Patents Represented by Attorney Marc D. Schechter
  • Patent number: 6319343
    Abstract: Ceramic green sheets of controlled microporosity and method of making same have been provided. Controlled microporosity is achieved by including certain ionic species in the ceramic composition, particularly boron, phosphorus and copper oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Cynthia N. Felisberto, Stephen A. Milkovich, Robert Wolff Nufer
  • Patent number: 6251738
    Abstract: A process for forming a silicon-germanium base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor. First, a silicon substrate having a mesa surrounded by a trench is formed. Next, a silicon-germanium layer is deposited on the substrate and the portion of the silicon-geranium layer adjacent the mesa is removed to form the silicon-germanium base. In a second embodiment, the process comprises the steps of forming a silicon substrate having a mesa surrounded by a trench, forming a dielectric layer in the trench adjacent the mesa, and growing a silicon-germanium layer on the mesa top surface using selective epitaxial growth to form the silicon-germanium base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Feng-Yi Huang
  • Patent number: 6217989
    Abstract: A method for minimizing formation of cracks at junctions between conductive vias and conductive lines in line-to-via connections on a substrate. The method comprises providing a transition zone connected between a base section of the line and a cap, the transition zone providing a volume of conductive paste during a conductive paste screen printing operation that is greater than the volume provided by the base section being directly connected to the cap. In particular, the transition zone volume is an effective amount to prevent necking of the conductive line into the via when the mask is misaligned to the substrate within an expected alignment tolerance. The transition zone may comprise a jogged end extending from the base section to the cap at an angle to the line, or a flared end extending from the base section. Line-to-via connection structures, patterns on a mask for making such structures, and masks having such patterns are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey A. Brody, Harry D. Cox, John Garant, Hsichang Liu, Paul G. McLaughlin, Tom Wayson
  • Patent number: 5544277
    Abstract: A speech coding apparatus and method measures the values of at least first and second different features of an utterance during each of a series of successive time intervals. For each time interval, a feature vector signal has a first component value equal to a first weighted combination of the values of only one feature of the utterance for at least two time intervals. The feature vector signal has a second component value equal to a second weighted combination, different from the first weighted combination, of the values of only one feature of the utterance for at least two time intervals. The resulting feature vector signals for a series of successive time intervals form a coded representation of the utterance. In one embodiment, a first weighted mixture signal has a value equal to a first weighted mixture of the values of the features of the utterance during a single time interval.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Raimo Bakis, Ponani S. Gopalakrishnan, Dimitri Kanevsky, Arthur J. Nadas, David Nahamoo, Michael A. Picheny, Jan Sedivy
  • Patent number: 5510981
    Abstract: An apparatus for translating a series of source words in a first language to a series of target words in a second language. For an input series of source words, at least two target hypotheses, each including a series of target words, are generated. Each target word has a context comprising at least one other word in the target hypothesis. For each target hypothesis, a language model match score including an estimate of the probability of occurrence of the series of words in the target hypothesis. At least one alignment connecting each source word with at least one target word in the target hypothesis is identified. For each source word and each target hypothesis, a word match score including an estimate of the conditional probability of occurrence of the source word, given the target word in the target hypothesis which is connected to the source word and given the context in the target hypothesis of the target word which is connected to the source word.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Adam L. Berger, Peter F. Brown, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, Andrew S. Kehler, Robert L. Mercer
  • Patent number: 5502791
    Abstract: Analysis of a word input from a speech input device 1 for its features is made by a feature extractor 4 to obtain a feature vector sequence corresponding to said word, or to obtain a label sequence by applying a further transformation in a labeler 8. Fenonic hidden Markov models for speech transformation candidates are combined with N-gram probabilities (where N is all integer greater than or equal to 2) to produce models of words. The recognizer determines the probability that the speech model composed for each candidate word would output the label sequence or feature vector sequence input as speech, and outputs the candidate word corresponding to the speech model having the highest probability to a display 19.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Masafumi Nishimura, Masaaki Okochi
  • Patent number: 5465317
    Abstract: A speech recognizer that selects a command model for a current sound if the best match score for the current sound exceeds its corresponding threshold score. The threshold score is assigned a confidence score based on the best match score and recognition threshold of a prior sound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Edward A. Epstein
  • Patent number: 5440663
