Patents Assigned to Diamond Shamrock Corporation
  • Patent number: 4469579
    Abstract: A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), solid polymer electrolyte electrode, and method for forming from cationic exchange perfluorocarbon copolymer. Disclosed are solution techniques for forming SPE's and SPE electrodes using fluorocarbon vinyl ether copolymers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Michael J. Covitch, Donald L. DeRespiris, Leo L. Benezra, Elvin M. Vauss
  • Patent number: 4469761
    Abstract: A rechargeable ambient temperature electrical storage cell utilizing an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and sulfur electrochemical reaction pair. The cell includes an anhdyrous liquid anode separated from an anhydrous, sulfur containing catholyte by a cationic permeable partition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: John E. Bennett, David E. Harney, Thomas A. Mitchell
  • Patent number: 4468362
    Abstract: This disclosure is directed to the preparation of a self-sustaining hydrophobic backing layer which also possesses excellent electrical conductivity so that it can serve as an intermediate layer between the current distributor and the active layer of a complete oxygen cathode. Said backing layer is formed by a simple process in which an intimate liquid dispersion containing finely divided carbon black and not more than equal parts by weight of PTFE particles ranging in size from about 0.05 to about 0.5 microns is dewatered and shaped into a thin layer which is thereafter lightly pressed and consolidated at elevated temperatures. Preferably, the carbon black is an acetylene black of a particle size range between 50 and 3000 Angstroms and the weight proportion of same is greater than the PTFE.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Frank Solomon
  • Patent number: 4459197
    Abstract: The active layer of an electrode is laminated on its working surface to a current distributor and on its opposite surface to a porous coherent, hydrophobic, wetproofing layer. The active layer contains from about 60 to about 85 wt. % active carbon particles bound in a matrix of a fibrillated mixture of a fluorocarbon polymer and carbon black. The electrode is useful in chlor-alkali cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Frank Solomon
  • Patent number: 4459324
    Abstract: A catalytic electrode has an electrically conductive substrate such as titanium or lead and is provided with a coating comprising a platinum-group metal catalyst finely dispersed in a matrix consisting of a semi-conducting polymer formed in situ on the substrate. The catalyst may be a platinum-group metal oxide such as iridium oxide formed in situ together with the semi-conducting polymer by a controlled heat treatment.The semi-conducting polymer is preferably formed from polyacrylonitrile, polybenzimidazo-pyrrolone or an adamantane based polybenzoxazole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Jurgen Gauger, Jean-Marcel Hinden, Michael Katz
  • Patent number: 4456521
    Abstract: The disclosure is directed to preparing three-layer laminated electrodes suitable for use as oxygen (air) cathodes in chlor-alkali and other electrochemical cells, fuel cells and in other electrochemical applications.This three-layer laminate includes an active layer or sheet containing from about 60 to about 85 wt. % active carbon, the remainder being unsintered, fibrillated polytetrafluoroethylene in intimate admixture with said active carbon, said active layer laminated on its working surface to a current distributor and on its opposite surface to a porous, coherent, hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene-containing wetproofing layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1983
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Frank Solomon, Charles Grun
  • Patent number: 4454169
    Abstract: Catalytic particles with an inert, corrosion resistant support material are provided with a catalyst finely dispersed in a matrix of an insoluble electrically conducting polymer formed in situ on each particle of inert support material.The inert support particles are catalytically activated by:(a) wetting them with a solution containing an inorganic precursor compound for the catalyst and an organic precursor compound for the insoluble polymer matrix,(b) drying the particles, and(c) heat treating them to convert the precursors to the catalyst dispersed in the polymer matrix.An electrode, e.g. an oxygen-evolving anode, is produced by either fixing the catalytic particles to an electrode base, e.g. lead, or by consolidating the catalytic particles into a porous electrode body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 12, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Jean Hinden, Michael Katz, Jurgen Gauger
  • Patent number: 4450187
    Abstract: A method for providing an electroless plate, particularly a discontinuous plate for uses such as for electrolytic cell cathodes. A nickel substrate is interdiffused with a second metal which, when leached out leaves a hydrogen adsorbing surface upon the substrate. The substrate is then contacted with a dilute, at least 20 ppm, solution of the plating metal, preferably with the plating metal in anionic complex in the solution. Following immersion, the resulting plated substrate is passed through a reducing flame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Lawrence J. Gestaut
  • Patent number: 4448803
    Abstract: A semi-conducting, stable polychelate coating is manufactured in situ on a conducting substrate providing metal coordination centers, by carrying out a controlled chelating reaction and thermal treatment on the substrate surface with a predetermined specific amount (X.sub.o) of tetranitrile compound per unit substrate area. The temperature and duration as well as this specific amount (X.sub.o) are selected from given ranges to form a uniform polychelate coatingbonded to the substrate surface.Titanium electrodes are provided with such polychelate coatings for different purposes. Electrodes with other metal substrates are further provided with such polychelate coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Jurgen F. Gauger, Jean M. Hinden, Michael Katz
  • Patent number: 4448886
    Abstract: A process for producing high dispersion metal crystallites dispersed substantially homogeneously in a carbonaceous material matrix is disclosed. The novel metal crystallite dispersions disclosed herein have the added advantage of being locked into the matrix thereby preventing migration of the metal crystallites.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Lawrence J. Gestaut, P. David Simcox
