Patents Examined by Ron Trice
  • Patent number: 5877876
    Abstract: A dynamic diffractive optical transform. An electric field pattern is created across a body of material, the material being characterized in that it has an optical transmission property which varies in response to of an electric potential applied across a portion thereof. The electric field pattern is created such that the resulting profile of the transmission property is an arbitrary shape which produces a desired diffraction pattern that may not be physically realizable in conventional refractive optics or is a Fresnel lens-like construct derived from a refractive optical element. This is done by selectively applying electric potentials to transparent electrode pairs having liquid crystal material therebetween and preferably relatively small proportions in relation to the relevant wavelength of light, so as to create variations in phase delay that are aperiodic, have other than fifty percent spatial duty factor or have multiple levels of phase delay.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Apeldyn Corporation
    Inventor: William A. Birdwell
  • Patent number: 5689352
    Abstract: A plurality of conductive lines are formed on a lower base plate. One surface of the lower base plate is divided into a first portion which is to be formed into a lower substrate, and a second portion. The first portion includes a first area which is to be covered with an upper substrate, and a second area. The conductive lines are extended from the first area of the first portion to the second portion through the second area of the first portion. A connecting pattern is formed on the second portion, and is connected to each of the conductive lines. Thereafter, an orientation film is formed on the first area of the first portion. Then, the surface of an orientation film is rubbed in an orientation process. During the orientation process, electric charges which are generated in each of the conductive lines by friction, flow to the connecting pattern immediately. Therefore, the conductive lines and the orientation film are protected from the electric charges, and damage is avoided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1997
    Assignee: Casio Computer Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masamitsu Kishigami
  • Patent number: 5657139
    Abstract: An array substrate for a flat-panel display device includes a glass substrate, a display section formed on the glass substrate and having pixel electrodes arrayed in row and column directions, pixel TFTs connected to the pixel electrodes for controlling the potentials thereof, and wiring lines including scan lines and signal lines which are connected to the pixel TFTs and extending to a removable area outside the display section, a short-circuit line formed in the removable area, surge-protection switch circuits formed in the removable area and connected between the short-circuit line and the wiring lines, each for electrically connecting a corresponding one of the wiring lines to the short-circuit line when the potential of the corresponding wiring line exceeds a predetermined level, and test pads formed in the removable area and connected to the wiring lines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Hisaaki Hayashi
  • Patent number: 5648858
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device in which a back light is arranged below a liquid crystal display panel having a plurality of pixels arrayed on a transparent substrate surface and in which a prism plate having a plurality of stripe grooves arrayed in parallel is arranged between the liquid crystal display panel and the back light. If the stripe grooves has a pitch .lambda..sub.1 (mm) and if the pixels in parallel with the stripe grooves has a pitch .lambda..sub.2 (mm), the liquid crystal display device is constructed to satisfy a relation of .lambda..sub.1 .ltoreq.0.075.lambda..sub.2 /(.lambda..sub.2 +0.075). This construction can increase the brightness of the back light and prevent the interference fringes from being formed on the display frame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignees: Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Device Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsuhiko Shibata, Yoshio Toriyama, Naoto Kobayashi, Shiro Ueda
  • Patent number: 5610743
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display having an improved angular distribution for emerging radiation is described, together with a method for manufacturing it. This was achieved by forming patterns, one per pixel, of concentric annuli in one of the orientation layers and radial spokes in the other orientation layer. This guarantees that there is a wide range in the orientations of the twisted nematics, leading to an improved angular distribution for the emerging radiation. The invention is applicable to both monochrome as well as color displays and may also be used as a way to adjust, during manufacturing, the angular distribution of the emerging light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1997
    Assignee: United Microelectronics Corporation
    Inventor: Meng-Jin Tsai
  • Patent number: 5600457
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a dispersion type liquid crystal electro-optical device comprising liquid crystal droplets of uniform size without impairing the scattering properties. The present invention realizes a liquid crystal electro-optical device having excellent scattering properties which is achieved by increasing or decreasing the fraction of the organic constituent of the light-transmitting resin material without changing the amount of the liquid crystal and the number and density of the liquid crystal droplets so that the light scattering properties of the device may not be impaired, and thereby controlling the precipitation temperature of the liquid crystal droplets from the mixture to the vicinity of a temperature convenient in the fabrication, so that the solidification temperature of the resin material can be set at the vicinity of that temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Michio Shimizu, Kouji Moriya, Takeshi Nishi, Toshimitsu Konuma
  • Patent number: 5600456
