Air-fuel Ratio Patents (Class 73/23.32)
  • Patent number: 10505207
    Abstract: A method for the combined controlled regulation of fuel gas-oxygen carriers of a gas operated energy converter plant (15), in particular of a fuel cell plant, is provided in which the mass or volume through flow of the fuel gas (1) and/or of the oxygen carrier (2) is detected in order to regulate the mixing ratio (r) of fuel gas to oxygen carrier. In the method at least two physical parameters of the fuel gas are additionally determined using a micro thermal sensor (3.1, 3.2), for example, the mass flow and/or volume through flow of the fuel gas and the thermal conductivity or thermal capacity of the fuel gas are determined and a desired value for the mixing ratio is determined from the physical parameters which depends on the fuel gas or on the composition of the fuel gas, and which desired value is used for the regulation of the mixing ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2019
    Assignee: Hexis AG
    Inventors: Roland Denzler, Philippe Pretre, Andreas Kempe
  • Patent number: 10465579
    Abstract: When the temperature of an NSR catalyst belongs to a specified NSR temperature range and the temperature of an SCR catalyst belongs to a specified SCR temperature range, urea water is added, and specified air-fuel ratio processing relating to an air-fuel ratio of exhaust gas flowing into the NSR catalyst is executed. The specified air-fuel ratio processing includes i) a first air-fuel ratio processing to cause the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas flowing into the NSR catalyst to be a first lean air-fuel ratio that causes emission of occluded NOx from the NSR catalyst and ii) a second air-fuel ratio processing to cause the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas to be a second lean air-fuel ratio leaner than the first lean air-fuel ratio. In the specified air-fuel ratio processing, the first air-fuel ratio processing and the second air-fuel ratio processing are alternately repeated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2019
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yuriko Hagimoto, Yuji Miyoshi, Hiromasa Nishioka
  • Patent number: 10203299
    Abstract: A control circuit for a single-cell linear oxygen sensor having a first and a second electrical terminals on which a first voltage and respectively a second voltage are present, wherein a cell current between the first and second electrical terminals is indicative of a detected oxygen concentration, and wherein the control circuit generates a biasing voltage between the first and the second electrical terminals with a preset pattern as a function of the cell current. The circuit envisages: a transresistance block, coupled to the second electrical terminal to generate a processed voltage as a function of the cell current and based on the preset pattern; and an adder stage, coupled to the transresistance block and to the second electrical terminal, to perform a sum between the processed voltage and the second voltage, to generate the first voltage for the first electrical terminal of the linear oxygen sensor, so that the biasing voltage has the preset pattern as a function of the cell current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2019
    Assignee: MAGNETI MARELLI S.p.A.
    Inventors: Matteo Bosio, Piero Maria Carbonaro, Fausto Calcagno
  • Patent number: 9797852
    Abstract: An applied voltage control device is used for a sensor, in which a direct current corresponding to an oxygen amount flows when a DC voltage is applied to the sensor, and an alternating current corresponding to a sensor impedance flows when an AC voltage is applied to the sensor. The applied voltage control device includes: a filtering unit that sets a cutoff frequency of the AC voltage applied to the sensor variable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: DENSO CORPORATION
    Inventor: Koji Morishita
  • Patent number: 9677491
    Abstract: Methods and systems are provided reusing processed sensor data to identify multiple types of sensor degradation. In one example, a central peak of a distribution, such as a generalized extreme value distribution, of sensor readings is re-used to identify asymmetric sensor degradation and stuck in-range sensor degradation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: Ford Global Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Hassan Makki, Mark Thomas Linenberg, Gladys G. Soriano, Kenneth John Behr
  • Patent number: 9599006
    Abstract: A system for a vehicle includes an oxygen storage capacity (OSC) determination module, a delay determination module, a correction module, and a fault detection module. The OSC determination module determines an OSC period of a catalyst of an exhaust system based on first and second amounts of oxygen measured using first and second oxygen sensors located upstream and downstream of the catalyst, respectively. The delay determination module determines a delay period of the second oxygen sensor. The correction module sets a corrected OSC period for the catalyst based on a difference between the OSC period and the delay period. The fault detection module selectively indicates that a fault is present in the catalyst based on the corrected OSC period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Robert J. Genslak, Robert E. Heger, Edward Stuteville, Jerry J. Sheahan, Thomas J. Large
  • Patent number: 9234868
    Abstract: An NOX sensor control apparatus (10) is connected to an NOX sensor (100) which includes a first pumping cell (110) and a second pumping cell (130) through which a second pumping current flows corresponding to an NOX concentration in a to-be-measured gas. The NOX sensor control apparatus (10) includes a first pumping current detection unit; a second pumping current detection unit; an oxygen concentration calculation unit (60) for calculating oxygen concentration on the basis of the first pumping current and corrected in accordance with the pressure of the to-be-measured gas, oxygen (first) pressure correction information set for the NOX sensor, and pressure information; and an NOX concentration calculation unit (60) for calculating NOX concentration on the basis of the first pumping current and corrected in accordance with pressure of the to-be-measured gas, NOX (second) pressure correction information set for the NOX sensor, and pressure information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2016
