Surface Film Injector Patents (Class 60/743)
  • Patent number: 10240795
    Abstract: A burner includes a pilot burner, a combustion chamber, and a swirler located radially outwardly of the combustion chamber and being adapted to impose a swirling motion on a fuel/air mixture about an axial centerline of the combustion chamber. The pilot burner has a pilot burner face located radially inwardly of the swirler and forms an axially upstream wall of the combustion chamber, the pilot burner face incorporating a pilot fuel injector and an ignitor, both being positioned radially offset from the axial centerline. A recess is positioned radially offset from the axial centerline within the pilot burner face.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2019
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Eoghan Buchanan, Suresh Sadasivuni
  • Patent number: 10077714
    Abstract: A fuel injector for a lean direct injection fuel nozzle has a pilot air swirler which sits radially outboard of a pilot fuel swirler radially outer wall. The air swirler is bounded on its radially outer side by joined wall portions. One wall portion extends axially and another wall portion converges radially. On the radially inwardly facing surface, the wall portions meet to provide a continuing wall surface of the air swirler which transitions from axial extension to radial convergence over a smooth radius. The curvature of this surface broadly mirrors the radially outwardly facing profile of the pilot fuel swirler radially outer wall. The axially extending wall portion is extended axially to form a first part of a join interface. The radially converging portion is extended in a radial direction to provide a second part of the join interface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2018
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce plc
    Inventors: Randall D. Siders, Peter J. Schnoebelen, Brandon P. Williams, Neal Thomson, Philip E. O. Buelow, David H. Bretz
  • Patent number: 9285122
    Abstract: A fuel injector comprising: a prefilmer; a plurality of discrete fuel sources each arranged to supply fuel to a surface of the prefilmer; wherein the prefilmer comprises circumferential dispersion structure which, in use, spreads the fuel in a circumferential direction as it passes from an impingement point on the surface of the prefilmer to a downstream edge of the prefilmer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2016
    Assignee: ROLLS-ROYCE plc
    Inventors: Steven P. Jones, Stephen C. Harding
  • Patent number: 9151201
    Abstract: Dosing structure (30) supplies diesel fuel to an exhaust passage of a diesel system. The dosing structure includes an electrically operated control valve (31). An inlet tube (45) is coupled with an inlet of the control valve. A first welded joint (6) is between the inlet tube and the control valve. The inlet tube is constructed and arranged to be coupled to a supply of diesel fuel for feeding fuel to the control valve. A dosing valve (32) is constructed and arranged to receive fuel from the control valve and deliver the fuel to the exhaust passage. An extension tube (33) is fluidly coupled between the control valve and the dosing valve to space the control valve from the dosing valve. A second welded joint (62) is between the extension tube and the control valve and a third welded joint (64) is between the extension tube and the dosing valve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2015
    Assignee: Continental Automotive Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael J. Hornby, Stephen C. Bugos, Hamid Sayar, David Stockmaster
  • Patent number: 9003802
    Abstract: A fuel injector device for an annular combustion chamber of a turbine engine, including a pilot circuit feeding an injector and a multipoint circuit feeding injection orifices formed in a front face of an annular ring mounted in an annular chamber, together with a thermal insulation mechanism insulating the front face and including an annular cavity formed around the injection orifices between the front face of the annular ring and a front wall of the annular chamber and configured to be filled in operation with air or with coked fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: SNECMA
    Inventors: Didier Hippolyte Hernandez, Emilie Lachaud, Thomas Olivier Marie Noel
  • Patent number: 8943829
    Abstract: This invention relates to a lean premix burner of a gas-turbine engine with an annular central body 2, which, while being essentially concentric to a burner center axis 1, is connected to a film applicator 3, which conically widens at the fuel exit side, as well as to an outer ring 4 concentrically arranged to the burner center axis 1 and surrounding at least the film applicator 3 at a certain distance, characterized in that an annular flow-guiding element 6 is provided in an annular duct 5 formed between the outer ring 4 and the film applicator 3 which, in the axial direction of the annular duct 5, is at least partly situated outside of the outer ring 4.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG
    Inventors: Imon-Kalyan Bagchi, Waldemar Lazik
  • Patent number: 8943828
