Patents by Inventor Teodor K. Todorov

Teodor K. Todorov has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20170065505
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for controlling zinc oxide particle size for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A method includes manipulating the size of multiple zinc oxide particles to be below a maximum threshold; selecting one or more media to be used in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the refractive index of each of the media; and integrating the manipulated zinc oxide particles into the selected media to create the sunscreen composition. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles, wherein each of the zinc oxide particles is (i) coated with an optical coating material and (ii) of a size that is below a maximum threshold; and a medium layer within which the zinc oxide particles are suspended, wherein the medium layer comprises a mixture of one or more media, and wherein each of the media has a refractive index below a predetermined threshold.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065506
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for doping ZnO particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A method includes selecting one or more dopants to be incorporated into one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein the one or more dopants comprise chromium, cobalt, gallium, and/or tin, and wherein said selecting is based on one or more optical properties associated with each of the dopants, and incorporating the selected dopants into the zinc oxide particles to create the sunscreen composition. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and one or more dopants incorporated into each of the multiple zinc oxide particles, wherein the one or more dopants comprise chromium, cobalt, gallium, and/or tin, and wherein each of the dopants imparts one or more optical properties to the zinc oxide particle within which the dopant is incorporated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065501
    Abstract: Nitride-based nanoparticles for use in sunscreen applications provided herein. A method includes selecting one or more nitride-based nanoparticles to serve as a core material in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on a desired absorption spectrum of the sunscreen composition, and adjusting an amount of at least one element present within the nitride-based nanoparticles to achieve one or more user-defined optical characteristics with respect to the core material in the sunscreen composition. A composition includes one or more nitride-based nanoparticles constituting a core material in a sunscreen composition, wherein said nitride-based nanoparticles are selected based on a desired absorption spectrum of the sunscreen composition, and wherein an amount of at least one element present within the nitride-based nanoparticles is adjustable to achieve one or more user-defined optical characteristics.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065503
    Abstract: Notch filter coatings for use in sunscreen applications are provided herein. An exemplary composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition; and a combination of multiple notch filter coating materials individually applied as a distinct layer to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles to create a multi-layered structure surrounding each of the multiple zinc oxide particles within the sunscreen composition, wherein the multi-layered structure: reflects light at a user-determined wavelength range based on the wavelength range at which each of the multiple notch filter coating materials reflects light; and allows wavelengths of light (i) within at least a portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and (ii) outside of the user-determined wavelength range to be absorbed by the multiple zinc oxide particles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065498
    Abstract: Sunscreen additives for enhancing vitamin D production are provided herein. A method includes selecting phosphor materials to incorporate into zinc oxide particles, wherein the phosphor materials are capable of carrying out an up-conversion process whereby two or more photons absorbed by the zinc oxide particles and/or the phosphor materials within a first wavelength range are emitted as at least one photon within a second wavelength range. The method also includes incorporating the selected phosphor materials into the zinc oxide particles. A composition includes zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium of a sunscreen composition, and phosphor materials incorporated into the zinc oxide particles, wherein the phosphor materials are capable of carrying out an up-conversion process whereby two or more photons absorbed by the zinc oxide particles and/or the phosphor materials within a first wavelength range are emitted as at least one photon within a second wavelength range.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065507
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and coating at least one portion of the surface of each of the one or more zinc oxide particles with the metal particles. Another example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065508
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles, and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 7, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065502
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A method includes selecting one or more coating materials to be applied to zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on optical properties of the coating materials, wherein the optical properties comprises at least the refractive index of each of the coating materials, and applying the selected coating materials to the zinc oxide particles to create the sunscreen composition. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and one or more coating materials applied to each of the zinc oxide particles, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein at least one of the coating materials incorporates a textured surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170065504
    Abstract: Techniques for implementing organic materials in sunscreen applications are provided herein. A method includes selecting a combination of multiple organic materials to incorporate into a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on (i) a desired absorption spectrum of the sunscreen composition, (ii) the absorption spectrum of each of the multiple organic materials, and (iii) a particle size limitation for each of the multiple organic materials, and incorporating the selected combination of organic materials into the sunscreen composition to generate the desired absorption spectrum. A composition includes a combination of multiple organic materials incorporated into a sunscreen composition, wherein the combination of organic materials is selected based on (i) a desired absorption spectrum of the sunscreen composition, (ii) the absorption spectrum of each of the multiple organic materials, and (iii) a particle size limitation for each of the multiple organic materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170069861
    Abstract: Techniques for forming a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top contact using a low temperature process are provided. In one aspect of the invention, a method of forming a TCO on a substrate is provided. The method includes the steps of: generating a source gas of the TCO using e-beam evaporation; generating atomic oxygen using RF plasma; and contacting the substrate with the TCO source gas and the atomic oxygen under conditions sufficient to form the TCO on the substrate. A photovoltaic device is also provided which includes a bottom cell; and a perovskite-based top cell on the kesterite-based bottom cell. The perovskite-based top cell includes a top electrode formed from a TCO.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 4, 2015
    Publication date: March 9, 2017
    Inventors: Bruce A. Ek, Talia S. Gershon, Supratik Guha, Oki Gunawan, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20170058418
    Abstract: Techniques for mechanically stabilizing metallic nanowire meshes using encapsulation are provided. In one aspect, a method for forming a mechanically-stabilized metallic nanowire mesh is provided which includes the steps of: forming the metallic nanowire mesh on a substrate; and coating the metallic nanowire mesh with a metal oxide that encapsulates the metallic nanowire mesh to mechanically-stabilize the metallic nanowire mesh which permits the metallic nanowire mesh to remain conductive at temperatures greater than or equal to about 600° C. A mechanically-stabilized metallic nanowire mesh is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 1, 2015
