From Nonhydrocarbon Feed Patents (Class 585/733)
  • Patent number: 9903263
    Abstract: A system for controlling a flow of a gas stream into a plurality of combustion chambers of an engine is provided. The system comprises a fuel reformer module configured to provide the flow of the gas stream containing hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, a cooler module positioned downstream of the fuel reformer module with respect to the flow of the gas stream. The cooler module is configured to control a temperature of the gas stream. A flow control assembly is positioned downstream of the cooler module and upstream of the plurality of combustion chambers with respect to the flow of the gas stream. The flow control assembly is configured to supply a first effluent stream to a pre-chamber of the plurality of combustion chambers. The flow control assembly also supplies a second effluent stream to a main chamber of the plurality of combustion chambers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2018
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventor: Xinyu Ge
  • Patent number: 9757715
    Abstract: A composite photocatalyst, a manufacturing method thereof, the kits including the composite photocatalyst, and a bactericide photocatalyst. A composite photocatalyst includes photocatalyst nanocrystals and platinum nanocrystals. The photocatalyst nanocrystals include a compound represented by the following chemical formula (1): A2+(B3+)2X4??chemical formula (1), wherein A2+ represents Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ or Ag22+; B3+ represents Fe3+, Mn3+ or Cr3+; and X represents O2?.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2017
    Assignee: National Tsing Hua University
    Inventors: Kuan-Ting Lee, Shih-Yuan Lu
  • Patent number: 9631285
    Abstract: A process is provided for synthesizing synthesis gas from carbon dioxide obtained from atmospheric air or other available carbon dioxide source and water using a sodium-conducting electrochemical cell. Synthesis gas is also produced by the coelectrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam in a solid oxide fuel cell or solid oxide electrolytic cell. The synthesis gas produced may then be further processed and eventually converted into a liquid fuel suitable for transportation or other applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventors: Joseph J. Hartvigsen, Ashok V. Joshi, S. Elangovan, Shekar Balagopal, John Howard Gordon, Michele Hollist
  • Patent number: 9051526
    Abstract: A method for modification of a methane-containing gas stream, comprising the steps of: i) withdrawal of at least one substream from a methane-containing gas stream; ii) treatment of the substream with an electrically generated plasma, generating a modified gas composition which comprises a lower fraction of methane than the methane-containing gas stream used and iii) return of modified gas composition into the methane-containing gas stream. This method makes possible the storage of excess power in a natural gas line grid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2015
    Assignee: Evonik Degussa GmbH
    Inventors: Georg Markowz, Jürgen Erwin Lang, Rüdiger Schütte
  • Patent number: 9040757
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the present application discloses methods to selectively synthesize higher alcohols and hydrocarbons useful as fuels and industrial chemicals from syngas and biomass. Ketene and ketonization chemistry along with hydrogenation reactions are used to synthesize fuels and chemicals. In another embodiment, ketene used to form fuels and chemicals may be manufactured from acetic acid which in turn can be synthesized from synthesis gas which is produced from coal, biomass, natural gas, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2015
    Assignee: PIONEER ENERGY
    Inventors: John Henri, Jan Zygmunt, Mark Bergren, Robert Zubrin
  • Patent number: 9035115
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon conversion process comprises contacting a renewable feedstock under hydroprocessing conditions with a bulk catalyst to form oleochemicals such as fatty alcohols, esters, and normal paraffins. Advantageously, the reaction conditions can be selected to directly convert the renewable feedstock to the desired product(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventors: Cong-Yan Chen, Alexander E. Kuperman, William J. Cannella
  • Patent number: 9034782
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a catalyst composition for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range, comprising a porous support; Group III A or VA element in the range of 1-10 wt %; Group VI B elements in the range of 1 to 20 wt %; Group VIII B elements in range of 0.01 to 10 wt %. The present invention further provides the process for preparing the catalyst composition for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range. The present invention also provides the process for conversion of vegetable oils to hydrocarbon products in the diesel boiling range using the catalyst composition or discarded refinery spent hydro-treating catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
    Inventors: Chiranjeevi Thota, Pragya Rai, N. Jose, Dattatraya Tammannashastri Gokak, Poyyamani Swaminathan Viswanathan
  • Publication number: 20150125383
    Abstract: To provide a catalyst, which is formed from a perovskite oxide, for thermochemical fuel production, and a method of producing fuel using thermochemical fuel production that is capable of allowing a fuel to be produced in a thermochemical manner. Provided is a catalyst for thermochemical fuel production, which is used for producing the fuel from thermal energy by using a two-step thermochemical cycle of a first temperature and a second temperature that is equal to or lower than the first temperature, wherein the catalyst is formed from a perovskite oxide having a compositional formula of AXO3±? (provided that, 0???1). Here, A represents one or more of a rare-earth element (excluding Ce), an alkaline earth metal element, and an alkali metal element, X represents one or more of a transition metal element and a metalloid element, and O represents oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 12, 2015
    Publication date: May 7, 2015
    Inventors: Yoshihiro YAMAZAKI, Sossina M. HAILE, Chih-Kai YANG
  • Patent number: 9024096
    Abstract: A process for converting triacylglycerides-containing oils into crude oil precursors and/or distillate hydrocarbon fuels is disclosed. The process may include reacting a triacylglycerides-containing oil-carbon dioxide mixture at a temperature in the range from about 250° C. to about 525° C. and a pressure greater than about 75 bar to convert at least a portion of the triacylglycerides to a hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons comprising one or more of isoolefins, isoparaffins, cycloolefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Lummus Technology Inc.
