Abstract: A reference voltage register stores a reference value Vref indicating the output voltage Vout of a power supply circuit. A digital filter amplifies the difference between the output voltage Vout from the power supply circuit and the reference value Vref stored in the reference voltage register. A pulse width computation unit computes the duty such that the output voltage Vout matches the reference value Vref, and generates the on-time of a pulse signal corresponding to the duty. A reference value operation unit updates the reference voltage register depending on the output current from the power supply circuit or the temperature around the power supply circuit.
Abstract: A filter device includes a tubular casing  with a closed bottom, a filter element  received within the casing , a lid  which closes an open end of the casing , and has a communication hole communicating the inside and outside of the casing  with each other, and a fastening member  fastening the casing  and the lid  together. A gap is formed between a peripheral wall  of the open end portion of the casing  and a peripheral surface  of that portion of the lid opposed to the peripheral wall .
Abstract: Method and apparatus for controlling a temperature of a thermal fixing unit which is for the purpose of maintaining the balance between a fixing rate and the occurrence of wrinkles even if a distance between paper sheets greatly varies within a printer. When image formation is consecutively made onto a plurality of record mediums without stopping an operation of an image forming apparatus, an interval between the record mediums is detected, and a controlled target temperature for a thermal fixing unit is switched and set in accordance with the interval between the record mediums to control a heat source so that the temperature of the thermal fixing unit reaches the controlled target temperature. The image Corming apparatus may include an electrophotographic recording apparatus such as a copying machine, facsimile and laser printer using a toner.
Abstract: A method and an apparatus of paper separation are provided which permit a secure and reliable auto-loading operation of paper separation with a less complex mechanism of the apparatus. The paper separation apparatus has a paper separation body for separating a paper from a transfer body, a paper feeding supporter for holding the paper firmly and supporting the feed of the paper, and a link mechanism for moving the paper separation body toward a circumferential surface of the transfer body. The arrangement separates the paper from the transfer body in an auto-loading step and moves at least a portion of the paper feeding supporter to hold the separated paper firmly, so that the movement of the paper separation body is co-acted in synchronism with the movement of the paper feeding supporter.
Abstract: In a gas compressor-expander according to the invention, a partition wall 19 between a space 21 in the rear of a piston and a crank chamber 12 has a piston rod 22 slidably extending therethrough and a seal device 9 surrounding the piston rod 22. The seal device 9 comprises a first seal member 93 having a high sealing property against a flow from the crank chamber 12 toward the space 21, an intermediate chamber 91 provided in the vicinity of the first seal member 93 at one side thereof toward the space, a second seal member 95 disposed in the vicinity of the intermediate chamber 91 at one side thereof toward the space, and a communication channel 96 for holding the intermediate chamber 91 and the crank chamber 12 in communication with each other. This construction gives a prolonged life to the seal device and prevents impairment of the refrigeration capacity of the gas compressor-expander.
Abstract: An optical connector consists of a ferrule unit including an optical fiber, a ferrule rigidly fitted to one end of the optical fiber, and a spring placed around the optical fiber which abuts at one end against the ferrule, a plug housing which receives the ferrule unit, and a spring cap having a rear wall and a fiber letting-out portion formed in the rear wall through which the optical fiber is let out. The spring cap is fittable, with the spring abutting at the other end thereagainst, to the plug housing. The plug housing has a resilient protecting means which, when the spring cap is fitted to the plug housing, overhangs a part of the optical fiber let out through the fiber letting-out portion of the spring cap. The optical fiber is protected at that port let out of the spring cap if bent.
Abstract: A semiconductor memory device comprises a silicon layer having a first diffused region and a second diffused region formed therein, a gate electrode formed through an insulating film on one side of the silicon layer between the first and the second diffused regions, a capacitor formed on said one side of the silicon layer and having a storage electrode connected to the first diffused region, and a bit line formed on the other side of the silicon layer and connected to the second diffused region, whereby a semiconductor memory device of SOI structure can be easily fabricated. The bit line connected to the second diffused region is formed on the other side of the semiconductor layer, whereby the bit line can be arranged without restriction by the structure, etc. of the capacitor. Short circuit between the capacitor and the bit line can be prevented.
Abstract: An aircraft including an airframe having a fuselage which extends longitudinally, and having fixed wings including a main wing, a horizontal tail wing and a vertical tail wing. A propeller-rotor torque transmission has a bevel gear which transmits the rotation of an input shaft simultaneously to a propeller shaft and to a rotor shaft. An engine gearbox supplies the above-mentioned input shaft with rotationalal motive power. The aircraft further includes a propeller collective pitch controller, a rotor collective pitch controller, an engine power controller which controls the output of the above-mentioned engine gearbox for the purpose of changing the rotational speed of the input shaft, and a flight control system having a directional (yaw) control system which controls the flight direction of the aircraft by controlling the positions of the above-mentioned control surfaces.
Abstract: A method of manufacturing a template having through-holes for attracting and supporting electrically conductive balls by vacuum suction is disclosed. The through-holes are formed by etching and the side walls of the through-holes are smoothed by irradiation, with laser beams, of the side walls of the through-holes. A template and metallic bumps can be formed using this method. Alternatively, the template can be formed in a two-layered structure.