    Assignee: NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Ishiguro, Takayuki Sumi, Akihiro Kobayashi, Hisashi Sasaki, Koji Shiotani
  • Patent number: 9163574
    Abstract: A sensor characteristic correction device is configured to detect a characteristic of a first sensor arranged upstream of a catalyst 6 in an exhaust passage 4 of an internal combustion engine 2, and a characteristic of a second sensor that is an air-fuel sensor 12 arranged downstream of the catalyst 6, to calculate a first air-fuel ratio based on the characteristic of the first sensor, and calculates a second air-fuel ratio based on the characteristic of the second sensor, to detect, when the catalyst 6 is in an inactive state after start-up of the internal combustion engine 2, a difference between the first characteristic and the second characteristic or a difference between the first air-fuel ratio and the second air-fuel ratio, and to correct the responsiveness of the first or the second sensor in accordance with the difference.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2015
    Assignee: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Keiichiro Aoki, Takanori Sasaki, Go Hayashita
  • Patent number: 9146177
    Abstract: A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes an error count module and a sensor diagnostic module. The error count module increases an error count when an actual air/fuel ratio is different from a desired air/fuel ratio and selectively adjusts the error count based on an actual engine speed. An oxygen sensor generates a signal indicating the actual air/fuel ratio. The sensor diagnostic module diagnoses a fault in the oxygen sensor when the error count is greater than a first predetermined count.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2015
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Stephen Paul Levijoki, Thomas J. Majcher, Scott Jeffrey, John W. Siekkinen
  • Publication number: 20150114085
    Abstract: A gas sensor element has a protection layer smaller in heat capacity than a conventional protection layer formed by a dipping process. A gas sensor includes the gas sensor element. The gas sensor element is manufactured by a method of manufacturing. The gas sensor element includes at least one space formed between a protection layer and an element body. The space is positioned over at least one of four vertexes of a forward end of the element body at a location at which the thickness of the protection layer is likely to become small. Therefore, it is possible to restrain breakage of the vertexes of the forward end of the element body which could otherwise result from thermal shock stemming from adhesion of water. The protection layer of the gas sensor element can be reduced in thickness and thus in heat capacity as compared with a conventional protection layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 28, 2014
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Inventors: Toru IWANO, Masaki ONKAWA, Tatsuhiko MURAOKA, Shun SAKUMA, Shigehiro OHTSUKA, Masaki MIZUTANI
  • Patent number: 9011659
    Abstract: A sensor apparatus includes a first electrode and a second electrode at a predefined distance from one another. The sensor apparatus includes a substrate arranged in a predefined first region of the sensor carrier such that the first electrode and the second electrode are substantially electrically decoupled from one another if the outer side of the sensor carrier is substantially free of particles. A third electrode is coupled to a solid electrolyte that is additionally coupled to the second electrode. A diffusion barrier is coupled to the third electrode in a predefined third region and the exhaust gas is applied to the third electrode only in the third region via the diffusion barrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Continental Automotive GmbH
    Inventor: Philippe Grass
  • Publication number: 20150068278
    Abstract: A load drive apparatus (1) includes a pulse drive circuit (51) which applies a pulse voltage PS to a resistive load (4); current detection means (S14) for detecting the current flowing to the resistive load (4) through the pulse drive circuit (51); level detection means (S1, S7) for determining whether an output terminal voltage VD of the pulse drive circuit (51) is a high potential level or a low potential level; anomaly detection means (S8, S9, S18) for detecting a wire breakage anomaly, a short-to-power anomaly, and a short-to-ground anomaly based on the level of the output terminal voltage VD detected by the level detection means (S1, S7) and the current detected by the current detection means (S14), when the pulse drive circuit 51 is turned on and off.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2014
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Applicant: NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Katsunori YAZAWA, Yoshinori INOUE
  • Patent number: 8974657
    Abstract: Amperometric ceramic electrochemical cells comprise, in one embodiment, an electrolyte layer, a sensing electrode layer comprising a ceramic phase and a metallic phase, and a counter electrode layer, wherein the cell is operable in an oxidizing atmosphere and under an applied bias to exhibit enhanced reduction of oxygen molecules at the sensing electrode in the presence of one or more target gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) or NH3 and a resulting increase in oxygen ion flux through the cell. In another embodiment, amperometric ceramic electrochemical cells comprise an electrolyte layer comprising a continuous network of a first material which is ionically conducting at an operating temperature of about 200 to 550° C.; a counter electrode layer comprising a continuous network of a second material which is electrically conductive at an operating temperature of about 200 to 550° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: NexTech Materials Ltd.
