Patents Represented by Attorney Harold Huberfeld
  • Patent number: 6724001
    Abstract: An electron beam lithography apparatus has a first chamber for holding a workpiece with the first chamber having an outer wall with an opening therein. A second chamber has an electron beam column mounted therein, with the second chamber positioned adjacent the first chamber and having an outer wall having a portion in common with the portion of the outer wall of the first chamber containing the opening. An electron beam column in the second chamber includes an aperture and generates an electron beam through the aperture and the opening at the workpiece. The apparatus includes a first pump for creating a vacuum in the first chamber, a second pump for creating a vacuum in the second chamber, a first vent for permitting gas to enter the first chamber for increasing the pressure in the first chamber, and a second vent for permitting gas to enter the second chamber for increasing the pressure in the second chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2004
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: David J. Pinckney, Rodney A. Kendall
  • Patent number: 6323554
    Abstract: Capping a low resistivity metal conductor line or via with a refractory metal allows for effectively using chemical-mechanical polishing techniques because the hard, reduced wear, properties of the refractory metal do not scratch, corrode, or smear during chemical-mechanical polishing. Conductive lines and vias are created using a combination of both physical vapor deposition (e.g., evaporation or collimated sputtering) of a low resistivity metal or alloy followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a refractory metal and subsequent planarization. Altering a ratio of SiH4 to WF6 during application of the refractory metal cap by CVD allows for controlled incorporation of silicon into the tungsten capping layer. Collimated sputtering allows for creating a refractory metal liner in an opening in a dielectric which is suitable as a diffusion barrier to copper based metalizations as well as CVD tungsten.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Rajiv V. Joshi, Jerome J. Cuomo, Hormazdyar M. Dalal, Louis L. Hsu
  • Patent number: 5534066
    Abstract: An apparatus for processing a layer on a workpiece includes a source of reactant fluid, a reaction chamber having a support for the workpiece and a fluid delivery apparatus for feeding an input fluid into the reaction chamber with the input fluid being utilized to process the material. An infrared sensor is adapted to cooperate with the fluid delivery apparatus for sensing the concentration of a component of the input fluid. The infrared sensor includes an infrared light source positioned to direct a beam of infrared light at an infrared light detector through the input fluid. The infrared light detector produces an electrical output signal indicative of the amount of light received by the detector and therefore not absorbed by the input fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James A. O'Neill, Michael L. Passow, Tina J. Cotler, Jonathan D. Chapple-Sokol, Richard A. Conti, Jyothi Singh
  • Patent number: 5516726
    Abstract: A process, compatible with bipolar and CMOS processes, for making local interconnection of adjacent devices on a semiconductor substrate is disclosed. An electrically insulating etch stop layer is deposited over the semiconductor substrate including the device contact openings. A conductive layer is deposited over the etch stop layer. The conductive layer is patterned into a local interconnect by use of resist patterning and subtractive etching, stopping on the etch stop layer. By thermal activation, the conductive pattern and the underlying insulating material interact to become a single electrically conductive layer. This layer also establishes electrical contact to the devices thus completing the formation of the local interconnection of the devices on a semiconductor substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Kim, Seiki Ogura
  • Patent number: 5492718
    Abstract: An apparatus for processing a layer on a workpiece includes a source of reactant fluid, a reaction chamber having a support for the workpiece and a fluid delivery apparatus for feeding an input fluid into the reaction chamber with the input fluid being utilized to process the material. An infrared sensor is adapted to cooperate with the fluid delivery apparatus for sensing the concentration of a component of the input fluid. The infrared sensor includes an infrared light source positioned to direct a beam of infrared light at an infrared light detector through the input fluid. The infrared light detector produces an electrical output signal indicative of the amount of light received by the detector and therefore not absorbed by the input fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 20, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James A. O'Neill, Michael L. Passow, Tina J. Cotler, Jonathan D. Chapple-Sokol, Richard A. Conti, Jyothi Singh
  • Patent number: 5491319
    Abstract: A laser ablation apparatus and method removes undesired portions of a workpiece. An industrial laser generates a beam of optical energy and directs the beam at the workpiece. A mechanism in the path of the beam for shapes the cross-section of the beam and includes first and second linear actuators on opposite sides of the beam path. Each of the actuators includes a plurality of linear members, with each linear member being adjacent to and in contact with another linear member, and means for individually inserting and retracting each of said members into and out of said beam path a desired distance to thereby shape the beam so as to ablate only undesired portions of the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Laertis Economikos, Robert Hannon, Richard P. Surprenant
  • Patent number: 5469981
