate during the deposition of said thin film, wherein said beam is selected from the group consisting of an ion beam, neutral particle beam, molecular beam, cluster beam and cluster ion beam, and wherein said excited oxygen is produced by means of generating discharge in an oxygen gas or oxygen-containing gas or by irradiating an oxygen gas or oxygen-containing gas with a beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1994
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Etsuo Noda, Setsuo Suzuki, Osami Morimiya, Kazuo Hayashi
  • Patent number: 5372089
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method of forming a single-crystalline thin film having excellent crystallinity on a base material without depending on the material for and crystallinity of the base material. In this method, a base material is provided thereon with a mask which can prevent chemical species contained in a vapor phase from adhering to the base material. The base material is continuously moved along arrow A, to deliver a portion covered with the mask into the vapor phase for crystal growth. Thus, a thin film is successively deposited on the portion of the base material, which is delivered from under the mask, from the vapor phase. A crystal growth end is formed on a boundary region between a portion of the base material which is covered with the mask and that which is exposed to the vapor phase, so that a crystal having the same orientation as the growth end is grown on a portion of the base material newly exposed by the movement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Tokyo Electric Power Company Incorporated
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Kousou Fujino, Shigeru Okuda, Tsukushi Hara, Hideo Ishii
  • Patent number: 5364835
    Abstract: A method of producing an oxide superconducting material comprises the steps of adding a halogen element to an oxide superconducting material by ion injection and thermal diffusion, forming a film either on the oxide material before or after the adding step, and applying heat treatment after the forming step to improve the electric property in the near-surface portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1994
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Shunpei Yamazaki
  • Patent number: 5362710
    Abstract: A process for preparing a thin film of superconducting material is disclosed in which films are deposited from a defined target. The thin films prepared by the process are characterized by high critical temperature of superconductivity and a smaller discrepancy between the critical temperature and the onset temperature at which superconductivity is observed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Nobuhiko Fujita, Tadakazu Kobayashi, Hideo Itozaki, Saburo Tanaka, Shuji Yazu, Tetsuji Jodai
  • Patent number: 5362711
    Abstract: A process for forming a single crystal superconducting LnA.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x film, wherein Ln is at least one rare earth element and A is at least one alkaline earth element, is disclosed, which comprises simultaneously evaporating Ln, A and Cu in an atomic ratio of about 1:2:3 from discrete evaporation sources of Ln, A and Cu onto a heated substrate in a vacuum vessel while blowing an oxygen gas onto the substrate to form an oxygen-containing atmosphere, thereby forming the single crystal superconducting film on the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignees: Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Matsushita Electric Inductris Co., Ltd., NEC Corporation, Nippon Mining Co., Ltd., Nippon Steel Corporation, TDK Corporation, Tosoh Corporation, Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha, Seisan Kaihatsu Kagaku Kenkyusho, Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshio Takada, Takahito Terashima, Yoshichika Bando
  • Patent number: 5360785
    Abstract: In a method of preparing an oxide superconducting thin film having a composition of Y-Ba-Cu-O, for example, using laser ablation, which comprises the steps of applying a laser beam to a target containing components of an oxide superconductive material and depositing particles, being thereby scattered from the target, on a substrate, the oxygen gas flow rate during film deposition is set to be at least 50 SCCM, the oxygen gas pressure during film deposition is set to be 10 to 1000 mTorr, the distance between a target 9 and a substrate 10 is set to be 40 to 100 mm, the temperature of the substrate 10 is set to be 600.degree. to 800.degree. C., the energy density of a laser beam 7 on the surface of the target 9 is set to be at least 1 J/cm.sup.2, and the laser pulse energy is set to be at least 10 mJ.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Toyko Electric Power Company, Incorporated
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Shigeru Okuda, Noriki Hayashi, Tsukushi Hara, Kiyoshi Okaniwa, Takahiko Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5356872
