With Separated Constituent Recycle Patents (Class 62/541)
  • Patent number: 8056362
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method and a device for purifying and/or separating preferably high melting organic raw products or compound mixtures containing, in particular, high melting and/or degradable sterols, by layer crystallization on first heat exchanger surfaces. The raw product is received in a solvent or solvent mixture, and then brought into contact with heat exchanger surfaces. The desired product crystallizes on the heat exchanger surfaces by slow cooling. Solvent evaporating during the crystallization or sweating process is condensed and returned to the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignees: Sulzer Chemtech AG, Resitec Participacoes Ltda
    Inventors: Rodolfo Rohr, Ali Nikzad, Andrzej K. Kuszlik
  • Patent number: 8015841
    Abstract: A cryogenic refrigeration system includes a cryogenic heat exchanger system adapted for vaporizing a liquid cryogen and using the gaseous cryogen to cool heat transfer fluid and a heat transfer cooling circuit that cools the lyophilization chamber as well as the condenser. The disclosed heat transfer cooling circuit includes a primary recirculation loop adapted for cooling the lyophilization chamber with the heat transfer fluid, a secondary recirculation loop adapted for cooling a condenser with the heat transfer fluid, and one or more valves operatively coupling the cryogenic heat exchanger system, the primary recirculation loop, and the secondary recirculation loop.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2011
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Alan Cheng
  • Patent number: 7794603
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method for purification of contaminated water through hydrate formation and separation of hydrates from contaminated water enriched with contaminants, by supplying hydrate particles to the water during hydrate formation. The present invention also concerns a device for purification of water by using a method according to the invention, and water produced according to the invention. By using the process principles according to the present invention, all types of water can be purified for consumption or safe discharge, or desired resources can be recovered, and air can be purified if it first is bubbled through the water which then is purified by a method according to the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2010
    Assignee: EcoWat AS
    Inventors: Tore Skjetne, Are Lund, Roar Larsen
  • Publication number: 20100115989
    Abstract: An exemplary device and method for removing undesired substances from original water comprises a cooling circuit for cooling the original water to or below approximately Zero degrees Celsius, whereby the saturation level of the undesired substances in the original water is exceeded, thereby causing segregation of the original water into purified ice, undesired precipitated solids, and a waste liquid containing the remaining undesired substances (soluble salts). Means for removing the waste liquid from the purified ice, a heating circuit for melting the purified ice into purified water, a reservoir having an inlet for receiving the original water and an outlet for dispensing the purified water, and a first water purity monitor disposed adjacent the outlet for monitoring a first purity level of the purified water are provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 18, 2009
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Inventors: Zenon Chrysostomou, Evagoras Nikolaou
  • Publication number: 20100050687
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and systems for capture of CO2 from a gas stream by anti-sublimation, comprising the steps of evacuation of liquefied CO2 from a frosting vessel 1; evacuation of residual gases containing CO2 from the frosting vessel 1; and refrigeration of evacuated residual gases to a temperature at which liquid CO2 is formed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 27, 2009
    Publication date: March 4, 2010
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventor: Wolfgang Georg Hees
  • Publication number: 20100024472
    Abstract: A process is described for removing contaminants from a natural gas feed stream including water. The process includes the steps of cooling the natural gas feed stream in a first vessel to a first operating temperature at which hydrates are formed, heating the hydrates to a temperature that is above the first operating temperature by introducing a warm liquid to the first vessel so as to melt the hydrates and liberate a dehydrated gas and a water-containing liquid, and removing from the first vessel a stream of dehydrated gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 8, 2009
    Publication date: February 4, 2010
    Applicant: WOODSIDE ENERGY LIMITED
    Inventors: Robert Amin, Casper Krijno Groothuis
  • Publication number: 20090209773
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method and a device for purifying and/or separating preferably high melting organic raw products or compound mixtures containing, in particular, high melting and/or degradable sterols, by layer crystallisation on first heat exchanger surfaces. The raw product is received in a solvent or solvent mixture, and then brought into contact with heat exchanger surfaces. The desired product crystallises on the heat exchanger surfaces by slow cooling. Solvent evaporating during the crystallisation or sweating process is condensed and returned to the mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2006