    Abstract: An electrically blowable fuse structure usable with organic insulators in microelectronic parts is provided. The fuse structure is made of a first heat resistant member, a fusing element and a second heat resistant member. The heat resistant members are in substantial contact with the fuse and thermally insulate the fuse from the organic insulator. The ends of each fuse are electrically connected to a pair conductors.A process for fabricating an electrically blowable fuse structure usable with an organic insulator is provided. A substrate with an organic insulator coating and containing electrically conductive features with exposed contacts is provided. A heat shield layer and a fuse layer are deposited sequentially and patterned by subtractive etching. Plurality of conductors are formed over so as to electrically connect each fuse element to a pair of conductors. A second heat resistant member is formed over the fuse area and the substrate is subsequently quoted with an organic insulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 28, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kris V. Srikrishnan, James F. White, Jer-Ming Yang
  • Patent number: 5420069
    Abstract: The fabrication and use of corrosion resistant Cu/Cu(x)Ge(y) alloy or Cu/Cu.sub.3 Ge phase bilayer interconnect metal lines is disclosed. A solid state, selective process of forming a Cu.sub.3 Ge phase or Cu(x)Ge(y) alloy by reacting GeH.sub.4 gas with Cu surface at low pressure in CVD reactor at temperatures of 200.degree.-450.degree. C. is described. Corrosion resistant semiconductor devices and packaging interconnects where corrosion of copper interconnects was a problem, is now made possible by the Cu/Cu.sub.3 Ge phase or Cu.sub.x Ge.sub.y alloy bilayer of the present invention. A structure where copper vias are completely or partially converted to Cu.sub.3 Ge or Cu.sub.x Ge.sub.y is presented. Also, dissimilar metals like Al--Cu can be connected by Cu.sub.3 Ge phase or Cu.sub.x Ge.sub.y alloy filled vias to improve electromigration performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Rajiv V. Joshi, Manu J. Tejwani, Kris V. Srikrishnan
  • Patent number: 5411358
    Abstract: The dispatching apparatus with a gas supply distribution system (300) basically comprises an automatic handler 301 and a vertical stocker (302). The vertical stocker has a frame (308) formed by an assembly of tubes supporting a plurality of support stations or bins (309) each provided with gas infectors (311) connected on the one hand to the gas injection valves of the container and on the other hand to a compressed ultra pure neutral gas supply installation. As a result, during the processing idle times, an adequate overpressure of said neutral gas is maintained in the interior space of the container enclosing the workpiece, e.g. a silicon wafer. The automatic handler (301) basically comprises a handling robot (305) having an extending arm (306) provided with gripping means (307) adapted to the container design. The handling robot (305) is affixed on an elevator (304) for vertical movement and is able to rotate about it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: George Garric, Andre Lafond
  • Patent number: 5390785
    Abstract: A pressurized sealable transportable container (100) stores at least one workpiece (138) and has a substantially parallelepipedic-shaped cassette reservoir (123). The container has a box-shaped housing (102) with a main access opening (104) on the front lateral face and protective shells to protect the housing top (143) and bottom (144) surfaces. A door (124) mates with the main access opening to define a sealable interior space (103). The housing has a gas injection valve (124) adapted for connection to a compressed ultra pure neutral gas supply installation (700) to establish a determined static first or nominal pressure p within the interior space having a positive differential pressure .DELTA.p with respect to the outside ambient. A support (108) firmly and accurately maintains the workpiece within the interior space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: George Garric, Andre Lafond
  • Patent number: 5391510
    Abstract: A sub-micron FET is disclosed made by a method using expendable self-aligned gate structure up to and including the step of annealing the source/drain regions. The source/drain regions are formed by ion implantation using the expendable structure (diamond-like-carbon) as a mask. After the expendable structure has performed its further purpose of protecting the gate dielectric from contamination during the annealing cycle, the structure is easily removed by O.sub.2 plasma and replaced by a conventional metal gate material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Louis L. Hsu, Gangadhara S. Mathad, Rajiv V. Joshi
  • Patent number: 5389814
    Abstract: An electrically blowable fuse structure usable with organic insulators in microelectronic parts is provided. The fuse structure is made of a first heat resistant member, a fusing element and a second heat resistant member. The heat resistant members are in substantial contact with the fuse and thermally insulate the fuse from the organic insulator. The ends of each fuse are electrically connected to a pair conductors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kris V. Srikrishnan, James F. White, Jer-Ming Yang
  • Patent number: 5387553
    Abstract: A lateral PNP bipolar transistor includes concentric circular emitter and annular base and dual collector regions. The inner collector region is moderately doped to provide good punch-through and Early voltage performance. The outer collector region is highly doped to provide low collector series resistance. A composite transistor made up of any desired number of individual transistors provides a transistor having a desired current capacity. The transistor annular base cross-section permits very accurate base width control during the manufacturing process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Tor W. Moksvold, John Altieri, Ching-Tzuen Tarn, Colleen M. Snavely
  • Patent number: 5385850