    Publication date: March 2, 2017
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Supratik Guha, Teodor K. Todorov, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9570915
    Abstract: Aspects relate to an integrated system that is electrically powered. The integrated system includes a circuit board and a photovoltaic device. The circuit board includes one or more on-board electronic components and an upper surface configured as a substrate. The photovoltaic device is integrally deposited on the upper surface of the circuit board and electrically connected to the one or more on-board electronic components, wherein the upper surface of the circuit board is a photovoltaic device substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2017
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20160359076
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device includes a first contact layer formed on a substrate. An absorber layer includes Cu—Zn—Sn—S(Se) (CZTSSe) on the first contact layer. A buffer layer is formed in contact with the absorber layer. Metal dopants are dispersed in a junction region between the absorber layer and the buffer layer. The metal dopants have a valence between the absorber layer and the buffer layer to increase junction potential. A transparent conductive contact layer is formed over the buffer layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2015
    Publication date: December 8, 2016
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Jeehwan Kim, Yun Seog Lee, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20160359070
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device includes a first contact layer formed on a substrate. An absorber layer includes Cu—Zn—Sn—S(Se) (CZTSSe) on the first contact layer. A buffer layer is formed in contact with the absorber layer. Metal dopants are dispersed in a junction region between the absorber layer and the buffer layer. The metal dopants have a valence between the absorber layer and the buffer layer to increase junction potential. A transparent conductive contact layer is formed over the buffer layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 2, 2015
    Publication date: December 8, 2016
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Jeehwan Kim, Yun Seog Lee, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20160334273
    Abstract: In one aspect, a spectrometer insert is provided. The spectrometer insert includes: an enclosed housing; a first transparent window on a first side of the enclosed housing; a second transparent window on a second side of the enclosed housing, wherein the first side and the second side are opposing sides of the enclosed housing; and a sample mounting and heating assembly positioned within an interior cavity of the enclosed housing in between, and in line of sight of, the first transparent window and the second transparent window. A method for using the spectrometer insert to locally heat a sample so as to measure temperature-dependent optical properties of the sample is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 25, 2016
    Publication date: November 17, 2016
    Inventors: Nestor A. Bojarczuk, Talia S. Gershon, Teodor K. Todorov, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9472709
    Abstract: Techniques for precisely controlling the composition of volatile components (such as sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn)) of chalcogenide semiconductors in real-time—during production of the material are provided. In one aspect, a method for forming a chalcogenide semiconductor material includes providing a S source(s) and a Se source(s); heating the S source(s) to form a S-containing vapor; heating the Se source(s) to form a Se-containing vapor; passing a carrier gas first through the S-containing vapor and then through the Se-containing vapor, wherein the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor are transported via the carrier gas to a sample; and contacting the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor with the sample under conditions sufficient to form the chalcogenide semiconductor material. A multi-chamber processing apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2016
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Sunit S. Mahajan, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20160240723
    Abstract: Techniques for precisely controlling the composition of volatile components (such as sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn)) of chalcogenide semiconductors in real-time—during production of the material are provided. In one aspect, a method for forming a chalcogenide semiconductor material includes providing a S source(s) and a Se source(s); heating the S source(s) to form a S-containing vapor; heating the Se source(s) to form a Se-containing vapor; passing a carrier gas first through the S-containing vapor and then through the Se-containing vapor, wherein the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor are transported via the carrier gas to a sample; and contacting the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor with the sample under conditions sufficient to form the chalcogenide semiconductor material. A multi-chamber processing apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2016
    Publication date: August 18, 2016
    Inventors: Sunit S. Mahajan, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20160237561
    Abstract: Techniques for precisely controlling the composition of volatile components (such as sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tin (Sn)) of chalcogenide semiconductors in real-time—during production of the material are provided. In one aspect, a method for forming a chalcogenide semiconductor material includes providing a S source(s) and a Se source(s); heating the S source(s) to form a S-containing vapor; heating the Se source(s) to form a Se-containing vapor; passing a carrier gas first through the S-containing vapor and then through the Se-containing vapor, wherein the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor are transported via the carrier gas to a sample; and contacting the S-containing vapor and the Se-containing vapor with the sample under conditions sufficient to form the chalcogenide semiconductor material. A multi-chamber processing apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2016
    Publication date: August 18, 2016
    Inventors: Sunit S. Mahajan, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 9417126
    Abstract: In one aspect, a spectrometer insert is provided. The spectrometer insert includes: an enclosed housing; a first transparent window on a first side of the enclosed housing; a second transparent window on a second side of the enclosed housing, wherein the first side and the second side are opposing sides of the enclosed housing; and a sample mounting and heating assembly positioned within an interior cavity of the enclosed housing in between, and in line of sight of, the first transparent window and the second transparent window. A method for using the spectrometer insert to locally heat a sample so as to measure temperature-dependent optical properties of the sample is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Nestor A. Bojarczuk, Talia S. Gershon, Teodor K. Todorov, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9390919
    Abstract: A method of depositing a kesterite film which includes a compound of the formula: Cu2-xZn1+ySn(S1-zSez)4+q, wherein 0?x?1; 0?y?1; 0?z?1; ?1?q?1. The method includes contacting hydrazine, a source of Cu, and a source of at least one of S and Se forming solution A; contacting hydrazine, a source of Sn, a source of at least one of S and Se, and a source of Zn forming dispersion B; mixing solution A and dispersion B under conditions sufficient to form a dispersion which includes Zn-containing solid particles; applying the dispersion onto a substrate to form a thin layer of the dispersion on the substrate; and annealing at a temperature, pressure, and length of time sufficient to form the kesterite film. An annealing composition and a photovoltaic device including the kesterite film formed by the above method are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2016
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: David B. Mitzi, Teodor K. Todorov