    Inventor: Marvin I. Greene
  • Publication number: 20150104364
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to processes using a new crystalline molecular sieve designated SSZ-96, which is synthesized using a 1-butyl-1-methyl-octahydroindolium cation as a structure directing agent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 21, 2014
    Publication date: April 16, 2015
    Applicant: CHEVRON U.S.A. INC.
    Inventor: Saleh Ali ELOMARI
  • Patent number: 9006501
    Abstract: A renewable fuel blend and a process for producing a renewable fuel blend are described. The blend includes biologically derived C13 to C18 normal paraffins, which are provided to the blend in quantities such that blend does not require a pour point reducing treatment to achieve a low pour point. In embodiments, the normal paraffins are produced in an upgrading process, such as a hydrotreating process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventors: Rebecca Brafman, Stephen Roby, Guangci Zhou
  • Patent number: 8993818
    Abstract: Technologies to convert biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are currently being developed to decrease our carbon footprint and increase use of renewable fuels. Since sugars/sugar derivatives from biomass have high oxygen content and low hydrogen content, coke becomes an issue during zeolite upgrading to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A self-sustainable process was designed to reduce the coke by co-feeding sugars/sugar derivatives with the paraffin products from hydrogenation of sugars/sugar derivatives. Paraffins without complete conversion result in products with less aromatics and relatively low density compared with the products directly from zeolite upgrading. Thus, the process is more economically favorable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: Phillips 66 Company
    Inventors: Yun Bao, Edward L. Sughrue, II, Jianhua Yao, TiePan Shi, Kristi A. Fjare, Lisa L. Myers
  • Patent number: 8987539
    Abstract: Acyclic monterpene alcohols, like linalool, to be converted through a series of highly efficient catalytic reactions a biogasoline blending component, and a drop-in biodiesel fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Michael E. Wright, Roxanne L. Quintana
  • Publication number: 20150080623
    Abstract: A catalytic process is provided which produces in a single reaction branched, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, or cracked straight-chain hydrocarbons, from fatty acids in which the fatty acids are reacted over a multifunctional catalyst and undergo both decarboxylation and a further transformation (isomerization, cyclization, aromatization, or cracking) to form reaction products useful as fuels and for other applications that require a source of energy, or as feedstock for hydrocarbon-based commercial products such as surfactants, solvents and lubricants.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 18, 2014
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventors: Paul Ratnasamy, Moises A. Carron, Masoudeh Ahmadi
  • Publication number: 20150073062
    Abstract: Techniques, systems and material are disclosed for thermochemical regeneration of biomass into renewable engineered fuel, storage of the renewable engineered fuel, respeciation of the renewable engineered fuel and transport. In one aspect, a method includes generating low density hydrogen fuel from biomass dissociation at a first location of a low elevation. The low density hydrogen fuel is self-transported in a pipeline to a second location at a higher elevation than the first location by traveling from the first location to the second location without adding energy of pressure. A high density hydrogen carrier is generated at the second location of higher elevation by reacting the low density hydrogen fuel with at least one of a carbon donor, a nitrogen donor and an oxygen donor harvested from industrial waste. The high density hydrogen carrier is delivered to a third location of a lower elevation than the second location while providing pressure or kinetic energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 8, 2014
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Applicant: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy Edward McAlister
  • Publication number: 20150068110
    Abstract: Techniques, systems and material are disclosed for transport of energy and/or materials. In one aspect, a method includes generating gaseous fuel (e.g., from biomass dissociation) at a first location of a low elevation. The gaseous fuel can be self-transported in a pipeline to a second location at a higher elevation than the first location by traveling from the first location to the second location without adding energy of pressure. A liquid fuel can be generated at the second location of higher elevation by reacting the gaseous fuel with at least one of a carbon donor, a nitrogen donor, and an oxygen donor harvested from industrial waste. The liquid fuel can be delivered to a third location of a lower elevation than the second location while providing pressure or kinetic energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 13, 2014