    Inventors: Scott L. Swartz, Matthew M. Seabaugh, Lora B. Thrun, Paul H. Matter, Michael J. Day, William J. Dawson, Buddy E. McCormick
  • Patent number: 8961760
    Abstract: A micromechanical solid-electrolyte sensor device includes a micromechanical carrier substrate having a front side and a back side. The micromechanical solid-electrolyte sensor device also includes a first porous electrode and a second porous electrode. The micromechanical solid-electrolyte sensor device also includes a solid-electrolyte embedded between the first porous electrode and the second porous electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Richard Fix, Andreas Krauss
  • Publication number: 20150040642
    Abstract: Disclosed is a sensor element for detecting a specific gas component in a gas under measurement. The sensor element is plate-shaped in a longitudinal direction thereof and has a detection portion located on a front end side of the sensor element and an air introduction portion adapted as a longitudinal hole extending in the longitudinal direction to a position of the detection portion so as to introduce air thereinto. The detection portion includes a measurement electrode exposed to the gas under measurement, a reference electrode arranged in the air introduction portion and a plate-shaped solid electrolyte member held in contact with the measurement electrode and the reference electrode. The air introduction portion has a cross section with an aspect ratio of 0.0082 to 0.0800 and an area of 0.015 to 0.147 mm2 when taken perpendicular to the longitudinal direction at a position of the reference electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 28, 2014
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Inventor: Seiji OYA
  • Patent number: 8939010
    Abstract: A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes an error period module and a sensor diagnostic module. The error period module determines an error period based on an amount of time that a first air/fuel ratio and a desired air/fuel ratio are different. A first oxygen sensor generates a first signal indicating the first air/fuel ratio. The sensor diagnostic module diagnoses a fault in the first oxygen sensor when the error period is greater than a predetermined period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Inventors: Stephen Paul Levijoki, Thomas J. Majcher, John W. Siekkinen, Michael John Dokter, Scott Jeffrey
  • Patent number: 8906214
    Abstract: A sensor element that may include a contamination-resistant coating on at least a portion thereof. The coating may include gamma alumina and a high temperature binder such as magnesium titanate. A sensor element that may include a contamination-resistant coating on at least a portion thereof. The coating may include gamma alumina, a high temperature binder such as magnesium titanate, and boehmite alumina. A method of making a contamination-resistant sensor element that may include mixing gamma alumina and a high temperature binder such as magnesium titanate to form a mixture, applying the mixture to at least a portion of a sensor element, and temperature treating the mixture to form a contamination-resistant coating on the sensor element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2014
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Jens Stefan Schneider, James Richard Waldrop, Velma Viane Massey, Donald Stanley Frost, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8900432
    Abstract: A sensor element, which may be used as Lambda probe and/or inside a Lambda probe, for example, is provided for determining at least one physical property of a gas mixture in at least one gas chamber. The sensor element has at least one first electrode, at least one second electrode and at least one solid state electrolyte, which connects the at least one first electrode and the at least one second electrode. The at least one first electrode and the at least one second electrode are situated inside the sensor element. The at least one second electrode is connected to at least one reference gas chamber via at least one discharge air channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Goetz Reinhardt, Henrico Runge, Holger Reinshagen, Lothar Diehl
  • Patent number: 8899014
    Abstract: An emission control system for an engine includes a catalyst and an exhaust-gas sensor provided downstream of the catalyst in a flow direction of exhaust gas. The exhaust-gas sensor includes a sensor element that includes a pair of electrodes and a solid electrolyte body located between the electrodes. The emission control system further includes a constant current supply portion that changes an output characteristic of the exhaust-gas sensor by applying a constant current between the electrodes, a rich direction control portion that performs a rich direction control after a fuelling-stop control, and a characteristic control portion that performs a rich responsiveness control during the rich direction control. In the rich direction control, an air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is made to be richer. In the rich responsiveness control, the constant current supply portion increases a detection responsiveness of the exhaust-gas sensor with respect to rich gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Kosuke Nakano, Shingo Nakata, Mikiyasu Matsuoka
  • Patent number: 8869613
