Having Means To Recycle Combustion Products Internally Of Combustion Zone Patents (Class 60/750)
  • Patent number: 8925325
    Abstract: Combustion systems and the related methods operate to supply a stream of combustion products to a turbine in a gas turbine engine by forming an outer recirculation zone of recirculating combustion products within a combustor and by forming an inner recirculation zone inboard of the outer recirculation zone. The inner and outer recirculation zones are formed by imparting swirl to compressor discharge air passing through an outer air swirler and an inner air swirler radially inboard of the outer air swirler. Fuel is injected from an outer fuel injector into the outer recirculation zone, and fuel is also injected from an inner fuel injector into the inner recirculation zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: Delavan Inc.
    Inventors: Nicholas R. Overman, John Earl Short
  • Patent number: 8863524
    Abstract: A burner for a gas turbine including a burner housing is provided. Provided is a lean-rich partially premixed low emission burner for a gas turbine combustor providing stable ignition and combustion process at all engine load conditions. At the upstream end of that burner a pilot combustor creates a flow of an unquenched concentration of radicals and heat. Respectively provided is a plurality of quarl sections surrounding the exit of the pilot combustor, a main combustion room defined downstream the pilot combustor and at least a first channel defined as an annular space between an upstream quarl section and the closest downstream quarl section providing air and fuel to a main flame in the combustion room.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Andreas Karlsson, Vladimir Milosavljevic
  • Patent number: 8695350
    Abstract: Colorless distributed combustion (CDC) reactors or green combustion gas turbine combustors having a combustion chamber are presented for improved performance of gas turbine combustion engines. The combustors are configured and designed for providing a superior pattern factor (uniform thermal field in the combustion zone) and a reduction or complete elimination of pollutants emission from the combustor (i.e., zero emission gas turbine combustor) and uniform thermal field in the entire combustion zone to provide significantly improved pattern factor. Colorless distributed combustion is achieved with fuel and air entering the combustion chamber via one or more injection ports as non-premixed, or premixed. Rectangular, cylindrical, stadium and elliptical shaped combustors are presented with injection ports and exit ports located in various locations of the combustors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: University of Maryland
    Inventor: Ashwani K. Gupta
  • Patent number: 8667800
    Abstract: A flameless burner for a gas turbine engine includes a burner body having a longitudinal axis, an upstream section and a downstream section. The upstream section of the burner body defines a primary swirl generating chamber having air swirlers associated therewith. The primary swirl generating chamber is adapted and configured to receive compressor discharge air through the air swirlers. The strong swirl of the compressor discharge air forms a recirculation zone that entrains combustion product gases toward the burner body. Fuel injectors are operatively connected to the downstream section of the burner body for issuing fuel into the recirculated combustion product gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Delavan Inc.
    Inventors: Michael D. Cornwell, Nicholas R. Overman, Ephraim Gutmark
  • Patent number: 8607572
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a gas turbine combustor that supports hydrogen-containing gas having a high burning velocity and is capable of performing low NOx combustion without reducing reliability of a burner. A first fuel nozzle is provided upstream of a combustion chamber and supplies fuel for activation and hydrogen-containing gas. The combustor has a primary combustion zone, a reduction zone and a secondary combustion zone. In the primary combustion zone, the fuel supplied from the first fuel nozzle is combusted under a fuel rich condition to form a burned gas containing a low concentration of oxygen. In the reduction zone, a hydrogen-containing gas is injected into the combustion chamber through a second fuel injection hole from a second fuel nozzle so that NOx generated in the primary combustion zone is reduced by an oxygen reaction of the hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiromi Koizumi, Satoshi Dodo, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomohiro Asai, Tomomi Koganezawa, Shohei Yoshida
  • Patent number: 8561409
    Abstract: A quarl of a burner for a gas turbine engine is provided. Fuel and air is mixed and provided to the burner. The quarl is arranged to house a main flame. Stability is achieved by a quarl, which is formed from a plurality of quarl sections, wherein each quarl section includes the configuration of the conical shell of a truncated cone and are distributed consecutively one after the other in the downstream direction of the burner, wherein a most narrow part of the shell of a downstream quarl section surrounds the widest part of the shell of the closest upstream quarl section and wherein an annular channel for premixed air and fuel is arranged between two consecutive quarl sections.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Vladimir Milosavljevic
  • Patent number: 8549862
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a method is provided fuel staging for a trapped vortex (TVC) combustion apparatus comprising an inlet premixer, for injecting fuel-air mixture into the inlet of the combustion apparatus and a vortex premixer, for injecting fuel-air mixture into the recirculating vortex. The combustion apparatus may be part of an engine, such as a gas turbine engine. The method comprises varying the relative proportion of mixture introduced through the inlet and vortex premixers as a function of load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: Lean Flame, Inc.