    Abstract: This invention relates to a lean premix burner of a gas-turbine engine with an annular central body 2, which, while being essentially concentric to a burner center axis 1, is provided with an annular duct 4 connected to a supply line 3 and with a film applicator 5 which conically widens at the fuel exit side and into whose radially inward area at least one fuel exit opening 6 issues which is connected to the annular duct, characterized in that the film applicator 5 has, adjacently to and downstream of the fuel exit openings 6 in the area facing the fuel exit side 8, a step-like, annular protruding area 7 disposed radially to the burner center axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG
    Inventors: Imon-Kalyan Bagchi, Waldemar Lazik
  • Patent number: 8910480
    Abstract: A fuel injector comprises a plurality of swirler vane passages defined between swirler vanes. Each vane is leant with respect to the true radius of the swirler. The pressure distribution through the swirler passages is improved and the flow of air over a prefilmer located at the radially outer edges of the swirl vanes is improved and consequently atomization of fuel is improved and levels of NOx is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce PLC
    Inventors: Federico Suria, Nickolaos Pilatis
  • Patent number: 8910483
    Abstract: A lean premix burner for a gas-turbine engine includes an annular center body (3) with a conically flaring fuel film applicator (11) supplied with fuel via an annular distributor chamber (14) and fuel channels (12) as well as air ducts (7, 9) with swirler elements (8, 10) provided on the outer and inner circumference. A fuel prefilmer lip (15) is attached to the fuel film applicator (11), with a flow area of a portion of the annular air ducts (7, 9) downstream of the swirler elements (8, 10) decreasing to accelerate the air swirled in correspondence with the airflow direction. By this, the fuel is transported positively without interim separation and without the occurrence of compressive oscillation—to a defined flow break-away edge (16), providing for a good mixture, high combustion efficiency and reduced formation of nitrogen oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & C
    Inventor: Ralf Sebastian Von Der Bank
  • Patent number: 8671691
    Abstract: A dual fuel nozzle for a gas turbine combustor includes a hub defining a fuel inlet and a plurality of liquid fuel jets disposed at a downstream end of the hub. The fuel jets are oriented to eject liquid fuel radially outward from the hub. An annular air passage includes a swirler that imparts swirl to air flowing in the annular air passage, and a splitter ring is disposed in the annular air passage and surrounds the plurality of liquid fuel jets. The nozzle allows liquid fuels to be injected into a swirling annular airstream and then atomized, dispersed and vaporized inside a lean premixing dual fuel nozzle for a gas turbine combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Gregory Allen Boardman, Ronald James Chila, Michael John Hughes, Jason Thurman Stewart
  • Patent number: 8661824
    Abstract: An airblast fuel nozzle assembly (10) comprising a sleeve structure having a series of coaxial sleeves forming an inner-air circuit, an outer-air circuit, a main-fuel-feed circuit, and a pilot-fuel-feed circuit. The pilot-fuel-feed circuit includes a channel (44), and a discharge region (45) with exits (46). The exits (46) have a combined cross-sectional area that is substantially less than the cross-sectional area of the channel (44) upstream of the discharge region (45). In this manner, the pilot-fuel-feed circuit itself can provide a relatively large pressure drop across the channel region (44), and thereby assist in self atomization during ignition stages of engine operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2014
    Assignee: Parker-Hannifin Corporation
    Inventors: Robert R. Pelletier, Michael K. Teter
  • Patent number: 8640463
    Abstract: A swirler for fuel injection in a gas turbine engine includes a frustoconical swirler body. A first and a second air flow path direct air in generally opposed circumferential directions into the swirler. These air paths intermix and create turbulence. As this turbulence encounters fuel droplets, the fuel is atomized, and uniformly distributed within the air flow. A shear layer is created adjacent an inner surface of the swirler body. In a separate feature, a third air flow path is directed into the air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Albert K. Cheung
  • Patent number: 8607571
    Abstract: A fuel injector for a gas turbine engine includes a nozzle body defining a central axis and having a main fuel circuit. An air circuit is formed within the nozzle body inboard of the main fuel circuit. A primary pilot fuel circuit is formed within the nozzle body inboard of the air circuit. A secondary pilot fuel circuit is formed within the nozzle body inboard of the air circuit and outboard of the primary pilot fuel circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Brandon P. Williams, Jeremy T. Rhyan
  • Patent number: 8516821
    Abstract: The invention relates to an injection element having an inner element with a first outlet opening and an outer element. The outer element includes at least one second outlet opening structured and arranged for receiving and injecting fuel in a combustion space, and arranged coaxially to the first outlet opening. The outer element further includes third outlet openings composed of bores structured and arranged for forming a cooling liquid film layer, wherein the bores are arranged coaxially to the first outlet opening and the at least one second outlet opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: Eads Space Transportation GmbH
