Oral Care Compositions and Methods of Using the Compositions
An oral care composition comprising zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride.
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Dental erosion involves demineralization and damage to the tooth structure due to acid attack from nonbacterial sources. Erosion is found initially in the enamel and, if unchecked, may proceed to the underlying dentin. Dental erosion may be caused or exacerbated by acidic foods and drinks, exposure to chlorinated swimming pool water, and regurgitation of gastric acids.
The tooth enamel is a negatively charged surface, which naturally tends to attract positively charged ions such as hydrogen and calcium ions, while resisting negatively charged ions such as fluoride ions. Depending upon relative pH of surrounding saliva, the tooth enamel will lose or gain positively charged ions such as calcium ions. Generally saliva has a pH between 7.2 and 7.4. When the pH is lowered the fluid medium surrounding the tooth becomes undersaturated with respect to the tooth mineral phase and the tooth dissolves, releasing calcium and phosphate ions. This damages the enamel and creates a porous, sponge-like roughened surface. If saliva remains acidic over an extended period, then remineralization may not occur, and the tooth will continue to lose minerals, causing the tooth to weaken and ultimately to lose structure.
Heavy metal ions, such as zinc, are resistant to acid attack. Zinc ranks above hydrogen in the electrochemical series, so that metallic zinc in an acidic solution will react to liberate hydrogen gas as the zinc passes into solution to form di-cations, Zn2+. Zinc has also been shown to have anti-microbial properties in plaque and caries studies.
Soluble zinc salts, such as zinc citrate, have been used in dentifrice compositions, but have several disadvantages. Zinc ions in solution impart an unpleasant, astringent mouthfeel, so formulations that provide effective levels of zinc, and also have acceptable organoleptic properties, have been difficult to achieve. Moreover, free zinc ions may react with fluoride ions to produce zinc fluoride, which is insoluble and so reduces the availability of both the zinc and the fluoride. Finally, the zinc ions will react with anionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate, thus interfering with foaming and cleaning.
Zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) is insoluble in water, although soluble in acidic or basic solutions, e.g., solutions of mineral acids, acetic acid, ammonia, or alkali hydroxides. See, e.g., Merck Index, 13th Ed. (2001) p. 1812, monograph number 10205. Partly because it is viewed in the art as a generally inert material, zinc phosphate is commonly used in dental cements, for example in cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, which are intended to endure in the mouth for many years. Zinc phosphate dental cements are generally prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers, so the cement comprising zinc phosphate is formed in situ by reaction with phosphoric acid.
Stannous fluoride is well known for use in clinical dentistry with a history of therapeutic benefits over forty years. However, until recently, its popularity has been limited by its instability in aqueous solutions. The instability of stannous fluoride in water is primarily due to the reactivity of the stannous ion (Sn2+). Tin readily hydrolyses above a pH of 4, resulting in precipitation from solution, with a consequent loss of the therapeutic properties.
Approaches to overcoming the stability problem with stannous fluoride include forming a gel in no or very low water formulations by dissolving stannous fluoride in an anhydrous material such as glycerin, or by using a chelating agent. However, these can be relatively expensive and tedious solutions.
There is a desire for improved compositions for treating and reducing erosion of tooth enamel. There is also a desire for novel anti-microbial compositions that are stable in water and relatively simple to manufacture.BRIEF SUMMARY
An embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to an oral care composition comprising zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride. In some embodiments, the zinc phosphate is added to the dentifrice as a preformed salt.
Further areas of applicability of the present disclosure will become apparent from the detailed description provided hereinafter. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating the preferred embodiment of the disclosure, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The following description of the preferred embodiment(s) is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the disclosure, its application, or uses.
As used throughout, ranges are used as shorthand for describing each and every value that is within the range. Any value within the range can be selected as the terminus of the range. In addition, all references cited herein are hereby incorporated by referenced in their entireties. In the event of a conflict in a definition in the present disclosure and that of a cited reference, the present disclosure controls.
Unless otherwise specified, all percentages and amounts expressed herein and elsewhere in the specification should be understood to refer to percentages by weight. The amounts given are based on the active weight of the material.
An embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to an oral care composition for intermittent use, e.g., daily use, in the form of a dentifrice, gel, lozenge, mint, chewing gum or other suitable oral care formulation. The oral care composition comprises zinc phosphate, stannous fluoride and water. In some embodiments, the zinc phosphate is added to the oral care composition as a preformed salt. As used herein, the term “preformed salt”—when used in reference to zinc phosphate—means that the zinc phosphate is not formed in situ in the oral care composition, e.g., through the reaction of phosphoric acid and another zinc salt.
In one aspect, the present disclosure therefore provides an oral care composition (Composition 1) comprising an orally acceptable carrier, zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride. In further embodiments of this aspect, the present disclosure provides:
- 1.1 Composition 1, wherein the zinc phosphate is a preformed salt of zinc phosphate.
- 1.2 Composition 1 or 1.2, wherein the zinc phosphate is present in an amount sufficient so that the stannous fluoride dissociates to provide a therapeutically effective amount of stannous ions in aqueous solution.
- 1.3 Any preceding composition, wherein the amount of zinc phosphate is from 0.05 to 5% by weight, relative to the weight of the oral care composition, for example, from 0.1 to 4% by weight, or from 0.5 to 3% by weight, or from 0.5 to 2% by weight, or from 0.8 to 1.5% by weight, or from 0.9 to 1.1% by weight, or about 1% by weight, or from 2 to 3% by weight, or about 2%, or about 2.25% or about 2.5%, by weight.