    Abstract: The invention relates to A sensor end module, comprising: a sensor cap having a first connecting element and a sensorially active element for contact with a medium; and a memory module, comprising: a housing having a second connecting element, wherein the second connecting element enters into a shape- and/or force interlocking connection with the first connecting element; a memory element, wherein the memory element contains information concerning the sensorially active element the memory element is arranged in or on the housing; a first communication interface for sending and/or receiving information and/or data, and wherein the first communication interface is in electrical contact with the memory element. Furthermore, the invention relates to a sensor and a measuring system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: Endress + Hauser Conducta Gesellschaft für Mess- und Regeltechnik mbH + Co. KG
    Inventors: Stephan BUschnakowski, Ronny Michael, Ronny Grosse-Uhlmann
  • Patent number: 8858779
    Abstract: A method for detecting a proportion of at least one gas species in a measurement gas space. A sensor element is used, having an oxygen reduction pumping cell for concentration of the gas species, a pumping cell connected downstream of the oxygen reduction pumping cell having pumping electrodes, and a gas-tight chamber. A pumping electrode may be exposed to gas from the measurement gas space which has been concentrated by the oxygen reduction pumping cell. A further pumping electrode is disposed in the gas-tight chamber. At least one measuring electrode is further disposed in the gas-tight chamber. The oxygen reduction pumping cell and the pumping cell are galvanically isolated. The method includes an initialization phase, and an accumulation phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Dirk Liemersdorf, Benjamin Sillmann, Berndt Cramer
  • Publication number: 20140298889
    Abstract: An apparatus for detecting a variation abnormality in an air-fuel ratio between cylinders according to the present invention is configured to calculate a value representing a change in an air-fuel ratio based on an output of an air-fuel ratio sensor that is provided in an exhaust passage in a predetermined operating state in which fuel is injected from a fuel injection valve, perform, to the calculated value, sensitivity correction in accordance with a sensitivity of the sensor based on the output of the sensor during fuel-cut operation and outside atmospheric pressure correction based on outside atmospheric pressure, and determine the presence or absence of a variation abnormality in an air-fuel ratio between cylinders by comparing the corrected value with a predetermined value.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 17, 2014
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Applicant: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Hiroshi Miyamoto, Kenji Suzuki
  • Patent number: 8852415
    Abstract: A sensor element for determining at least one physical property of a gas in a measuring gas chamber, particularly for determining an oxygen concentration in an exhaust gas. The sensor element includes at least one first electrode and at least one second electrode, and at least one solid electrolyte connecting the first electrode and the second electrode. The second electrode is situated on the inside of the sensor element and is able to have gas from the measuring gas chamber applied to it via at least one gas access hole and at least one diffusion barrier. At least partially gas-impermeable cover layer is provided on the diffusion barrier, at least from area to area. The gas access hole has at least one chamfer in the vicinity of the cover layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventor: Henrico Runge
  • Patent number: 8840775
    Abstract: A gas sensor includes a housing having disposed therein a membrane electrode assembly comprising a sensing electrode, a counter electrode, and a polymer membrane disposed between the sensing electrode and the counter electrode. The polymer membrane comprises an ionic liquid retained therein. The sensor also includes a catalyst support that can be stable in a range of potentials to allow for detection mode and catalyst regeneration mode to be operative. The sensor further includes a circuitry and algorithm to implement the catalyst regeneration mechanism electrochemically. The sensor further includes a chamber for reference gas to which the counter electrode is exposed, and a chamber for test gas to which a gas to be tested is exposed. The sensor also includes a pathway for test gas to enter the chamber and a measured electrical circuit connecting the sensing electrode and the counter electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: UTC Fire & Security Corporation
    Inventors: Lei Chen, Zhiwei Yang, Antonio M. Vincitore, Joseph J. Sangiovanni
  • Patent number: 8840766
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a gas-monitoring assembly (100) and method for selectively determining the presence of a target gas in a gaseous environment that potentially comprises one or more interfering gases. Such gas-monitoring assembly and method specifically employ one or more gas sensors (S1) one or more getters (G1) arranged and constructed to reduce cross-interference caused by potential presence of the interfering gases in such gaseous environment to be monitored. The gas-monitoring assembly and method of the present invention are capable of monitoring a gaseous environment with respect to potential presence of multiple target gases that may interfere with one another.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: Honeywell International, Inc.
