Abstract: A system of purifying water to remove at least one of natural organic matter, color, turbidity, bacteria, cysts and oocysts, viruses, arsenic compounds and insoluble impurities. The system comprises the steps of providing a body of water to be purified; controlling the pH of the body in a range of 5 to 8; and adding a coagulant to the body to provide a floc. The floc is maintained in the body in a concentration in the range of 1 to 6, for purposes of adsorbing at least one of the natural organic matter, color, turbidity and bacteria to provide treated water. Thereafter, a first portion of the treated water and floc is removed from the body of water. A submerged semi-permeable membrane is provided in the body of water for removing a second portion of the treated water. The membrane has a pore size in the range of 0.02 to 1 .mu.m to provide a permeate comprised of purified water and to provide a retentate containing the floc.
October 4, 1997
Date of Patent:
February 22, 2000
Zenon Environmental, Inc.
Andrew Benedek, Hadi Husain, Manwinder Singh
Abstract: Disclosed is a method suitable for treating used oil to remove contaminants including ash and color contaminants therefrom to provide a purified oil product. The method comprises the steps of providing a porous inorganic membrane module having a high pressure side and a low pressure side, and a body of oil to be treated. The oil is introduced to the high pressure side of the membrane module to provide an oil permeate on the low pressure side and an ash rich concentrate on the high pressure side thereby separating ash in the oil from the oil permeate. Thereafter the oil permeate is contacted with an adsorbent to remove one of color and odor from the oil permeate to provide a purified oil product. The spent adsorbent can be regenerated and reused.
Abstract: A method of conditioning a process stream of air in an air conditioning system wherein a process stream of air is dehumidified and cooled to provide a conditioned stream of air for introducing to a conditioned space. The method comprises the steps of providing an adsorption wheel having a multiplicity of passages through which process air can flow for adsorbing moisture therefrom, the wheel capable of adsorption of moisture from the process air and of regeneration on a continuous basis as the wheel rotates. An indirect evaporative cooler is provided having a dry side and a wet side separated by a moisture-impervious wall wherein heat is extracted from said dry side through the wall to the wet side. Cooling in the dry side is achieved by evaporation of water into air passing through the wet side. The process air is passed through the adsorption wheel to remove moisture therefrom to provide a moisture-depleted stream of process air exiting the adsorption wheel.
Abstract: A method of producing activated alumina bodies having alkali or alkaline earth metal compounds incorporated therein, the bodies suitable for adsorption and having increased capacity for adsorption of gases and the like. The method comprises providing a source of activated alumina powder and further providing an aqueous solution having an alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide and a water soluble alkali or alkaline earth metal salt of an organic compound dissolved therein. The activated alumina powder is formed into bodies which are treated with the aqueous solution to provide alumina bodies having alkali or alkaline earth metal compounds incorporated therein. The alumina bodies are heated for purposes of activation to provide said activated alumina bodies capable of having increased adsorption capacity.
Abstract: A method of conditioning a process stream of air in an air conditioning system wherein the process stream of air is dehumidified and cooled to provide a conditioned stream of air, the method comprising providing an adsorption wheel having a multiplicity of passages through which the process air can flow for adsorbing moisture therefrom, the wheel capable of adsorption of moisture from the process air and of regeneration on a continuous basis as the wheel rotates. The method further comprises passing a first portion and a second portion of the process air to be conditioned through the wheel to remove moisture therefrom, the first portion of the process air passing through the wheel after the regeneration to remove beat from the wheel prior to the second portion passing through the adsorption wheel; then introducing the first portion of the process air to a heat exchanger to remove heat from the first portion.
Abstract: A billet of an aluminum alloy for thermally transforming from a dendritic microstructure to a globular structure and for forming in a semi-solid condition into a shaped aluminum alloy article; the billet having a dendritic microstructure having a grain size in the range of 20 to 250 .mu.m provided by a solidification rate in the range of 5.degree. to 100.degree. C./sec between liquidus and solidus temperatures when the aluminum alloy is cast into billet; the billet having a dendritic microstructure thermally transformable to the globular structure or non-dendritic structure by heat applied to the billet at a heat-up rate greater than 30.degree. C. per minute to a superheated temperature of 3.degree. to 50.degree. C. above solidus temperature of the aluminum alloy; the billet in the globular structure or non-dendritic structure and in the semi-solid condition having the ability to be formed into the shaped aluminum article.