- 1.4 Any preceding composition, wherein the amount of the stannous fluoride is from 0.05% to 11% by weight, relative to the weight of the oral care composition, for example, from 0.05 to 7% by weight, or from 0.1% to 5% by weight, or from 0.2 to 3% by weight, or from 0.2 to 2% by weight, or from 0.2 to 1% by weight, or from 0.2 to 0.8% by weight, or from 0.4 to 0.6% by weight, or from 0.4 to 0.5% by weight, or about 0.45% by weight (e.g., 0.454%).
- 1.5 Any preceding composition, wherein the amount of the water is about 12% by weight or more, relative to the weight of the oral care composition, for example, from 15% to 85%, or from 20% to 75%, or from 20% to 40% or from 20% to 30%, or from 25% to 50%, or from 30% to 40%, for example, about 35%, or about 25% or about 20%.
- 1.6 Any preceding composition, wherein the oral care composition further comprises an abrasive, for example, silica abrasives, calcium abrasives, and other abrasives as disclosed herein.
- 1.7 Any preceding composition, further comprising one or more humectants and/or one or more surfactants, as described herein.
- 1.8 Any preceding composition, further comprising an effective amount of one or more alkali phosphate salts for example orthophosphates, pyrophosphates, tripolyphosphates, tetraphosphates or higher polyphosphates.
- 1.9 Composition 1.8, wherein the alkali phosphate salts comprise tetrasodium pyrophosphate or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, for example, in an amount of 0.5 to 5% by weight of the composition, e.g., 1-3%, or 1-2% or about 2% by weight, or about 2-4%, or about 3-4% or about 4% by weight of the composition.
- 1.10 Composition 1.8 or 1.9, wherein the alkali phosphate salts comprise sodium tripolyphosphate or potassium tripolyphosphate, for example, in an amount of 0.5 to 6% by weight of the composition, e.g., 1-4%, or 2-3% or about 3% by weight.
- 1.11 Any preceding composition, further comprising a whitening agent.
- 1.12 Any preceding composition, further comprising one or more sources of zinc ions in addition to the zinc phosphate, for example a zinc salt selected from zinc citrate, zinc oxide, zinc lactate, zinc pyrophosphate, zinc sulfate, or zinc chloride.
- 1.13 Any preceding composition, wherein the oral care composition is a dentifrice.
- 1.14 Any preceding composition, wherein the composition comprises
- from 0.5 to 3% by weight zinc phosphate;
- from 0.05 to 11% by weight stannous fluoride;
- from 1 to 8% by weight alkali phosphate salts selected from sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate dibasic, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, calcium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and mixtures of any two or more of these, relative to the weight of the oral care composition; and
- a silica abrasive.
- 1.15 Any preceding composition, wherein the composition is essentially free of a halogenated diphenyl ether.
- 1.16 Any preceding composition, wherein the oral care composition is a dentifrice (e.g., a toothpaste or oral gel), powder (e.g., tooth powder), cream, strip or gum (e.g., chewing gum), for example, wherein the oral care composition is a gel.
- 1.17 Any preceding composition, wherein the oral care composition is a lozenge or mint.
- 1.18 Any preceding composition, wherein the oral care composition is a chewing gum.
- 1.19 Any preceding composition, wherein the pH of the composition is from 6 to 9, such as from 6.5 to 8, or from 3 to 7 or from 4 to 7 or from 5 to 7, or from 5 to 6.
- 1.20 Any preceding composition, wherein the composition is a single-phase composition (e.g., not a dual-phase composition).
- 1.21 Any preceding composition, wherein the composition does not comprise one or more of zinc oxide, zinc citrate, or zinc lactate.
- 1.22 Any preceding composition, wherein the zinc phosphate is the only zinc ion source.
- 1.23 Any preceding composition, wherein the composition is essentially free of hexametaphosphate salts (e.g., sodium hexametaphosphate).
Any amount of zinc phosphate that is effective for protecting against enamel erosion and/or providing any of the other benefits described herein can be employed. Examples of suitable amounts of zinc phosphate can range from 0.05 to 5% by weight, such as from 0.1 to 4% by weight, or from 0.5 to 3% by weight, or from 0.5 to 2% by weight, or from 0.8 to 1.5% by weight, or from 0.9 to 1.1% by weight, or about 1% by weight, relative to the weight of the oral care composition.
While zinc phosphate is considered insoluble (e.g., poorly soluble), in water, when placed in formulation, e.g., at acidic or basic pH, zinc phosphate can dissolve sufficiently upon use to provide an effective concentration of zinc ions to the enamel, thereby protecting against erosion, reducing bacterial colonization and biofilm development, and providing enhanced shine to the teeth. It has also been discovered that zinc phosphate in a formulation with a second phosphate source enhances phosphate deposition. As explained in WO2014/088573, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, this is all unexpected, in view of the poor solubility of zinc phosphate, and the art-recognized view that it is substantially inert in conditions in the oral cavity, as evidenced by its widespread use in dental cement. At the same time, the formulations containing zinc phosphate do not exhibit the poor taste and mouthfeel, poor fluoride delivery, and poor foaming and cleaning associated with conventional zinc-based oral care products, which use more soluble zinc salts.