  • Patent number: 4446245
    Abstract: Used dimensionally stable electrodes having a valve-metal base and an originally conductive and electrocatalytic coating of e.g. ruthenium-titanium oxide are cleaned and activated by impregnation with a relatively dilute solution preferably containing only a decomposable platinum-group metal compound, followed by heating to enrich the old coating with platinum-group metal/oxide. A new outer electrocatalytic coating which is the same as or similar to the old coating is then applied on top.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Jean M. Hinden
  • Patent number: 4444642
    Abstract: An electrode for use in an electrolytic process is provided with a mixed oxide interface between a titanium base and an outer coating. The mixed oxide is formed at said interface by means of titanium from the base and noble metal from a solution containing a predetermined amount of HCl which attacks the titanium base surface. Slow drying provides a metal chloride mixture which is thermally converted to said mixed oxide of titanium and noble metal in a given ratio, whereby to protect the titanium base from oxidation.An outer coating of manganese dioxide or lead dioxide is electroplated on the mixed oxide layer so as to provide an inexpensive electrode with improved resistance to oxidation.This electrode can be used for various processes where a high resistance to oxidation is required, e.g. as a manganese dioxide anode in a metal electrowinning process or as a lead dioxide anode for electroflotation or organic oxidation reactions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Jean M. Hinden, Henri B. Beer
  • Patent number: 4444640
    Abstract: Diaphragm coated electrodes, processes for producing these diaphragm coated electrodes, and application of the diaphragm coated electrodes in electrolytic cells used in the electrolysis of brine to produce chlorine and caustic are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Shan-Pu Tsai, Leo L. Benezra, Lewis R. Horvat, John P. Hazzard
  • Patent number: 4440617
    Abstract: This disclosure is directed to a non-bleeding gas electrode for operation under the rigors of high current density and to the active layer thereof. This active layer is comprised of 60 to 90 weight percent high surface area, electroconductive carbon (with or without catalyst thereon), 10 to 40 weight percent particulate polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and has pores sufficiently large to relieve internal hydrodynamic pressures thus preventing liquid being forced through the electrode wetproofing layer to the air side thereof. In addition such electrodes include a PTFE-containing wetproofing or backing layer secured on one side to said active layer and on the other side to a current distributor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Frank Solomon
  • Patent number: 4440577
    Abstract: A superplasticizer with improved water reducing properties for cement, cement slurries, mortar, grout and concrete is Penacolite Resin RM-441 as is or sulfonated, sulfomethylated, sulfonated and condensed with formaldehyde, sulfomethylated and condensed with formaldehyde, condensed with formaldehyde, co-condensed with ligninsulfonates and formaldehyde or co-condensed with naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and formaldehyde. These materials can be used alone or in combination with salts of aromatic sulfonic acid formaldehyde condensates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Alphonso W. Marcellis, Grannis S. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4436601
    Abstract: This disclosure is directed to a membrane or diaphragm-free, electrolytic process for removal of a significant portion of at least one metal contaminant from waste water containing it comprising contacting said waste water with a plurality of anodes, each anode having openings to permit the flow of waste water therethrough, and a plurality of metallized organic polymer foam reticulate cathodes wherein said anodes and reticulate cathodes are arranged in alternating manner and electrically energized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1981
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth J. Branchick, Irving Malkin, Mary R. Suchanski
  • Patent number: 4436608
    Abstract: A gas-diffusion electrode cell having an electrolyte feed/withdrawal means integral to a frame for the electrode. The integral feed means for electrolyte feed/withdrawal allows a reduced spacing between the gas-diffusion electrode and a separator in the cell, resulting in a lower operational voltage for electrolysis operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: William R. Bennett, Thomas M. Clere
  • Patent number: 4435313
    Abstract: An electrode with an outer coating for effecting an electrolytic process is provided with a protective intermediate coating consisting of a conducting insoluble polymer network formed in situ on a titanium base and containing a small amount of finely dispersed platinum group metal catalyst.A method of manufacturing the electrode comprises applying to the titanium base several layers of a solution containing a polymer precursor and a platinum metal compound which are thermally converted to the protective polymer coating, on which the outer coating is formed, more particularly by electrodepositing manganese dioxide or lead dioxide.The polymeric intermediate coating serves to protect the titanium base from oxidation, and to more particularly provide stable electrode performance with economical use of precious metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Katz, Jean M. Hinden, Jurgen F. Gauger
  • Patent number: 4434116
    Abstract: A method is shown for making porous thermoresin structures. By the method, the thermoresin is at least partially solvated, formed into a desired shape, and cooled until droplets of the solvent form by syneresis within the shape. Further cooling crystalizes the droplets. These crystalized droplets are subsequently removed to leave a porous structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: Michael J. Covitch
  • Patent number: 4432839
    Abstract: A method for producing interdiffused or metallided films upon a substrate, strippable from the substrate. The alloy films of the instant invention, though brittle, can be handled readily following electrodepositing upon the substrate from a fused salt electrolysis bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventor: George A. Kline