Abstract: An ion mobility spectrometer for detecting ions and for facilitating controlled chemical reactions is described incorporating an inlet for carrier and sample gas, a reaction region having an ionization source and at least two electrodes for generating an electric field and a drift region having at least two electrodes for generating an electric field therein wherein each electrode is coupled to a power supply for placing a predetermined potential on the electrode and wherein each power supply is controlled by an electric field controller for providing a sequence of potentials on each electrode in the reaction region and drift region to control the motion and position of ions in the drift region. The invention overcomes the problem of detection sensitivity, detection selectivity and resolution between ions of similar mobility. The invention further overcomes the problem of facilitating certain chemical reactions by brings ions of opposite polarity together.
Abstract: A ground-disposable module for encapsulating radioactive waste contained within shipping containers is disclosed herein. Generally, the modules comprise a rigid outer container for providing a first radiation and water barrier for the waste, an inner container formed from the shipping container for providing a second radiation and water barrier, and a central layer of grout which forms still another radiation and water barrier and which provides the rigid outer container with a substantially solid interior which reinforces the compressive strength of the module. The rigid outer container may hold a plurality of shipping containers which have been compacted. Such compaction maximizes the number of containers which may be encapsulated into a particular module, and increases the overall compressive strength of the module by increasing the integrity and strength of the shipping containers and wastes grouted therein.
December 11, 1987
Date of Patent:
July 4, 1989
Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Charles W. Mallory, Ralph E. Watts, William S. Sanner, Jr., Ralph R. Disibio, Arthur W. Lilley, Steven J. Winston, Billy C. Stricklin, John E. Razor
Abstract: The invention concerns apparatus for detecting the position of incidence (2) of a beam (1) of charge carriers on a target (3) wherein X-rays (4) starting from the position of incidence (2) are detected by detector (7) connected to an analyzing circuit (9) An imaging system (5, 50; 10, 11, 12) is provided which can cover all the positions (P.sub.1 . . . P.sub.8) that the positions of incidence (2) can take up and projects them on the sensing surface of a position-sensitive detector (7), wherein the projected coordinates (x', y') are directly proportional to the coordinates (x, y) of the position of incidence (2). In addition, a filter (6) highly transparent to the X-ray radiation range emitted from the position of incidence (2) is arranged between the target surface (3) and the position-sensitive sensor (7). The position-sensitive detector (7) emits electric signals which depend from the coordinates (x, y) of the position of incidence (FIG. 1).
December 3, 1987
Date of Patent:
June 27, 1989
Ewald Benes, Franz Viehbock, Herbert Stori, Friedrich-Werner Thomas, Gernot Thorn
Abstract: This disclosure is concerned with method and apparatus for vaporizing liquid solutions in order to detect, quantitate, and/or determine physical or chemical properties of samples present in liquid solution. Mixtures may be separated by an on-line liquid chromatographic column and the methods used for detection, quantitation, identification, and/or determination of chemical and physical properties include mass spectrometry, photoionization, flame ionization, electron capture, optical photometry, including UV, visible, and IR regions of the spectrum, light scattering, light emission, atomic absorption, and any other technique suitable for detecting or analyzing molecules or particles in a gaseous or vacuum environment. The method and apparatus involves controlled partial vaporization of the solution.
March 25, 1987
Date of Patent:
March 21, 1989
Marvin L. Vestal, Calvin R. Blakely, Gordon J. Fergusson
Abstract: An alignment system for aligning a mask and a wafer each having an alignment mark, includes an irradiation system for irradiating the alignment marks of the mask and the wafer with an electron beam, a detecting system for detecting the amount of electron beam absorbed by the alignment marks, and an adjusting system for adjusting a relative position of the mask and the wafer, in accordance with the detection, so as to bring the mask and the wafer into a predetermined positional relation.
Abstract: A device for providing an energy filtered charged particle image particularly an electron image in the form of an electron energy analyzer which acts as a band-pass filter whilst maintaining the spatial integrity of the electron image in a uniform magnetic field. It embodies new electron optical properties wherein image electrons injected parallel to the magnetic field are guided, using crossed electrostatic and magnetic fields, to a low-pass electron mirror and then through a high-pass retardation filter. Non-uniform electrostatic deflection fields are used to compensate for the energy-dependent dispersion of the crossed fields whereby it is possible to correct for image distortion resulting from such dispersion.
Abstract: A method is described for operating a mass spectrometer with a location-resolving detector. In this case, when an ion impinges on the detector, the instantaneous parameters of the analyzer are read and compared with a calibration table, and the instantaneous mass value (to be expected) is determined therefrom in the center of the detector. The location signal of the detector indicates the impingement location of the recorded event and is converted, via a second calibration table, into the deviation of the actual mass from the mean mass. The exact (actual) mass value is calculated from both values. This value is recorded in a memory of a computer.