    Publication date: August 20, 2009
    Inventors: Rodolfo Rohr, Ali Nikzad, Andrzej K. Kuszlik
  • Patent number: 7560028
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2009
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Blake A. Simmons, Robert W. Bradshaw, Daniel E. Dedrick, David W. Anderson
  • Patent number: 7325415
    Abstract: Novel processes and devices for the removal of freezable species such as carbon dioxide, water and heavy hydrocarbons from a natural gas feed stream during liquefaction to produce LNG are disclosed. The freezable species are able to be removed as a solid, avoiding the costly step of pretreatment to remove the freezable species from the natural gas feed stream prior to the liquefaction stage. The freezable species may be removed on a continuous basis being separated as solids following liquefaction of the natural gas feed stream with subsequent separation of the solids. The solid freezable species may then be liquefied on a continuous basis if required with natural gas recycled to the process. Continuous removal of the freezable species from the natural gas feed stream is achievable by maintaining cooling and separation apparatus at the same working pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2008
    Assignee: Cool Energy Limited
    Inventors: Robert Amin, Anthony Frederick Kennaird
  • Patent number: 7073349
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing particles, the apparatus includes a solution source that supplies a solution, and a fluid source that supplies a fluid. The solution includes a solvent and a solute. A mixer receives the solution and the fluid from the sources, and mixes the solution and the fluid together to form a mixture. The mixture is supplied from the mixer to an expansion assembly at first pressure. The expansion assembly sprays and expands the mixture substantially simultaneously to form frozen droplets, and preferably to form a low-density powder of frozen droplets. A freeze-dry apparatus sublimes the solvent from the particles. A high mass-transfer rate and a uniform open-structure of the powder bed enhances the freeze-drying process. Solid particles having a controlled size distribution are obtained. The particles preferably have a hollow or porous morphology suitable for differing drug delivery applications to include aerosol formulations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2006
    Assignee: Ferro Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Boris Y. Shekunov, Pratibhash Chattopadhyay, Jeffrey S. Seitzinger
  • Patent number: 6962061
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 8, 2005
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Bruce M. Wilding, Dennis N. Bingham, Michael G. McKellar, Terry D. Turner, Kevin T. Rateman, Gary L. Palmer, Kerry M. Klinger, John J. Vranicar
  • Patent number: 6931888
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing particles, the apparatus includes a solution source that supplies a solution, and a fluid source that supplies a fluid. The solution includes a solvent and a solute. A mixer receives the solution and the fluid from the sources, and mixes the solution and the fluid together to form a mixture. The mixture is supplied from the mixer to an expansion assembly at first pressure. The expansion assembly sprays and expands the mixture substantially simultaneously to form frozen droplets, and preferably to form a low-density powder of frozen droplets. A freeze-dry apparatus sublimes the solvent from the particles. A high mass-transfer rate and a uniform open-structure of the powder bed enhances the freeze-drying process. Solid particles having a controlled size distribution are obtained. The particles preferably have a hollow or porous morphology suitable for differing drug delivery applications to include aerosol formulations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2005
    Assignee: Ferro Corporation
    Inventors: Boris Y. Shekunov, Pratibhash Chattopadhyay, Jeffrey S. Seitzinger
  • Publication number: 20040069014
    Abstract: Multi-stage vacuum distilling, cooling, and freezing processes for solution separation and seawater desalination are implemented through multi-stage vacuum distilling, cooling, and freezing systems. The systems are set to their initial state for implementing constant temperature distilling process, drain-to-vacuum and freezing process, transferring of a specific solution, and recycling of a hot circulating solution, so as to separate the specific solution. In the multi-stage cooling process, vacuum evaporation cooling is utilized to cool the solution in order to supply the low-temperature solution needed in the multi-stage vacuum freezing process. Vapors produced in the multi-stage vacuum distilling and cooling systems provide condensation heat needed to melt ice crystals produced in the multi-stage vacuum freezing system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 27, 2003
    Publication date: April 15, 2004
    Inventor: Cheng-Ming Chou
  • Patent number: 6467305
    Abstract: An installation for crystallizing a liquid from a solution, for example for freeze-concentrating effluent, having a nucleation zone, a ripening zone and a separator where the nucleation zone is constructed as a vacuum crystalline, such that the installation is of relatively simple and inexpensive construction, can easily be scaled up and is suitable for concentrating liquids containing undissolved particles, such as, for example, precipitated salts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2002
    Assignee: Niro Process Technology B.V.