    Inventor: Chris Udo Maeding
  • Patent number: 8479519
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for a diffusion tip for use with a fuel nozzle is described. The diffusion tip has a substantially circular body including an outer surface and an opposite inner surface. The diffusion tip body extends from a discharge end to an inlet end. The diffusion tip includes an inlet surface adjacent to the discharge end and defined within the body. A discharge surface is defined opposite the inlet surface. A plurality of diffusion apertures each extend between the discharge surface and the inlet surface, each aperture is oriented relative to the body to discharge a diffusion flow outward therefrom at an angle ? (gamma) measured in an X-Z plane between a centerline of the aperture and an X-axis extending tangentially to the outer surface, and at an angle ? (theta) measured in a Y-Z plane between the centerline of the aperture and a Y-axis extending radially outward from the centerline.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Wei Chen, William Lawrence Byrne, Xiaoguang Yu, James Harper
  • Patent number: 8429914
    Abstract: A fuel injection system is provided for a gas turbine, comprising a mains airblast fuel injector having an annular shape, and inner and outer mains swirlers for swirling air past the mains airblast fuel injector. The inner and outer mains swirlers are concentric with the mains airblast fuel injector and are located radially inwardly and radially outwardly of the mains airblast fuel injector, respectively. The mains airblast fuel injector and the inner and outer mains swirlers are so arranged as to produce a fuel spray stream which expands from the mains airblast fuel injector and has a double flame front. The double flame front comprises flame fronts on both the radially inner and radially outer surfaces of the fuel spray stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce PLC
    Inventors: Sara Gashi, Nickolaos Pilatis
  • Patent number: 8413448
    Abstract: An airblast fuel injector for the combustor of a gas turbine engine has, in order from radially inner to outer, a coaxial arrangement of an inner swirler passage, an annular fuel passage, an annular mid swirler passage, and an annular outer swirler passage. The fuel passage extends to a prefilming lip, and the inner and mid swirler passages swirl air past the prefilming lip so that fuel fed from the fuel passage to the prefilming lip is entrained by the swirling air into a fuel spray stream. The outer swirler passage has a convergent portion. The radially inward wall of said convergent portion is defined by a frustoconical separator element which separates the outer swirler passage from the mid swirler passage, the separator element converging in the direction of air flow to terminate in a lip at the mouths of the mid swirler passage and the outer swirler passage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce PLC
    Inventors: Robert A. Hicks, Paul Madden
  • Patent number: 8375721
    Abstract: A burner for a gas-turbine engine including a swirler and a combustion chamber is provided. The swirler includes a plurality of vanes arranged in a circle, each adjacent pair of vanes defining a flow slot for the flow of air and fuel into the swirler, the air and fuel is mixed and supplied in swirling form to the combustion chamber. The swirler can also include a partitioning device which divides the flow of air along each flow slot into two air flows. One side of the partitioning device has a fuel-supply port for supplying fuel to one of the two air flows. The relevant air flow causes fuel supplied to the fuel-supply port to form a film of fuel over the relevant side of the partitioning device. The film leaves the relevant side of the partitioning device in a region of high shear between adjacent flows in the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Nigel Wilbraham
  • Patent number: 8347630
    Abstract: An air-blast fuel nozzle assembly includes a housing having an inner surface defining an interior chamber around a central axis. The inner surface terminates in an exit aperture. An air swirler pneumatically communicates with the interior chamber and has vanes operative to impart a swirling motion to air passing across the vanes and into the interior chamber. A fuel injection assembly includes a nozzle portion extending along the central axis and having a plurality of outlets circumferentially-arranged around the central axis that are directed into the interior chamber toward the inner surface of the housing. A shield extends radially outwardly from the nozzle portion upstream of the plurality of outlets. The shield extends between a base at the nozzle section and a free tip end such that the shield extends partially across the interior chamber toward the inner surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: United Technologies Corp
    Inventors: Jeffery A. Lovett, Frederick C. Padget, John W. Mordosky, Shawn M. McMahon
  • Patent number: 8327643