Abstract: A method of heating a body of molten metal passing through a treatment bay. The method comprises providing a body of molten metal in a treatment bay and providing a baffle heater in the treatment bay to contact the molten metal. The baffle heater is comprised of a member fabricated from a material substantially inert to the molten metal, the member containing at least one heating element receptacle. An electric heating element is positioned in the receptacle for heating the member, the element protected from the molten metal by the material constituting the member.
Abstract: A method and system of heating a body of molten aluminum, for example, contained in a heating bay, the method comprising providing a body of molten aluminum; projecting an electric powered heater into the body of molten aluminum; passing electric current through the element and adding heat to the body of molten aluminum. The heater is comprised of a sleeve suitable for immersing in the molten aluminum. The sleeve may have a closed end and is comprised of a composite material comprised of an inner layer of titanium or titanium alloy having an outside surface having a refractory coating thereon exposed to the molten aluminum, the refractory coating resistant to attack by the molten aluminum. An electric heating element is located in the sleeve in heat transfer relationship therewith for adding heat to the molten aluminum.
Abstract: Disclosed is an improved carbonaceous material suitable for use as a cathode in an aluminum producing electrolytic cell, the cell using an electrolyte comprised of sodium containing compounds. The carbonaceous material is comprised of carbon and a reactive compound capable of suppressing the formation or accumulation of sodium cyanide during operation of the cell, of reacting with sodium to reduce problems associated with sodium intercalation, and of reacting with one of titanium or zirconium to form titanium or zirconium diboride during operation of the cell to produce aluminum.
Abstract: Disclosed is an improved aluminum base alloy comprising an improved aluminum base alloy comprising 0.2 to 2 wt. % Si, 0.3 to 1.7 wt. % Mg, 0 to 1.2 wt. % Cu, 0 to 1.1 wt. % Mn, 0.01 to 0.4 wt. % Cr, and at least one of the elements selected from the group consisting of 0.01 to 0.3 wt. % V, 0.001 to 0.1 wt. % Be and 0.01 to 0.1 wt. % Sr, the remainder comprising aluminum, incidental elements and impurities. Also disclosed are methods of casting and thermomechanical processing of the alloy.
Abstract: A method of liberating or producing chlorine from hexachloroethane, the method comprising the steps of providing a body comprised of solid hexachloroethane and heating the body to a temperature sufficient to cause the solid hexachloroethane to produce hexachloroethane vapors. Thereafter, the hexachloroethane vapors are exposed to a heated surface and the hexachloroethane vapor decomposed utilizing heat from the heated surface to liberate chlorine from the hexachloroethane vapor.
Abstract: A membrane filtration system which uses pump speed controllers to control flow rate and pressure during both the filtration cycle and the backwash cycle. The pump speed controllers operate by changing the frequency of AC current delivered to the pump motors, which changes the flow rate by changing the speed of the pump motor. The speed controllers operate by modulating the pump input power frequency in response to a signal from a flow or pressure signal received from a flow or pressure meter located on a liquid input pipe. This pump speed control method avoids the cyclical dampening patterns observed when trying to adjust pressure and/or flow rates by adjusting regulating valves. The system can also reduce or prevent formation of pressure spikes when switching from a filtration cycle to a backwash cycle, and vice versa. This reduces the likelihood of damage to the membrane from hydraulic pressure pulses.
March 3, 1997
Date of Patent:
September 28, 1999
Zenon Environmental Inc.
Darren P. Lawrence, Theo A. A. Hellenkamp
Abstract: A process for treating spent potliner material from aluminum reduction cells and recovering useful products. In the process, spent potliner material is introduced into an acid digester containing, for example, sulfuric acid. A gas component is produced which includes hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen cyanide. A slurry component is produced which includes carbon, silica, alumina, sodium compounds such as sodium sulfate, aluminum compounds such as aluminum sulfate, iron compounds such as iron sulfate, magnesium and calcium compounds such as magnesium and calcium sulfate. The slurry component remains in the digester after the gas component is removed. The gas component is recovered and heated an effective amount to convert or decompose the hydrogen cyanide to a remaining gas component including CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, and nitrogen oxides, as well as HF gas. The remaining gas component is directed through a water scrubber in which the HF gas is converted to liquid hydrofluoric acid.