    Inventor: Donald W. Kendrick
  • Patent number: 8375721
    Abstract: A burner for a gas-turbine engine including a swirler and a combustion chamber is provided. The swirler includes a plurality of vanes arranged in a circle, each adjacent pair of vanes defining a flow slot for the flow of air and fuel into the swirler, the air and fuel is mixed and supplied in swirling form to the combustion chamber. The swirler can also include a partitioning device which divides the flow of air along each flow slot into two air flows. One side of the partitioning device has a fuel-supply port for supplying fuel to one of the two air flows. The relevant air flow causes fuel supplied to the fuel-supply port to form a film of fuel over the relevant side of the partitioning device. The film leaves the relevant side of the partitioning device in a region of high shear between adjacent flows in the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Nigel Wilbraham
  • Patent number: 8312725
    Abstract: A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Ramgen Power Systems, LLC
    Inventors: Robert C. Steele, Ryan G. Edmonds, Joseph T. Williams, Stephen P. Baldwin
  • Patent number: 8272219
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine combuslor has a trapped dual vortex cavity defined between aft, forward, and bottom walls. Air injection first holes are positioned in the forward wall. Air injection second holes are positioned in the aft walls. Fuel injection holes in the forward wall are located between the bottom wall and a cavity opening located at a top of the cavity. First angled film cooling apertures are disposed through the bottom wall. Second angled film cooling apertures are located in the forward wall between the fuel injection holes and the bottom wall. Third angled film cooling apertures are located in the forward wall between the fuel injection holes and the cavity opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2012
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Arthur Wesley Johnson, David Louis Burrus
  • Publication number: 20120185144
    Abstract: A fuel control system for a gas turbine engine that includes a primary fuel circuit, a fuel tuning circuit, a plurality of combustors connected to the fuel tuning circuit, oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors in the exhaust stream and a feedback control loop operatively connected to the fuel tuning circuit and to the oxygen and carbon monoxide sensors which serve to control the precise amount of fuel and air being fed to each one of the plurality of combustors in the engine. A parallel array of control valves in a tuning fuel circuit connect to corresponding ones of the plurality of combustors in the gas turbine engine. The fuel control system thereby “fine tunes” the amount of fuel and air being fed to each combustor using data regarding the detected oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaust gas as provided through a feedback control loop.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 13, 2011
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Inventor: Samuel David Draper
  • Patent number: 8172568
    Abstract: A combustor, in which a flame holding region is formed at a location distant from a pilot burner to avoid burnout of the pilot burner and in which flame holding capability is increased to use a lean pre-mix gas for reducing NOx emission, is provided. The combustor includes a combustion liner having a cylindrical side wall that defines a combustion chamber; and a main burner positioned at a top portion of the combustion liner for injecting an annular pre-mix gas into the combustion chamber to form a reverse flow region at a downstream portion thereof, which region is oriented towards the top portion of the combustion chamber along a longitudinal axis. In this combustor, a pilot burner is arranged at the top portion for injecting a mixture of fuel and air only in a direction confronting the reverse flow region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2012
    Assignee: Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kashihara, Yasushi Yoshino, Kiyoshi Matsumoto, Takeshi Kimura, Junichi Kitajima, Atsushi Horikawa
  • Publication number: 20100326084
    Abstract: An oxy-combustor is provided to combust oxygen with gaseous low heating value fuel. A compressor upstream of the combustor compresses the fuel. The combustor produces a drive gas including steam and carbon dioxide as well as other non-condensable gases in many cases, which pass through a turbine to output power. The drive gas can be recirculated to the combustor, either through the compressor, the oxygen inlet or directly to the combustor. Recirculation can occur before or after a condenser for separation of a portion of the water from the carbon dioxide. Excess carbon dioxide and steam is collected from the system. The turbine, combustor and compressor can be derived from an existing gas turbine with fuel and air/oxidizer lines swapped.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2010