    Inventors: Jacobus Petrus Roodenrijs, Halbe Anne Jansen
  • Patent number: 6131397
    Abstract: Slush is made from a liquid using slush making systems or according to slush making processes. A jacketed vessel of the processes and the systems has an interior wall that defines an interior space. The interior space comprises a top and a bottom. The interior space has an average overall cross-sectional area taken through a vertical axis extending generally between the top and the bottom. The interior space also has a collection portion having an average collection portion cross-sectional area taken through the vertical axis that is less than the average overall cross-sectional area. The liquid is placed into the interior space and the interior walls are cooled. Slush forms on the interior walls and migrates to the collection portion. The collection portion is located at the interior space bottom when the slush density is higher than the liquid density and the collection portion is located at the interior space top when slush density is less than the liquid density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Assignee: Boeing North American Inc.
    Inventors: John E. Davis, Tibor I. Lak, Gene Rogers, James F. Weber, Michael V. Merlin, Timothy L. Gaynor, III, David L. Gerhardt
  • Patent number: 6003300
    Abstract: This invention relates to a fueling process that allows complete combustion with air in the combustor of an aircraft traveling at a speed greater than the speed of sound. A process is described to inject a jet of solid hydrogen particles admixed in liquid helium through the combustor wall to achieve extremely rapid mixing of hydrogen throughout the supersonic airstream of the combustor of a high speed vehicle. Mixing on a molecular scale is so rapid that complete and efficient combustion occurs within the combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Stephen C. Bates
    Inventor: Stephen C. Bates
  • Patent number: 5991647
    Abstract: A high temperature superconductor lead assembly for reducing the heat leak into a cryocooled system features a shroud configured for at least partial submersion in a cryogenic fluid contained within a bath chamber, and a high temperature superconductor lead element at least partially contained within the shroud. In use, a portion of the high temperature superconductor lead element contained within the shroud extends below a fluid level of the cryogenic fluid in the bath chamber. The portion of the high temperature superconductor lead element is thermally shielded by the shroud such that it is maintained at a temperature higher than the temperature of the cryogenic fluid. The shroud is a double-walled vacuum structure with a sealed end and an open end. In use, the open end is submerged in the cryogenic fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: American Superconductor Corporation
    Inventors: William E. Brockenborough, Bruce Barton Gamble, Anthony J. Rodenbush, Ahmed Sidi-Yekhlef
  • Patent number: 5964100
    Abstract: The present invention is a system and method for freeze granulation of a medium such as a biopharmeceutical product. The medium is put into a chamber and mixed using a pair of counter rotating agitators. The agitators have angled blades or paddles on them in order to induce motion in the medium parallel to the axis of the agitator shafts. A set of liquid nitrogen and liquid carbon dioxide nozzles are attached to the chamber. The liquid nitrogen nozzles spray a mist of liquid nitrogen into the medium. The liquid carbon dioxide nozzles spray carbon dioxide snow into the chamber. The liquid nitrogen and the carbon dioxide can be sprayed into the chamber at the same time or alternately.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Integrated Biosystems, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Wisniewski
  • Patent number: 5960634
    Abstract: A method and apparatus of storing and transporting acetylene in which acetylene is introduced under pressure into liquid nitrogen to produce a liquid solid mixture. The feeding of the acetylene can be done by spraying the acetylene over the liquid nitrogen or sparging the acetylene into a pool of liquid nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: The Boc Group PLC
    Inventors: David P. Hook, Stephen W. Barton, Duncan Yates, Silvia B. Dougill, Shuen-Cheng Hwang
  • Patent number: 5941096
    Abstract: A method for transportation and storage of a natural gas-containing product from a production site for the product. The product is separated into an oil phase and a gas phase and the gas phase is converted to a gas hydrate from which residual water is separated. The oil phase is then dehydrated and mixed with the gas hydrate to form a slurry which is stable through storage and transport.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1999