    Inventors: Stefan Stromereder, Peter Koller
  • Patent number: 8833150
    Abstract: A detecting apparatus that detects an abnormality of imbalance of air-fuel ratios among cylinders of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, which is equipped with a variable working angle mechanism of an intake valve, the detecting apparatus includes an abnormality detection portion that detects a parameter regarding rotational fluctuations of each of the cylinders and detects whether or not there is an abnormality of imbalance of air-fuel ratios among the cylinders. The abnormality detection portion refrains from determining that the air-fuel ratios are normal when the working angle at the time of detection of the parameter is within a predetermined large working angle range, and determines that the air-fuel ratios are normal when the working angle at the time of detection of the parameter is within a predetermined small working angle range that is on a small working angle side with respect to the large working angle range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takashi Yui, Kota Hayashi, Tokiji Ito
  • Patent number: 8834693
    Abstract: The present invention provides, as one aspect, a gas sensor element including a solid electrolytic substance having a bottomed cylindrical shape and oxygen ion conductivity, a reference electrode arranged on an inner side surface of the solid electrolytic substance, a measuring electrode arranged on an outer side surface of the solid electrolytic substance, and a protective layer which covers the outer side surface of the solid electrolytic substance together with the measuring electrode and which allows gas to be measured to pass through the protective layer, wherein an end side of the gas sensor element is formed of a leg portion whose profile line is straight on an axial cross section and a bottom portion whose profile line is curved, and the film thickness of the protective layer of the bottom portion is larger than the film thickness of the protective layer of the leg portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Zhenzhou Su, Kiyomi Kobayashi, Motoaki Satou
  • Patent number: 8826722
    Abstract: The output signal of a pre-catalytic converter lambda probe and the output signal of a controller are used to determine an inherent delay time of the pre-catalytic converter lambda probe, for example due to aging of the probe, by measuring, for example, the separation between maxima in these output signals. The pre-catalytic converter lambda probe is installed in an exhaust gas system of an arrangement wherein an internal combustion engine operated under controlled conditions. The determined delay time can be used to determine the oxygen storage capacity of an oxygen store associated with a catalytic converter in the arrangement by determining with the pre-catalytic converter lambda probe the start of a time interval over which integration takes place, and determining the actual end time of the integration by adding the delay time to an end time determined from an output signal of the post-catalytic converter lambda probe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: Audi AG
    Inventor: Bodo Odendall
  • Patent number: 8828205
    Abstract: Disclosed is a gas sensor, particularly a lambda probe, for determining the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine that is operated using a fuel-air mixture. Said gas sensor comprises a pump cell with an outer electrode that is exposed to the exhaust gas, an inner electrode located in a measuring chamber which is separated from the exhaust gas by means of a first diffusion barrier, and an electronic circuit for generating a voltage applied between the outer electrode and the inner electrode as well as for measuring and evaluating a pump current that is generated in said process in order to draw a conclusion therefrom about the composition of the fuel-air mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Lothar Diehl, Thomas Seiler
  • Patent number: 8813539
    Abstract: An electrochemistry apparatus comprises a supporting body and a reaction layer for generating electromotive force. The supporting body is made of a first material. The reaction layer covers the surface of the supporting body and comprises an ion conductive layer, a first film electrode and a second film electrode. The first and the second film electrodes are separately formed on two opposite surfaces of the ion conductive layer. The ion conductive layer is made of a second material having a thermal expansion coefficient approximating to the thermal expansion coefficient of the first material. The second material has an ionic conductivity greater than the ionic conductivity of the first material. The first material has a toughness greater than the second material. The electrochemistry apparatus employs the supporting body with improved toughness and the ion conductive layer with improved ion conductivity, so as to increase sensitivity and thermal shock resistance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Chen-Chia Chou, Tsung-Her Yeh
  • Patent number: 8795491
    Abstract: A method of processing a sensor element includes the steps of: (a) preparing a gas atmosphere containing hydrocarbon, having an air-fuel ratio of 0.80 to 0.9999, and having a small amount of oxidizing gas added thereto; and (b) subjecting a sensor element to a heat treatment in the gas atmosphere at a temperature of 500° C. or higher for 15 minutes or longer. The sensor element includes an electrochemical pumping cell constituted of an oxygen-ion conductive solid electrolyte and an electrode having a NOx reduction ability. A NOx gas in a measurement gas is reduced or decomposed in the electrode. A NOx concentration in the measurement gas is obtained based on a current which flows in the electrochemical pumping cell at a time of the reduction or decomposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignees: NGK Insulators, Ltd., NGK Ceramic Device Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tetsuya Ishikawa, Sumiko Horisaka, Yuji Okuda