An amount of stannous fluoride, preferably an effective amount, is employed in combination with the zinc phosphate in the compositions of the present disclosure. For example, the stannous fluoride can be employed in an amount that is effective for providing anti-microbial benefits, such as anti-caries protection and/or anti-gingivitis protection, and/or anti-erosion benefits for protection of tooth enamel. Examples of suitable amounts of stannous fluoride range from 0.05% by weight to 11% by weight, such as from 0.05 to 7% by weight, or from 0.1% to 5% by weight, or from 0.2 to 3% by weight, or from 0.2 to 2% by weight, or from 0.2 to 1% by weight, or from 0.2 to 0.8% by weight, or from 0.4 to 0.6% by weight, or from 0.4 to 0.5% by weight, or about 0.45% by weight (e.g., 0.454%), relative to the total weight of the dentifrice composition. Formulations can include stannous levels, provided by stannous fluoride, ranging for example, from 3,000 ppm to 15,000 ppm (mass fraction) stannous ions in the total composition. In embodiments, the soluble stannous content can range from 0.1 wt % to 0.5 wt %, or more, such as from 0.15 wt % to 0.32 wt %, based on the total weight of the composition.
The combination of zinc and stannous ions provides one or more of the following benefits: improved antimicrobial benefits compared to the zinc ions alone; improved control of plaque and/or gingivitis; improved protection against the erosion of tooth enamel.
In compositions comprising significant amounts of water, the zinc phosphate acts as a stabilizing agent for the stannous fluoride, so that the stannous fluoride remains in solution in the water. As discussed above, stannous fluoride is generally considered unstable in water due to the hydrolytic and oxidative loss of stannous ions at typical pH ranges employed in oral care compositions. Consequently, stannous fluoride is generally employed in compositions containing no water or low water, or with a chelating agent. Tedious procedures are employed in order to provide stable solutions in which the tendency of the stannous ion to be oxidized or hydrolyzed is inhibited. Applicants have surprisingly found that zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride can be combined together in a single phase formulation using standard mixing processes and typical pH ranges to form stable aqueous oral care compositions. The zinc phosphate remains essentially insoluble in the composition. However, the stannous fluoride has been shown to remain soluble and stable in solutions comprising relatively high amounts of water for extended periods of time, such as 3 months or longer at 40° C. Under typical storage conditions, the stannous fluoride is expected to remain sufficiently stable to provide a desired shelf life of, for example, 1 to 2 years or longer.
Any desired amount of water can be employed in the compositions of the present disclosure. Examples of suitable amounts of water range from 12% by weight or more, such as from 15% to 98 or 99% by weight. For example, the amount of water may be from 15% to 85%, or from 20% to 75%, or from 25% to 50%, or from 30% to 40%, for example, about 35%, by weight of the composition. Amounts will vary depending on the type of oral care composition. In an embodiment where the composition is a dentifrice, such as toothpaste, the amount of water can range, for example, from 15% to 60% by weight, such as from 25% to 50%, or from 25% to 40% by weight, relative to the total weight of the dentifrice composition.
The amount of water in the compositions as set forth in the above ranges includes both free water which is added separately plus that amount that is introduced with the other ingredients. Water employed in the preparation of the oral compositions of the present disclosure can be deionized (sometimes referred to as demineralized water) and/or free of organic impurities. Sources of water beyond the directly added water include ingredients which are commonly add as aqueous solutions, such as sorbitol (commonly provided as a 70% w/w aqueous solution).
The compositions may optionally comprise additional ingredients suitable for use in oral care compositions. Examples of such ingredients include active agents, such as a fluoride source and/or a phosphate source in addition to zinc phosphate. The compositions may be formulated in a suitable dentifrice base, e.g., comprising abrasives, e.g., silica abrasives, surfactants, foaming agents, vitamins, polymers, enzymes, humectants, thickeners, additional antimicrobial agents, preservatives, flavorings, colorings, and/or combinations thereof. Examples of suitable dentifrice bases are known in the art. Alternatively, the compositions may be formulated as a gel (e.g., for use in a tray), chewing gum, lozenge or mint. Examples of suitable additional ingredients that can be employed in the compositions of the present disclosure are discussed in more detail below.
Active Agents: The compositions of the disclosure may comprise various other agents that are active to protect and enhance the strength and integrity of the enamel and tooth structure and/or to reduce bacteria and associated tooth decay and/or gum disease or to provide other desired benefits. Effective concentration of the active ingredients used herein will depend on the particular agent and the delivery system used. The concentration will also depend on the exact salt or polymer selected. For example, where the active agent is provided in salt form, the counterion will affect the weight of the salt, so that if the counterion is heavier, more salt by weight will be required to provide the same concentration of active ion in the final product.
Compositions of the disclosure may contain from 0.1 to 1 wt % of an antibacterial agent, such as about 0.3 wt. %. Any suitable antimicrobial actives can be employed.
Fluoride Ion Source:
The oral care compositions can include one or more additional fluoride ion sources, e.g., soluble fluoride salts. A wide variety of fluoride ion-yielding materials can be employed as sources of soluble fluoride in the present compositions. Examples of suitable fluoride ion-yielding materials are found in U.S. Pat. No. 3,535,421, to Briner et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 4,885,155, to Parran, Jr. et al. and U.S. Pat. No. 3,678,154, to Widder et al, the disclosure of each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Representative fluoride ion sources include, but are not limited to, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, sodium fluorosilicate, ammonium fluorosilicate, amine fluoride, ammonium fluoride, and combinations thereof. In certain embodiments the fluoride ion source includes sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate as well as mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, the oral care composition of the disclosure may contain stannous fluoride and any additional source of fluoride ions or fluorine-providing agents in amounts sufficient to supply, in total, from 25 ppm to 25,000 ppm (mass fraction) of fluoride ions, generally at least 500 ppm, e.g., from 500 to 2000 ppm, e.g., from 1000 to 1600 ppm, e.g., about 1450 ppm. The appropriate level of fluoride will depend on the particular application. A toothpaste for general consumer use would typically have from 1000 to about 1500 ppm, with pediatric toothpaste having somewhat less. A dentifrice or coating for professional application could have as much as 5,000 or even about 25,000 ppm fluoride. Additional fluoride ion sources may be added to the compositions of the disclosure at a level of from 0.01 wt. % to 10 wt. % in one embodiment or from 0.03 wt. % to 5 wt. %, and in another embodiment from 0.1 wt. % to 1 wt. % by weight of the composition. As discussed above, weights of fluoride salts to provide the appropriate level of fluoride ion will vary based on the weight of the counterion in the salt.