    Inventor: Jon Steinar Gudmundsson
  • Patent number: 5816057
    Abstract: The invention provides a filter for removing liquid from an ice slurry. The filter includes a horizontal filter plate. The ice slurry is passed over the top of the filter plate. The filter includes a first stage where the liquid is removed from the ice slurry, thereby consolidating the ice particles into an ice bed. The liquid is removed by drawing the liquid out of the ice slurry through a set of slots in the filter plate by using a low suction pump. A second stage of the filter draws the remaining liquid entrained in the ice bed through another set of slots using a vacuum pump, which has a higher suction than the low suction pump used in the first stage. A clean water rinse may be sprayed on the ice bed in the second stage to improve the removal of liquid from the ice bed. The filter plate at the second stage may be heated to produce a rinse through the bottom of the ice bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Leland C. Dickey, Michael F. Dallmer, E. Richard Radewonuk
  • Patent number: 5755975
    Abstract: In a process for separating substances from a liquid mixture by crystallization in a crystallizer, a two-phase seed layer in the form of a melt or solution of the mixture to be separated, with crystals suspended therein, is applied, prior to the crystallization, to those surfaces of the crystallizer from which crystals grow during the crystallization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1998
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Bernd Eck, Bernhard Maltry
  • Patent number: 5715686
    Abstract: A method for cryopreservation of biological samples. A cryogenic liquid such as liquid nitrogen is turned into a slush within a container such as a standard cryogenic storage vial by applying suction to create a partial vacuum above the liquid. The sample to be cooled is dropped into the slush and is subsequently stored in the container within which it was cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1998
    Assignee: State of Israel
    Inventor: Amir Arav
  • Patent number: 5636668
    Abstract: A fuel vapor recovery system is disclosed wherein fuel supplied to the fuel filler pipe of a vehicle is cooled by a container of a coolable phase change material. The phase change material is cooled by a thermoelectric cooling element powered by the vehicle electrical system. A heat exchange member is disposed in the filler pipe in heat conducting relation to the container containing the phase change material. The heat exchanger and container are preferably retained in the filler pipe by thermally insulative supporting members to minimize heat transfer between the container phase change material and the filler pipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventor: Robert H. Thompson
  • Patent number: 5564289
    Abstract: A cooling tank 1 for cooling water 2b by bringing water 2b in direct contact with hardly-water-soluble refrigerant 2c having a larger specific gravity than that of water, which tank 1 has an inside space 3 above water surface in the tank 1 and the pressure P.sub.t of the space 3 is kept below the saturation pressure P.sub.0 of the refrigerant 2c at water freezing point (P.sub.t .ltoreq.P.sub.0). The tank 1 also has a refrigerant extraction hole 6a for extracting gas-phase refrigerant 2c, an outlet 14a for drawing cooled water 2b, and an upward passage 30 for refrigerant extending from the bottom of the tank 1 to the water surface therein, which passage 30 guides ascension of that refrigerant 2c which settles at the tank bottom toward the space 3 above the water surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1996
    Assignee: Kajima Corporation
    Inventor: Toshiyuki Hino
  • Patent number: 5562828
    Abstract: Spent acid contaminated with metal salts in a hot solution removed from a metal pickling bath is directed to one side of an anionic membrane to separate acid ions from the metal salt solution by diffusion dialysis through the membrane. Most of the metal salts in the remaining low acidity mother liquor are crystallized by refrigerating the mother liquor. The crystals are dewatered (in a centrifuge, for example) to produce a commercially viable noncorrosive byproduct, and the substantially decontaminated mother liquor is directed to the opposite side of the diffusion membrane, where it receives the acid ions diffusing through the membrane, and is then recycled to the pickling bath. Heat interchange between the hot spent acid solution and the recycled acid lowers the temperature of the spent acid to an optimum value for dialysis while raising the temperature of the recycled acid to close to the bath temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1996