  • Patent number: 8771488
    Abstract: A gas sensor (100) includes an oxygen pump cell (135) and an oxygen-concentration detection cell (150) laminated together with a spacer (145) interposed therebetween. The spacer (145) has a gas detection chamber (145c) which faces electrodes (137, 152) of the cells (135, 150). The oxygen-concentration detection cell (150) produces an output voltage corresponding to the concentration of oxygen in the gas detection chamber (145c). The oxygen pump cell (135) pumps oxygen into and out of the measurement chamber (145c) such that the output voltage of the oxygen-concentration detection cell (150) becomes equal to a predetermined target voltage. A leakage portion mainly formed of zirconia is disposed between which electrically connects the oxygen-concentration detection cell (150) and the oxygen pump cell (135).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tetsuya Ito, Satoshi Teramoto, Kentaro Mori
  • Patent number: 8771489
    Abstract: A gas sensor in one form comprises a housing including a base and a top defining an interior space. The housing includes a gas entry hole and first and second electrical terminals. First and second electrodes in the housing interior space each comprise a membrane having a layer of platinum black catalyst on one side. The second electrode includes a lower amount of platinum black catalyst than the first electrode. A separator is placed between the first and second electrodes. Current collectors electrically connect the first and second electrodes to the respective first and second electrical terminals whereby sensor current represents concentration of gas while minimizing cross sensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Lei Xiao, Terence Nicholas Moran
  • Patent number: 8764955
    Abstract: A gas sensor (200) includes a gas sensor element (10) extending in the direction of an axis O, and a housing (50) made of metal, radially surrounding the gas sensor element, and adapted for inserting at least partially into a sensor-mounting hole (350) of a mounting body (300). The gas sensor (200) further includes a resin member (60, 61) which radially surrounds the housing at least partially and having a contact portion (C) in contact with the housing that is at least partially disposed axially frontward with respect to the outer surface of the mounting body (300) around the sensor-mounting hole, and a heat sink member (80) that is in contact with the housing at an axial position the same as or located frontward of the axial position of the front end of the contact portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takaya Yoshikawa, Tomohiro Tajima, Hisaharu Nishio, Masao Tsuzuki, Kunihiko Yonezu
  • Patent number: 8753494
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a gas sensor including a nanopore electrode and a fluorine compound coated on the nanopore electrode, and also relates to a preparing method of the gas sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2014
    Assignee: Ewha University—Industry Collaboration Foundation
    Inventors: Youngmi Lee, Myung Hwa Kim, Min-Cheol Oh, Hyunkyung Do, Kyung Jang, Ji-Hyang Jang
  • Patent number: 8747634
    Abstract: A gas sensor including a gas sensor element, and an inner member surrounding the gas sensor element. The gas sensor element has a detection element having therein a space to which a gas to be measured is introduced, and a heater laminated on the detection element. The detection element includes a first oxygen pumping cell for pumping oxygen into or out of the space, an oxygen concentration detection cell, a detection electrode and a reference electrode. In side faces of the detection element along a laminating direction, a region from a front end of the inner member to a part of the detection electrode along a longitudinal direction is covered with a glass coat having a glass transition point of over 700° C. Further the detection electrode is controlled at a temperature range from 600° C. or more to not more than the glass transition point of the glass coat.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Seiji Oya, Shin Yoshida, Yuko Yamada
  • Patent number: 8747636
    Abstract: A gas sensor is disclosed. The gas sensor includes a gas sensing electrode and a counter electrode disposed within a housing, and respective conductors that connects the gas sensing electrode and the counter electrode to a sensing circuit. The housing includes walls defining a cavity containing electrolyte in fluid communication with the gas sensing electrode and counter electrode and wherein the walls further comprise one or more coatings or second layers superimposed on the walls. The one or more coatings or second layers have a lower water vapor transport rate than that of the walls, such that, in use, water vapor transport between the electrolyte and atmosphere through the walls of the housing is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Life Safety Distribution AG
    Inventors: Paul Westmarland, Dan Hawkinson, Tony Downer
  • Patent number: 8747635
    Abstract: A gas sensor is provided with a multilayer body of solid electrolyte layers, a measurement electrode, a reference electrode, a reference gas introduction layer, a detection unit and a heater. The reference electrode and the measurement electrode are formed directly on the same first solid electrolyte layer. Thus, heat from the heater is transferred from a third substrate layer to the first solid electrolyte layer, and also to the reference electrode and the measurement electrode through the same first solid electrolyte layer. The reference electrode is covered with a reference gas introduction layer, formed of a porous body. The transference of heat from the heater to the reference electrode through the reference gas introduction layer is smaller than the transference of heat from the heater to the reference electrode through the first solid electrolyte layer on which the reference electrode is formed directly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Mika Murakami, Naoya Saito, Tomoya Seimori
