Patents by Inventor George Barbastathis

George Barbastathis has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20200348466
    Abstract: An integrated optical beam steering device includes a planar Luneburg lens that collimates beams from different inputs in different directions within the lens plane. It also includes a curved (e.g., semi-circular or arced) grating coupler that diffracts the collimated beams out of the lens plane. The beams can be steered in the plane by controlling the direction along which the lens is illuminated and out of the plane by varying the beam wavelength. Unlike other beam steering devices, this device can operate over an extremely wide field of view—up to 180°—without any aberrations off boresight. In other words, the beam quality is uniform in all directions, unlike with aplanatic lenses, thanks to the circular symmetry of the planar Luneburg lens, which may be composed of subwavelength features. The lens is also robust to misalignment and fabrication imperfections and can be made using standard CMOS processes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2020
    Publication date: November 5, 2020
    Inventors: Josue Lopez, Samuel Kim, Jamison Sloan, Boris KHARAS, Jeffrey Scott HERD, Paul William JUODAWLKIS, Marin SOLJACIC, Cheryl Marie SORACE-AGASKAR, Suraj Deepak BRAMHAVAR, Steven Glenn JOHNSON, George BARBASTATHIS
  • Publication number: 20200085392
    Abstract: System and method for nanoscale X-ray imaging of biological specimen. The imaging system comprises an X-ray source including a plurality of spatially and temporally addressable electron sources, an X-ray detector arranged such that incident X-rays are oriented normal to an incident surface of the X-ray detector and a stage arranged between the X-ray source and the X-ray detector, the stage configured to have mounted thereon a biological specimen through which X-rays generated by the X-ray source pass during operation of the imaging system. The imaging system further comprises at least one controller configured to move the stage during operation of the imaging system and selectively activate a subset of the electron sources during movement of the stage to acquire a set of intensity data by the X-ray detector as the stage moves along a three-dimensional trajectory.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 14, 2019
    Publication date: March 19, 2020
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Richard C. Lanza, Berthold Klaus Paul Horn, Akintunde I. Akinwande, George Barbastathis, Rajiv Gupta
  • Patent number: 10478802
    Abstract: Titania-based porous nanoparticle coatings are mechanically robust, with low haze, which exhibit short time scales for decomposition of fingerprint oils under ultraviolet light. The mechanism by which a typical dactylogram is consumed combines wicking of the sebum into the nanoporous titania structure followed by photocatalytic degradation. These TiO2 nanostructured surfaces are also anti-fogging, anti-bacterial, and compatible with flexible glass substrates and remain photocatalytically active in natural sunlight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2019
    Assignee: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Robert E. Cohen, Michael F. Rubner, Gareth H. McKinley, George Barbastathis, Hyungryul Johnny Choi, Kyu Chul Park, Hyo Min Lee
  • Publication number: 20190206652
    Abstract: System and method for imaging an integrated circuit (IC). The imaging system comprises an x-ray source including a plurality of spatially and temporally addressable electron sources, an x-ray detector arranged such that incident x-rays are oriented normal to an incident surface of the x-ray detector and a three-axis stage arranged between the x-ray source and the x-ray detector, the three-axis stage configured to have mounted thereon an integrated circuit through which x-rays generated by the x-ray source pass during operation of the imaging system. The imaging system further comprises at least one controller configured to move the three-axis stage during operation of the imaging system and selectively activate a subset of the electron sources during movement of the three-axis stage to acquire a set of intensity data by the x-ray detector as the three-axis stage moves along a three-dimensional trajectory.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 15, 2017
    Publication date: July 4, 2019
    Applicants: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Science Reseach Laboratory, Inc.