    Publication date: December 30, 2010
    Inventors: Roger E. Anderson, Fermin Viteri, Lawrence C. Hoffman, Cheryl Lynn Hoffman, Keith L. Pronske
  • Publication number: 20100287939
    Abstract: A flameless burner for a gas turbine engine includes a burner body having a longitudinal axis, an upstream section and a downstream section. The upstream section of the burner body defines a primary swirl generating chamber having air swirlers associated therewith. The primary swirl generating chamber is adapted and configured to receive compressor discharge air through the air swirlers. The strong swirl of the compressor discharge air forms a recirculation zone that entrains combustion product gases toward the burner body. Fuel injectors are operatively connected to the downstream section of the burner body for issuing fuel into the recirculated combustion product gases.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2009
    Publication date: November 18, 2010
    Applicant: Delavan Inc
    Inventors: Michael D. Cornwell, Nicholas R. Overman, Ephraim Gutmark
  • Publication number: 20100170251
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine is provided and includes a fuel circuit, including multiple fuel circuit branches, a combustor having a first interior in which a first fuel supplied thereto by any one of the multiple fuel circuit branches is combustible, a turbine, a transition zone, including a second interior in which a second fuel supplied thereto by any one of the multiple fuel circuit branches, the second fuel including gas receivable by the fuel circuit from an external source, and the products of the combustion of the first fuel are combustible, the transition zone being disposed to fluidly couple the combustor and the turbine to one another, and a plurality of fuel injectors which supply the second fuel to the second interior in any one of a single axial stage, multiple axial stages, a single axial circumferential stage and multiple axial circumferential stages.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 7, 2009
    Publication date: July 8, 2010
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Lewis Berkley Davis, JR., Krishna Kumar Venkataraman, Willy Steve Ziminsky, Jason Charles Terry
  • Patent number: 7621132
    Abstract: The subject application is directed to burners for gas turbine engines that use a pilot flame to assist in sustaining and stabilizing the combustion process. An embodiment of the disclosed burners includes, inter alia, a burner housing, a pilot combustor and a quencher. The burner housing has axially opposed upstream and downstream end portions. Additionally, the housing has at least one main fuel inlet passage and at least one main air inlet passage which are adapted to supply fuel and air respectively to an internal chamber defined in the housing. The pilot combustor is disposed along the axis of the burner housing and has an inlet for receiving a rich fuel and air mixture, a combustion chamber within which the rich fuel and air mixture is combusted into combustion products, and an outlet for exhausting the combustion products from the combustion chamber. The quencher is disposed within the internal chamber of the burner housing along the central axis and positioned at the outlet of the pilot combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2009
    Assignees: Delavan Inc., Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Michael Cornwell, Vladimir Dusan Milosavljevic
  • Publication number: 20080236166
    Abstract: A process that can achieve thermally efficient conversion of heat energy to kinetic energy at moderate temperatures is disclosed in which alternating injections of hot and cool thermal fluid are made into a working gas. The thermal fluid on exiting the heat engine is thermally reconditioned with one or more heat pumps then sent back to the thermal fluid injectors.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2007
    Publication date: October 2, 2008
    Inventor: Walter Frederick Burrows
  • Patent number: 7404286
    Abstract: An orbiting combustor nozzle (OCN) engine, having a rotating assembly comprising a co-rotating compressor and nozzle wheel enclosed within a non-rotating outer casing, defining a rotating combustion chamber, is disclosed. Combustion occurs in the combustion chamber in a vortex of gas that rotates at the same angular velocity as the rotating assembly. Also disclosed, is a method of cooling a blade of a rotating wheel, such as a turbine wheel or nozzle wheel, by projecting cool air at the base of the vane form a nozzle corotating with the blade. Such cooling is easily implemented in an OCN engine with use of an innovative annular combustor. Also disclosed is a method of countering axial backflow by use of a combustion chamber compressor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2008
    Assignee: R-Jet Engineering Ltd.