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Inventor: Roy Edward McAlister
  • Patent number: 8975459
    Abstract: A process for making a bio-naphtha and optionally bio-propane from a complex mixture of natural occurring fats & oils, wherein said complex mixture is subjected to a refining treatment for removing the major part of non-triglyceride and non-fatty acid components, thereby obtaining refined fats & oils; said refined fats & oils are transformed into linear or substantially linear paraffin's as the bio-naphtha by an hydrodeoxygenation or from said refined fats & oils are obtained fatty acids that are transformed into linear or substantially linear paraffin's as the bio-naphtha by hydrodeoxygenation or decarboxylation of the free fatty acids or from said refined fats & oils are obtained fatty acids soaps that are transformed into linear or substantially linear paraffin's as the bio-naphtha by decarboxylation of the soaps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: Total Research & Technology Feluy
    Inventors: Walter Vermeiren, Nicolas Van Gyseghem
  • Patent number: 8975457
    Abstract: Described herein are methods for producing fuels and solvents from fatty acid resources. In general, the pyrolysis products of fatty acids are extracted in order to remove residual fatty acids and produce very pure hydrocarbon compositions composed of alkanes and alkenes. The fatty acids removed from the extraction step can be further pyrolyzed to produce additional hydrocarbons or, in the alternative, the fatty acids can be isolated and used in other applications. Also disclosed herein are fuels and solvents produced by the methods described herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: The Governors of the University of Alberta
    Inventor: David Bressler
  • Patent number: 8969635
    Abstract: A method of: providing a mixture of fecal waste and a bacterium; incubating the mixture to produce a fatty acid enriched mixture; removing water from the fatty acid enriched mixture to produce a dried mixture; and pyrolyzing the dried mixture in an inert atmosphere to produce an alkane from the C5-C32 fatty acid. The bacterium is a type that produces a C5-C32 fatty acid in the presence of any microbes in the fecal waste.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Justin C. Biffinger, Lisa A. Fitzgerald, Cherie Ziemer, Kurt Henry, Bradley R Ringeisen
  • Patent number: 8968670
    Abstract: A process and system for separating and upgrading bio-oil into renewable fuels is provided. The process comprises separating bio-oil into a light fraction and heavy fraction based on their boiling points. The heavy fraction is then subjected to hydrotreatment, while the light fraction is not subjected to hydrotreatment. At least a portion of the un-hydrotreated light fraction and at least a portion of the hydrotreated heavy fraction are blended with petroleum-derived gasoline to thereby provide a renewable gasoline, and at least a portion of the hydrotreated heavy fraction is blended with petroleum-derived diesel to thereby provide a renewable diesel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Maria Magdalena Ramirez Corredores, Vicente Sanchez Iglesias
  • Patent number: 8962905
    Abstract: Process for the continuous hydrogenation of triglyceride containing raw materials in a fixed bed reactor system having several catalyst beds arranged in series and comprising at least one hydrogenation catalyst comprising an active phase constituted by a nickel and molybdenum element. The raw material feed, hydrogen containing gas and diluting agent are passed together through the catalyst beds at hydrogenation conditions. The raw material feed stream as well as the stream of hydrogen containing gas are divided into an equal number of different partial streams. These are each passed to one catalyst bed in such a manner that the weight ratio of diluting agent to raw material feed is essentially the same at the entrance of all catalyst beds and does not exceed 4:1. The claimed process is preferably conducted at low temperatures and allows the utilization of existing units due to the low recycle ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Thierry Chapus, Nathalie Dupassieux, Antoine Daudin
  • Patent number: 8957269
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of producing olefinic monomers for the production of a polymer. The invention particularly relates to the production of tall oil-based biopolymers, such as polyolefins. In the stages of the method bio oil, with a content of over 50% of fatty acids of tall oil and no more than 25% of resin acids of tall oil, and hydrogen gas are fed into a catalyst bed (7); the oil is catalytically deoxygenated in the bed by hydrogen; the flow exiting the bed is cooled down and divided into a hydrocarbon-bearing liquid phase (10) and a gas phase; and the hydrocarbon-bearing liquid (13) is subjected to steam cracking (4) to provide a product containing polymerizing olefins. The deoxygenation in the bed can be followed by a catalytic cracking or, with a suitable catalyst, the deoxygenation and cracking can be simultaneous. The separated hydrogen-bearing gas phase can be circulated in the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: Stora Enso Oyj