    Abstract: A main swirler of a triple annular configuration that is partitioned by a pre-filmer and a separator is installed in an inlet port of a main air flow channel. The vicinity of the inner wall of the main air flow channel provided with a main fuel injection port is bulged radially outward from the innermost surface (innermost surface of a small swirler) of a main swirler. Further, a distance from the main fuel injection port and the pre-filmer is set such that an effective opening area between the pre-filmer and “the inner wall of the main air flow channel provided with the main fuel injection port” is equal to an effective opening area of the small swirler. The swirling directions of the swirlers of the main swirler are “clockwise”-“counter-clockwise”-“clockwise” respectively along the radial outward direction when the swirling direction of the innermost swirler is taken as “clockwise”.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2012
    Assignee: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
    Inventors: Takeshi Yamamoto, Kazuo Shimodaira, Kazuaki Matsuura, Yoji Kurosawa, Seiji Yoshida
  • Patent number: 8276388
    Abstract: An annular expansion ring centered on a main axis and suitable for being mounted on a fuel injector coaxial with the ring is disclosed. The ring presents holes that are distributed around the main axis and open out into its upstream face to enable air to pass towards the zone that is downstream from the ring. The ring includes a conical annular groove that converges downstream, that is open downstream, and that has the holes opening out into the upstream portion thereof. The axis of each of the holes makes an angle relative to the main axis that is strictly greater than the angle between the generator line of the cone defining the annular groove and the main axis, such that the air exiting from the holes impacts against the inner wall of the annular groove, i.e. its wall that is closer to the main axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Snecma
    Inventors: Alain Cayre, Christophe Pieussergues, Jackie Raymond Julien Prouteau, Denis Jean Maurice Sandelis
  • Patent number: 8186165
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a system includes a turbine engine fuel nozzle having an air path, a fuel path, and a surface along the air path. The fuel path may be directed toward the surface. The turbine engine fuel nozzle also may include a heating element configured to heat the surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2012
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Constantin Dinu
  • Patent number: 8146837
    Abstract: An air-blast fuel injector is disclosed which includes an outer air circuit having an exit portion, an inner air circuit having an outlet configured to direct air toward the exit portion of the outer air circuit, and a fuel circuit radially outboard of the inner air circuit and having an exit communicating with the outer air circuit upstream from the exit portion of the outer air circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Neal A. Thomson, Philip E. O. Buelow, David H. Bretz
  • Patent number: 8128007
    Abstract: An air-blast fuel injector is disclosed which includes an outer air circuit having an exit portion, an inner air circuit having an outlet configured to direct air toward the exit portion of the outer air circuit, and a fuel circuit radially outboard of the inner air circuit and having an exit communicating with the outer air circuit upstream from the exit portion of the outer air circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Neal A. Thomson, Philip E. O. Buelow, David H. Bretz
  • Patent number: 8015816
    Abstract: A gas turbine fuel injector includes a nozzle body having a radially inner wall proximate to an internal air path and a radially outer wall. An insulative gap is defined between the radially inner and outer walls. The inner and outer walls are adapted and configured for relative axial movement at a first interface. An inhibitor ring is disposed proximate a downstream end of the inner wall for discouraging fuel from entering the insulative gap. A second interface is formed between the downstream end of the inner wall and an upstream end of the inhibitor ring to accommodate relative axial movement of the inner and outer walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2011
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventor: Troy Hall
  • Patent number: 7926744
    Abstract: An air-blast fuel injector is disclosed which includes an outer air circuit having an exit portion, an inner air circuit having an outlet configured to direct air toward the exit portion of the outer air circuit, and a fuel circuit radially outboard of the inner air circuit and having an exit communicating with the outer air circuit upstream from the exit portion of the outer air circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Neal A. Thomson, Philip E. O. Buelow, David H. Bretz
  • Patent number: 7779636
    Abstract: A lean direct injection fuel nozzle for a gas turbine is disclosed which includes a radially outer main fuel delivery system including a main inner air swirler defined in part by a main inner air passage having a radially inner wall with a diverging downstream surface, an intermediate air swirler radially inward of the main inner air swirler for providing a cooling air flow along the downstream surface of the radially inner wall of the main inner air passage, and a radially inner pilot fuel delivery system radially inward of the intermediate air swirler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Philip E. O. Buelow, Brandon P. Williams, David H. Bretz, Michael Spooner, Caroline Mohamed, Helen Gill