    Inventor: David Lior
  • Patent number: 7086854
    Abstract: The invention relates to recirculation flow combustors having a generally curved recirculation chamber and unobstructed flow along the periphery of the boundary layer of the vortex flow in this chamber, and methods of operating such combustors. Such combustors further have a border interface area of low turbulence between the vortex flow and the main flow in the combustor, in which chemical reactions take place which are highly advantageous to the combustion process, and which promote a thermal nozzle effect within the combustor. A combustor of this type may be used for burning lean and super-lean fuel and air mixtures for use in gas turbine engines, jet and rocket engines and thermal plants such as boilers, heat exchanges plants, chemical reactors, and the like. The apparatus and methods of the invention may also be operated under conditions that favor fuel reformation rather than combustion, where such a reaction is desired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2006
    Assignee: ALM Blueflame, LLC
    Inventors: Anatoly M. Rakhmailov, Anatoly A. Rakhmailov
  • Patent number: 7080517
    Abstract: A method comprising providing a combustion apparatus, introducing a fuel into the combustion apparatus, and introducing feed air into the combustion apparatus. The method further comprises using the combustion apparatus to cause at least some of the fuel and at least some of the feed air to swirl within the combustion region and about a longitudinal axis of the combustion apparatus, and causing an initial combustion reaction of some of the swirling fuel and feed air in the combustion region to form combustion reaction products. Some of the swirling fuel at least temporarily remains unburned. The swirling is sufficient to cause the unburned fuel to move radially away from the longitudinal axis and to cause the combustion reaction products to move radially toward the longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2006
    Assignee: Innovative Energy, Inc.
    Inventor: Andrew Schlote
  • Patent number: 7062917
    Abstract: A combustion chamber (5) for a gas turbine is adapted for flameless oxidation of fuels. This circulation flow has an internal space (9) in which a large-volume circulation flow is established. To this end, the combustion chamber supplies a hot exhaust stream to the introduced air, the mass flow rate of which exceeds the fresh air stream. The fresh air and the fuel are fed to the combustion chamber in the same direction, roughly parallel to the wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2006
    Assignee: WS Warmeprozesstechnik GmbH
    Inventors: Joachim G. Wunning, Joachim A. Wunning
  • Patent number: 7003961
    Abstract: A trapped vortex combustor for gas turbine engines. An annular combustor housing is provided having a plurality of inlet centerbodies disposed along a helical axis. The inlet centerbodies include a leading edge structure, opposing sidewalls, a pressurizable cavity, and a rear wall. Inlet centerbodies cooperate with adjacent structure and an aft bluff body to define a trapped vortex cavity combustion chamber for mixing an inlet fluid and burning fuel to form hot combustion gases. Mixing is enhanced by utilizing struts adjacent to the rear wall to create eddies in the fluid flow, and by injecting fuel and/or air in opposition to swirl created by the bulk fluid flow. Hot combustion gases are utilized in a turbine for extraction of kinetic energy, or in heat exchange equipment for recovery of thermal energy. High combustion efficiencies and less than 10 ppm emissions of oxides of nitrogen and of carbon monoxide are achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignee: Ramgen Power Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Donald Kendrick, Shawn P. Lawlor, Robert C. Steele
  • Patent number: 6951108
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2005
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: David Louis Burrus, Narendra Digamber Joshi, Joel Meier Haynes, Alan S. Feitelberg
  • Patent number: 6923001
    Abstract: A pilotless catalytic combustor (10) including a basket (12) having a central axis (14) and a central core region (16) disposed along a portion of the central axis. Catalytic combustion modules (18) are circumferentially disposed about the central axis radially outward of the central core region for receiving a fuel flow (20) and a first portion of an oxidizer flow (22), and discharge a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (24) at respective exit ends (26). A base plate (30) is positioned in the central core region upstream of the exit ends of the catalytic combustion modules, the baseplate defining a recirculation zone (32) near the respective exit ends for stabilizing oxidation in the burnout zone. A method of staged fueling for a pilotless catalytic combustor includes providing fuel to at least one of the modules during start up and progressively providing fuel to other modules as a load on the turbine engine is increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2005
    Assignee: Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation
    Inventors: Walter Ray Laster, Ramarao V. Bandaru
  • Patent number: 6895756
    Abstract: An afterburner apparatus that utilizes a novel swirl generator for rapidly and efficiently atomizing, vaporizing, as necessary, and mixing a fuel into an oxidant. The swirl generator converts an oxidant flow into a turbulent, three-dimensional flowfield into which the fuel is introduced. The swirl generator effects a toroidal outer recirculation zone and a central recirculation zone, which is positioned within the outer recirculation zone. These recirculation zones are configured in a backward-flowing manner that carries heat and combustion byproducts upstream where they are employed to continuously ignite a combustible fuel/oxidizer mixture in adjacent shear layers. The recirculation zones accelerate flame propagation to allow afterburning to be completed in a relatively short length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Stephen N. Schmotolocha, Donald H. Morris, Robert J. Pederson, Raymond B. Edelman, Calvin Q. Morrison, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6886342
