PRODUCTS MADE FROM RECYCLED CARDBOARD
A method of making a structural component (and such a structural component) comprising mixing together wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride and forming the mixture into the structural component.
This application claims priority to and the benefit of the filing of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/094,223, entitled “Products Made from Recycled Cardboard”, filed on Sep. 4, 2008, and the specification and claims thereof are incorporated herein by reference.STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
Not Applicable.INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF MATERIAL SUBMITTED ON A COMPACT DISC
Not Applicable.COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL
Not Applicable.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention (Technical Field) p The present invention relates to methods and products for use in the building trades, which methods and products utilized recycled paper waste, including recycled cardboard, for use in making building structural and wall materials.
2. Description of Related Art
It is necessary that recycling of waste be expanded in our society beyond what is currently done, for many obvious reasons, in one preferred method of recycling, waste materials can be reprocessed and used to produce new products.
There is a need for technologically simple methods to produce budding material utilizing recycled waste and particularly recycled paper waste. The poor art methods disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,102,596, 5,302,331,936 and 6,216,967, incorporated herein by reference, each disclose methods and products, but each method suffers from significant limitations, requires complex processing steps, or the like.BRIEF :SUMMARY OF THE. INVENTION
The present invention is of a method of making a structural component and such a structural component), comprising: mixing together wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride; and forming the mixture into the structural component. In an embodiment, the mixture consists essentially of wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride. On another embodiment, the mixture consists of wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride. Forming can comprise employing a wire screen, rebar, and/or interlocking blocks. In a further embodiment, the mixture additionally comprises one or both of borax and boric, acid, in another embodiment, the mixture consists essentially of wood pulp, water, borax or boric acid, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride. Bentonite clay preferably comprises about 10% of the structural component by volume. Calcium chloride preferably comprises about 10% of the structural component by volume. In addition, plastic waste (or other, preferably non-hazardous, waste, preferably shredded) can be incorporated as a strand reinforcement for structural components of the invention.
Further scope of applicability of the present invention will be set forth in part in the detailed description to follow, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, and in part will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated into and loan a part of the specification, illustrate one or more embodiments of the present invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention. The drawings are only for the purpose of illustrating one or more preferred embodiments of the invention and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. In the drawings;
Paper and cardboard products are one example of materials that can be reprocessed in used to make new products. This can be done, according to this invention, with a minimum of specialized equipment. In one embodiment, cardboard waste from a paper or cardboard plant may be employed. This waste is called “press cake” in the industry, and is gathered after the processing of used cardboard boxes that have been brought to the mill for recycling. This press cake is typically loaded onto a waste transport vehicle and hauled to a landfill and buried. Cardboard not rejected, and thus not forming press cake, is typically used against in manufacturing cardboard boxes. The reject material or press case contains a large percentage of paper elements, but also includes other elements, such as plastic, tape glue, strands, etc. The press cake is thus typically a mixed waste, though consisting primarily of paper and paper products. The press cake may be employed in this invention, providing that the materials other than paper and paper products do not interfere with subsequent processing and manufacturing steps.
Press cake if received from a paper or cardboard mill is typically saturated with water from processing. The actual cake is typically approximately 1 to 2 inches wide by 2 to 3 or 4 inches long by ¼ inch thick. However, the size will vary, and sometimes is in the general size mill shape of a wood type “chip” used in landscaping, and sometimes is a much a larger “patty”.
Utilizing the methods of this, invention, the press cake is processed further by soaking it in water and mixing with various chemicals. In one embodiment the water-soaked press cake is mixed with a variety of reagents, including borax or boric acid, which serves as a flame retardant, with bentonite clay, which serves in part as a bonding agent, and with calcium chloride, adds strength to the mixture. The specific chemicals used and the amounts or quantities can vary depending on the composition of the press cake or other waste paper source, the desired reaction or reactions, and the specific uses to which the resulting building material will be put.
While this invention may be employed with material that is convenient and readily available such as press cake obtained from a paper mill, the processes and methods can also the employed with recycled paper or cardboard obtained from any source.
Once the mixture of cardboard and reagents is at the desired consistency, the reusing slurry can then he poured into a mold forming either a “block”, tip-up wail section, or any other of a number of shapes and sizes required or requested. After initial setting, the resulting product may optionally be removed from its mold to facilitate drying. Utilizing this method, either no pressure or very low pressure is used to compress or form the block.
In one embodiment, the form has a wire screen on one side, which supports the block and allows sur circulation thereunder to facilitate drying. The wire screen may also be employed as a permanent composer t, to in adhesion of subsequent plaster coats. In yet another embodiment, the form itself may be composed of a wire screen or other air and water permeable material.
A “slab” or wall section intended for use as a wait product, depending on the desired application, may optionally include a frame as a permanent part of the slab, to aid in installation or provide additional strength. The frame may be built of wood, metal, plastic or any other material with the required structural strength.
Beside use in the building trades, the resulting material can be shaped into any of a wide variety of forms for other uses, such as for example shaping into forms for use as a protective shipping cover for products, or to restrain and cushion fragile items in shipping containers or cartons.
