Abstract: The argon recovery obtainable from a dual pressure cryogenic air distillation plant for production of high purity oxygen is increased beyond present levels without offsetting incurrence of detriments such as lower O.sub.2 pressure, lower O.sub.2 or N.sub.2 recovery, less liquid recovery, or increased energy. This is done by providing an intermediate reflux condenser (component 8 of FIG. 1) in the argon sidearm 2b, and providing liquid N.sub.2 via valve 9 to said condenser, thereby increasing the reboil up both argon stripper 2a and the lower section of 2b proportional to the amount of LN.sub.2 evaporated in 8.
Abstract: A solid fuel combustion chamber combusts the fuel utilizing underfire and overfire air. Both the underfire and overfire air derive from a common intake port, with a controllable vane determining the ratio between the two air sources. Gas flow from the solid fuel combustion chamber enters a gas combustion chamber designed to produce turbulence and thereby promote further combustion. The gas flow is then accelerated in a gas flow chamber and directed to the circulating fluid carrying tubes of a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger includes a condensation chamber which extracts sufficient heat from the gas flow to produce a condensate. An injection system superheats the condensate and injects it into the solid fuel combustion chamber to thereby reduce residue accumulation.
Abstract: Initially moist metal hydroxide sludge is formed into a suitable mass, such as sludge cakes (2) which are fed downwardly in a hopper (1) and pressed into the cells (7) of a multi-cellular moving metal belt (5) in a two-stage process. The first stage deposits the sludge roughly into the cells, while the second stage compresses and compacts the deposited sludge tightly into the cells so that the sludge is in intimate contact with the cell walls throughout each cell. The sludge-filled belt is passed through a dryer (3) whereby the belt is subject to indirect, rather than direct, heating. More particularly, the belt passes through an enclosed muffle (21) and is caused to be in direct heat-exchanging contact with the bottom muffle wall (23). The latter wall is heated from beneath and outside the muffle chamber, as by heated air jets.
Abstract: A system for receiving and removing contaminants from soil, sand, etc. which has been contaminated by liquid contaminants. The contaminated material is heated in a rotating chamber sufficiently to volatilize the contaminants. The volatilized contaminents flow from one end of the chamber while the separated material is discharged from the other end as an uncontaminated material. Dust is removed from the volatilized contaminants and they are fed into a combustion chamber for conversion to harmless products of combustion.
Abstract: A system and a process are provided for cooling a natural gas feed to an aluminum heat exchanger to protect it from mercury damage and increase productivity. A multi-stage vaporization system is employed wherein the last stage or lowest pressure heat exchanger is provided with a propane ejector. This allows the last stage heat exchanger to operate at a very low pressure without unduly reducing the pressure within other parts of the system. The last stage heat exchanger is accordingly able to sufficiently reduce the temperature of the feed to the aluminum heat exchanger to protect against mercury contamination. In addition, the decreased heat transfer load of the aluminum heat exchanger leads to an increase in the LNG production rate.
Abstract: In order to be able to handle multiple fuels in a bubbling-bed fluidized bed combustor, a number of elements are combined together and a number of systems are described which utilize these elements in order to be able to appropriately process different types of fuels. With respect to the handling of multiple fuels by a bubbling-bed fluidized bed combustor which need not be reconfigured for each type of fuel, the combustor in the subject invention is provided with a closely-coupled pyrolyzer or gasifier. The close-coupled pyrolyzer not only permits the processing of virtually any type of fuel into two fuel streams which are immediately usable by the combustor but also has certain advantages in terms of reducing environmental pollutants. The above-mentioned close-coupled pyrolyzer also results in improved performance aside from the pollution aspects mentioned above.
Abstract: In a process and apparatus for air separation by rectification air 1 is preliminarily separated in a first rectification stage 2 of a two-stage rectification column to obtain a nitrogen-rich fraction 4 and an oxygen-rich fraction 8. These two fractions are fed to the second rectification stage 6 and separated into oxygen and nitrogen fractions. An argon-enriched fraction, containing essentially oxygen and argon, is removed from the second rectification stage at an intermediate point and is separated in a raw argon column 10 by rectification into an argon-rich fraction 18 and a liquid fraction 19 containing essentially oxygen. The liquid fraction 19 is fed back into the second rectification stage. Another fraction 22 is removed from the raw argon column above the bottom thereof and is separated in a high-purity oxygen column 23 to produce a high-purity oxygen fraction 25, 26 and a lighter residual fraction 24.
Abstract: Normally wasted heat from the pilot burner and flue of a fuel fired hot water heater is used to preheat the water supplied to the main tank. An auxilliary storage tank receives incoming cold water. Water from the storage tank circulates through a conduit loop which extends in a spiral pattern through the flue and also through a special heat exchanger which concentrates heat generated by the pilot burner. The water that is preheated in the conduit loop is returned to the storage tank for storage until required by the main tank, at which time the preheated water is delivered to the main tank through a transfer conduit. Alternative embodiments are arranged to effect automatic flushing of the conduit loop when hot water is withdrawn from the main tank.
Abstract: Taught is an air guide box for stabilizing the run of a web, for instance a paper web, specifically for the drying section of a paper machine. The air guide box is connected to a blowing air supply and extends transverse to the running direction of the paper web. The paper web proceeds, preferably together with a backing belt, from one drying cylinder to another drying cylinder. A first wall of the air guide box, viewed in cross section, extends along the paper web or the backing belt forming a first gap therewith. A second wall extends along the cylinder surface of the first drying cylinder. Provided in the first wall is an opening which extends across the length of the air guide box and serves to remove the air from the first gap into the interior of the air guide box. Said opening is connected with an intake line of the blowing air supply.