    Inventors: Douglas R. Olsen, Daniel E. Bailey
  • Patent number: 5558778
    Abstract: A process for the treatment of a wastewater feed originating from a styrene/propylene oxide production plant and containing hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols and salts, by freeze-concentration combined with salt crystals removal, thereby separating the wastewater feed into an at least two-fold concentrated waste product, salt crystals, and a substantially pure water product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1996
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Johannes J. Janssen, Arie L. Mos, Theodoor J. L. W. Simons
  • Patent number: 5402649
    Abstract: A high rate, continuous production, slush hydrogen generator includes a tank, apparatus for creating a vacuum in the tank, apparatus for delivering triple point (T.P.) liquid hydrogen (LH2) to the tank, apparatus for interacting with the vacuum in the tank to produce slush hydrogen from the T.P. LH2, where the T.P. LH2 has a substantially constant solid fraction, and apparatus for delivering cold vapors from the slush in the tank to the vacuum creating apparatus. The apparatus for producing slush hydrogen in the generator includes a perforated spray ring for evaporating the T.P. LH2 and apparatus for delivering the LH2 under pressure to the spray ring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1995
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Sidney P. Glasser
  • Patent number: 5368105
    Abstract: A cryogenic slurry comprising a mixture of solid carbon dioxide particles suspended in liquid nitrogen is provided which is useful in extinguishing underground fires.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Interior
    Inventors: Robert F. Chaiken, Ann G. Kim, Andrew M. Kociban, Joseph P. Slivon, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5365981
    Abstract: In order to improve a method for filling a cryotank with liquid hydrogen, in which thermal energy is introduced into the liquid hydrogen by the transfer of the liquid hydrogen to the cryotank, such that the amount of gas which results during filling of a cryotank and is carried away via the gas return line is reduced to as great an extent as possible, preferably to zero, it is suggested that for filling hydrogen be used at a pressure and a temperature corresponding to an undercooled state of the liquid hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
    Inventors: Walter Peschka, Gottfried Schneider
  • Patent number: 5311927
    Abstract: A refrigeration system associated with a conditioned space to be controlled to a predetermined set point temperature via heating and cooling cycles. The refrigeration system includes a fluid flow path through which a predetermined liquid is circulated. The fluid flow path includes a slush tank and first and second heat exchangers, with cryogen from a supply vessel being expanded into liquid disposed in the slush tank. The first heat exchanger is disposed to condition the air of the conditioned space, and the second heat exchanger is in heat exchange relation with heating apparatus. The first heat exchanger and slush tank are interconnected when the conditioned space requires a cooling cycle, and the first and second heat exchangers are interconnected when the conditioned space requires a heating cycle. Cryogen of the cryogenic cooling apparatus is thus not expended to heat the conditioned space, or for defrosting purposes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1994
    Assignee: Thermo King Corporation
    Inventors: David H. Taylor, Herman H. Viegas, Roland L. Roehrich
  • Patent number: 5301510
    Abstract: A self-powered, mobile maintenance apparatus for continuously supplying slush hydrogen as a powering fuel to an aerospace vehicle prior to take-off including a first apparatus for obtaining liquid hydrogen from the vehicle, a second apparatus for generating slush hydrogen, a third apparatus for delivering the liquid hydrogen obtained from the vehicle to the second apparatus for generating slush hydrogen so that the liquid hydrogen can be converted to slush hydrogen, pump apparatus communicating with the second apparatus generating slush hydrogen for developing a vacuum in a region of the second apparatus for generating slush hydrogen so that a solid hydrogen fraction is produced, and apparatus for delivering the slush hydrogen mixture to the aerospace vehicle to be used as the powering fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Sidney P. Glasser
