Abstract: Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor.
October 6, 1995
Date of Patent:
July 28, 1998
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Battelle Memorial Institute
Paul P. Woskov, Daniel R. Cohn, Charles H. Titus, Jeffrey E. Surma
Abstract: Methods and apparatus are disclosed for measuring the temperature distribution or profile of a specimen at high resolution. An apparatus comprises a thin-film membrane formed of a first thermo-electrically conductive material, the membrane having a first major surface for holding the specimen. The apparatus also comprises a probe having a tip radius operable to contact a second major surface of the membrane opposite the first major surface. The tip radius comprises a second thermo-electrically conductive material that is different from the first thermo-electrically conductive material so as to generate, by the Seebeck effect, a thermo-electromotive force (TEMF) between the tip radius and the thin-film membrane. The probe can be scanned across the second major surface; the TEMF can be measured, processed, and displayed to produce a temperature profile of the specimen.
Abstract: A detachable pacifier with an electronic thermometer includes: a pacifier having a hollow nipple member formed on a guard member and a pair of staple portions disposed on the pacifier; and an electronic thermometer having a pair of fastening buckles detachably coupled to the pair of staple portions on the pacifier and a probe member protruding forwardly from a temperature indicating circuit mounted in the thermometer, the probe member having a plurality of teeth circumferentially formed on a front portion of the probe member, whereby upon insertion of the probe member into the nipple member, the teeth on the probe member will expand; the nipple member resulting in a thinning of a front nipple portion, thus decreasing the thermal resistance of the nipple member for a precise temperature measurement, whereby upon detachment of the pacifier from the electronic thermometer; the pacifier may be dipped in a boiling water bath for sterilization.
Abstract: Indicators and methods of indicating are disclosed. Intended primarily for use with medicine containers, the devices typically indicate the number of doses of medication ingested or remaining to be taken by a patient during a particular period. These devices additionally provide tactile assistance to patients in appropriately repositioning the indicator arms and, when used correctly, may reduce the possibility of patient overdose by restricting improper attempts to advance the indicator arm.
Abstract: A small sized temperature sensor for measuring temperatures in the body and for measuring temperatures in an extracorporeal blood circulation circuit, wherein the possibility of electrical shock and the cost are reduced, while resolution and reliability are increased. The temperature sensor comprises a source of light, an optical fiber to receive light from the light source at one end of the optical fiber, a transducer positioned near the other end of the optical fiber, a reflection means for reflecting the irradiated light, and an arithmetic processing unit which calculates temperature based upon the reflected light measured. The transducer is made up of at least two polymers that have different temperature dependencies of refractive index and form a microphase separation structure, wherein the polymers are cured products made from a cationically polymerizable compound having epoxy groups and a radically polymerizable compound having radically unsaturated groups.
May 24, 1995
Date of Patent:
July 14, 1998
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
Abstract: Apparatus maximizing multitubular penetration of a pressure vessel wherein a plurality of tubular sections are series joined to and concentrically aligned with an opening of a pressure vessel, such tubular sections presenting an internal diameter being greater than the I.D. of the effective entrance into said vessel; and a plurality of thermocouple cables passing from outside said apparatus, and into said pressure vessel, said thermocouple cables being fixedly secured to pressure-retaining discs.
Abstract: A ferrite device for sensing temperature is disclosed, which is useful for apparatuses such as hot water vessels, fire alarms, and general electronic apparatuses. More specifically, the ferrite device for sensing temperature is manufactured by stack-printing two or more ferrite layers having different Curie temperatures (Tc). Therefore, a mass production is possible with a low manufacturing cost, and control of the process conditions is easy. The temperature sensing ferrite device includes: upper and lower layers composed of a single ferrite material; a plurality of stacked layers stacked between the upper and lower layers and consisting of two or more ferrite subregions; each of the ferrite subregions of one of the plurality of stacked layers has a composition and a shape that are the same as a ferrite subregion in another of the plurality of stacked layers screw type electrodes provided on the respective ferrite subregions.
Abstract: Process and apparatus for transiently measuring surface temperatures and heat flux at the interface of two media, one of which is solid. In a solid wall through which a thermal stream flows, a cut is made which opens into the interface between the wall and the other medium. The cut is parallel to the stream at a point of contact corresponding to the interface. A microthermocouple is arranged in a plane of the cut in the immediate vicinity of the interface. The cut is closely covered by the material of the solid wall or a material with thermal characteristics similar to those of the peripheral material.
Abstract: This invention concerns a water skier warning flag system of the type wherein the slackening of the tow rope causes a warning flag at the transom of the ski boat to be raised. A mechanical device mounted on the rear of the transom of a ski boat includes a lever having a normally vertical long lever arm for holding a longitudinally-mounted (normally vertical) standard of a warning flag; and this long lever arm also has a connection point to a ski tow line. The other (short) lever arm is urged by a compression spring to maintain the long lever arm vertical. When a skier is skiing, the tension on the tow line pulls the long lever arm down to horizontal against the pressure of the compression spring; and when the tow line goes slack, the spring pressure returns the long lever arm to vertical.