Abstract: Charged particles from a line emitter are focussed as a line image on a means for selectively blocking part of the image to produce a flat beam of controllable length. The blocking means may be an apertured plate with means for rotating and/or translating the image relative to the aperture to produce the required beam length. After passage through the aperture the beam may be twisted and/or translated to its original or some other orientation and position. The beam may be of electrons or ions and may be used in the manufacture or testing of integrated circuits. An alternative form of blocking means is a row of controllable gate electrodes which can block selected parts of the line beam; this is of particular value in producing c.r.t. displays.
Abstract: A toothbrush conditioner includes a body having an upper end. A cover member is removably mounted to the upper end for therewith providing a conditioning chamber. A support plate is positioned within the body member for selectively positioning a toothbrush to be conditioned within the chamber. An ultraviolet radiation source is carried by the cover member and is movable therewith for being selectively positioned within the chamber proximate the brush to be conditioned when the cover member is mounted to the upper end. A plurality of vent openings are in the body member. A control device is in connection with the radiation source for causing selective intermittent operation thereof.
Abstract: The present invention provides an input screen scintillator for a radiological image intensifier tube in which the cesium iodide needles of the scintillator are coated with a refractory, transparent of reflecting, material having an optical index close to or less than that of the cesium iodide. Different methods may be used for coating, such as chemical vapor phase deposition, activated by thermal excitation, plasma excitation or photonic excitation; or such as diffusion deposition of a colloidal solution; or such as polymerization of a polymer resin. After coating, is realized the heat treatment which ensures the luminescence of the screen.
Abstract: A shield for protection from harmful radiation is provided, particularly for protecting a person lying in a bed from radiation originating in the ground. The shield comprises a plurality of thin walled overlapping platelets through which radiation can not pass which are positioned adjacent the bottom of the bed. Advantageously the platelets are connected with each other and with the mattress of the bed jointly by cord or pivot joint and are composed of lead and/or a barium containing compound such as barium sulfate or barium oxide. The shield can also be a fine powdered barium compound interspersed in the foam of the mattress.
Abstract: A high resolution atomic force microscope allows atomic level topographs of conducting and insulating surfaces. The microscope includes a pair of crossed wires mounted on a single piezoelectric tube which not only controls the x-, and y-, positions of the tip as it is scanned across a surface, but which also adjusts the force with which the tip presses against the sample. The amount of the deflection of the wires is detected as a tunneling current between the wires and another electrode.
February 2, 1987
Date of Patent:
January 24, 1989
The Regents of the University of California
Abstract: A projection type exposure apparatus for projecting an image of a pattern formed on a reticle onto a wafer in which the exposure is carried out with first light and the alignment between reticle and wafer is carried out with a second light having a wavelength different from that of the first light. The apparatus includes an optical member disposed between alignment optical system and projection optical system for reflecting the first light and transmitting the second light.
Abstract: A reduction projection type aligner in a reduction projection exposing device for exposing a circuit pattern on a mask through a reduction projection lens onto a wafer by the step and repeat of the wafer, which comprises: a light source for irradiating coherent irradiation light, a reflection mirror for reflecting the coherent irradiation light irradiated from the light source, a detection optical system for detecting an interference pattern by optically causing interference between an alignment pattern reflection light obtained by entering the coherent irradiation light irradiated from the light source through the reduction projection lens to the alignment pattern portion of the wafer, which is then reflected at the alignment pattern portion and then passed through the reduction projection lens and a reflection light reflected at the reflection mirror, and means for aligning a mask and a wafer relatively by detecting the position of the wafer by the video image signals in the interference pattern detected by
Abstract: This invention relates to several improvements in mass spectrometric analysis. In accordance with one aspect of this invention, a mass spectrometer sampling system is provided in which a continuous flowing liquid stream can be sampled into a carrier gas stream where it is heated and vaporized. The gas and vapor mixture is transmitted into a plurality of chambers connected in series which have the effects of diluting the concentration of the vaporized liquid injected into the inert gas streams and also shaping the concentration time profile at the exit of the last chamber to be a symmetric peak. These effects have been found to provide several advantages such as prolonging the instrument operation time, and allowing a faster sample injection rate. Once the mixture has exited the last of the chambers, a molecular leak is provided to reduce the pressure to that necessary for the operation of the mass spectrometer.
Abstract: An apparatus for converting monochromatic laser radiation to polychromatic Planckian radiation. A spherical chamber specularly integrates a laser beam which is focused through an entrance aperture. A source cavity in the integrating chamber absorbs the laser energy and produces polychromatic Planckian radiation.
Abstract: A method for projecting a photelectron image includes providing a mask substrate, and selectively contacting a layer which lowers the work function of the mask substrate thereto. Photoelectrons are emitted from the contacted portion.
Abstract: An optical fiber sensitive to nuclear radiation includes a thin filament core formed of a plastic scintillator material which scintillates in the presence of nuclear radiation. An optical cladding material is provided around the optical fiber. A second fiber is connected to the optical fiber for efficiently transmitting the scintillating light from the optical fiber to a radiation detector.
Abstract: A light assembly comprises a self-luminescent light source, a wave guide and output optics. The self-luminescent light source takes the form of a luminescent concentrator which is activated directly or indirectly by radioactive radiation, typically beta radiation from tritium.