  • Patent number: 5280710
    Abstract: This invention relates to a continuous process for the preparation of slush hydrogen. The process comprises substantially continuously injecting liquid hydrogen at a temperature slightly above its triple point temperature into a slush hydrogen generator; forming solid hydrogen by removing hydrogen vapor from the slush hydrogen generator; fracturing and dispersing surface solid as it is formed into the slush; concentrating the crystalline solid particles in the slush to a level of at least 30%, and preferably from 45 to 60%, by weight; and substantially continuously removing the slush hydrogen from said slush hydrogen generator at a rate such that a substantially constant level of slush is maintained in said slush hydrogen generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1994
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Lee S. Gaumer, Jr., Robert B. Moore, Glenn E. Kinard
  • Patent number: 5255523
    Abstract: In the method of the invention, an unknown mass fraction (F) of solid cryogen in a stored cryogenic refrigeration system is determined. The method includes the steps of adding mass (T) of a trace substance which is soluble in the liquid phase of the system. The total mass amount (M) of the cryogen in the system is determined at the time of charging the system. The initial mass concentration (C.sub.I) of the trace substance is determined by dividing (T) by (M). During operation of the stored cryogenic refrigeration system, a small sample of the liquid phase cryogen is extracted from the system. The sample is analyzed to determine the new concentration (C.sub.N) of the trace substance in the sample. The new concentration (C.sub.N) of the sample is dependent on the amount of solid cryogen which has been produced in the system. Thereafter, the mass fraction (F) of solid cryogen in the system is determined by solving the equation:F=1-(C.sub.I /C.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1993
    Assignee: Liquid Carbonic Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth L. Burgers, Arif Y. Kiziltug, Royce J. Laverman, William S. Schoerner
  • Patent number: 5220801
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for maintaining a liquid-frozen solid slush mixture in a vessel at a desired total slush mixture and desired solids content during conditions under which the solids in the slush mixture in the vessel are melting. The method comprises introducing fresh slush mixture to the vessel, while removing liquid from the vessel--both at rates directly proportional to the rate of solids melting in the vessel. The apparatus comprises an auxiliary vessel containing slush mixture and means for transferring slush mixture to the main vessel at one rate, means for transferring liquid from the main vessel to the auxiliary vessel at another rate, and means for controlling the transfer rates in a prescribed manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1993
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: David A. Butler, Robert B. Moore
  • Patent number: 5181396
    Abstract: A method of freezing and separation for concentrating solutions, such as waste waters of the process industry, by means of waste heat of the same process, by freezing the solution in a crystallizer operating at the triple point, by transferring the ice crystals produced thereby into a melter, by absorbing the cold vapor generated in the crystallizer into an absorber of a first absorption heat pump, said absorber being cooled by cooling water, by evaporating a corresponding amount of vapor in a generator of the absorption heat pump, said generator being heated by the waste heat of the process and, by melting the ice crystals by this vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1993
    Assignee: A. Ahlstrom Corporation
    Inventor: Risto V. J. Saari
  • Patent number: 5174859
    Abstract: A method for treating a mechanical pulp plant effluent waste stream by freezing the effluent stream and separating frozen product. The frozen product contains between about 50 to 150 ppm chemical oxygen demand (COD), and may be reclaimed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1992
    Assignee: HPD Incorporated
    Inventors: Timothy J. Rittof, Jean-Claude Patel
  • Patent number: 5168710