Abstract: A temperature and passive infrared sensor module comprising a sensor module housing having air flow vents therein in top and bottom or side surfaces to allow air to circulate through the sensor module housing. A temperature sensor is mounted in the sensor module housing in a position which is exposed to air circulating through the sensor module housing. A passive infrared sensor is also mounted in the sensor module housing in a manner in which it is not exposed to air circulating through the sensor module housing, such that it is not adversely affected thereby. In one embodiment, a foam block is positioned around to encase and isolate the passive infrared detector. In several embodiments, the passive infrared sensor and temperature sensor are mounted on opposite sides of the printed circuit board such that air circulates around the temperature sensor only on one side of the printed circuit board.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a totally novel device and process useful for the measurement of the temperature of a radiating body. More particularly, the present invention relates to a device that enhances the resolution and repeatability of the measured temperature of the radiating body by fitting a mathematical correlation to the emitted radiation spectra, generating calculated radiation intensities at specified wavelengths using the mathematical correlation, and then generating a suite of individual two-wavelength temperature values, which can be statistically evaluated and averaged for a final, measured temperature.
Abstract: An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.
June 20, 1996
Date of Patent:
June 30, 1998
The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
Abstract: A temperature sensing device employs a resonant polysilicon beam, in combination with electrical circuitry for oscillating the beam at its natural resonant frequency, to sense changes in temperature. The resonant beam is formed as part of a silicon layer, and the silicon layer is in direct contact with a dissimilar material. In one version of the device, the silicon layer is deposited onto a sapphire substrate by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. In another version, the beam is part of a polysilicon layer deposited onto a silicon wafer substrate. The silicon substrate is thinned, then thermoelectrically bonded to a borosilicate glass substrate. In still another version, the silicon substrate is selectively thinned and has deposited thereon a TCE mismatched material. In all versions, temperature is sensed based on a thermal mismatch of the two dissimilar materials.
Abstract: A probe (10) is formed to provide a topographical and thermal image of a semiconductor device. The probe (10) is made from a first ribbon of material (11) and a second ribbon of material (12) which forms a thermocouple junction (13). A probe tip (15) is then attached to the thermocouple junction (13) with an epoxy (14). In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, a probe (20) has a point region (17) which is formed by bending a portion of the thermocouple junction (13) and coating the point region (17) is coated with a thermally conductive material. An optical signal is then reflected off a planar portion of the first ribbon of material (11), the second ribbon of material (12), or the thermocouple junction (13) so the motion of the probe (10,20) can be monitored by an optical detector.
Abstract: The sealing system seals a moving element in a valve. The sealing system includes an internal seal between the valve body and moving element proximate the lading and an external seal between the valve body and moving element proximate the free end of the moving element. A space for sealant is formed around the moving element between the internal and external seals. A load member is provided for pressurizing the sealant within the space to a pressure greater than the fluid pressure of the lading in the valve body cavity and the ambient pressure around the exterior of the valve. An indicator member is provided for detecting any leakage of the sealant past either the internal or external seals.
Abstract: A protective device for a thermocouple for immersion into a molten metal bath to measure the temperature in the bath includes an elongated exterior protective body, which has an axis and is formed of a refractory composition. An interior reinforcing member is contained within the protective body extending along the axis. The reinforcing member may be in the form of a hollow tubular body which is filled with a refractory cement. A hollow tube is located within the body for protectively housing a thermocouple. A thermocouple for measuring temperatures in a molten metal bath is positioned in the hollow tube.
Abstract: A metal gasket for an internal combustion engine is formed of at least one metal plate for constituting the metal gasket. The metal plate includes a hole and a bead formed around the holes for sealing the same. A thermal sprayed layer is formed integrally on and/or under the bead to locally increase the surface pressure of the bead when the bead is compressed. Thus, the surface pressure of the bead can be adjusted individually as desired.
Abstract: Thermal, optical, physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate (11) surface are determined with non-contact optical techniques that include illuminating (23) the surface with radiation having a ripple intensity characteristic (51), and then measuring the combined intensities (53) of that radiation after modification by the substrate surface and radiation emitted from the surface. Precise determinations of emissivity, reflectivity, temperature, changing surface composition, the existence of any layer formed on the surface and its thickness are all possible from this measurement. They may be made in situ and substantially in real time, thus allowing the measurement to control (39, 41) various processes of treating a substrate surface. This has significant applicability to semiconductor wafer processing and metal processing.
Abstract: The present invention comprises methods and apparatus for assessment of the effects mental stress involving the measurement of periodic changes in skin perfusion. Using a remotely mounted infrared camera, dynamic area telethermometry (DAT) measures the autonomic nervous activity by monitoring and quantitatively analyzing the modulation of cutaneous perfusion. When people gets "nervous" their sympathetics "act up" and they blush (vasodilates) or becomes pale (vasoconstricts). A DAT test of the face proves to be a superior "lie detector" test since emotional stress is reflected in an autonomic nervous response that can be measured remotely. DAT is much more sensitive than any visual assessment of skin color or than instrumental measurement of diaphoresis. Not only is it more reliable than currently used polygraph tests, but its non-contact administration is so simple and innocuous that it could be done without the subject's awareness.
Abstract: An automatic ice-making mechanism for a refrigerator includes a tray having a groove on its bottom surface. A temperature sensor is mounted in the groove. The temperature sensor includes a temperature-sensitive element disposed at a top of the groove, an insulating member disposed beneath the temperature-sensitive element, and a housing pushing the insulating member upwardly against the walls of the groove. The housing has a pair of ribs, each rib carrying a projection that fits into a respective eye formed on the bottom of the tray. The ribs are elastically flexible toward one another to enable the projections to be removed from the eyes.