    Abstract: A transmission liquid crystal display comprises a liquid crystal panel including at least two substrates spaced apart from one another through spacers to confine a liquid crystal between the two substrates; a surface light source provided at a first side of the liquid crystal panel; and an optical diffusion lens having a plate-like shape provided at a second side of the liquid crystal panel, the lens having first and second surfaces, the first surface facing to a display screen and the second surface facing to a liquid crystal panel, entire parts of the first surface is flat, and the second surface comprises alternating flat portions and convex or concave portions having a predetermined curvature, the convex or concave portions having a difference in level of a top portion thereof from the flat portions, the convex or concave portions being arranged at a predetermined pitch, wherein a ratio of the difference in level to the pitch is in the range from 2.9:10 to 0.8:10.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Muneo Maruyama, Koji Kashimoto
  • Patent number: 5598285
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device has a plurality of pixel elements, the optical transmissivity of which is varied by suitable electrical signals. The liquid crystal display device has electrodes which apply electric fields to a liquid crystal layer, the electric fields having components in a direction generally parallel to the liquid crystal layer. Each pixel element has at least one pixel electrode which extends in a common direction as a signal electrode and common electrodes which extend over several pixel elements. The common electrodes may be on the same side of the liquid crystal layer as the pixel and signal electrodes, or they may be on opposite sides. Each pixel may have two pixel electrodes with the signal electrode disposed therebetween, and there are then a pair of common electrodes with the pixel electrodes therebetween. The common electrodes may be common to adjacent pixel elements. The pixel electrodes and the common electrodes may be separated by an insulating film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsumi Kondo, Hiromu Terao, Hidetoshi Abe, Masuyuki Ohta, Kenkichi Suzuki, Tohru Sasaki, Genshiro Kawachi, Junichi Ohwada
  • Patent number: 5596431
    Abstract: A method for making an electrical device such as a PALC display device, and the electrical device or PALC device so made, in which a channel plate is provided with substantially vertical side walls, and the electrodes are formed by a self-aligning anisotropic plasma etching process which requires no photolithography. A similar process may be used to form a fanout region for individual contacting of channel electrodes. For improved contacting, preferably the fanout region is also channelled and an upstanding structure such as columns provided in the fanout channels so that the spaces between the columns and between the columns and the side walls are filled up with deposited metal that remains following the anisotropic etching process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 21, 1997
    Assignee: Philips Electronics North America Corp.
    Inventors: Petrus F. G. Bongaerts, Jacob Bruinink, Adrianus L. J. Burgmans, Henri R. J. R. Van Helleputte, Babar A. Khan, Karel E. Kuijk
  • Patent number: 5596432
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display having nonlinear resistance elements. Liquid crystal is held between a first substrate and a second substrate. A first electrode and a second electrode are formed on the first substrate, and a nonlinear resistance element is formed in an area in which the first and second electrodes are opposite to each other via an insulating film. Light emission means for emitting light to the nonlinear resistance element is also contained. Light is emitted to the nonlinear resistance element area by the light emission means to improve asymmetry of the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the nonlinear resistance element for providing improved display quaility of the liquid crystal display.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 21, 1997
    Assignee: Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kanetaka Sekiguchi
  • Patent number: 5594567
    Abstract: A spatial light modulator having a photoconductor, a matrix of reflectors and a modulating layer is disclosed. The portions of the photoconductor in between the reflectors have a smaller photoconductivity than those portions under the reflectors. The reduced photoconductivity can be made, for example, by doping the photoconductor while using the reflectors as a mask or by illuminating the photoconductor with a light of 360 joules/cm.sup.2. The photoconductor in between the reflectors may be grooved, The photoconductor can be a superlattice photoconductor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1997
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koji Akiyama, Akio Takimoto, Hisahito Ogawa
  • Patent number: 5592316
    Abstract: In an LCD internal reflections are reduced by giving the inner side of a metal pattern functioning, for example as a light shield (black matrix) a porous structure. The porous structure is obtained by means of a sputtering process in which the sputtering pressure is increased for providing the porous sub-layer, while the layer is etched and/or oxidized to obtain a satisfactory density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1997
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Teunis J. Vink, Willem Walrave
  • Patent number: 5589963
    Abstract: A novel normally-white dual-domain twisted nematic liquid crystal display exhibits dramatically improved contrast and gray scale linearity stability over a wide range of viewing angles as compared to conventional dual-domain twisted nematic displays. The display incorporates one or more pixelated compensator layers internal to the liquid crystal cell. A pixelated compensator layer has a pattern wherein the orientation or retardation of the compensator layer varies according to the tilt domain structure of the display's liquid crystal material. Such a pixelated compensator layer allows optimal compensation for each of the differently oriented liquid crystal tilt domains. The pixelated compensator layer(s), and possibly one or more non-pixelated compensator layers, may be deposited on either a display's active matrix substrate or its (passive) color filter substrate, or a combination thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1996
    Inventors: William J. Gunning, III, Bruce K. Winker, Gene C. Koch
  • Patent number: 5583681