  • Patent number: 7669420
    Abstract: A fuel injector for a gas turbine engine has a swirl slot that supplies fuel to a prefilmer. The swirl slot has an upstream lip and a downstream lip that are arranged eccentrically. The slot is thus provided with an area of high static pressure and an area of low static pressure caused by the flowing over the eccentrically arranged lips.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2010
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce plc
    Inventor: Michael P. Spooner
  • Patent number: 7632091
    Abstract: A premix burner for producing an ignitable fuel/air mixture has a swirl generator with at least two burner shells (B) which complement one another to form a throughflow body, which in each case have a first burner shell section (1) with a partial cone shape and together enclose an axially conically widening swirl space and which mutually define, in the axial cone longitudinal direction, tangential air inlet slots (LS), through which the combustion feed air (L) passes into the swirl space, in which an axially spreading swirl flow forms, and includes fuel feeds which are arranged at least in sections along the tangentially running air inlet slots (LS).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2009
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd.
    Inventors: Christian Steinbach, Martin Andrea Von Planta, Thomas Ruck, Weiqun Geng
  • Patent number: 7513115
    Abstract: A gas turbine combustor having improved flashback margin is disclosed. Multiple embodiments of the present invention are disclosed including combustors having a single premix chamber as well as multiple premix chambers. Flashback margin is increased for the combustor by incorporating a means for introducing an inert gas, such as nitrogen, into the premix chamber(s) at the region proximate the boundary layer to purge the boundary layer of combustible mixture, thereby ensuring that no combustion reaction occurs in the boundary layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: Power Systems Mfg., LLC
    Inventor: Peter John Stuttaford
  • Patent number: 7434401
    Abstract: A fuel/air premixer for use in a gas turbine improves the atomization performance and mixing performance of the fuel by guiding an air so as to flow in an outward radial direction. A flow-deflecting tubular body having an annular cross section is disposed on the inside of and coaxially with a liquid film-forming body of an airbiast atomizer nozzle disposed at the inlet portion of a premixing tube. The outer peripheral surface of the flow-deflecting tubular body has a wall surface which increases in outer diameter toward the tip end of a first annular passage. The inner peripheral surface of the flow-deflecting tubular body has a form in which the inner diameter has a minimum to form a contracted portion, and then increases dramatically toward the tip end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
    Inventor: Shigeru Hayashi
  • Patent number: 7266945
    Abstract: A fuel injection apparatus (10) for a gas turbine engine (110) comprising a prefilmer (26), the prefilmer (26) comprises a body (50), the body (50) defines an axis (51), an annular surface (40) and a downstream edge (44), the prefilmer (26) arranged so that when working in operative association with the fuel injection apparatus (10) fuel impinges on the surface (40) and flows, by means of a passing airflow, to the downstream edge (44), from where the fuel is shed, characterized in that the fuel injector (10) further comprises a means for circumferentially varying the residence time of the fuel across the surface (40).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2007
    Assignee: Rolls-Royce plc
    Inventor: Noel A. Sanders
  • Patent number: 7174717
    Abstract: The present invention includes a fuel distributor for a fuel nozzle in a gas turbine engine comprising an inner tubular body and an outer tubular body respectively having an outer body inner surface and an inner body outer surface adapted to be in sealing contact one with the other, at least two helical fuel channels defined in at least one of the inner and outer surfaces and being in fluid communication with a fuel inlet, and a channel exit port for each helical fuel channel. The present invention also includes a method of distributing fuel in a fuel nozzle comprising the steps of providing at least two helical channels in the fuel nozzle, each having a channel exit port, providing a fuel inlet cavity in fluid communication with the helical channels, and flowing fuel in the fuel inlet cavity, the helical channels and the channel exit ports.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2007
    Assignee: Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
    Inventor: Lev Alexander Prociw
  • Patent number: 7140184
    Abstract: A combustor and injector system to inject a selected fuel into a combustor of a gas powered turbine. Generally, the injector is able to inject a selected fuel into a stream of an oxidizer to substantially mix the fuel with the oxidizer stream before any of the fuel in the fuel fan reaches an auto ignition temperature. Therefore the fuel may be substantially combusted at once and without any substantial hot spots.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2006
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth M Sprouse, Shahram Farhangi, Alan V von Arx, David R Matthews