    Abstract: The invention concerns a computer system for speech recognition with a word table and a triphone table in its memory. In response to a new word not contained in the word table and which is encountered by the computer system during recognition of an unknown spoken text, the fenemic baseform of this new word may be synthetically produced with the aid of a triphone table. For this purpose, the new word is decomposed into triphones, and the fenemic sequences associated with the individual triphones are read from the triphone table. The fenemic sequences are concatenated according to the phonetic baseform of the new word such that the fenemic baseform of the new word is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Gerald Moese, Karlheinz Mohr, Upali Bandara
  • Patent number: 5414832
    Abstract: A synchronous communication apparatus can be tuned to ensure reliable reception of signals propagating along transmission lines. The apparatus can be used as a communication port in a high frequency, highly connected synchronous network in which all ports can be tuned by a single, remote network control device. A local data source outputs a data signal during each of a series of local clock periods. A local source delay circuit receives input data signals from the local data source, and outputs output signals delayed by all amount (mT+.DELTA.pT) relative to corresponding input data signals, where m is a positive integer or zero, and where 0<.DELTA.p<1. The amount of the delay is dependent on the value of a source delay select signal. A local data receiver receives data signals from a local receiver delay circuit. The amount of delay of the local receiver delay circuit is also selectable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Monty M. Denneau, Bruce D. Gavril, Peter H. Hochschild, Craig B. Stunkel
  • Patent number: 5414740
    Abstract: A communication system segment having phase multiplexing. A first communication station contains a data source which sequentially outputs a series of data signals during a series of clock periods. The data source outputs one data signal from the series during each clock period. The first communication station also contains a transition buffer which has an input connected to the output of the data source. The transition buffer has a first-in, first-out mode in which the transition buffer stores a series of Q data signals output from the data source during the most recent Q clock periods, where Q is an integer greater than zero. A second communication station contains a data receiver which sequentially inputs a series of data signals during a series of clock periods. The data receiver inputs one data signal from the series during each clock period. A communication line connects the output of the data source to the input of the data receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Monty M. Denneau, Bruce D. Gavril, Peter H. Hochschild, Craig B. Stunkel
  • Patent number: 5388072
    Abstract: A cache memory having rows of memory cells, each row having at least first and second blocks of memory cells. Each memory cell stores a data signal, has at least one word line input, and at least one bit line input/output. A word line connects the word line inputs of at least first, second, third, and fourth memory cells in a row of the cache memory. The first and third memory cells are contained in the first block, while the second and fourth memory cells are contained in the second block. First and second sense amplifiers or write drivers are provided for reading data from or writing data to memory cells. First and second switches having control inputs connect the bit line inputs/outputs of the first and second memory cells, respectively, to the first sense amplifier/write driver. Third and fourth switches having control inputs switchably connect the bit line inputs/outputs of the third and fourth memory cells, respectively, to the second sense amplifier/write driver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard E. Matick, Stanley E. Schuster
  • Patent number: 5386556
    Abstract: A natural language (NL) analyzing system is provided with the capability to analyze NL expressions and to resolve ambiguities and present them to the user for verification of correct interpretation. A conceptual model of the system, relevant to the application in which the invention is implemented, is created (customizing the system) by the user, and is stored as a conceptual schema. The schema is built of logical facts representing entities (concepts) and relationships between entities, forming a description of the universe of discourse or object system in question. The entities of the schema have at least one external connection, namely to natural language terms in a vocabulary. The schema itself is completely language independent, though the components of it may have "names" expressed in a natural language such as English. There may be a second connection to the entities, namely where the system is used in a query system for relational data bases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Erik B. Hedin, Gregor I. Jonsson, Lars E. Olsson, Mohammad A. Sanamrad, Sven O. G. Westling
  • Patent number: 5371864
    Abstract: A data processing apparatus for simultaneously reading out groups of two or more contiguous, variable length instructions from memory, and for decoding the group of variable length instructions in parallel. The data processing apparatus has a memory containing at least first, second, and third contiguous instructions, and at least first, second, and third read ports for receiving starting addresses and for reading out the instructions from the memory. A next instruction pointer supplies the starting address of the first instruction to the first read port, receives the first instruction, decodes the length of the first instruction, determines the starting address of the second instruction, supplies the starting address of the second instruction to the first read port, receives the second instruction, decodes the length of the second instruction, and determines the starting address of the third instruction. All of these operations are performed in one cycle time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Chiao-Mei Chuang
  • Patent number: 5371733