    Abstract: A fuel nozzle with a ring of fuel spray orifices directing fuel jets at a fuel vortex generator having a fuel deflecting surface disposed downstream a distance from each fuel spray orifice. A mixing chamber is defined between the fuel spray orifices and the fuel deflecting surface having a surface contour oriented to deflect fuel jets into the mixing chamber in counter-rotating adjacent pairs of fuel laden vortices. An air inlet supplies air to the mixing chamber via an airflow vortex generator having an airflow deflecting surface with a surface contour oriented to deflect airflow into the mixing chamber in counter-rotating adjacent pairs of airflow vortices. A fuel-air mixture outlet downstream from the mixing chamber releases the fuel-air mixture into a combustor for ignition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2005
    Assignee: Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
    Inventor: Hisham Alkabie
  • Patent number: 6851263
    Abstract: A liner for a gas turbine engine combustor having a trapped vortex cavity formed therein, wherein a dome plate is positioned at an upstream end of the combustor, includes: a first portion positioned adjacent and connected to the dome plate, wherein the first liner portion extends downstream from and substantially perpendicular to the dome plate; a second portion extending substantially perpendicular to the first liner portion and substantially parallel to the dome plate; a first arcuate portion having a predetermined radius located between the first and second liner portions; a third portion extending downstream and substantially perpendicular to the second liner portion; and, a second arcuate portion located between the second and third liner portions; wherein the first liner portion, the second liner portion, the first arcuate liner portion and a portion of the dome plate form the trapped vortex cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: James Anthony Stumpf, Beverly Stephenson Duncan, David Louis Burrus, Clayton Stuart Cooper
  • Patent number: 6826912
    Abstract: An adiabatic combustor for a gas turbine including: (a) a combustion chamber designed and configured to produce high-pressure combustion gases for the turbine, the combustion chamber having a primary combustion zone containing a substantially vitiated-air zone; (b) at least one primary air inlet providing air to the primary combustion zone, and (c) a fuel injector for injecting fuel, disposed such that the fuel is directly introduced to the vitiated-air zone, wherein the primary air inlet is positioned and directed, and the combustion chamber is designed and configured, so as to produce an internal recirculation that generates a toroidal vortex within the primary combustion zone, thereby producing therein the vitiated-air zone and maintaining therein a state of flameless oxidation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: Yeshayahou Levy
    Inventors: Yeshayahou Levy, Patrick Arfi
  • Patent number: 6820411
    Abstract: An apparatus for providing propulsive power that utilizes a novel swirl generator for rapidly and efficiently atomizing, vaporizing, as necessary, and mixing a fuel into an oxidant. The swirl generator converts an oxidant flow into a turbulent, three-dimensional flowfield into which the fuel is introduced. The swirl generator effects a toroidal outer recirculation zone and a central recirculation zone, which is positioned within the outer recirculation zone. These recirculation zones are configured in a backward-flowing manner that carries heat and combustion byproducts upstream where they are employed to continuously ignite a combustible fuel/oxidizer mixture in adjacent shear layers. The swirl generator is compatible with the throttle range of conventional gas turbine engines, provides smooth combustion with no instabilities and minimum total pressure losses, enables significant reductions the in L/D ratio of the combustor and is readily packaged into various applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Robert J. Pederson, Stephen N. Schmotolocha, Donald H. Morris, Calvin Q. Morrison, Jr., Raymond B. Edelman
  • Publication number: 20040134194
    Abstract: A gas stream with a reduced oxygen concentration relative to ambient air is used to vaporize a liquid fuel or liquified higher hydrocarbon gas, or is mixed with a vaporized gas, and the reduced oxygen vaporized fuel gas is fed to a combustion device such as a premixed or diffusion combustor. Preferably, the oxygen content of the gas stream is less than the limiting oxygen index. By mixing the fuel with a gas stream that has an appropriately reduced oxygen content, auto-ignition prior to the flame front can be avoided. In some embodiments, the reduced oxygen stream is generated from an air separator or taken from the exhaust of the combustion device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 10, 2003
    Publication date: July 15, 2004
    Inventors: Richard J. Roby, Michael S. Klassen, Christopher F. Schemel
  • Publication number: 20040103663
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 11, 2002
    Publication date: June 3, 2004
    Inventors: Joel Meier Haynes, Alan S. Feitelberg, David Louis Burrus, Narendra Digamber Joshi
  • Patent number: 6735949
    Abstract: A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2004