In one embodiment, larger size blocks in various sizes and shapes are made, thereby reducing both the amount required for a project and the need for handling, and thus resulting in lower costs of labor. The block may be designed in different ways depending on the application; in some applications an interlocking system is employed, wherein the blocks interlock one wan another. In another application blocks with a continous cavity or cells are provided, for use as a permanent formwork for concrete or other structural materials. The blocks may also be solid. The blocks may form a part of a formwork, for forming a permanent insulated concrete form, which may employ metal or other retaining or strengthening members, such as Polysteel® forms. In such forms the paper-based material of this invention in used instead of styrofoam or other expended plastics or foams. The blocks are structural and load-bearing, with or without concrete inside the blocks, and whether installed inside a building or on the exterior.
Wall units may be created using slab, with the slurry mixed and then poured into various size forms to accommodate its individual application. Once dried, the wall unit can then be removed from its form, and optionally cut to fit as necessary. Using the method and processes of this in it is possible to produce wall units of various thicknesses, shapes and sizes. In one embodiment, the form employed as a mold forms a integral and permanent part of the resulting product, and may be optionally installed utilizing clips or other fasteners designed specifically for the wall unit (preferably an interior tip-up wall).
The resulting products will advantageously be insulating, having a high R-value, thereby resulting in lower overall energy bills, increased warmth in winter and enhanced cooling in summer). In certain embodiments, the the material further has a U-value, and retains and transfers heat energy as a function of time. The resulting products will similarly be lightweight, and thus easy to handle, capable of being produced in larger sizes, and easily used in building projects. The resulting products with similarly be inexpensive. The material will result in decreased costs of building, since the insulation is integral to the product. No sheet rock or other wall covering is required on internal surfaces, since the resulting surface can be directly plastered, or alternatively may be painted, using a primer as appropriate. On external walls, stucco or other typical exterior wail covering material can be applied directly to the material, thus eliminating otherwise necessary steps and additional labor. The products, can be cut with ordinary tools, such as saws, known to the construction trade. The product can also be shaped, grooved to allow for other installation needs, and otherwise formed as required.
In one example, press cake was added to wall in a five-gallon container. Between and gallons of water was utilized, with the balance being cardboard waste, such as press cake, to a total volume of about four gallons. To this was added up to two quarts of 94% anhydrous calcium, chloride, as a free flowing powder. Up to two quarts of bentonite, sold under the trade name Aquagel by Baroicl Fluids, was added. Optionally a fire retardant, such as Porax boric acid, can be added, and flammability tests have been very positive. An insect repellant may also be added. The resulting contents are mixed, thereby forming a slurry, and poured into a form.
Note that in the specification and claims, “about” or “approximately” means within twenty percent (20%) of the numerical amount cited. Note further that plastic waste (or other, preferably non-hazardous, waste, preferably shredded) can be incorporated as a strand reinforcement for structural components of the invention,
Although the invention has been described in detail with particular reference to these preferred embodiments, other embodiments can achieve the same results. Variations and modifications of the present invention will be obvious to those skilled in the art and it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modifications and equivalents. The entire disclosures of all references, applications, patents, and publications cited above are hereby incorporated by reference.
1. A load-bearing block comprising press cake, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
2. The load-bearing block of claim 1 consisting essentially of press cake, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
3. The load-bearing block of claim 1 consisting of wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
4. The load-bearing block of claim 1 additionally comprising a wire screen.
5. The load-bearing block of claim 1 additionally comprising rebar.
6. The load-bearing block of claim 1 wherein the block is an interlocking block.
7. The load-bearing block of claim 1 additionally comprising one or both of borax and boric acid.
8. The load-bearing block of claim 7 consisting essentially of press cake, water, one or both of borax and boric acid, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
9. The load-bearing block of claim 1 wherein said bentonite clay comprises about 10% of said load-bearing block by volume.
10. The load-bearing block of claim 1 wherein said calcium chloride comprises about 10% of said structural component by volume.
11. The load-bearing block of claim 11 wherein said press cake comprises recycled paper or cardboard.
12. A structure comprising a plurality of the load-bearing blocks of claim 1.
13. A structure comprising a plurality of load-bearing blocks, each block comprising press water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
14. The structure of claim 13, each block consisting essentially of press cake, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
15. The structure of claim 13, each block consisting of wood pulp, water, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
16. The structure of claim 13 additionally comprising a wire screen in one or more of said block.
17. The structure of claim 13 additionally comprising rebar in one or more of said blocks.
18. The structure of claim 13 wherein one or more of the blocks is an interlocking block.
19. The structure of claim 13, each block additionally comprising one or both of borax and boric acid.
20. The structure of claim 19, each block consisting essentially of press cake, water, one or both of borax and boric acid, bentonite clay, and calcium chloride.
21. The structure of claim 20 wherein said press cake comprises recycled paper or cardboard.
Filed: Feb 4, 2013
Publication Date: Aug 22, 2013
Inventor: Frank Santoro (Flora Vista, NM)
Application Number: 13/758,777
International Classification: C04B 30/02 (20060101); B32B 13/04 (20060101); E04C 1/40 (20060101);