Abstract: Process and apparatus to produce argon at high recovery with nitrogen at higher than conventional pressure comprising three columns wherein first column bottoms are passed into the second column, second column bottoms drive a third column top condenser, and argon-containing fluid is passed for separation into the third column from the second column at a point intermediate the points where first column bottoms enter and second column bottoms exit the second column.
Abstract: Conventional liquified natural gas (LNG) plants are designed to eliminate moisture and up to 1.0% by volume of carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) present in gas delivered by pipelines. Pipelines can no longer be expected to supply gas with such a low CO.sub.2 content. The invention pretreates gas with as much as 1.5% to 3.5% by volume of CO.sub.2 so that it becomes acceptable to LNG plants. The pretreatment involves scrubbing natural gas with cold methanol at a temperature below -30.degree. F. and flashing absorbed CO.sub.2 from methanol withdrawn from the scrubber by passing it through a pressure-reducing valve, followed by two successive warming flashings of CO.sub.2. Then, the methanol can be recycled to the scrubber. Required refrigeration is supplied to the methanol entering or leaving the scrubber.
Abstract: A refrigerator has a reciprocation portion including a piston and a portion of a linear motor and having an angular resonance frequency W defined by the following equation: ##EQU1## where m=total mass of the reciprocation portionSp=area of a working surface of the pistonPa=amplitude of pressure variation of a working gas in a compression space of the refrigerator.alpha.=phase difference between a displacement of the piston and pressure variation of the working gas in the compression spaceS=stroke of the pistonKs=spring constant of a support spring of the pistonand an a.c. power source for driving the reciprocation portion, the power source has an angular frequency W.sub.o substantially equal to said angular frequency W with an acceptable error therebetween being .+-.10%.
Abstract: A system for the destruction of organic waste material such as halogenated organic compounds, e.g., PCB's and related waste organic matter, comprises subjecting the waste material to reduction with a gaseous reducing agent, preferably hydrogen, at a temperature above about 600.degree. C. and thereafter subjecting the hot reaction mixture thus obtained to oxidation with a gaseous oxidizing agent at a temperature above about 1000.degree. C. The combined reduction followed by immediate oxidation is effective in achieving substantially complete breakdown of the halogenated compounds to substantially non-noxious gases. The system includes a reduction vessel wherein hydrogen is used directly in intimate mixing relation with the pulverized waste material, and after completion of a residence time sufficient to reduce the organic compounds, the gaseous by-products pass to an adjacent combustor for oxidation therein.
Abstract: A water absorption controlled dehydrating device which comprises covering a high osmotic pressure substance and a water soluble thickening agent with a supporting material provided at least partly with a water-permeable semipermeable membrane.
Abstract: A multiple purpose instantaneous gas water heater comprises a combination of a larger combustion capacity type first burner with a smaller combustion capacity type second burner. Each of the burners can be controlled by a proportional combustion control method and/or an intermittent combustion control method. It is possible to combine these functions within a microcomputer system so as to use each or both burners selectively, or both together, so that it is possible to select water from a wide range of hot water temperatures or to select a target temperature.
Abstract: A ventilator has a body in which an air-intake passage for introducing outdoor-air indoors and an air-discharge passage for introducing indoor-air outdoors are defined. An air-intake fan and an air-discharge fan are arranged in the passages, respectively. A filter is provided in the air-intake passage to filtrate air flowing through the air-intake passage. The flow resistance in the air-discharge passage is set higher than that in the air-intake passage.
Abstract: Composite tube for heating gases to very high temperatures, in particular for generating steam, comprising at least one internal combustion or heating tube (6), an external reinforcement (3) which surrounds the internal tube (6) and spacer means (2,5) for separating the internal tube (6) from the external reinforcement, in which the materials of the internal tube (6) are resistant to the milieus of the heating gases coming into contact with this tube. A jacket tube (1) may be placed between the internal combustion or heating tube (6) and the external reinforcement (3). In the composite tube of this invention the heating tube wall thickness can be reduced and higher temperatures and heat flows can be achieved than hitherto possible.
Abstract: The invention discloses process and apparatus for separating high purity oxygen and crude argon from air by fractional distillation. The improvement, which applies to both dual pressure and triple pressure configurations, entails maximizing the distillation efficiency of both the HP rectifier (2 of FIG. 1) and the LP N.sub.2 rectifier (1a and 1b) by feeding precisely correct quantities of liquid air reflux to each via respective valves (6) and (8). In order to efficiently produce the required amount of liquid air, liquid oxygen at least 0.2 ATA above LP column pressure is evaporated by two air condensers: a total condenser (22) and a partial condenser (23).
Abstract: An improved charging process for an enclosure for melting materials such as blast furnace slags or basaltic glasses. The supply of combustive gas is carried out nonuniformly in order to create a gas circulation velocity gradient in the section of the cupola corresponding to the level of the tap hole, with the lowest circulation velocities meeting in the vicinity of the tap hole.
Abstract: The invention discloses method and apparatus for achieving higher O.sub.2 delivery pressure coupled with high product recovery in cryogenic air distillation plants, without additional power consumption. Products include high purity oxygen plus coproduct argon, or medium purity oxygen plus optional coproduct nitrogen. Compander driven compressor (5) boosts the pressure of a minor fraction of air which totally condenses to evaporate LOX in evaporator (6), and liquid air is split into 2 intermediate refluxes.