  • Publication number: 20140144209
    Abstract: The present invention provides, with reference to FIG. 1, an internal combustion engine (10) having a fuel injector which comprises a sprung piston (55) or a resilient diaphragm piston (8155) and an electrical coil (57, 8158) for displacing the piston (55, 8155). The piston draws fuel into and expels fuel from a pumping chamber (52, 8152). The number of operations of the injector per engine cycle is controlled by an electronic controller (23, 8159) to control the quality of fuel delivered per cycle to a combustion chamber. A voltage measured in the coil (52, 8158) by movement of the piston under action of the spring or due to its own resilience is used to give an indication of vapour pressure of the fuel. A device akin to the injector can be used to draw fuel from a pipeline to measure the vapour pressure of the fluid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 3, 2014
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Applicant: Robert Bosch GMBH
    Inventor: Benjamin David Smither
  • Publication number: 20140130779
    Abstract: A method of determining an air:fuel ratio based on information from an oxygen sensor exposed to exhaust gases of a combustion process, and related systems. A constant current is supplied to an oxygen sensor that has both an n-type sensing circuit and a p-type sensing circuit that share a common electrode. The currents in the respective sensing circuits is determined and a temperature value representative of a temperature of the oxygen sensor is determined. Then, an air:fuel ratio is determined based on the determined currents and the temperature value. The combustion process may then be controlled based on the air:fuel ratio. The air:fuel ratio may be determined, using the same oxygen sensor, across a range of air:fuel values in both the rich and lean regions; as such, the oxygen sensor may act as a wideband oxygen sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2013
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: Kerdea Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Ken Ervin Fosaaen
  • Patent number: 8720186
    Abstract: A control apparatus (100) for a gas sensor (10) which includes a cell (2) composed of a solid electrolyte body and a pair of electrodes provided thereon. The control apparatus includes voltage application means (70) for applying a single pulse voltage to the cell over a constant energization time T; first-output-value obtaining means 70 for obtaining a first output value Vri1 from the cell when a first time t1 shorter than the constant energization time has elapsed; second-output-value obtaining means (70) for obtaining a second output value Vri2 from the cell when a second time t2 shorter than the constant energization time but longer than the first time has elapsed; and deterioration-degree detection means 70 for detecting the degree of deterioration of the cell on the basis of a difference ?Vri between the second output value and the first output value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Seiji Maeda
  • Patent number: 8721856
    Abstract: A gas sensor control system for a gas sensor having a first, a second, and a third cell. The second cell produces a second cell electric current indicating the concentration of oxygen in gas in which the amount of oxygen has already been controlled by the first cell. The third cell produces a third cell electric current indicating the concentration of a preselected component of the gas in which the amount of oxygen has already been controlled by the first cell. A second cell circuit converts the second cell electric current into a voltage as a second cell current-measured value. A current adjuster produces a flow of an adjustment current as a function of the second cell current-measured value so that a third cell circuit converts the third cell electric current minus the adjustment current into a voltage as representing the concentration of the preselected component of the gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignees: Denso Corporation, Nippon Soken, Inc.
    Inventors: Satoshi Hada, Takayuki Ishikawa, Katsuhide Akimoto
  • Patent number: 8721855
    Abstract: A crimp contact, a gas sensor including the crimp contact for outputting a signal from a sensing portion of a sensor element to an external device, and a method for manufacturing the crimp contact. The crimp contact includes a barrel portion crimped so as to fix a plurality of lead core wires (16) of an electrical lead connected to the external device. A hold portion constituting the barrel portion is formed such that the lead core wires 16 of the electrical lead are disposed in an U-shaped hold portion 77 so as to be crimped between an anvil 120 and a crimper 121. An outer surface of the U-shaped hold portion 77 has a plating layer 85 thereon to thereby constantly secure slidability between a sliding face of the crimper 121 and the outer surface of the U-shaped hold portion 77.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Hisaharu Nishio, Masahiro Asai, Makoto Hishiki
  • Patent number: 8715474
    Abstract: A gas sensor element has a first cell, a second cell, and a solid electrolyte layer having proton conductivity commonly used by the first cell and the second cell. The first cell has a first cathode and a first anode exposed to the target detection gas containing hydrogen atoms. The second cell has a second anode, a second cathode, and a shield layer with which the second anode is covered. A voltage is supplied to the first and second cells. A gas concentration of the target detection gas is calculated on the basis of a difference between a current of the first cell and a current of the second cell because the current in the first cell is a sum of proton conductivity current and an electron conductivity current. The current in the second cell is an electron conductive current only.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Keigo Mizutani, Takehiro Watarai, Norikazu Kajiyama