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Joel Meier Haynes, Alan S. Feitelberg, David Louis Burrus, Narendra Digamber Joshi
  • Publication number: 20040020211
    Abstract: A trapped vortex combustor for gas turbine engines. An annular combustor housing is provided having a plurality of inlet centerbodies disposed along a helical axis. The inlet centerbodies include a leading edge structure, opposing sidewalls, a pressurizable cavity, and a rear wall. Inlet centerbodies cooperate with adjacent structure and an aft bluff body to define a trapped vortex cavity combustion chamber for mixing an inlet fluid and burning fuel to form hot combustion gases. Mixing is enhanced by utilizing struts adjacent to the rear wall to create eddies in the fluid flow, and by injecting fuel and/or air in opposition to swirl created by the bulk fluid flow. Hot combustion gases are utilized in a turbine for extraction of kinetic energy, or in heat exchange equipment for recovery of thermal energy. High combustion efficiencies and less than 10 ppm emissions of oxides of nitrogen and of carbon monoxide are achieved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 5, 2003
    Publication date: February 5, 2004
    Applicant: RAMGEN POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
    Inventors: Donald Kendrick, Shawn P. Lawlor, Robert C. Steele
  • Patent number: 6640545
    Abstract: The invention relates to a premix burner with high flame stability for use in a heat producer, preferably in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. Modern lean operated premix burners make possible very low pollutant emissions, but sometimes operate very close to the extinction limit. To increase the stability of the lean premix combustion by increasing the distance between the flame temperature and the extinction limit temperature, it is proposed according to the invention to arrange a downstream combustion gas mixing section (300) for the burner, which mixing section (300) projects at least partially into the combustion chamber (50) and enables combustion gases from the combustion chamber (50) access to the fuel/air mixture (144) by means of combustion gas inlet openings (311). The added combustion gases (145) are mixed with the fuel/air mixture (144), and in this manner increase its temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2003
    Assignee: Alstom Ltd.
    Inventors: Thomas Ruck, Hans Peter Knoepfel
  • Patent number: 6481209
    Abstract: A combustor for a gas turbine engine operates with high combustion efficiency, and low carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide emissions during low, intermediate, and high engine power operations. The combustor includes a fuel delivery system that includes at least two fuel stages, at least one trapped vortex cavity, and at least one mixer assembly radially inward from the trapped vortex cavity. The two fuel stages include a pilot fuel circuit that supplies fuel to the trapped vortex cavity through a fuel injector assembly and a main fuel circuit that also supplies fuel to the mixer assembly with the fuel injector assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2002
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Arthur Wesley Johnson, Robert Andrew Wade, Hukam Chand Mongia, David Louis Burrus
  • Publication number: 20020112482
    Abstract: A combustor for a gas turbine engine operates with high combustion efficiency, and low carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide emissions during low, intermediate, and high engine power operations. The combustor includes a fuel delivery system that includes at least two fuel stages, at least one trapped vortex cavity, and at least one mixer assembly radially inward from the trapped vortex cavity. The two fuel stages include a pilot fuel circuit that supplies fuel to the trapped vortex cavity through a fuel injector assembly and a main fuel circuit that also supplies fuel to the mixer assembly with the fuel injector assembly.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 1, 2002
    Publication date: August 22, 2002
    Inventors: Arthur Wesley Johnson, Robert Andrew Wade, Hukam Chand Mongia, David Louis Burrus
  • Publication number: 20020069648
    Abstract: An adiabatic combustor for a gas turbine including: (a) a combustion chamber designed and configured to produce high-pressure combustion gases for the turbine, the combustion chamber having a primary combustion zone containing a substantially vitiated-air zone; (b) at least one primary air inlet providing air to the primary combustion zone, and (c) a fuel injector for injecting fuel, disposed such that the fuel is directly introduced to the vitiated-air zone, wherein the primary air inlet is positioned and directed, and the combustion chamber is designed and configured, so as to produce an internal recirculation that generates a toroidal vortex within the primary combustion zone, thereby producing therein the vitiated-air zone and maintaining therein a state of flameless oxidation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 11, 2002
    Publication date: June 13, 2002
    Applicant: YESHAYAHOU LEVY
    Inventors: Yeshayahou Levy, Patrick Arfi
  • Patent number: 6334298
    Abstract: A joint for joining a dome plate to a combustor liner includes a first flange formed on the dome plate and a second flange formed on the liner. A mounting ring having a groove formed therein is provided such that the first flange is disposed in the groove and the second flange engages the mounting ring. A retainer is secured to the mounting ring and engages the second flange.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2002
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: John Charles Aicholtz
  • Patent number: 6295801