The compositions of the disclosure can include abrasives. Examples of suitable abrasives include silica abrasives, such as standard cleaning silicas, high cleaning silicas or any other suitable abrasive silicas. Additional examples of abrasives that can be used in addition to or in place of the silica abrasives include, for example, a calcium phosphate abrasive, e.g., tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O, also sometimes referred to herein as DiCal) or calcium pyrophosphate; calcium carbonate abrasive; or abrasives such as sodium metaphosphate, potassium metaphosphate, aluminum silicate, calcined alumina, bentonite or other siliceous materials, or combinations thereof.
Silica abrasive polishing materials useful herein, as well as the other abrasives, generally have an average particle size ranging between 0.1 and 30 microns, such as between 5 and 15 microns. The silica abrasives can be from precipitated silica or silica gels, such as the silica xerogels described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,538,230, to Pader et al. and U.S. Pat. No. 3,862,307, to Digiulio, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. Particular silica xerogels are marketed under the trade name Syloid® by the W. R. Grace & Co., Davison Chemical Division. The precipitated silica materials include those marketed by the J. M. Huber Corp. under the trade name Zeodent®, including the silica carrying the designation Zeodent 115 and 119. These silica abrasives are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,340,583, to Wason, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In certain embodiments, abrasive materials useful in the practice of the oral care compositions in accordance with the disclosure include silica gels and precipitated amorphous silica having an oil absorption value of less than 100 cc/100 g silica, such as from 45 cc/100 g to 70 cc/100 g silica. Oil absorption values are measured using the ASTA Rub-Out Method D281. In certain embodiments, the silicas are colloidal particles having an average particle size of from 3 microns to 12 microns, and from 5 to 10 microns. Examples of low oil absorption silica abrasives useful in the practice of the disclosure are marketed under the trade designation Sylodent XWA® by Davison Chemical Division of W.R. Grace & Co., Baltimore, Md. 21203. Sylodent 650 XWA®, a silica hydrogel composed of particles of colloidal silica having a water content of 29% by weight averaging from 7 to 10 microns in diameter, and an oil absorption of less than 70 cc/100 g of silica is an example of a low oil absorption silica abrasive useful in the practice of the present disclosure.
Any suitable amount of silica abrasive can be employed. Examples of suitable amounts include 10 wt. % or more dry weight of silica particles, such as from 15 wt. % to 30 wt. % or from 15 wt. % to 25 wt. %, based on the total weight of the composition.
The oral care compositions of the disclosure also may include an agent to increase the amount of foam that is produced when the oral cavity is brushed. Illustrative examples of agents that increase the amount of foam include, but are not limited to polyoxyethylene and certain polymers including, but not limited to, alginate polymers. The polyoxyethylene may increase the amount of foam and the thickness of the foam generated by the oral care compositions of the present disclosure. Polyoxyethylene is also commonly known as polyethylene glycol (“PEG”) or polyethylene oxide. The polyoxyethylenes suitable for compositions of the present disclosure may have a molecular weight of from 200,000 to 7,000,000. In one embodiment the molecular weight may be from 600,000 to 2,000,000 and in another embodiment from 800,000 to 1,000,000. Polyox® is the trade name for the high molecular weight polyoxyethylene produced by Union Carbide. The foaming agent, (e.g., polyoxyethylene) may be present in an amount of from 0.1% to 50%, in one embodiment from 0.5% to 20% and in another embodiment from 1% to 10%, or from 2% to 5% by weight of the oral care compositions of the present disclosure.
The compositions useful in the compositions of the present disclosure may contain anionic surfactants, for example:
- i. water-soluble salts of higher fatty acid monoglyceride monosulfates, such as the sodium salt of the monosulfated monoglyceride of hydrogenated coconut oil fatty acids such as sodium N-methyl N-cocoyl taurate, sodium cocomonoglyceride sulfate,
- ii. higher alkyl sulfates, such as sodium lauryl sulfate,
- iii. higher alkyl-ether sulfates, e.g., of formula CH3(CH2).CH2(OCH2CH2)nOSO3X, wherein m is 6-16, e.g., 10, n is 1-6, e.g., 2, 3 or 4, and X is Na or K, for example sodium laureth-2 sulfate (CH3(CH2)10CH2(OCH2CH2)2OSO3Na),
- iv. higher alkyl aryl sulfonates such as sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (sodium lauryl benzene sulfonate),
- v. higher alkyl sulfoacetates, such as sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (dodecyl sodium sulfoacetate), higher fatty acid esters of 1,2 dihydroxy propane sulfonate, sulfocolaurate (N-2-ethyl laurate potassium sulfoacetamide) and sodium lauryl sarcosinate.