    Abstract: An evaporation method of producing a new high Tc superconducting material using fullerene molecules as artificial pinning sites for any magnetic flux that may enter the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Walter Eidelloth, deceased, James T. Busch, legal representative, Richard J. Gambino, Rodney Ruoff, Claudia D. Tesche
  • Patent number: 5352656
    Abstract: A method for applying a metal film barrier layer between a substrate and a superconductor coating or over a superconductivity coating using chemical vapor deposition in which low vapor pressure reactants are used, is disclosed, which comprises the steps of providing a substrate and a quantity of metal-bearing reagent and one or more reagents, placing the substrate within the furnace, introducing the metal-bearing reagent by a powder feeder means and then the reagents at different times into and reacting them in the furnace, resulting in the deposition first of a coating of metal onto the substrate and then of a coating consisting essentially of the superconducting reactant components onto the metal film; said reagents generally chosen to yield the group of oxide superconductors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1994
    Assignee: Georgia Tech Research Corporation
    Inventors: Walter J. Lackey, John A. Hanigofsky, David N. Hill, Michael J. Shapiro, E. Kent Barefield, William B. Carter
  • Patent number: 5350453
    Abstract: In the device for producing thin films of metal oxides from organic metal compounds on a substrate, there is a truncated pyramidal hollow body (3) in an evacuable housing (1). Disposed concentrically with respect to the axis of symmetry (16) of the hollow body (3) in its base (7) are at least three furnaces (8) which have reception devices (9) for the metal compounds (10) to be evaporated. The reception devices (9) are provided with guide pipes (11) which project into the hollow interior of the hollow body (3) and are inclined towards its axis of symmetry (16). The casing (12) of the truncated pyramid merges into a pipe (13) above whose end there is disposed a heatable reception device (5) for the substrate (4). A gas feed pipe (6) terminates in the hollow interior [sic] of the hollow body (3) between the guide pipes (11) and the end of the pipe (13).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Ernst-Gunther Schlosser
  • Patent number: 5350738
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of manufacturing a high quality oxide superconductor film capable of controlling the film-forming rate and the film composition easily and forming the superconductor film safely and economically, over a wide region and homogeneously, wherein each of elements of R in which R represents one or more of elements selected from the group consisting of Y and lanthanide series rare earth elements, Ba and Cu is vapor deposited in the state of metal on a substrate under a high vacuum of lower than 10.sup.-8 Torr by a vacuum vapor deposition process to form a precursor comprising an amorphous metal and the precursor is oxidized and crystallized by applying a heat treatment without taking out the same into the atmospheric air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignees: International Superconductivity Technology Center, Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho, Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takashi Hase, Ryusuke Kita, Masato Sasaki, Tadataka Morishita
  • Patent number: 5350737
    Abstract: In a process for preparing a thin film of oxide superconductor having a layered crystal structure by depositing each layer of said layered crystal structure on a substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) method with introducing oxygen-containing gas which is excited by irradiation of microwave, improvement in that a film-forming operation by the MBE method is interrupted temporarily after predetermined numbers of constituent layers which correspond to one unit crystal or less than one unit crystal are layered so that the deposited constituent layers are left in an activated oxygen atmosphere to effect a crystallization promotive operation, before the next film-forming operation is restarted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Keizo Harada, Hideo Itozaki, Shuji Yazu
  • Patent number: 5348937
    Abstract: An article comprises an oriented thick film superconducting coating on a polycrystalline substrate. The coating includes at least two highly oriented platelet components ofBi.sub.a Sr.sub.b Ca.sub.c Cu.sub.d O.sub.x (BSCCO)wherein, in one component, a is 2, b is 2, c is 1, d is 2, and x is 8 and, in another component, a is 2, b is 2, c is 0, d is 1, and x is .apprxeq.6, oriented such that said BSCCO platelets are essentially parallel to said substrate. Suitable polycrystalline substrates are MgO and alumina and mullite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Louis E. Toth, J. Richard Spann
  • Patent number: 5340793