    Inventors: Ali Harlin, Tapani Penttinen, Jari Räsänen, Olli Aaltonen
  • Patent number: 8957266
    Abstract: Provided are processes for making one or more unsaturated oligomeric acids and one or more saturated hydrocarbons. In one form, a process for making one or more saturated hydrocarbons includes oligomerizing one or more unsaturated carboxylic acids having from 4 to 38 carbon atoms in the presence of a molecular sieve catalyst to form one or more unsaturated oligomeric acids including less than 90% by weight of cyclic oligomers, and hydrogenating the one or more unsaturated oligomeric acids via contact with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst to form one or more saturated hydrocarbons. The oligomerizing of unsaturated fatty acids is from renewable biological sources to form dimer acids. The one or more saturated hydrocarbons are useful as lubricant base oils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Kun Wang, Margaret May-Som Wu, David Lawrence Stern
  • Publication number: 20150038751
    Abstract: The present disclosure discloses bimetal catalysts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2013
    Publication date: February 5, 2015
    Applicant: Wayne State University
    Inventors: K.Y. Simon Ng, Steve O. Salley, Huali Wang
  • Publication number: 20150031929
    Abstract: Provided is a method that is for producing fuel oil and that can cheaply and highly efficiently produce a fuel oil—or starting material thereof—having as the primary component n-paraffin or isoparaffin from a starting material oil containing a fatty acid alkyl ester, even while reducing hydrogen pressure. The method for producing fuel oil has a step for producing fuel oil having one or both of n-paraffin and isoparaffin as the primary component by contacting hydrogen gas and a starting material oil containing a fatty acid alkyl ester under the condition of a hydrogen pressure of no greater than 1 MPa to a catalyst resulting from supporting on a porous metal oxide support one or more metal elements belonging to group nine or group ten of the periodic table, and one or more group six element oxides belonging to group six of the periodic table. The weight ratio of the group six elements to the metal elements contained in the catalyst is no greater than 1.0 in terms of the metal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2012
    Publication date: January 29, 2015
    Inventors: Sachio Asoaka, Xiaohong Li, Toshiyuki Kimura
  • Patent number: 8940949
    Abstract: A process for the conversion of biomass to hydrocarbon products such as transportation fuels, kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, chemical and refinery plant feeds. The instant process uses a hydrocarbon or synthesis gas co-feed and hot pressurized water to convert the biomass in a manner commonly referred to as hydrothermal liquefaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Inventor: Gary Peyton Miller
  • Publication number: 20150025285
    Abstract: Processes for eliminating oxygenates and water from a light hydrocarbon processing system, wherein oxygenates are removed from a light hydrocarbon stream by adsorption of the oxygenates on an oxygenate adsorption unit to provide a deoxygenated hydrocarbon stream, the oxygenate adsorption unit is regenerated via a regenerant stream to provide an oxygenated regenerant stream comprising the oxygenates, and the oxygenated regenerant stream is subjected to hydro-deoxygenation to convert the oxygenates into paraffins and water, wherein the water may also be permanently removed from the system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2013
    Publication date: January 22, 2015
    Applicant: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Fletcher Cleverdon, Clifford Michael Lowe, Hye Kyung Cho Timken
  • Patent number: 8921629
    Abstract: Biofuels can be produced via an organic phase hydrocatalytic treatment of biomass using an organic solvent that is partially miscible with water. An organic hydrocarbon-rich phase from the hydrocatalytically treated products can be recycled to form at least a portion of the organic phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Joseph Broun Powell, Kimberly Ann Johnson
  • Patent number: 8916739