By “higher alkyl” is meant, e.g., C6-30 alkyl. In certain embodiments, the anionic surfactants useful herein include the water-soluble salts of alkyl sulfates having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and the water-soluble salts of sulfonated monoglycerides of fatty acids having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms. Sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and sodium coconut monoglyceride sulfonates are examples of anionic surfactants of this type. In particular embodiments, the anionic surfactant is selected from sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium ether lauryl sulfate. In a particular embodiment, the compositions of the disclosure comprise sodium lauryl sulfate. The anionic surfactant may be present in an amount which is effective, e.g., >0.01% by weight of the formulation, but not at a concentration which would be irritating to the oral tissue, e.g., <10%, and optimal concentrations depend on the particular formulation and the particular surfactant. In one embodiment, the anionic surfactant is present in a toothpaste at from 0.3% to 4.5% by weight, e.g., about 1.5%. The compositions of the disclosure may optionally contain mixtures of surfactants, e.g., comprising anionic surfactants and other surfactants that may be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic or nonionic. Generally, suitable surfactants are those which are reasonably stable throughout a wide pH range. Surfactants are described more fully, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,959,458, to Agricola et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 3,937,807, to Haefele; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,234, to Gieske et al, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
The surfactant or mixtures of compatible surfactants that are included in addition to the anionic surfactants can be present in the compositions of the present disclosure in from 0.1% to 5.0%, in another embodiment from 0.3% to 3.0% and in another embodiment from 0.5% to 2.0% by weight of the total composition. These ranges do not include the anionic surfactant amounts.
In an embodiment, the compositions of the present disclosure include a zwitterionic surfactant, for example a betaine surfactant, for example cocamidopropylbetaine, e.g. in an amount of from 0.1% to 4.5% by weight, e.g. from 0.5 to 2% by weight cocamidopropylbetaine.
Tartar Control Agents:
In various embodiments of the present disclosure, the compositions comprise an anticalculus (tartar control) agent. Suitable anticalculus agents include without limitation phosphates and polyphosphates (for example pyrophosphates and tripolyphosphates), polyaminopropanesulfonic acid (AMPS), hexametaphosphate salts, zinc citrate trihydrate, polypeptides, polyolefin sulfonates, polyolefin phosphates, and diphosphonates. The compositions of the disclosure thus may comprise phosphate salts in addition to the zinc phosphate. In particular embodiments, these salts are alkali phosphate salts, e.g., salts of alkali metal hydroxides or alkaline earth hydroxides, for example, sodium, potassium or calcium salts. “Phosphate” as used herein encompasses orally acceptable mono- and polyphosphates, for example, P1-6 phosphates, for example monomeric phosphates such as monobasic, dibasic or tribasic phosphate; and dimeric phosphates such as pyrophosphates; and multimeric phosphates, such as tripolyphosphates, tetraphosphates, hexaphosphates and hexametaphosphates (e.g., sodium hexametaphosphate). In particular examples, the selected phosphate is selected from alkali dibasic phosphate and alkali pyrophosphate salts, e.g., selected from sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate dibasic, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, calcium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and mixtures of any of two or more of these. In a particular embodiment, for example the compositions may comprise tetrasodium pyrophosphate in an amount of from 0.5 to 5% by weight, e.g., 1-3%, or 1-2% or about 2% by weight of the composition. In another embodiment, the compositions may comprise a mixture of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), e.g., in proportions of TSPP at from 0.5 to 5 wt. %, such as from 1 to 2 wt. % and STPP at from 0.5% to 6 wt. %, such as 1 to 4%, or 2 to 3% by weight of the composition. Such phosphates are provided in an amount effective to reduce erosion of the enamel, to aid in cleaning the teeth, and/or to reduce tartar buildup on the teeth, for example in an amount of from 0.2 to 20 wt. %, e.g., from 1 to 15 wt. %, by weight of the composition.
The oral care compositions of the disclosure may also include a flavoring agent. Flavoring agents which are used in the practice of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, essential oils as well as various flavoring aldehydes, esters, alcohols, and similar materials. Examples of the essential oils include oils of spearmint, peppermint, wintergreen, sassafras, clove, sage, eucalyptus, marjoram, cinnamon, lemon, lime, grapefruit, and orange. Also useful are such chemicals as menthol, carvone, and anethole. Certain embodiments employ the oils of peppermint and spearmint. The flavoring agent may be incorporated in the oral composition at a concentration of from 0.1 to 5% by weight e.g., from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight.
The oral care compositions of the disclosure may also include additional polymers to adjust the viscosity of the formulation or enhance the solubility of other ingredients. Such additional polymers include polyethylene glycols, polysaccharides (e.g., cellulose derivatives, for example carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose or polysaccharide gums, for example xanthan gum or carrageenan gum). Acidic polymers, for example polyacrylate gels, may be provided in the form of their free acids or partially or fully neutralized water soluble alkali metal (e.g., potassium and sodium) or ammonium salts. In one embodiment, the oral care composition may contain PVP. PVP generally refers to a polymer containing vinylpyrrolidone (also referred to as N-vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidione and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) as a monomeric unit. The monomeric unit consists of a polar imide group, four non-polar methylene groups and a non-polar methane group.
Silica thickeners, which form polymeric structures or gels in aqueous media, may be present. Note that these silica thickeners are physically and functionally distinct from the particulate silica abrasives also present in the compositions, as the silica thickeners are very finely divided and provide little or no abrasive action. Other thickening agents are carboxyvinyl polymers, carrageenan, hydroxyethyl cellulose and water soluble salts of cellulose ethers such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose. Natural gums such as karaya, gum arabic, and gum tragacanth can also be incorporated. Colloidal magnesium aluminum silicate can also be used as component of the thickening composition to further improve the composition's texture. In certain embodiments, thickening agents in an amount of from 0.5% to 5.0% by weight of the total composition are used.