    Abstract: A method of forming a Bi system copper oxide superconducting thin film of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.n-1 Cu.sub.n O.sub.x (n.gtoreq.2) including at least the equivalent of a pair of a full CuO molecular layer and a full CaO molecular layer, by a layer-by-layer process (an atomic layer piling process) using MBE. In accordance with the method, the CuO and CaO needed for the film are deposited in a pile by alternately depositing CuO in an amount equal to a 1/m portion of a full CuO molecular layer and CaO in an amount equal to a 1/ m portion of a full CaO molecular layer in a manner similar to that used for superlattice structure formation. The alternate deposition of CuO and CaO layer portions is repeated m times where m is an integral number of not less than n.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventor: Seigen Otani
  • Patent number: 5330968
    Abstract: A laser ablation process for preparing an oxide superconducting thin film characterized in that an electrode is arranged between a substrate and a target. While the film is formed by laser ablation, a bias voltage of 75-100 V is applied between the electrode and the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Tatsuoki Nagaishi, Nobuhiro Ota, Naoji Fujimori
  • Patent number: 5330966
    Abstract: An oxide superconducting layer is formed on a base material of silver, whose single side is coated with MgO, or single-crystalline MgO for depositing a Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 phase in a crystallographically oriented state by sputtering, CVD or laser ablation. Metal lead or lead oxide is then laid thereon by sputtering to obtain a two-layer structure, and the two-layer structure is heat treated in the atmospheric air. Thus, a bismuth oxide superconducting film, which is excellent in crystal orientation as well as denseness and thereby having high critical current density, is formed on the base material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Inc., The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Noriki Hayashi, Satoshi Takano
  • Patent number: 5326747
    Abstract: A process for patterning layered thin films comprising a bottom oxide superconductor (1) layer deposited on a substrate (3) and another thin film (2) deposited on the bottom superconductor layer and consisting of insulator, ordinary conductor or oxide superconductor having a different crystal orientation from the bottom superconductor layer. The bottom superconductor layer (1) is subjecting to heat-treatment before another thin film (2) is deposited thereon. The heat-treatment can be carried out under a first condition in ultra high-vacuum at a temperature which is lower than the oxygen-trap temperature (T.sub.trap) at which oxygen can enter into the oxide superconductor but is higher than a temperature which is lower by 100.degree. C. than the oxygen-trap temperature (T.sub.trap -100.degree. C.) or under a second condition in an atmosphere containing oxygen of high purity at a temperature which is higher than the oxygen-trap temperature (T.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Inada, Michitomo Iiyama
  • Patent number: 5322817
    Abstract: In situ vapor phase growth of thallium containing superconductors is achieved by controlling thallium volatility. Thallium volatility is controlled by providing active oxygen at the surface of the growing material and by avoiding collisions of energetic species with the growing material. In the preferred embodiment, a thallium containing superconductor is grown by laser ablation of a target, and by provision of oxygen during growth. More specifically, a source of thallium, calcium, barium, copper and oxygen is created by laser ablation of a thallium rich target, generating an ablation plume that is directed onto a heated substrate through the oxygen, with the plume passing through oxygen having a pressure from 10.sup.-2 to ten torr. Epitaxial superconducting thin films of thallium, calcium, barium, copper and oxygen have been grown by this technique. Various superconducting phases may be engineered through use of this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1994
    Assignee: Superconductor Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy W. James, Boo J. L. Nilsson
  • Patent number: 5322818
    Abstract: A method for forming an oxide superconducting material by preparing first a shaped magnetic shield comprising an oxide superconductor as a matrix, and then effecting CVD and further EVD to fill in the pores of the matrix with an oxide superconductor; more specifically, it comprises introducing an oxidizing gas to said shaped magnetic shield from either inside or outside the shaped magnetic shield while introducing a material gas of said oxide superconductor from the other side thereof, and then maintaining said shaped magnetic shield at this state under a high temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1994
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hisashi Ohtani
  • Patent number: 5314866