    Inventors: Akintunde I. Akinwande, Berthold Klaus Paul Horn, Richard C. Lanza, George Barbastathis, Rajiv Gupta, Jonah Jacob
  • Patent number: 9684106
    Abstract: A volume holographic imaging system, apparatus, and/or method enables the projection of a two-dimensional (2D) slice of a four-dimensional (4D) probing object. A 4D probing source object is illuminated to emit or scatter an optical field. A holographic element having one or more recorded holograms receives and diffracts the optical field into a diffracted plane beam having spectral information. A 4-f telecentric relay system includes a pupil filter on the relayed conjugate plane of the volume hologram and images the pupil of the volume hologram onto the front focal plane of the collector lens. A collector lens focuses the diffracted plane beam to a 2D slice of the 4D probing source object. The focused 2D slice is projected onto a 2D imaging plane. The holographic element may have multiple multiplexed holograms that are arranged to diffract light from the corresponding slice of the 4D probing source object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2017
    Assignees: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Arizona Board of Regents on Behalf of the University of Arizona
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Yuan Luo, Raymond K. Kostuk, Jennifer K. Barton
  • Patent number: 9684282
    Abstract: A volume holographic imaging system, apparatus, and/or method enables the projection of a two-dimensional (2D) slice of a four-dimensional (4D) probing object. A 4D probing source object is illuminated to emit or scatter an optical field. A holographic element having one or more recorded holograms receives and diffracts the optical field into a diffracted plane beam having spectral information. A 4-f telecentric relay system includes a pupil filter on the relayed conjugate plane of the volume hologram and images the pupil of the volume hologram onto the front focal plane of the collector lens. A collector lens focuses the diffracted plane beam to a 2D slice of the 4D probing source object. The focused 2D slice is projected onto a 2D imaging plane. The holographic element may have multiple multiplexed holograms that are arranged to diffract light from the corresponding slice of the 4D probing source object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2017
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Yuan Luo, Se Baek Oh
  • Patent number: 9469083
    Abstract: Inverted Nanocone Structures and Its Fabrication Process. The method of fabricating nanotextured structures includes making a master mold having an array of tapered structures to be replicated. The master mold is pressed into a curable polymer supported on a substrate and the polymer is cured. Thereafter, the mold is detached from the cured polymer to form the nanotextured structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2016
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Hyungryul Choi, Jeong-gil Kim, Kyoo Chul Park, Robert E. Cohen, Gareth H. McKinley, George Barbastathis
  • Patent number: 9448219
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention relates to an ultrathin micro-electromechanical chemical sensing device which uses swelling or straining of a reactive organic material for sensing. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a contact on-off switch chemical sensor. For example, the device can comprises a small gap separating two electrodes, wherein the gap can be closed as a result of the swelling or stressing of an organic polymer coating on one or both sides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the swelling or stressing is due to the organic polymer reacting with a target analyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2016
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: William Jay Arora, Karen K. Gleason, George Barbastathis, Wyatt E. Tenhaeff
  • Patent number: 9360611
    Abstract: A volume holographic imaging system, apparatus and/or method enables the projection of a two-dimensional (2D) slice of a four-dimensional (4D) probing object A 4D probing source object is illuminated to emit or scatter an optical field. A holographic element having one or more recorded holograms receives and diffracts the optical field into a diffracted plane beam having spectral information. A 4-ftelecentric relay system includes a pupil filter on the relayed conjugate plane of the volume hologram and images the pupil of the volume hologram onto the front focal plane of the collector lens. A collector lens focuses the diffracted plane beam to a 2D slice of the 4D probing source object. The focused 2D slice is projected onto a 2D imaging plane. The holographic element may have multiple multiplexed holograms that are arranged to diffract light from the corresponding slice of the 4D probing source object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2016
    Assignees: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Arizona Board of Regents on Behalf of the University of Arizona
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Yuan Luo, Se Baek Oh, Jennifer K. Barton, Raymond K. Kostuk
  • Patent number: 9256202
    Abstract: A volume holographic imaging system enables the projection of a two-dimensional (2D) slice of a four-dimensional (4D) object. The 4D source object is illuminated to emit or scatter an optical field. A holographic element having one or more recorded holograms receives and diffracts the optical field into a diffracted plane beam. A phase mask is encoded in one or more multiplexed holographic gratings of the holographic element using a spatial filter. A collector lens focuses the diffracted plane beam to a 2D slice of the 4D probing source object. The focused 2D slice is projected onto a 2D imaging plane. The holographic element may have multiple multiplexed holograms that are arranged to diffract light from a corresponding slice of the 4D probing source object to a non-overlapping region of the detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2016
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Yuan Luo
  • Patent number: 9120669
    Abstract: Fabrication method. At least first and second hardmasks are deposited on a substrate, the thickness and materials of the first and second hardmask selected to provided etch selectivity with respect to the substrate. A nanoscale pattern of photoresist is created on the first hardmask and the hardmask is etched through to create the nanoscale pattern on a second hardmask. The second hardmask is etched through to create the desired taper nanocone structures in the substrate. Reactive ion etching is preferred. A glass manufacturing process using a roller imprint module is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2015
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Hyungryul Choi, Chih-Hao Chang, Kyoo Chul Park, Gareth H McKinley, George Barbastathis, Jeong-gil Kim
  • Publication number: 20140336039
    Abstract: Titania-based porous nanoparticle coatings are mechanically robust, with low haze, which exhibit short time scales for decomposition of fingerprint oils under ultraviolet light. The mechanism by which a typical dactylogram is consumed combines wicking of the sebum into the nanoporous titania structure followed by photocatalytic degradation. These TiO2 nanostructured surfaces are also anti-fogging, anti-bacterial, and compatible with flexible glass substrates and remain photocatalytically active in natural sunlight.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2014