The compositions of the disclosure may include an anionic polymer, for example in an amount of from 0.05 to 5%. Examples of such agents generally known for use in dentifrice are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,188,821 and 5,192,531, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety; and include synthetic anionic polymeric polycarboxylates, such as 1:4 to 4:1 copolymers of maleic anhydride or acid with another polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated monomer, preferably methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride having a molecular weight (M.W.) of from 30,000 to 1,000,000, such as from 300,000 to 800,000. These copolymers are available for example as Gantrez, e.g., AN 139 (M.W. 500,000), AN 119 (M.W. 250,000) and preferably S-97 Pharmaceutical Grade (M.W. 700,000) available from ISP Technologies, Inc., Bound Brook, N.J. 08805. The enhancing agents when present are present in amounts ranging from 0.05 to 3% by weight. Other operative polymers include those such as the 1:1 copolymers of maleic anhydride with ethyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, N-vinyl-2-pyrollidone, or ethylene, the latter being available for example as Monsanto EMA No. 1103, M.W. 10,000 and EMA Grade 61, and 1:1 copolymers of acrylic acid with methyl or hydroxyethyl methacrylate, methyl or ethyl acrylate, isobutyl vinyl ether or N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Suitable generally, are polymerized olefinically or ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids containing an activated carbon-to-carbon olefinic double bond and at least one carboxyl group, that is, an acid containing an olefinic double bond which readily functions in polymerization because of its presence in the monomer molecule either in the alpha-beta position with respect to a carboxyl group or as part of a terminal methylene grouping. Illustrative of such acids are acrylic, methacrylic, ethacrylic, alpha-chloroacrylic, crotonic, beta-acryloxy propionic, sorbic, alpha-chlorsorbic, cinnamic, beta-styrylacrylic, muconic, itaconic, citraconic, mesaconic, glutaconic, aconitic, alpha-phenylacrylic, 2-benzyl acrylic, 2-cyclohexylacrylic, angelic, umbellic, fumaric, maleic acids and anhydrides. Other different olefinic monomers copolymerizable with such carboxylic monomers include vinylacetate, vinyl chloride, dimethyl maleate and the like. Copolymers contain sufficient carboxylic salt groups for water-solubility. A further class of polymeric agents includes a composition containing homopolymers of substituted acrylamides and/or homopolymers of unsaturated sulfonic acids and salts thereof, in particular where polymers are based on unsaturated sulfonic acids selected from acrylamidoalykane sulfonic acids such as 2-acrylamide 2 methylpropane sulfonic acid having a molecular weight of from 1,000 to 2,000,000. Another useful class of polymeric agents includes polyamino acids containing proportions of anionic surface-active amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid and phosphoserine, e.g. as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,866,161, issued to Sikes et al., which is also incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
Within certain embodiments of the oral compositions, it is also desirable to incorporate a humectant to prevent the composition from hardening upon exposure to air. Certain humectants can also impart desirable sweetness or flavor to dentifrice compositions. Suitable humectants include edible polyhydric alcohols such as glycerin, sorbitol, xylitol, propylene glycol as well as other polyols and mixtures of these humectants. In one embodiment of the disclosure, the principal humectant is one of glycerin, sorbitol or a combination thereof. The humectant may be present at levels of greater than 15 wt. %, such as from 15 wt. % to 55 wt. %, or from 20 wt. % to 50 wt. %, or from 20 wt. % to 40 wt. %, or about 20% or about 30% or about 40%, based on the total weight of the composition.
Other Optional Ingredients:
In addition to the above-described components, the embodiments of this disclosure can contain a variety of optional oral care ingredients some of which are described below. Optional ingredients include, for example, but are not limited to, adhesives, sudsing agents, flavoring agents, sweetening agents such as sodium saccharin, additional antiplaque agents, abrasives, aesthetics such as TiO2 coated mica or other coloring agents, such as dyes and/or pigments.
In an embodiment, the compositions of the present disclosure can have any pH suitable for in a product for use in oral care. Examples of suitable pH ranges are from 6 to 9, such as from 6.5 to 8.
In an embodiment, the oral care compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any sodium hexametaphosphate, such as is used in the compositions of U.S. Pat. No. 3,095,356, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In an embodiment, the oral care compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any of a halogenated diphenyl ether, such as those recited in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2013/0216485, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In an embodiment, the oral care compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any of TRPV1 activators and/or vanitrope, as used in the compositions taught in CA 2760445, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In an embodiment, the oral care compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any of a high intensity sweetener selected from the group consisting of trichloro-sucrose (sucralose), acesulfame, neohesperidine DC, thaumatin, glycyrrhizin, mogroside IV, mogroside V, cyclocarioside I,N—[N—[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-L-α-aspartyl]-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, N—[N—[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-butyl]-L-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, N—[N-[3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propyl]-L-α-aspartyl]-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, and mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, the compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any of a high intensity sweetener having a 10% sucrose equivalence of from 500-600, as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0082630, the disclosure of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. By “essentially free” is meant that the compositions have no more than 0.01% by weight of these compounds.