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for preparing normal paraffins and hydrocarbon product streams are provided herein. A method of preparing normal paraffins includes providing an unsaturated feed that includes an unsaturated compound that has at least one alkenyl group. The unsaturated feed is epoxidized to convert the at least one alkenyl group in the unsaturated compound to an epoxide functional group, thereby converting the unsaturated compound to an epoxide compound that has at least one epoxide functional group. The at least one epoxide functional group in the epoxide compound is converted to at least one secondary hydroxyl functional group, thereby converting the epoxide compound to a hydroxyl-functional compound that has at least one hydroxyl functional group. The hydroxyl-functional compound is deoxygenated to form normal paraffins.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2014
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Geoffrey William Fichtl, Daniel Ellig, Stanley Joseph Frey, Michael J. McCall, Andrea G. Bozzano
  • Publication number: 20140371478
    Abstract: A method for reversible capture and release of carbon dioxide comprises the steps of providing a solution of a defined tetranuclear complex or mixture thereof, in which absorption sites are provided by coordinated solvent molecules such as water molecules. The solution is exposed to the atmosphere or to a gas stream containing carbon dioxide to sequester carbon dioxide, and the pH of the resultant reaction mixture is adjusted to facilitate the release of carbon dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 15, 2012
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Wolfgang Schmitt, Annmarie O'toole
  • Patent number: 8912376
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for upgrading a pyrolysis oil comprising the following steps: —hydrodeoxygenation treatment (10) of the pyrolysis oil (12) and separation of the effluent (16) obtained into a light aqueous fraction (18) and a heavy organic fraction (20), or separation of the pyrolysis oil into an aqueous fraction and a lignin-rich fraction, —pre-reforming (22) of said aqueous fraction (18) and treatment of the effluent (26) obtained in an SMR unit (28) in order to produce hydrogen (34), —hydrotreatment (40) and/or catalytic cracking and/or visbreaking of said heavy organic fraction (20).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Total Raffinage Marketing
    Inventor: Alexandre Preau
  • Patent number: 8912367
    Abstract: A method of reacting one or more components in a liquid phase to form an organic product, the method including feeding a carbon-based gas to a high shear device; feeding a hydrogen-based liquid medium to the high shear device; using the high shear device to form a dispersion comprising the carbon-based gas and the hydrogen-based liquid medium, wherein the dispersion comprises gas bubbles with a mean diameter of less than about 5 ?m; introducing the dispersion into a reactor; and reacting the dispersion to produce the organic product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: H R D Corporation
    Inventors: Abbas Hassan, Aziz Hassan, Rayford G. Anthony, Gregory Borsinger
  • Publication number: 20140357924
    Abstract: Provided is a method that is for producing fuel oil and that is able to cheaply and highly efficiently produce a fuel oil—or starting material thereof—having as the primary component n-paraffin or isoparaffin from a starting material oil containing triglyceride fatty acids, even while reducing hydrogen pressure. The method for producing fuel oil has a step for producing fuel oil having one or both of n-paraffin and isoparaffin as the primary component by contacting hydrogen gas and a starting material oil containing triglyceride fatty acids under the condition of a hydrogen pressure of no greater than 2 MPa to a catalyst resulting from supporting on a porous metal oxide support one or more metal elements belonging to group nine or group ten of the periodic table, and one or more group six element oxides belonging to group six of the periodic table. The weight ratio of the group six elements to the metal elements contained in the catalyst is no greater than 1.0 in terms of the metal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2012
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Inventors: Sachio Asoaka, Xiaohong Li, Toshiyuki Kimura
  • Publication number: 20140336418
    Abstract: Hydrocarbons may be formed from six carbon sugars. This process involves obtaining a quantity of a hexose sugar. The hexose sugar may be derived from biomass. The hexose sugar is reacted to form an alkali metal levulinate, an alkali metal valerate, an alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or an alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. An anolyte is then prepared for use in a electrolytic cell. The anolyte contains the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. The anolyte is then decarboxylated. This decarboxylating operates to decarboxylate the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate to form radicals, wherein the radicals react to form a hydrocarbon fuel compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 2, 2014
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar
  • Patent number: 8877993