    Abstract: A CVD process for forming a layer or layers of superconducting materials on a semiconductor substrate in which volatile organometallic compounds of bismuth, strontium, calcium and copper are heated in the presence of a carrier gas in a first chamber free of hydrolyzing agents. Under conditions free of hydrolyzing agents, the carrier gas transports a predetermined quantity of the volatile organometallic compounds of the bismuth, strontium, calcium and copper to a deposition chamber. The compounds are decomposed and deposit mixed oxides on the substrate. Subsequent to deposition of the mixed oxides of the desired elements the layer is sintered in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and formed into a superconducting film by subsequent slow cooling still in an oxygen-rich atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Alan D. Berry, David K. Gaskill, Ronald T. Holm, Edward J. Cukauskas, Raphael Kaplan, Richard L. Henry
  • Patent number: 5314870
    Abstract: A process for preparing a thin film of oxide superconductor on a single crystal substrate of semiconductor by RF sputtering. At first, an under-layer of an oxide having a thickness of 50 to 200 .ANG. is deposited on the single crystal substrate of semiconductor at a substrate temperature of lower than 500.degree. C., and secondly an upper-layer of superconducting oxide material is deposited on said under-layer at a substrate temperature of higher than 600.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takashi Matsuura, Kenjiro Higaki, Hideo Itozaki
  • Patent number: 5312804
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a superconductive flexible conductor having a high critical temperature in which method a deposit of superconductive ceramic is applied to a metal tape of thickness lying in the range 0.1 mm to 1 mm, wherein:the deposit of thickness lying in the range 50 .mu.m to 300 .mu.m and of concentration by volume of not less than 70% runs through an infrared beam at a speed of not less than 5 cm per minute, the zone treated by the the beam having a width of less than 10 mm relative to the travel direction and a surface temperature of not less than 1200.degree. C., thereby imparting a surface superconductive layer to the deposit which is of concentration by volume close to 100%, which is textured in the travel direction, and which is of thickness lying in the range 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m; andannealing is then performed under oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1994
    Assignee: Alcatel Cable
    Inventors: Alain Petitbon, Roland Queriaud
  • Patent number: 5312803
    Abstract: In an oxide superconducting film wiring, when the line width is reduced, the evaporation of a component during firing becomes so vigorous that it becomes impossible to form a desired single crystal phase, which causes a significant lowering in the properties of the oxide superconducting wiring. This problem can be solved by preventing the evaporation of the evaporable component during the firing. Examples of this include a process wherein plate is placed above the superconductor forming material film wiring pattern on the substrate so as to face each other, the plate comprising a material having no chemical influence on the superconducting wiring, and a pattern of a material containing an evaporable component is arbitrarily formed, a process wherein a pattern having a smaller line width is sandwiched between patterns having a larger line width, and a process wherein the firing atmosphere or the concentration of the evaporable component in the pattern is varied depending upon the line width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1994
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Atsushi Tanaka, Kazunori Yamanaka, Nobuo Kamehara, Koichi Niwa
  • Patent number: 5308801
    Abstract: A method is disclosed to increase the critical transition temperature of superconducting materials by the selective application of stress to specific crystal directions. It has been found that by applying tensile stresses in certain directions and compressive stresses in other directions that the critical temperature of superconducting materials can be substantially increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 3, 1994
    Assignees: Duke University, IBM Corporation
    Inventors: F. Hadley Cocks, Nancy J. Bolinger, Holly M. Hammarstrom
  • Patent number: 5306698
    Abstract: Improved processes for making thin film and bulk thallium superconductors are described, as well as Tl superconductors having high critical current densities and low surface impedance. An annealing step in a reduced oxygen atmosphere is used to convert compounds containing thallium, calcium, barium and copper to a Tl-2223 superconducting phase or to convert an oxide having the nominal composition Tl.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x to a crystalline Tl-2223 phase. The oxygen pressure during annealing is controlled to be below the thermodynamic stability limit for conversion of Tl-2223 to Tl-2122 and secondary phases. Temperatures less than 880.degree. C. are used, the oxygen pressure being sufficient to prevent excess thallium loss so that the Tl content in the final Tl-2223 phase is Tl.sub.1.6-2.0. Electrical devices including SQUIDs can be made with these improved superconductors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Byung T. Ahn, Robert B. Beyers, Wen Y. Lee