    Abstract: For use by a particular node within a digital data communications network having a plurality of counter-synchronized nodes including the particular node, called the central service node (CSN), and at least one remote node, all nodes being clocked at a common frequency, each node being synchronized by its own nodal time counter and connected to at least one other node by at least one transmission segment that completes a transmission path from the CSN, method and apparatus for: (a) establishing any value of virtual transmission delay (vtd) at individual transmission segments; (b) non-destructively determining the existing vtd at individual transmission segments; and (c) establishing basal distributions of vtd throughout the network and determining the elements thereof, (a), (b), and (c) being achieved without the central service node knowing real transmission delay (rtd) and inter-nodal asynchrony anywhere within the network and without requiring the active participation of any remote node.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Monty M. Denneau, Bruce D. Gavril, Peter H. Hochschild, Craig B. Stunkel
  • Patent number: 5371735
    Abstract: A communication network having a service processor, a plurality of terminal nodes, and a network of switch nodes for switchably connecting the service processor to each terminal node by way of one or more connection paths. Each switch node in the communication network is connected to the service processor either directly or through one or more other switch nodes. Each terminal node of the communication network is connected to a switch node. Each switch node and each terminal node has a device identification. At least two nodes have the same device identification. Each target node having the same device identification as another node can preferably be connected to the service processor by way of at least one connection path which does not include any other node having the same device identification as the target node. All switch nodes having the same minimum connection path length may, for example, have the same device identification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Monty M. Denneau, Peter H. Hochschild, Craig B. Stunkel
  • Patent number: 5355364
    Abstract: A method of sending an electronic message from a source station through a network of switches and links to a destination station. An electronic message is sequentially sent to each of a series of switches. Each switch reads a route signal in the message and sends the message to a switch or a station having an input port connected to an output port identified by the route signal. The route signals are generated by storing a weight for each switch link in the network. Candidate paths through the switch network starting at the source station and ending at initial candidate destinations are identified. Each initial candidate destination has an input port directly connected to an output port of a switch having an input port directly connected to the source station. If one or more candidate destinations are the destination station, a candidate path ending at the destination station is selected, and a series of route signals corresponding to the selected candidate path is generated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Bulent Abali
  • Patent number: 5353377
    Abstract: A signal processing card packaged on a bus of a personal computer has a bus master which is used to access the main memory of the personal computer. A large table of probability values required for speech recognition is held in the main memory. When a label to be processed is generated, only the necessary part of the table is read from the main memory to the memory on the signal processing card by direct memory access transfer to perform speech recognition processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Akihiro Kuroda, Masafumi Nishimura, Koichi Toshioka
  • Patent number: 5341153
    Abstract: A method of displaying a high resolution multicolor image on a lower resolution display. The image comprises a plurality of image pixels containing at least first and second image subpixels having first and second colors. The image is displayed on a display having display pixels comprising at least first and second spatially offset display subpixels capable of displaying the first and second colors, respectively. In the method, the first display subpixel is displayed with an intensity which is a function of the intensities of at least two first image subpixels having positions extending over a first region having an area greater than the area of the first display subpixel. The first region is approximately centered on the position of the first display subpixel. A second display subpixel is displayed with an intensity which is a function of the intensities of at least two second image subpixels having positions extending over a second region having an area greater than the area of the second display subpixel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Terry L. Benzschawel, Webster E. Howard
  • Patent number: 5333236
    Abstract: A speech coding apparatus compares the closeness of the feature value of a feature vector signal of an utterance to the parameter values of prototype vector signals to obtain prototype match scores for the feature vector signal and each prototype vector signal. The speech coding apparatus stores a plurality of speech transition models representing speech transitions. At least one speech transition is represented by a plurality of different models. Each speech transition model has a plurality of model outputs, each comprising a prototype match score for a prototype vector signal. Each model output has an output probability. A model match score for a first feature vector signal and each speech transition model comprises the output probability for at least one prototype match score for the first feature vector signal and a prototype vector signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Lalit R. Bahl, Peter V. De Souza, Ponani S. Gopalakrishnan, Michael A. Picheny
  • Patent number: 5315667
    Abstract: A handwriting recognition system in which a user, on-line can reduce similarity between different prototypes. The user interactively can delete a prototype or add a new prototype, while at the same time is not allowed to delete a prototype when it is the only prototype for a given character.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Tetsunosuke Fujisaki, Joonki Kim, George J. Leibman, Charles C. Tappert