    Abstract: A low temperature, epitaxial, in situ doped semiconductor layer is used as a sacrificial dopant source. The resulting doped region is small-dimensioned with a tightly controlled dopant concentration. The dopant layer is oxidized in a relatively low-temperature environment, and removed by etching. The process can be used to form a vertical bipolar transistor, where the doped region is the base, and wherein portions of the oxidized dopant layer are left as insulators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Jack O. Chu, Chang-Ming Hsieh, Victor R. Nastasi, Martin Revitz, Paul A. Ronsheim
  • Patent number: 5384152
    Abstract: A capacitor is provided having a substrate and a first capacitor plate including a lattice mismatched crystalline material is formed over and supported by a surface of the substrate. A layer of insulating material is formed over and supported by the first capacitor plate. A second capacitor plate including a layer of conductive material is formed over and supported by the layer of insulating material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Jack C. Chu, Louis Lu-Chen Hsu, Toshio Mii, Joseph F. Shepard, Scott R. Stiffler, Manu J. Tejwani, Edward J. Vishnesky
  • Patent number: 5382127
    Abstract: A pressurized interface apparatus (200) is provided for transferring a workpiece from within a pressurized sealable transportable container (100) into a specified environment and vice versa. The container consists of a box-shaped housing (102) having an access opening (104) sealed by a releasable door (124) and having a gas injection valve (129). The interface apparatus includes an IN/OUT section having a box-shaped frame (201) with a port zone defining an interior space (204) provided with a first opening (205A) and a second opening (205'A) opposite thereto and communicating with the specified environment. The apparatus further includes a lid controlled by a drive (209A) to seal the first opening and cause the port zone to operate as a load lock chamber. A transfer handler (216A) having a workpiece gripper (218A) is mounted within the port zone. A container receiver is positioned in front of the first opening for receiving a container in a waiting position or in a working position adjacent the first opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: George Garric, Andre Lafond
  • Patent number: 5380955
    Abstract: A device is provided for passing a member through the wall of a sealed chamber. The member has an outer surface having a portion thereof which is substantially formed of metal. A flange has an opening therein which surrounds and is spaced from the metal portion of the member. A solder member completely fills the space between the flange opening and the metal portion of the member for creating a seal therebetween which is capable of maintaining a high pressure differential between opposite sides of the sealed chamber wall. The member is preferably a flat, multi-conductor electrical cable having thin, flat, copper shielding layers on the top and bottom thereof. The metal portion preferably includes a wedge-shaped copper member which surrounds the electrical cable and is intricately affixed to the shielding layers. The solder member is preferably a solder compound comprising 52 percent indium and 48 percent tin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Straty N. Argyrakis, Willard S. Harris, Richard W. Oldrey, Edward J. Ossolinski
  • Patent number: 5374590
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a microfuse, deletable by laser pulses utilizes laser pulses of a predetermined spot diameter and beam alignment accuracy. A fusible link forming a portion of the microfuse is defined such that its length is at least equal to the sum of the laser spot diameter and the beam alignment accuracy and its width is no greater than half the laser spot diameter. A method of deleting the microfuse by laser pulses is provided where the microfuse has a predetermined composition, length and width having an axis bisecting the width and parallel to the length and is covered with a passivation layer at least 3 .mu.m thick. The method includes adjusting the diameter of the beam of laser light (i) to at least a minimum diameter of W+.DELTA.P.sub.w, where W equals the width of the microfuse fuse link and .DELTA. P.sub.w equals the accuracy of the beam in the direction of W and (ii) to no more than a maximum diameter of L+.DELTA.P.sub.L, where L equals the length of the microfuse fuse link and .DELTA.P.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kerry L. Batdorf, Richard A. Gilmour, Paul Tsang
  • Patent number: 5373109
    Abstract: An electrical cable having a plurality of flat, flexible cable sections. Each section has flat, electrically conductive ground layers on at least the top and bottom surfaces thereof, and a plurality of flat, electrically conductive signal conductors between the ground layers. A plurality of dielectric layers separates the signal conductors from each other and from the ground layers. Each signal conductor includes an exposed surface extending a short distance from the end of the conductor along the length of each section. Adjacent cable sections are positioned relative to each other so that the exposed surfaces of corresponding signal conductors face each other. A plurality of connector assemblies is interposed between adjacent cable sections for electrically conducting the exposed surfaces of the corresponding signal conductors. Retaining means are provided for securing the ends of adjacent cable sections and connector assemblies in electrical contact with each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Straty N. Argyrakis, Richard W. Oldrey, Eugene E. Steele
  • Patent number: 5340775
    Abstract: A SiCr microfuse, deletable either by electrical voltage pulses or by laser pulses, for rerouting the various components in an integrated circuit, as where redundancy in array structures is implemented, and the method of fabricating same, at any wiring level of the chip, by utilizing a direct resist masking of the SiCr fuse layer to eliminate problems of mask damage and residual metal adjacent the fuse.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Roy A. Carruthers, Fernand J. Dorleans, John A. Fitzsimmons, Richard Flitsch, James A. Jubinsky, Gerald R. Larsen, Geraldine C. Schwartz, Paul J. Tsang, Robert W. Zielinski