    Abstract: The invention concerns a process for hydrotreatment and/or hydroconversion of a feed of bio-renewable origin containing triglyceride and/or fatty acid structures and wherein the fatty chains contain in the range 8 to 25 carbon atoms, said process comprising the following steps: a) hydrotreatment and/or hydroconversion of said bio-renewable feed in an ebullated bed reactor in the presence of a granular catalyst comprising, on an amorphous support, at least one metal or compound of a metal having a hydrodehydrogenating function, to produce a first effluent; b) sending the effluent produced in step a) to a distillation zone from which a gaseous fraction and at least one distillate cut the end point of which is less than 400° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Thierry Chapus, Alain Quignard, Nathalie Dupassieux, Antoine Daudin
  • Publication number: 20140323787
    Abstract: A concentration system and method is disclosed. An example concentration system includes at least two material tubes configured to receive organic material. The example concentration system also includes a collection tank connected to at least one material tube at a time. The example concentration system also includes a recovery unit connected to the collection tank. The example concentration system also includes a solvent charging tank connected to the recovery unit. Under heat and pressure, an extraction from the organic material in the at least one material tube is removed and the solvent is converted into a gaseous state for collection as a liquid solvent in the solvent charging tank.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Inventor: Steve Carl
  • Patent number: 8864984
    Abstract: This invention relates to compositions comprising fluid hydrocarbon products, and to methods for making fluid hydrocarbon products via catalytic pyrolysis. Some embodiments relate to methods for the production of specific aromatic products (e.g., benzene, toluene, naphthalene, xylene, etc.) via catalytic pyrolysis. Some such methods involve the use of a composition comprising a mixture of a solid hydrocarbonaceous material and a heterogeneous pyrolytic catalyst component. The methods described herein may also involve the use of specialized catalysts. For example, in some cases, zeolite catalysts may be used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: University of Massachusetts
    Inventors: George W. Huber, Yu-Ting Cheng, Torren Carlson, Tushar Vispute, Jungho Jae, Geoff Tompsett
  • Publication number: 20140305031
    Abstract: Fuels and other valuable compositions and compounds can be made from oil extracted from microbial biomass and from oil-bearing microbial biomass via hydroprocessing and/or other chemical treatments, including the alkaline hydrolysis of glycerolipids and fatty acid esters to fatty acid salts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2014
    Publication date: October 16, 2014
    Applicant: Solazyme, Inc.
    Inventors: Anthony G. Day, Scott Franklin
  • Patent number: 8859832
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the manufacture of diesel range hydrocarbons wherein a feed is hydrotreated in a hydrotreating step and isomerized in an isomerization step, and a feed comprising fresh feed containing more than 5 wt % of free fatty acids and at least one diluting agent is hydrotreated at a reaction temperature of 200-400° C., in a hydrotreating reactor in the presence of catalyst, and the ratio of the diluting agent/fresh feed is 5-30:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Neste Oil Oyj
    Inventors: Jukka Myllyoja, Pekka Aalto, Pekka Savolainen, Veli-Matti Purola, Ville Alopaeus, Johan Grönqvist
  • Publication number: 20140303420
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the production of gamma-valerolactone (GVL) by gas phase hydrogenation of furfural or furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a solid catalyst. The conversion of furfural or furfuryl alcohol to GVL is conducted in one single step.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 2, 2012
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Applicant: Haldor Topsøe A/S
    Inventors: Martin Holmes Spangsberg, Hanne Stummann Zingler, Esben Taarning
  • Patent number: 8853476
    Abstract: A process has been developed for producing diesel boiling range fuel or fuel blending component from renewable feedstocks such as plant oils and greases. The process involves treating a renewable feedstock by hydrogenating and deoxygenating i.e. decarboxylating and/or hydrodeoxygenating to provide a hydrocarbon fraction useful as a diesel fuel. The hydrocarbon fraction is isomerized to improve cold flow properties. At least one interstage stream of the hydrogenating and deoxygenating reaction zone is heat exchanged with the feed to the isomerization reaction zone, and/or the effluent of the hydrogenating and deoxygenating reaction zone is heat exchanged with the feed to the isomerization reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignees: UOP LLC, ENI S.p.A.