Abstract: A method of preparing an alumina-based bodies suitable for use as an adsorbent or catalyst, the method comprising providing a source of activated alumina powder for forming into bodies and providing an aqueous solution containing at least two different alkali metals, at least one alkali metal derived from a soluble carboxylic acid alkali metal salt. As said powder is formed into said bodies, the bodies are contacted or sprayed with the aqueous solution to provide composite bodies containing the alumina powder and the alkali metals and the soluble carboxylic acid alkali metal salt. Alternatively, the alumina bodies may be formed first and then contacted, e.g., soaked in the aqueous solution. Or, a viscous slurry of the activated alumina powder and the aqueous solution may be made. The viscous slurry may be made into bodies by extrusion or by the oil drop method. Thereafter, the bodies are thermally treated to activate alumina therein and remove or decompose the organic part, e.g.
Abstract: A method of grain refining aluminum, the method comprising providing a molten aluminum body containing 1 to 3000 ppm titanium. A material reactive with the titanium is introduced preferably in gaseous form to the aluminum body. The material has a component selected from the group consisting of boron, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus. The material and said titanium form a grain refining compound adapted for grain refining the aluminum.
Abstract: A process for casting, thermally transforming and semi-solid forming an aluminum base alloy into an article, the process comprising the steps of: casting a molten body of aluminum base alloy comprising 2 to 7 wt. % Si, 0.3 to 1.7 wt. % Mg, 0.3 to 3 wt. % Cu, 0.05 to 0.4 wt. % Fe, and at least one of the group consisting of 0.01 to 1 wt. % Mn, 0.01 to 0.35 wt. % Cr, max. 0.2 wt. % Ti, max. 0.3 wt. % V to provide a solidified body, the molten aluminum base alloy being solidified at a rate between liquidus and solidus temperatures of the aluminum base alloy to provide a solidified body having a dendritic microstructure. Thereafter, heat is applied to the solidified body to bring the body to a superheated temperature of 3.degree. to 50.degree. C. above the solidus temperature of the aluminum base alloy while maintaining the body in a solid shape and effecting thermal transformation of the body having the dendritic structure when the body is heated to above the solidus temperature.
Abstract: An electric heater assembly suitable for heating molten metal, the electric heater assembly having a sleeve comprised of a closed end suitable for immersing in the molten metal. The sleeve is fabricated from a composite material comprised of titanium alloy and having an outside surface to be exposed to the molten metal coated with a refractory resistant to attack by the molten metal; and an electric heater located in the sleeve in heat transfer relationship therewith.
Abstract: A method of conditioning a process stream of air in an air conditioning system wherein a process stream of air is dehumidified and cooled to provide a conditioned stream of air for introducing to a conditioned space, the method comprises the steps of providing an enthalpy wheel comprised of an adsorbent contained in a paper web, the enthalpy wheel having a multiplicity of passages through which the process air can flow, the enthalpy wheel capable of regeneration by passing an air stream therethrough having a temperature and humidity lower than the process air. In the method, process air is passed through the enthalpy wheel to remove heat and moisture therefrom, and the enthalpy wheel is regenerated by passing air therethrough to remove heat and moisture therefrom.
June 16, 1997
Date of Patent:
April 6, 1999
NovelAire Technologies, L.L.C.
William A. Belding, Chiang Lam, William D. Holeman, Scott L. Janke
Abstract: A weldless grating comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending primary load-bearing members, a plurality of secondary load-bearing members, a plurality of tertiary load-bearing members, a first rod member extending through the lower part of the tertiary load-bearing members and through the primary load-bearing members for locking purposes, and a second rod member extending through the upper part of the tertiary load bearing members, the upper portion of the tertiary load bearing members and the second rod member designed to be encapsulated in a layer of concrete to anchor a wear layer of concrete to the weldless grating.