Abstract: A next input image selector 8 specifies a time at which an input image to be processed next is to be input immediately after finishing an encoding of one image. An input video capture 1 obtains an image of which input time has been specified and sends this image to an input image information detector 2. The input image information detector 2 makes a decision as to whether or not the input image is an image to be processed based on an image variance between this input image and an input image processed immediately before stored in a frame memory 3. If this decision is negative, an input image re-selector 4 re-selects an image to be processed, and if the decision is affirmative, this input image is sent as an image to be processed to a target output bits setter 5 and a motion predictor 11. An output bits controller 6 determines a quantizing level of a quantizer 14 from target output bits and actual output bits obtained from an encoder 15.
Abstract: A sound device includes a silent state detecting unit for detecting a silent state in a sound signal supplied by a personal computer; and a sound production preventing unit for preventing a sound from being produced from the sound signal supplied by the personal computer when the silent state is detected by the silent state detecting unit. By halting the production of a sound from the sound signal supplied from the personal computer when the silent state is detected, production of noise in a silent state is prevented so that the quality of sound in the expansion station is improved.
Abstract: Disclosed is a purging apparatus for conducting an air purge required when an equipment such as a split type air conditioner is installed or repaired, and to a to-be purged apparatus and a purging method: a to-be purged apparatus having a to-be purged room with two or more valve openings capable of connecting to a main circuit or to a circuit other than said main circuit; and a purging apparatus having a replacing gas container into which a replacing gas to be exchanged for a to-be purged gas is previously charged and a gas collecting container for collecting gas including said to-be purged gas, one of said valve openings of said to-be purged room and said exchanger gas container can be connected with each other, and the other valve opening of said to-be purged room and said gas collecting container can be connected with each other; said method comprising the steps of: sending said exchanger gas in said exchanger gas container, thereby pushing out said to-be purged gas in said to-be purged apparatus; and coll
Abstract: There are provided a digital content management apparatus which further embodies a digital content management apparatus used with a user terminal, and a system which protects the secrets of a digital content. The system and the apparatus are a real time operating system using a microkernel, which is incorporated in the digital content management apparatus as an interruption process having high priority. When a user uses the digital content, whether there is an illegitimate usage or not, is watched by interrupting the usage process. In the case where illegitimate usage is carried out, a warning is given or the usage is stopped. The decryption/re-encryption functions of the digital content management apparatus having the decryption/re-encryption functions are not restricted to the inside of the user apparatus. By providing the decryption/re-encryption functions between the networks, the exchange of secret information between different networks is secured.
Abstract: The process consists in generating a firing pulse pattern characterized in that it implements a pressurized liquid channel and a pneumatic aspiration channel and in that the periodic firing of the pressurized jet is controlled during the periodic application of aspiration and in that the tension on the tissue is released during the cutoff of the aspiration by aeration.
A variant of the process enables obtaining, even in the case of a high repetition rate, a steep trailing edge of the firing pulse, by means of establishment of communication with the exterior of the pressurized liquid feed line near the time of the cutoff of the feeding of the liquid.
This invention is of interest to manufacturers of surgical and medical instruments and handpieces for interventions using a pressurized liquid jet.
Abstract: First and second regions are defined in a principal surface of a semiconductor substrate. Two projected structures are disposed on the principal surface of the first region and spaced apart by a certain distance. The two projected structures run on a first active region in the first region and on an element isolation region around the first active region. A first silicide film is formed on the surface of a partial active region in the principal surface in the second region. A burying member covers the side walls of the two projected structures and buries a space between the two projected structures at least in the element isolation region. The burying member is not formed above the two projected structures. A metal silicide film is not formed on the surface of the first active region.
Abstract: An exposure method for irradiating a mask with an illumination light through an illumination optical system and exposing photosensitive substrate to the illumination light through a projection optical system including the steps of supplying gas having less absorption of the illumination light to a light path of the illumination light, at least a portion of the illumination optical system and the projection optical system; and changing an exposing condition for the photosensitive substrate in accordance with a variation in transmittance or in reflectance of at least one of the illumination optical system and the projection optical system, resulting from irradiation of the illumination light and attenuation of the illumination light in the light path.
Abstract: Novel and useful optical active 2-aralkyl-3-sulfonyloxy-1-propanol and 2-aralkyl-3-sulfonyloxypropionic acid are provided by using an optical active 2-aralkyl-3-acyloxy-1-propanol as a starting material. Furthermore, an optical active 2-aralkyl-3-thiopropionic acid, which is an important intermediate of enkephalinase inhibitor, is provided. According to the present invention, industrially useful optical active sulfonic acid ester derivatives can be provided.
Abstract: A bent pipe for use in piping arrangement for transporting materials conaining solids, the bent pipe being prepared by subjecting to high-frequency bending work a straight blank pipe prepared by centrifugal casting and having a plurality of layers. The straight blank pipe comprises an outer layer made of a steel having high weldability, and an inner layer made of a high Cr cast iron containing at least Cr in an amount of 10 to 35 wt. % and having high wear resistance, the outer layer and the inner layer being metallurgically joined. Preferably, a barrier layer is provided between the outer layer and the inner layer for preventing an alloy component in each of the layers from diffusing into the other layer. The barrier layer is preferably about 10 to about 100 &mgr;m in thickness.
Abstract: A portable electronic apparatus includes a main unit, a cover rotatably attached to the main unit, the cover having a main display unit, an auxiliary display unit displaying auxiliary information provided on the main unit, and an angle changing mechanism for changing an angle at which a surface of the auxiliary display unit intersects a surface of the main unit at least when the cover is in an open state. By providing the auxiliary display unit on the main unit instead of the cover the main display unit provided on the cover can be made as large as possible. In addition, being able to change the angle of the surface of the auxiliary display unit makes the auxiliary display unit easier to read.