    Abstract: A fuel injection system for a gas turbine engine combustor, wherein the combustor includes a dome inlet module having a plurality of flow passages formed therein and at least one cavity formed in a liner downstream of said dome inlet module. The fuel injection system includes a fuel supply and a plurality of fuel injector bars positioned circumferentially around and interfacing with the inlet dome module. The fuel injector bars are in flow communication with the fuel supply, with each of the fuel injector bars further including a body portion having an upstream end a downstream end, and a pair of sides. A plurality of injectors formed in the body portion and in flow communication with the fuel supply, whereby fuel is provided to the dome inlet module flow passages and/or the cavity through the fuel injector bars.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: David L. Burrus, Arthur W. Johnson
  • Patent number: 6286298
    Abstract: A fuel injection system for a gas turbine engine combustor, wherein the combustor includes a dome inlet module having a plurality of flow passages formed therein and at least one cavity formed in a liner downstream of said dome inlet module. The fuel injection system includes a fuel supply and a plurality of fuel injector bars positioned circumferentially around and interfacing with the inlet dome module. The fuel injector bars are in flow communication with the fuel supply, with each of the fuel injector bars further including a body portion having an upstream end, a downstream end, and a pair of sides. At least one injector is formed in the downstream end of the body portion and in flow communication with the fuel supply, whereby fuel is provided to the cavity through the fuel injector bars in accordance with a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: David L. Burrus, Arthur W. Johnson, Hukam C. Mongia
  • Patent number: 6286317
    Abstract: A liner for a gas turbine engine combustor, including an upstream section, a downstream section oriented at an angle to the upstream liner section, and a cooling nugget joining the upstream and downstream liner sections for providing mechanical stiffness at a junction of the upstream and downstream liner sections. The cooling nugget further includes a first portion connected to the upstream liner section, a second portion connected to the downstream liner section, and a third portion joining the first and second cooling nugget portions at a first end, the third cooling nugget portion extending radially from the first end, wherein the cooling nugget is in flow communication with a cool air supply and is configured to provide a starter film of cooling air along respective surfaces of the upstream liner section and the downstream liner section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: David L. Burrus, Arthur W. Johnson, George E. Moertle
  • Patent number: 6270337
    Abstract: This invention relates to an apparatus and method for increasing the reactivity of a fuel/air mixture prior to homogenous combustion of the mixture. More specifically, this invention is a pilot for a gas turbine combustor which utilizes the heat of combustion within the pilot to increase the reactivity of a portion of the fuel/air mixture utilized by the pilot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2001
    Assignee: Precision Combustion, Inc.
    Inventors: Shahrokh Etemad, Hasan Ul Karim, William C. Pfefferle
  • Patent number: 6164074
    Abstract: An improved combustor bulkhead 70 for a gas turbine engine 10 includes a plurality of holes 72 and baffles 90 which directs cooling air radially inward around a fuel injector to set up and shape a toroidal recirculation zone 114 surrounding the fuel injector vortex 116 and suppress smoke and carbon formation in the combustion chamber. Various construction details are described to provide an aerodynamically superior bulkhead design.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas J. Madden, Richard S. Tuthill, Harold M. Craig
  • Patent number: 6056538
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided for suppressing flame/pressure pulsations in a furnace, in which a flame is surrounded by a gas shroud stream having a higher flow speed, whereby a ring vortex formation is stopped. In order for this gas shroud stream to be able to achieve smaller gas volumes, a screen is provided that surrounds the gas outlet openings and runs at a spacing around the burner, so that a flue gas recirculation area associated with the combustion chamber is separated from the outlet location of the gas shroud stream and thus the gas shroud stream itself.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2000
    Assignees: DVGW Deutscher Verein des Gas-und Wasserfaches-Technisch-Wissenschaftlich e Vereinigung, Horst Buchner, Wolfgang Leuckel
    Inventors: Horst Buchner, Wolfgang Leuckel
  • Patent number: 5885068
    Abstract: In a combustion chamber of a gas-turbine group which essentially comprises a mixing section (2) for premixing an air/fuel mixture (16) and a downstream combustion space (3), a jump (5) in cross section is provided at the transition between the two said flow sections (2/3). This jump (5) in cross section induces the cross section of flow of the combustion space (3) and at the same time forms outer recirculation zones (10) in the combustion space (3). Flow passages (4) branch off in the end phase of the mixing section (2), which flow passages (4) then lead into the outer recirculation zones (10). A portion (9) of the air/fuel mixture flows out of the mixing section (2) through these flow passages (4) and into the outer recirculation zones (10), the portion being enriched here with an additional fuel (6). This fuel (6) is introduced via a circular line (19) provided with bores (18).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: ABB Research Ltd.