In an embodiment, the compositions of the present disclosure are either essentially free of or do not include any complexing agents for increasing solubility of zinc phosphate and/or for maintaining the stannous fluoride in solution. Examples of known complexing agents that can be excluded from the compositions of the present disclosure include the chelating agents taught in U.S. Patent Application No. 2007/0025928, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Such chelating agents include mineral surface-active agents, including mineral surface-active agents that are polymeric and/or polyelectrolytes and that are selected from phosphorylated polymers, wherein if the phosphorylated polymer is a polyphosphate, the polyphosphate has average chain length of 3.5 or more, such as 4 or more; polyphosphonates; polycarboxylates; carboxy-substituted polymers; copolymers of phosphate- or phosphonate-containing monomers or polymers with ethylenically unsaturated monomers, amino acids, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, poly(acrylate), poly(acrylamide), poly(methacrylate), poly(ethacrylate), poly(hydroxyalkylmethacrylate), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(maleic anhydride), poly(maleate) poly(amide), poly(ethylene amine), poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl benzyl chloride); and mixtures thereof. Other known complexing agents that can be excluded from the compositions of the present disclosure include those taught in CA 2634758, the disclosure of which is incorporated here by reference in its entirety. Examples include polyphosphorylated inositol compounds such as phytic acid, myo-inositol pentakis(dihydrogen phosphate); myo-inositol tetrakis(dihydrogen phosphate), myo-inositol trikis(dihydrogen phosphate), and alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts of any of the above inositol compounds. Phytic acid is also known as myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) or inositol hexaphosphoric acid.
The present application further discloses methods of using the compositions described herein to increase zinc levels in the enamel and to treat, reduce or control the incidence of enamel erosion. The methods comprise applying any of the compositions as described herein to the teeth, e.g., by brushing, or otherwise administering the compositions to the oral cavity of a subject in need thereof. The compositions can be administered regularly, such as, for example, one or more times per day. In various embodiments, administering the compositions of the present disclosure to a patient can provide one or more of the following benefits: (i) reduce hypersensitivity of the teeth, (ii) reduce plaque accumulation, (iii) reduce or inhibit demineralization and promote remineralization of the teeth, (iv) inhibit microbial biofilm formation in the oral cavity, (v) reduce or inhibit gingivitis, (vi) promote healing of sores or cuts in the mouth, (vii) reduce levels of acid producing bacteria, (viii) increase relative levels of non-cariogenic and/or non-plaque forming bacteria, (ix) reduce or inhibit formation of dental caries, (x) reduce, repair or inhibit pre-carious lesions of the enamel, e.g., as detected by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) or electrical caries measurement (ECM), (xi) treat, relieve or reduce dry mouth, (xii) clean the teeth and oral cavity, (xiii) reduce erosion, (xiv) whiten teeth; (xv) reduce tartar build-up, and/or (xvi) promote systemic health, including cardiovascular health, e.g., by reducing potential for systemic infection via the oral tissues. The disclosure further provides compositions for use in any of the above methods. Further embodiments provide methods wherein at least one tooth is remineralized after administration of a composition as described herein.
Compositions according to the present invention can be made by the methods and procedures known to those skilled in the art.
The present application further discloses a method of making any of the compositions of the present disclosure. The method comprises combining zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride in water to form an aqueous zinc phosphate mixture having a water concentration of 12% or more and a pH ranging from 6 to 9, such as from 6.5 to 8. In some embodiments, the zinc phosphate is added to the dentifrice composition as a preformed salt and remains essentially insoluble in the aqueous mixture. The amount of water employed in the mixture can be any of the amounts recited herein for the compositions of the present disclosure. Any standard mixing techniques can be employed to combine the ingredients and form a stable composition without the need for additional complexing agents to solubilize the stannous fluoride, such as any of the above disclosed complexing or chelating agents, or the use of anhydrous mixing techniques such as dissolving stannous fluoride in an anhydrous material such as glycerin.EXAMPLES Example 1—Dentifrice Formulation
Test dentifrice comprising 1% zinc phosphate and 0.454% stannous fluoride is prepared in accordance with the following formulation of Table 1. Ingredients are listed by weight of the composition.
Three separate dentifrice samples of a formulation similar to the formulation shown in Table 1 (above) are made. The three samples are held at three different temperatures: room temperature (approximately 25° C.), approximately 40° C. and approximately 49° C., for a period of three months. The initial fluoride concentration for each sample is measured at the beginning of the study and is then periodically measured after each month of the study. The results show that in the presence of zinc phosphate, fluoride concentrations remain sufficiently stable at all three temperatures for a period of three months.
The data shows that by simply combining stannous fluoride and zinc phosphate, a stable formulation can be achieved that provides good anti-microbial benefits without the need for employing techniques typically used for stabilizing stannous fluoride compositions in water.Example 3
An Example 3 dentifrice is made by adding 0.454% by weight stannous fluoride to a commercially available toothpaste. As a first control sample, a commercially available toothpaste without stannous fluoride is used. Both the Example 3 toothpaste and the first control sample have a zinc phosphate concentration of 1% by weight. Another commercially available fluoride toothpaste, which includes 1100 ppm (mass fraction) fluoride and 1 wt % zinc citrate, is used as a second control sample.