  • Patent number: 5306702
    Abstract: A process for producing a Bi-based perovskite superconducting film, comprising the steps of forming on a substrate a Pb-film, containing Bi-base material film comprising Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca and Cu in a Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu molar ratio of (1.9 to 2.1):(1.2 to 2.2, preferably 1.5 to 1.8):2:(1.9 to 2.2):(3 to 3.5) and sintering the Pb-containing Bi-base material film in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The sintering step includes a main sintering period of 20 to 120 minutes, in which the temperature is raised from a first temperature to a second temperature, with the second temperature being in a range of 850.degree. to 860.degree. C., and the temperature rise in the main sintering period of 20 to 120 minutes being from 3.degree. to 10.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Atsushi Tanaka, Nobuo Kamehara, Koichi Niwa
  • Patent number: 5306703
    Abstract: A method of forming thallium, barium, calcium, copper oxide films with smooth surfaces and chemical uniformity by sequentially depositing layers and annealing in the absence of a separate source of Tl.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: The University of Colorado Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Ali Naziripour, Allen M. Hermann
  • Patent number: 5304534
    Abstract: An elongated, flexible superconductive wire or strip is fabricated by pulling it through and out of a melt of metal oxide material at a rate conducive to forming a crystalline coating of superconductive metal oxide material on an elongated, flexible substrate wire or strip. A coating of crystalline superconductive material, such as Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.8, is annealed to effect conductive contact between adjacent crystalline structures in the coating material, which is then cooled to room temperature. The container for the melt can accommodate continuous passage of the substrate through the melt. Also, a second pass-through container can be used to simultaneously anneal and overcoat the superconductive coating with a hot metallic material, such as silver or silver alloy. A hollow, elongated tube casting method of forming an elongated, flexible superconductive wire includes drawing the melt by differential pressure into a heated tubular substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Theodore F. Ciszek
  • Patent number: 5300484
    Abstract: A method of forming a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system (Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.x) superconducting thin film in which two half-unit cells constitute a Perovskite structure layer, characterized in that Sr and Bi layers, which are present between said half-unit cells, are each deposited without oxidation by using an MBE process or an MO-MBE process with an atomic layer level control capability. A critical current density of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system superconducting thin film is not significantly reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventor: Seigen Otani
  • Patent number: 5300485
    Abstract: In order to enable formation of a smooth and dense oxide superconducting film with no clear appearance of grain boundaries in a fine structure even at a high film forming rate, a laser ablation method is employed to apply a laser beam 2 to a target 1 containing components of an oxide superconductive material and deposit particles, which are thus scattered from the target 1, on a substrate 3, while gaseous oxygen is supplied from a gaseous oxygen inlet 7 toward laser plume 6, which is generated by the application of the laser beam 2, and to a portion of the target irradiated with said laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: Samitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Noriyuki Yoshida, Satoshi Takano, Shigeru Okuda, Noriki Hayashi, Tsukushi Hara, Kiyoshi Okaniwa, Takahiko Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5296458
    Abstract: An epitaxial structure comprising a silicon containing substrate and a high T.sub.c copper-oxide-based superconducting layer, which may include an intermediate layer between the silicon substrate and the superconductor layer. Epitaxial deposition is accomplished by depositing a superconductor on a (001) surface of silicon in a manner in which the unit cell of the superconductor layer has two out of three of its crystallographic axes rotated 45 degrees with respect to the corresponding axes of the silicon unit cell, the remaining axis of the superconductor unit cell being normal to the Si (001) surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Franz J. Himpsel