    Inventors: Tom N. Kalnes, John P. Brady, Marco Di Stanislao
  • Patent number: 8853484
    Abstract: A process and system for separating and upgrading bio-oil into renewable fuels is provided. The process comprises separating bio-oil into a light fraction, an optional intermediate fraction, and heavy fraction based on their boiling points. The light fraction and optional intermediate fraction can be upgraded via hydrotreatment to produce a renewable gasoline and a renewable diesel, which may be combined with their petroleum-derived counterparts. The heavy fraction may be subjected to cracking and further separated into light, intermediate, and heavy fractions in order to increase the yield of renewable gasoline and renewable diesel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Maria Magdalena Ramirez Corredores, Vicente Sanchez Iglesias
  • Publication number: 20140275688
    Abstract: Provided are methods for producing a lube base stock and/or a fuel from a feedstock of biological origin, the method including: contacting the feedstock in the presence of a catalyst to produce a lube base stock and/or a fuel, wherein the catalyst comprises: a zeolite component selected from a zeolite having 10-member ring pores, a zeolite having 12-member ring pores and a combination thereof, 0.1 to 5 weight % of a hydrogenation component selected from Pt, Pd, Ag, Ni, Co, Mo, W, Rh, Re, Ru, Ir and a mixture thereof, and a hydrothermally stable binder component.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Scott J. Weigel, Joseph Emmanuel Gatt, Darryl Donald Lacy, Randall D. Partridge, Kun Wang, Lei Zhang, Christine Nicole Elia, Jenna Lynn Walp
  • Publication number: 20140273146
    Abstract: A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100° C. and up to 550° C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 2, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: UT-BATTELLE, LLC
    Inventors: Chaitanya K. Narula, Brian H. Davison, Martin Keller
  • Publication number: 20140256999
    Abstract: Algae oil feeds comprise a wide range of molecular species forming a complex mixture of molecules having varying sizes and therefore varying boiling points, comprise high nitrogen, oxygen, and fatty acid content, but comprise low sulfur, saturated hydrocarbons, and triglycerides. The wide range of molecular species in the algae oil feeds, very unusual compared to conventional refinery feedstocks and vegetable oils, may be upgraded into fuels by conventional refining approaches such as thermal and/or catalytic-hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating at high pressure over large-pore catalyst, and optionally followed by FCC cracking, has shown a beneficial product slate including coke yield. Thermal treatment prior to hydrotreating may improve hydrotreating feedstock quality.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 29, 2012
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Inventors: Stilianos G. Roussis, Richard J. Cranford, Daniel J. Sajkowski
  • Patent number: 8829258
    Abstract: Integrating a biomass pyrolysis and upgrading process into a fluid catalytic cracking unit. The process uses conventional FCC feed and a mixture of a solvent and biomass to produce upgraded fuel products. A slurry stream composed of solid biomass particles and a solvent is fed into an FCC riser through a slurry pump to achieve biomass pyrolysis and in situ pyrolysis oil upgrading. The catalytic cracking of the conventional petroleum feed also occurs in the riser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: Phillips 66 Company
    Inventors: Kening Gong, Alexandru Platon, Terry S. Cantu, Daren E. Daugaard
  • Publication number: 20140243541
    Abstract: The use of bio oil from at least one renewable source in a hydrotreatment process, in which process hydrocarbons are formed from said glyceride oil in a catalytic reaction, and the iron content of said bio oil is less than 1 w-ppm calculated as elemental iron. A bio oil intermediate including bio oil from at least one renewable source and the iron content of said bio oil is less than 1 w-ppm calculated as elemental iron.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 8, 2014
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Applicant: Neste Oil Oyj
    Inventors: Tuomas OUNI, Väinö SIPPOLA, Petri LlNDQVIST
  • Publication number: 20140242867
    Abstract: Lignin compositions, products produced from them or containing them, methods to produce them, spinning methods, methods to convert lignin to a conversion product and conversion products produced by the methods are described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2012
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventors: Robert Jansen, Aharon Eyal, Noa Lapidot, Bassem Hallac, Ziv-Vladimir Belman, Shmuel Kenig
  • Patent number: 8816144
    Abstract: Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Larry G. Felix, Martin B. Linck, Terry L. Marker, Michael J. Roberts
  • Patent number: 8815198
    Abstract: A method of purifying a gas stream formed from a process wherein a glyceride containing raw material is converted to hydrocarbon paraffins. The gas stream contains hydrogen or carbon dioxide as a major component and at least one sulphurous component selected from sulphide compounds as an impurity. The gas is contacted with an acidic aqueous wash solution of transition metal ions capable of binding to sulphide ions. A significant portion of the sulphide compounds contained in the gas are bound into practically insoluble transition metal sulphide compounds to remove sulphide compounds from the gas to produce a purified gas. The obtained purified gas is recovered. The method efficiently lowers sulphide concentrations to ppm or sub-ppm level and it can be implemented on an industrial scale with low investment costs. The metal can be recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Neste Oil OYJ
    Inventors: Juhani Aittamaa, Kari Keskinen, Jukka Keyriläinen