    Abstract: The present invention is intended to provide a slush hydrogen production apparatus adapted to efficiently produce slush hydrogen having even particle diameters by means of an industrial procedure. A liquid hydrogen supply/discharge passage (2) is connected to the lower portion of the insulated closed container (1), an exhaust passage (4) and a helium gas supply passage (5) are connected to the upper portion of the insulated closed container (1), a heat exchanger (7) and a vacuum pump (9) are arranged in the exhaust passage (4) in that order from the side of the insulated closed container (1), a stirring means (16) is disposed within the insulated closed container (1) and the stirring means (16) is adapted to be driven from an outside of the insulated closed container (1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1992
    Assignee: Iwatani Sangyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Jun Miyazaki
  • Patent number: 5154062
    Abstract: This invention relates to a continuous process for the preparation of slush hydrogen by the freeze-thaw technique. The process comprises substantially continuously injecting liquid hydrogen at or near its triple point temperature into a slush hydrogen generator; forming solid hydrogen by removing hydrogen vapor from the slush hydrogen generator; alternately adjusting the pressure in the slush hydrogen generator to a pressure below the triple point of hydrogen and then to a pressure slightly above the pressure at the triple point thereby effecting formation and dispersion of solids in said slush; concentrating the crystalline solid particles in the slush to a level of at least 30%, and preferably from 45 to 60%, by weight; and substantially continuously removing the slush hydrogen from said slush hydrogen generator at a rate such that a substantially constant level of slush is maintained in said slush hydrogen generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1992
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Lee S. Gaumer, Jr., Robert B. Moore, Glenn E. Kinard
  • Patent number: 5137739
    Abstract: Process for freeze-concentrating food liquids such as fruit juices, coffee extracts, beer and so forth, in which the substance to be treated is conveyed through a multi-stage freeze concentrator and is conveyed from the freeze concentrator stage with the highest concentration to a module in which the concentration, and thus the viscosity, is increased by crystallization, and a partial separation of mother liquor is obtained by means of a contrifuge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1992
    Assignee: Grasso's Koninklijke Machinefabrieken . . .
    Inventor: Jacobus P. Roodenrijs
  • Patent number: 5044164
    Abstract: A method of preparing a clathrate of a gas-hydrate-forming material and water by preparing a dispersion of liquid water in a continuous fluid phase comprising the gas-hydrate-forming material and controlling the temperature and the pressure such that a clathrate is formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 3, 1991
    Assignee: Van den Bergh Foods Co., division of Conopco, Inc.
    Inventor: Rodney D. Bee
  • Patent number: 5037463
    Abstract: A method of removing contaminants from an aqueous waste stream comprising feeding a contaminated aqueous liquid to the lower internal space of a feed tank and cooling the liquid in the tank to a temperature which results in precipitation of at least part of the contaminants; withdrawing the precipitated contaminants from the feed tank lower internal space; withdrawing aqueous liquid from the feed tank upper internal space and delivering it to a freezer; cooling the aqueous liquid in the freezer to convert at least part of the liquid to ice to produce an aqueous ice slurry; feeding aqueous ice slurry from the freezer to an aqueous ice slurry receiver; withdrawing aqueous ice slurry from the aqueous ice slurry receiver and recycling some of it to the freezer and some of it to the lower internal space of the feed tank; withdrawing aqueous ice slurry from the aqueous ice slurry receiver and delivering it to a central space of a separator-precipitate vessel; withdrawing aqueous ice slurry from the central space of
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: Chicago Bridge & Iron Technical Services Company
    Inventors: Gerald E. Engdahl, James H. Richardson
  • Patent number: 5035733
    Abstract: An ice storage and distribution unit includes an ice storage and separation vessel for storing a slurry of ice and solution and separating the ice from the solution. An inlet slurry of ice and solution is introduced into the ice storage and separation vessel through an ice slurry inlet. The slurry separates into a bed of ice and a liquid bath of solution in the vessel. An agitator is disposed within the vessel for agitating the bed of ice to obtain substantially free-flowing ice. Ice is then discharged from the vessel through an ice outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1991
    Assignee: Sunwell Engineering Company Ltd.