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Applicant: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Robert E. COHEN, Michael F. RUBNER, Gareth H. MCKINLEY, George BARBASTATHIS, Hyungryul Johnny CHOI, Kyoo Chul PARK, Hyomin LEE
  • Publication number: 20140127822
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention relates to an ultrathin micro-electromechanical chemical sensing device which uses swelling or straining of a reactive organic material for sensing. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a contact on-off switch chemical sensor. For example, the device can comprises a small gap separating two electrodes, wherein the gap can be closed as a result of the swelling or stressing of an organic polymer coating on one or both sides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the swelling or stressing is due to the organic polymer reacting with a target analyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 14, 2013
    Publication date: May 8, 2014
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: William Jay Arora, Karen K. Gleason, George Barbastathis, Wyatt E. Tenhaeff
  • Publication number: 20140010994
    Abstract: Inverted Nanocone Structures and Its Fabrication Process. The method of fabricating nanotextured structures includes making a master mold having an array of tapered structures to be replicated. The master mold is pressed into a curable polymer supported on a substrate and the polymer is cured. Thereafter, the mold is detached from the cured polymer to form the nanotextured structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2013
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Hyungryul Choi, Jeong-gil Kim, Kyoo Chul Park, Robert E. Cohen, Gareth H. McKinley, George Barbastathis
  • Publication number: 20130171738
    Abstract: A chemical sensor that works while being submerged in a highly conductive medium is described. The chemical sensor includes hydrophobic structures that are distributed on conductive electrodes and are separated by small air cavities while submerged in the conductive medium. The hydrophobic structures are arranged such that their hydrophobicity varies in response to exposure to a target analyte. The change in the level of hydrophobicity results in permeation of the conductive liquid on to the conductive electrodes, thereby reducing the resistance levels between the conductive electrodes. The sensor indicates presence of the target analyte in response to detection of a change in resistance between at least two of the conductive electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2011
    Publication date: July 4, 2013
    Applicant: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Hyungryul Johnny Choi, Ayse Asatekin Alexiou, Se Young Yang, Christy D. Petruczok, Karen K. Gleason, Nicholas M. Patrikalakis, George Barbastathis
  • Patent number: 8441081
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention relates to an ultrathin micro-electromechanical chemical sensing device which uses swelling or straining of a reactive organic material for sensing. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a contact on-off switch chemical sensor. For example, the device can comprises a small gap separating two electrodes, wherein the gap can be closed as a result of the swelling or stressing of an organic polymer coating on one or both sides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the swelling or stressing is due to the organic polymer reacting with a target analyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Inventors: William Jay Arora, Karen K. Gleason, George Barbastathis, Wyatt E. Tenhaeff
  • Patent number: 8432553
    Abstract: Phase differences associated with a defocused wavefront can be determined from a single color image. The color image, which is a measurement of intensity as a function of wavelength, is used to calculate the change in intensity with respect to wavelength over the image plane. The change in intensity can then be used to estimate a phase difference associated with the defocused wavefront using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform solvers. The phase difference can be used to infer information about objects in the path of the defocused wavefront. For example, it can be used to determine an object's shape, surface profile, or refractive index profile. It can also be used to calculate path length differences for actuating adaptive optical systems. Compared to other techniques, deriving phase from defocused color images is faster, simpler, and can be implemented using standard color filters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Laura A. Waller, George Barbastathis
  • Patent number: 8427630
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a semiconductor manufacturing apparatus. The semiconductor manufacturing apparatus precisely adjusts the position and size of a light spot formed on a substrate, enabling formation of a target pattern or elimination of an unnecessary pattern in an accurate and rapid manner. The semiconductor manufacturing apparatus includes a light source, a light modulator to modulate light irradiated from the light source into a plurality of beams to correspond to a target pattern, a diffraction element to adjust a direction of each of the plurality of beams, and an optics system to allow the plurality of beams, the direction of which has been controlled by the diffraction element, to form a light spot having a target size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2013
    Assignees: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Jose Antonio Dominguez-Caballero, Sung Jin Lee, Satoshi Takahashi
  • Publication number: 20130025322
    Abstract: Fabrication method. At least first and second hardmasks are deposited on a substrate, the thickness and materials of the first and second hardmask selected to provided etch selectivity with respect to the substrate. A nanoscale pattern of photoresist is created on the first hardmask and the hardmask is etched through to create the nanoscale pattern on a second hardmask. The second hardmask is etched through to create the desired taper nanocone structures in the substrate. Reactive ion etching is preferred. A glass manufacturing process using a roller imprint module is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 13, 2012
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Hyungryul Choi, Chih-Hao Chang, Kyoo Chul Park, Gareth H. McKinley, George Barbastathis, Jeong-gil Kim
  • Publication number: 20120327489
    Abstract: A volume holographic imaging system, apparatus, and/or method enables the projection of a two-dimensional (2D) slice of a four-dimensional (4D) probing object. A 4D probing source object is illuminated to emit or scatter an optical field. A holographic element having one or more recorded holograms receives and diffracts the optical field into a diffracted plane beam having spectral information. A 4-f telecentric relay system includes a pupil filter on the relayed conjugate plane of the volume hologram and images the pupil of the volume hologram onto the front focal plane of the collector lens. A collector lens focuses the diffracted plane beam to a 2D slice of the 4D probing source object. The focused 2D slice is projected onto a 2D imaging plane. The holographic element may have multiple multiplexed holograms that are arranged to diffract light from the corresponding slice of the 4D probing source object.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Applicant: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: George Barbastathis, Yuan Luo, Se Baek Oh