  • Patent number: 8712692
    Abstract: A method for determining a flux of a gas contained in a medium through a boundary of the medium comprises 1) measuring at least twice with a probe a concentration C of the gas over a time interval ?t and 2) determining the flux of the gas using the following mathematical equation: (I) where F is the gas flux, D is the diffusivity value and ?C is a variation in the gas concentration during the time interval ?t. The probe is placed proximate the boundary. The probe has a gas inlet, a cavity, a gas concentration sensor and a membrane. Each element is in fluid communication with each other so that the gas flows from the gas inlet through the membrane and contacts the gas concentration sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2014
    Assignee: St. Francis Xavier University
    Inventors: David A. Risk, Hugo J. Beltrami, Nicholas R. Nickerson, Gordon McArthur
  • Patent number: 8702962
    Abstract: A gas sensor comprises a substrate layer; a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes, said electrodes include upper surfaces, the electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, Os, and their alloys. A first layer of solid electrolyte staying in between electrode fingers and partially on said upper surfaces of said electrodes, said first layer selected from NASICON, LISICON, KSICON and ??-Alumina. A second layer of metal carbonate(s) as an auxiliary electrolyte engaging said upper surfaces of the electrodes and the first solid electrolyte. The metal carbonates selected from the group consisting of the following ions Na+, K+, Li+, Ag+, H+, Pb2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and any combination thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Gary W. Hunter, Jennifer C. Xu
  • Patent number: 8706424
    Abstract: A system for estimating gas concentrations in a mixed atmosphere includes (a) a plurality of sensors for providing a set of measurements, at least one of the sensors sensitive to an internal concentration of hydrogen; and (b) a processor for receiving the set of measurements and for executing a sequential estimation filter that includes a plurality of states having a corresponding set of values. The processor responsively adjusts at least a portion of the set of values in response to the set of measurements. The plurality of sensors can include a resistive sensor and a capacitive gas sensor, both of which are sensitive to hydrogen concentration. The plurality of states can include states representative of hydrogen pressure in the mixed atmosphere, hydrogen concentration in a bulk material of at least one of the sensors, and hydrogen concentration in an interface layer of at least one of the sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: H2Scan Corporation
    Inventor: Scott Stephens
  • Patent number: 8702937
    Abstract: A gas sensor control apparatus is provided which controls an operation of a gas sensor made up of a solid electrolyte body and a pair of electrodes to output a signal indicating the concentration of a given gas component contained in gas. The gas sensor control apparatus includes a constant current circuit that is connected electrically to one of the electrodes of the gas sensor and supplies a constant current thereto and a controller. The controller supplies a constant current to the gas sensor so that it flows from one of the electrodes to the other in a selected direction, thereby changing a response time the gas sensor takes to react to a change in concentration of the gas component. This results in an increased accuracy, for example, in controlling an air-fuel ratio of a mixture to an internal combustion engine in an engine control system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Mikiyasu Matsuoka, Yasuhiro Kawakatsu, Shingo Nakata, Takao Mishima
  • Patent number: 8702936
    Abstract: A device for determining the CO concentration in a gas containing hydrogen is provided, including a detection electrode in contact with the gas, and a counter electrode, each being in contact with an electrolyte; a current source to deliver a current with a predetermined intensity between the detection electrode and the counter electrode so as to generate, at the detection electrode, an electric potential fluctuating between two threshold values due to the adsorption and desorption of the CO at the detection electrode; a device for measuring the potential; and a calculating device to determine the CO concentration, connected to the current source and to the device for measuring the potential, for calculating a characteristic parameter of the fluctuations of the potential, and for determining the CO concentration from the calculated characteristic parameter and the intensity of the applied current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives
    Inventors: Olivier Lemaire, Alejandro Franco, Nicolas Guillet
  • Patent number: 8702934
    Abstract: A gas sensor including a gas sensor element that extends in an axial direction and has a detection section at a front-end side thereof, and an electrode pad at a rear-end side thereof; a connection terminal that is electrically connected to the electrode pad; and an insulated separator that extends along the axial direction and has an inserting hole into which the connection terminal is inserted. An element side section is arranged within the inserting hole and is connected the electrode pad, and an external circuit side section extends further to the outside in a diametrical direction than an outer surface of the separator through one or more first bending sections from the element side section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masao Tsuzuki, Tomohiro Tajima, Tomoki Fujii, Hisaharu Nishio, Takaya Yoshikawa, Kunihiko Yonezu