    Inventors: Klaus Dobbeling, Timothy Griffin, Hans Peter Knopfel
  • Patent number: 5865609
    Abstract: A method of reducing pressure fluctuations in the combustor of a gas turbine engine resulting from the combustion of fuel and air therein comprises combusting a fuel/air mixture in a combustor downstream of the exit plane of a fuel nozzle assembly such that such recirculation zones generated by the fuel nozzle assembly are in spaced relation to the exit plane and the combustion products are isolated from the fuel and air in the mixing zone at all operating conditions of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: William A. Sowa, Timothy S. Snyder
  • Patent number: 5791148
    Abstract: A liner for a gas turbine engine combustor is disclosed having a non-linear cavity section, wherein air and fuel injected therein form a trapped vortex for igniting and stabilizing a flame in the combustor. The cavity section, which is substantially rectangular in shape, has an aft wall, a forward wall, and an intermediate wall connected at one end to the aft wall and at the other end to the forward wall. A plurality of passages are provided in the aft wall for injecting fuel therethrough and a plurality of air passages are provided in the aft wall surrounding each fuel passage for injecting air therethrough. Cooling holes are also provided in the aft wall, the forward wall, and the intermediate wall for reinforcing the fuel/air vortex flow in the cavity section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1998
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: David L. Burrus
  • Patent number: 5619855
    Abstract: A combustor for a gas turbine engine is disclosed which is able to operate efficiently at inlet air flows having a high subsonic Mach Number. The combustor has an outer liner and an inner liner spaced therefrom, wherein a combustion chamber is defined therebetween. A dome inlet module is provided which is in flow communication with compressed air flow from a compressor upstream thereof. The dome inlet module has an outer member fixed to the outer liner and an inner member fixed to the inner liner, wherein a flow passage is defined by the outer and inner members for the compressed air flow to flow freely from a compressor to the combustion chamber. Fuel atomizers are then utilized to inject fuel into the flow passage so that the fuel is mixed with the compressed air stream to form a fuel/air mixture which enters the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 15, 1997
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: David L. Burrus
  • Patent number: 5584182
    Abstract: In the combustion chamber of a gas turbine, at least one premixing burner (110) is arranged in a dome (51) communicating with a plenum (50). Said premixing burner (110) is fastened on the outlet side to a front plate (52) limiting the combustion space (58) of the combustion chamber. The premixing burner procures the combustion air from the dome. The fuel injected via nozzles is intensively intermixed with the combustion air within a premixing space of the burner prior to ignition.There is provided a jet injector (53) which opens into the dome (51) and of which the central nozzle (54) is connected to the combustion space (58) via an orifice (55) in the front plate (52) and of which the annular space (56) surrounding the central nozzle is loaded with a propellant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: ABB Management AG
    Inventors: Rolf Althaus, Jakob Keller
  • Patent number: 5494438
    Abstract: A sudden expansion combustion chamber comprising a combustion chamber, an inlet port, a backward-facing step layer provided in the combustion chamber having a predetermined thickness so as define the inlet port, and an after-mixing chamber. The sudden expansion combustion chamber is characterized in that it contains at least a slot provided in the backward-facing step layer so as to increase the recirculating flow rate and turbulence of the incoming air, and thus reduce ignition delay.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1996
    Assignee: National Science Council
    Inventor: Jing-Tang Yang