    Inventor: Vladimir Goldstein
  • Patent number: 4920752
    Abstract: The apparatus for storing a frozen hydrate includes a reservoir which is filled with frozen granulated hydrate. Heat for decomposing the hydrate is obtained from water contained in a water tank. In one embodiment, the process is carried out in such a way that one chamber of a reservoir may be charged while another chamber is being evacuated by the decomposition of the frozen hydrate into gas and ice.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers LImited
    Inventor: Christian Ehrsam
  • Patent number: 4846862
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an improved process for the reliquefaction of boil-off gas containing up to 10% nitrogen resulting from the evaporation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) contained in a storage vessel. In the process, a closed-loop refrigeration cycle is utilized wherein an isenthalpically expanded stream is warmed against an initially cooled boil-off stream. The boil-off LNG stream is initially cooled by indirect heat exchange with an isentropically expanded refrigerant stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventor: Philip J. Cook
  • Patent number: 4838912
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for the purification and recirculation of gases which are fed to a plant for the production of metal powder or for compacting metal powder at elevated pressures. The operating gas exits the plant at a lower pressure and is conveyed in a closed loop, in which filters are provided for the mechanical and/or chemical purification of the gases as well as means for increasing the pressure of the purified gas. The repressurization of the operating gas is carried out economically by liquefying the operating gas leaving the plant after purification by the application of liquid nitrogen, then feeding the liquefied gas to an evaporator via a high-pressure pump, and finally returning the operating gas to the plant in a pressurized gaseous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: Leybold AG
    Inventor: Heinrich Amlinger
  • Patent number: 4830645
    Abstract: A continuous, counter current freeze concentration system and method for concentrating aqueous solutions such as fruit juices, coffee and cold water soluble tea extracts, milk, beer, wine, vinegar, and the like in which the aqueous liquid is passed through one or more concentrating stages, each of which include a crystallizer associated with a gradient column, to crystallize ice in each of the stages and increase the concentration of the liquid, and the ice formed in each stage is passed in reverse direction through the stages. Ice crystals are separated and removed from the system in a wash column associated with the first stage, and concentrated liquid is removed as product from the last stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: Nestec S.A.
    Inventors: Yousef Ghodsizadeh, David A. Seitz
  • Patent number: 4822391
    Abstract: Energy and mass are transferred in a system utilizing a gaseous refrigerant which is mixed and sorbed (absorbed/adsorbed) with a liquid carrier selected from the group consisting of long chain alcohols, ethers, glycols, glycol ethers, sebecates, phthalates, aldehydes and ketones, and sorbate/liquid mixture then combined with a particulate solid capable of forming a solid/gas compound with the gaseous refrigerant. The process is carried out in a mass and heat exchange apparatus capable of collecting and transferring the energy created by the formation or dissociation of the solid/gas compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1989
    Inventor: Uwe Rockenfeller
  • Patent number: 4787985
    Abstract: A counter-current process for purifying chemicals using cyrstal purification. The unit process has a purification and recovery section which contain substantially identical stages. In operation, the unit process purifies the chemical by utilizing sequential recrystallizer. The size and purity of the crystals increases from the last recrystallizer in the recovery section through each subsequent stage to the last recrystallizer in the purification section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1988
    Assignee: Grenco Process Technology B.V.
    Inventors: Jacobus P. Roodenrijs, Wilhelmus H. J. M. Van Pelt
  • Patent number: 4769054
    Abstract: A process for abatement of warm melting point vapors from gas streams is provided. The warm melting point vapors are solidified by direct contact with a chilled liquid, and are subsequently removed from the chilled liquid using known separation techniques. The chilled liquid exhibits a vapor pressure at the contacting temperature which is sufficiently low to preclude unsafe levels of the chilled liquid vapor in the processed gas stream. The chilled liquid is cooled using indirect heat exchange with a cryogenic liquid and is recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Frederic N. Steigman