  • Patent number: 6820425
    Abstract: A system for injecting an air/fuel mixture into a combustion chamber of a turbomachine, the system having an injector comprising: an axial internal volume opening out at one end via an axial outlet for the air/fuel mixture; a first fuel feed stage having a plurality of first fuel feed orifices which open out into the internal volume, which are distributed around an axis of the injector, and which are connected by fuel feed channels to an inlet for admitting fuel into the injector; and at least one air feed channel which opens out into the internal volume and which is connected to an inlet for admitting air into the injector. The injector further comprises at least one second fuel feed stage with a plurality of second fuel feed orifices which open out into the internal volume, which are distributed around the axis of the injector, and which are connected to said inlet for admitting fuel into the injector via fuel feed channels which coincide at least in part with the fuel feed channels of said first stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: Hispano-Suiza
    Inventors: Etienne David, Marion Michau, José Rodrigues, Denis Sandelis, Alain Tiepel
  • Patent number: 6820424
    Abstract: A combustor module includes a pre-vaporizing chamber defined by an inner wall, and an outer wall, and a heat shield. The heat shield separates the pre-mixing zone from the reaction zone of the combustor. At least one fueling nozzle is disposed in the pre-vaporizing chamber for injecting fuel into the pre-vaporizing chamber. Fuel from the fueling nozzle is sprayed onto the surface of the heat shield, thereby simultaneously vaporizing the fuel and cooling the heat shield. The heat shield also includes a pilot fueling spray opening to allow fuel to pass directly into the reaction zone of the combustor to provide a piloting flame stability region therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: Allison Advanced Development Company
    Inventors: Victor L. Oechsle, Timothy C. Roesler
  • Patent number: 6786430
    Abstract: This invention provides a liquid atomizing nozzle which utilizes a swirling flow of gas to form a liquid film in as uniform thickness as possible in a circumferential direction, and in which blockages are difficult to develop, and which can facilitate atomization by further reducing the size of the droplets which disperse from the front end. A liquid injected into an annular space 7 through liquid passages 14 formed in an outer cylinder 2 in an incline to the radial direction, flows within the annular space 7 having a component swirling in the circumferential direction. Air which flows into the annular space 7 through air passages 10 formed inclined in the same direction as the liquid passages in the outer cylinder 2, develops a swirling flow Ac within the annular space 7, acts upon the injected liquid to spread it onto an inner wall 5 of the outer cylinder 2, and further improving the uniformity of the thickness of the liquid film in a circumferential direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignee: National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan
    Inventor: Shigeru Hayashi
  • Patent number: 6532728
    Abstract: The skin friction drag acting on a surface of an article travelling at high speed such as a vehicle at supersonic or particularly hypersonic speed can be reduced by introducing a fuel into the boundary layer under conditions of the fuel introduction to ensure combustion in the boundary layer. The fuel is injected through orifice(s) or a slot provided at the surface so that the fuel enters the passing fluid with a major component of the direction of injection being parallel to the local flow direction. The fuel is injected at supersonic speed, e.g. at a speed of about Mach 1.5 or higher. The invention is applicable to scramjet engines with the fuel being injected around the entire internal circumference of the wall of the scramjet engine, upstream of the commencement of the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2003
    Assignee: University of Queensland
    Inventors: Christopher Paul Goyne, Raymond John Stalker, Allan Paull
  • Patent number: 6418723
    Abstract: A low pressure fuel system for a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine in which the source of gaseous fuel is at a pressure lower than the intake manifold pressure of the internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel is inducted into the interstage duct of a multi-compressor combustion air turbocharger associated with the internal combustion engine. The combined flow of air and gaseous fuel is further compressed in the second compressor stage of the turbocharger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2002
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventor: John R. Gladden
  • Patent number: 6401445
    Abstract: An atomization system that includes a flow conduit for flowing a fuel/non-fuel mixture to a downstream object of interest. The flow conduit defining a flow chamber, a downstream end, and an upstream end. An electrolysis system is located in the chamber proximate the upstream conduit end and an atomizer is located in the chamber proximate the downstream conduit end. The fuel/non-fuel mixture being in the liquid phase as it flows through the electrolysis system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: Northern Research & Engineering Corp.