    Abstract: A liquid crystal apparatus includes: a liquid crystal panel, an illumination means for illuminating the liquid crystal panel, a supporting means for supporting the liquid crystal panel and a housing for housing the above members. The liquid crystal panel and the supporting means are arranged so as to define an almost closed space functioning as an air damper to suppress deformation caused by an externally applied force owing to elasticity of air within the almost closed space. The supporting means includes a unit-supporting portion for supporting the illumination means, the unit-supporting portion being provided with a cutout at a part thereof for promoting discharge of heat evolved from the illumination means, and, the illumination means is supported by the unit-supporting portion so as to stop up the cutout of the unit-supporting portion, thus retaining the almost closed space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1996
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yasushi Shioya, Hisao Tajima, Hiroshi Takabayashi, Toshiaki Itazawa, Masanori Takahashi, Kenji Niibori
  • Patent number: 5583680
    Abstract: A ferroelectric liquid crystal device is constituted by a pair of substrates disposed parallel to each other and each having on its inner surface an electrode, an insulating film and an alignment control film, and a ferroelectric liquid crystal disposed between the substrates. The alignment control films on the pair of substrates are provided with uniaxial alignment axes in directions which are substantially parallel and opposite to each other. The ferroelectric liquid crystal is placed in an alignment state showing a pretilt angle .alpha. of 5 degrees <.alpha.<45 degrees formed by transition from a bistable state giving a lower apparent tilt angle to a bistable state giving a higher apparent tilt angle, the action of mechanical or electrical means, such as application of ultrasonic treatment, static load or AC electric field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1996
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Katsutoshi Nakamura, Yukio Hanyu
  • Patent number: 5579137
    Abstract: A process for fabricating a liquid crystal electro-optical device which includes injecting a liquid crystal material or a mixture of a liquid crystal material and an uncured resin material into a liquid crystal cell. The cell preferably includes, at least, a pair of light-transmitting substrates disposed opposed to each other such that the electrodes placed on the inner surfaces thereof face each other, a uniaxial aligning material provided on the inner surface of at least one of the pair of light-transmitting substrates and a sealing material for sealing the margin of the pair of light-transmitting substrates except for a filling hole. The process basically includes the steps of mounting the liquid crystal material or mixture in the vicinity of the filling hole and covering the liquid crystal material or the mixture that is mounted in the vicinity of the filling hole before injection with a sheet-like substance such that the liquid crystal material or the mixture is not covered completely.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1996
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Michio Shimizu
  • Patent number: 5579136
    Abstract: In an optical information processor, phase-type spatial modulation of light is achieved by placing a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell between two polarizers, such that a direction of alignment of liquid crystal molecules at an input side of the liquid crystal cell is parallel to a transmission access of a first one of the polarizers, and such that a direction of alignment liquid crystal molecules at an output side of the liquid crystal cell is parallel to a transmission access of a second one of the polarizers. Also, phase modulation which is substantially free from amplitude variations can be realized by placing two twisted nematic liquid crystal cells between two polarizers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1996
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Atsushi Fukui, Kanji Nishii, Masami Ito
  • Patent number: 5576867
    Abstract: An electro-optical display device comprising a liquid crystal layer achieves switching using an electric field component which is predominantly parallel to the surface of the liquid crystal layer. Low dependence of image contrast on viewing angle is achieved by selection of parameters including orientation angle .beta..sub.o and pretilt angle .alpha..sub.o of the liquid crystal molecules in the layer. For example, good results are achieved when 0.degree.<.beta..sub.o .ltoreq.20.degree. for liquid crystal molecules having negative dielectric anisotropy and 70.degree..ltoreq..beta..sub.o <90.degree. for molecules having positive dielectric anisotropy. Preferably, 0.degree..ltoreq..alpha..sub.o <30.degree..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Gunter Baur, Waltraud Fehrenbach, Barbara Weber nee Staudacher, Friedrich Windscheid, Rudolf Kiefer
  • Patent number: 5576865
    Abstract: A large-sized liquid crystal panel uniformly filled with a liquid crystal material may be produced through a process including the steps of: fixing a pair of substrates with a sealing member disposed therebetween to form a blank panel having an injection port, reducing a pressure within the panel, applying a liquid crystal material onto the injection port, heating the liquid crystal material to its isotropic temperature, injecting the liquid crystal material into the panel under a pressure, and filling the panel with the liquid crystal material under heating and pressurization from the injection port toward the panel inside. The pressure within the panel before the injection is reduced at a rate not exceeding 25 torr/min. The pressure for injection is increased at varying rates, e.g., with an intermediate constant pressure period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yasuyuki Watanabe, Kazuya Ishiwata, Masaaki Suzuki, Noriyuki Nakai, Takashi Enomoto, Naoya Nishida, Tatsuo Murata, Mutsuo Mitsui, Masayuki Shimamune
  • Patent number: 5576857
    Abstract: An improved liquid crystal display is described. The display comprises a liquid crystal panel provided with an active matrix circuit for driving the panel. A plurality of pixels are defined in a matrix in the liquid crystal panel. The pixels on the odd rows and the pixels on the even rows are located in the opposite sides of the column lines through which data signals are supplied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yasuhiko Takemura