    Inventor: Elia P. Demetri
  • Patent number: 6244051
    Abstract: The invention relates to a burner for combustors of gas turbines, the burner having an atomizer nozzle for atomisation of fuel in the combustion air and having a primary and secondary flow channel. In the burners, mostly used in aircraft engines, an extensively homogenous distribution of the air-fuel mixture is to be achieved in the combustor to reduce emissions. The flow channels opening into the combustor are separated from a first component arranged concentrically in relation to the burner axis and having a sleeve-shaped atomizer lip extending cylindrically or conically, and the external secondary flow channel is bounded externally and radially by a second annular component arranged concentrically and having an internal wall extending to converge and diverge. The second component forms an area with the most narrow flow cross-section, and the first component is arranged radially inwards and ends with the atomizer lip at the axial height of the cross-section or upstream thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2001
    Inventors: Nikolaos Zarzalis, Thomas Ripplinger, Bernhard Glaeber, Burkhard Simon
  • Patent number: 6189314
    Abstract: A premixing section for supplying a fuel-air mixture to a homogeneous combustion chamber includes a first fuel nozzle disposed along an axis, a second fuel nozzle disposed to surround the outer periphery of the first fuel nozzle, and a premixing/pre-evaporating chamber. The first fuel nozzle is a diffusion combustion type nozzle and supplies the fuel-air mixture from an air blast-type nozzle tip directly to the homogeneous combustion chamber. The second fuel nozzle is a premixing/pre-evaporating type nozzle and supplies the fuel-air mixture from an air blast-type nozzle tip to the premixing/pre-evaporating chamber, so that the fuel-air mixture promoted in mixing and evaporation in the premixing/pre-evaporating chamber, is supplied via a swirler to the homogeneous combustion chamber. With the above arrangement, the atomization of the fuel enhances the emission characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2001
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Eiichi Utsugi, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Hidehiko Nakata
  • Patent number: 5918465
    Abstract: A flow-guiding body is designed as a pointed, substantially conical molded shell. The projection of its base surface is formed by a straight line and by a curve that interconnects the ends of the straight line. The curve forms no significant angles. The molded shell faces with its point the fluid flow that hits its outer side and may be used as a mixing element for gaseous fuel and air, as an air sprayer with flame-holder, as a mixing element for admixed air in combustion chambers, as a swirling element or as a shell-shaped air sprayer combined with a fuel film generator or a fuel pressure spraying nozzle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH
    Inventor: Achim Schmid
  • Patent number: 5857339
    Abstract: A combustor structure is described which comprises a cavity defined in the combustor for trapping a vortex of fuel, air and hot combustion products to stabilize the flame, the cavity being formed in any suitable way such as being defined between two or more bluff bodies in tandem, or in a wall of the combustor, or in the combustor liner, and wherein fuel and air are injected directly into the fuel/air recirculation zone defined by the trapped vortex.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: William M. Roquemore, Dale T. Shouse, Kuang-Yu M. Hsu
  • Patent number: 5609030
    Abstract: In the case of a combustion chamber which is respectively arranged upstream of and downstream of a fluid-flow machine and which essentially comprises an inflow duct (5) and a downstream premixing and combustion zone (5a), a fuel (11) is injected into the combustion air (4) coming from the fluid-flow machine acting upstream after the combustion air (4) flows through vortex generators (200). The injection (7a, 7b) of the fuel (11) into the premixing and combustion zone (5a) is effected in varying direction and quantity. The hot gases from the combustion of the aforesaid mixture form a temperature-graduated front (8), the minimum temperature of which corresponds fluidically with the base of the blades to be acted upon of the fluid-flow machine (2) . arranged downstream. The fuel (11) can be assisted with assisting air (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1997
    Assignee: ABB Management AG
    Inventor: Rolf Althaus
  • Patent number: 5575153
    Abstract: A plurality of turbulence promotors (11) are arranged on a surface of a stabilizer (11) comprising a stabilizer portion (14) contacting combustion gas and support portion (15) for rectifying flow except for a heat receiving surface (13) contacting with combustion gas to promote heat transfer from the stabilizer to an air fuel flow. The distance between the turbulence promotor closest to the heat receiving surface (13) and the heat receiving surface is at least 4 times the height of said turbulence promotor to prevent back fire due to provision of the turbulence promotor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuyuki Ito, Tadayoshi Murakami, Kazuhiko Kawaike, Shigeru Azuhata, Michio Kuroda
  • Patent number: 5461865
    Abstract: A premix liquid fuel nozzle has longitudinal air entrance slots (24) into a cylindrical chamber (20). A centerbody (42) produces an axially increasing flow area toward the chamber outlet (32). Liquid fuel is atomized in a specified location (58) adjacent the conical centerbody (42). This area has a high axial shear velocity producing thorough vaporization and uniform mixing before combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1995
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Timothy S. Snyder, Thomas J. Rosfjord, John B. McVey, Aaron S. Hu, Barry C. Schlein
  • Patent number: 5437158
    Abstract: Lean direct injection is used in a gas turbine combustor to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. The combustor has a multi-hole perforated plate disposed at the head end of the combustion chamber. The plate has a plurality of independent fuel jets and air jets for separately injecting fuel and air, respectively, into the combustion chamber in amounts which produce a lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. The perforated plate permits the fuel and air to be injected separately without any mixing outside of the combustion chamber. Fuel is delivered to the fuel jets by a fuel manifold having a branch connected to each one of the fuel jets. Air can be delivered to the air jets by an air plenum chamber located upstream of the perforated plate and in fluid communication with the air jets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 1, 1995
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Thomas F. Fric
  • Patent number: 5341645
    Abstract: A fuel/oxidizer pre-mixing combustion chamber for a turbojet engine is disclosed in which the pre-mixing device is incorporated into the upstream end wall structure of the combustion chamber. The upstream end portion of the combustion chamber, which is in communication with the oxidizer, has a plurality of generally radially extending, "V"-shaped members oriented such that the vertex of the "V" shape faces in an upstream direction. These members extend generally radially between the inner and outer walls which define the boundaries of the combustion chamber. The members define upstream edges and downstream edges which are axially the upstream edges. Fuel injectors extend radially inwardly between these members and are axially positioned between the locations of the upstream and downstream edges so as to spray fuel onto the adjacent sides of each of the members.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1994
    Assignee: Societe National d'Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation (S.N.E.C.M.A.)
    Inventors: Denis R. H. Ansart, Michel A. A. Desaulty, Denis J. M. Sandelis
  • Patent number: 5328355
    Abstract: In a combustor including a premixing type combustion burner which has an atomizer for ejecting a liquid fuel together with combustion air to atomize the liquid fuel, the atomizer is comprised of an inner shell to an inner peripheral surface of which the liquid fuel is supplied, an outer shell defining a passage for the combustion air running substantially straightly between the outer shell itself and an outer peripheral surface of the inner shell, and a swirling-flow guide plate for swirling the combustion air passed into the inner shell, while directing it in a downstream direction. The combustor further includes a resistor abruptly decreased in sectional area downstream and provided substantially downstream of the center of the swirling flow and in the vicinity of an outlet of the premixing type combustion burner for providing a resistance to a premixture ejected from the premixing type combustion burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hironobu Kobayashi, Shigeru Azuhata, Masayuki Taniguchi, Tadayoshi Murakami, Kiyoshi Narato, Michio Kuroda, Satoshi Tsukahara