An in vitro methodology is used to determine the enamel protection activity of the formulation prototype of Example 3. Enamel substrates (N=6/8 per cell) are prepared by embedding bovine incisors in a methacrylate-based resin and polishing with 600 and 1200 grit carbide paper consecutively. Care is taken not to penetrate the dentin layer while polishing the enamel to a mirror finish. Prior to testing, all enamel substrates are pre-etched with 5% citric acid for 30 seconds. Half the side of each substrate is masked with acid resistant tape to protect the surface as control surface. The model used to evaluate the products alternated 1-min product treatment periods with 2-min acid exposure periods according to the daily sequence of T-C-C-C-C-T (T=product treatment, C=acid challenge). The acid challenge is performed with a 1% aqueous solution of citric acid (unbuffered) adjusted to pH=3.8 with NaOH. All enamel substrates are kept in a sterile artificial saliva solution at 37° C. while not undergoing treatment or challenge. This regimen is conducted for a total of five days, at the end of which a microhardness analysis is used to quantify the amount of enamel lost due to erosion on each enamel substrate on the protected and exposed surface. The change in percentage hardness is calculated. Without treatment, using deionized water in place of test dentifrice, the change in percentage hardness is very high, ca. 80%, with slight variation from experiment to experiment depending on the particular substrate.
The dentifrice of Example 3 and both control samples are tested using the above procedure. The Example 3 formula containing both zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride is effective against demineralization in this in vitro pH-cycling model designed to investigate the protective effect of treatments on early enamel dissolution, with an average reduction in hardness following repeated acid challenges of only about 89.4 gf·mm−2. This is greater than the average 83.32 gf·mm−2 reduction in hardness seen for the first control sample using zinc phosphate without stannous fluoride, but is still significantly better than the results for the second control sample, which gave an average reduction in hardness of about 98.5 gf·mm−2. Hardness here is determined by the Knoop Hardness HK test. Thus the enamel protection activity of the zinc phosphate and stannous fluoride formulation of Example 3 is considered to be excellent.Example 4
A demineralization/remineralization study of two commercial comparative compositions (Comp. Ex. I and II) and an exemplary composition of the present invention (Example 4) is conducted on bovine teeth. The formulations of Comparative Ex. I and Example 4 are provided below in Table 2. Comparative Example II is a commercial sodium fluoride toothpaste which contains no zinc or stannous agents.
Bovine teeth are soaked in heated saliva overnight to form a pellicle. The teeth are then treated twice a day for ten (10) days with a 1:2 toothpaste:water slurry and subjected to two minute acid challenges with a 1% citric acid solution.
As illustrated by the data described in Table 3 (below), only the exemplary composition of the present disclosure demonstrates an ability to actually remineralize enamel, while the comparative examples could not deliver the same benefit.
A 13-week stability study is performed with two arms, one at room temperature and one at 40° C. Formulation A-1 is a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, 1% zinc phosphate, 1.2% citrate buffer, and 4% TSPP. Formulation B contains 0.454% stannous fluoride, 1% zinc oxide, 1.2% citrate buffer, and 4% TSPP. The results are shown in Table 4 below.
The results demonstrate that while the use of zinc oxide results in comparable fluoride stability to using zinc phosphate, the soluble stannous level and soluble zine level is significantly reduced both initially and over the course of the study when zinc oxide is used instead of zinc phosphate. This demonstrates that zinc phosphate has the ability to stabilize stannous ion against oxidative degradation, whereas zinc oxide does not. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that zinc oxide when solubilized can adversely interact with stannous fluoride to cause conversion of the stannous ion to stannous hydroxide, which precipitates out. In contrast, zinc phosphate is able to maintain zinc and stannous in a bioavailable soluble form.Example 6
An additional stability study is performed in which the soluble tin recoverable is compared between a formulation according to the present invention (Formulation A-2) and two commercial competitors (Comparative B and C). The study is performed for 13 weeks at room temperature. Formulation A-2 comprises 0.454% stannous fluoride, 1% zinc phosphate, 1.2% citrate buffer, and 2% TSPP (Formula A-2 is essentially the same as Formulation A-1, except that it contains 2% TSPP instead of 4% TSPP). Comparative composition B is a low water composition comprising 0.454% stannous fluoride, about 2.5% zinc lactate, and about 10% water. Comparative composition C is a high-water composition comprising 0.454% stannous fluoride, 0.27% stannous chloride, 0.5% zinc citrate, and about 43% water. The results shown in Table 5 below demonstrate that while existing low-water stannous fluoride compositions can achieve stannous ion stability, high water compositions cannot. Indeed, the commercial formulation comprising more than double the total tin salt content results in half as much recoverable soluble tin at the conclusion of the study.
Tin can exist in two oxidation states, Sn(II) (stannous) and Sn(IV) (stannic). Oxidizing agents, including atmospheric oxygen, can oxidize Sn(II) to Sn(IV). Soluble Sn(II) can be rapidly quantified by titrating with the inorganic oxidizing agent iodine, such as according to the method of Howe, P., and Watts, P., Tin and inorganic tin compounds, (World Health Organization, 2005). Formulation A-2, and Comparative Formulations B and C, as described above, are tested for soluble tin using this method. The results are shown in Table 6 below. These results further demonstrate that a composition according to the invention unexpectedly stabilizes tin in a high water composition.
The antibacterial efficacy of Formulation A-2 is compared to various commercial competitor formulations using the planktonic bacteria ATP luminescence assay described in Example 3. Formulation A-2 is a dentifrice comprising 0.454% stannous fluoride, 1% zinc phosphate, 1.2% citrate buffer, and 2% TSPP. Comparative composition C is a high-water composition comprising 0.454% stannous fluoride, 0.27% stannous chloride, 0.5% zinc citrate, and about 43% water. Comparative Composition D is a commercial stabilized stannous dentifrice comprising about 0.45% stannous fluoride in a substantially anhydrous (zero-water) base. The results are shown in Table 7 below. Samples are diluted 1:8 in a mixture of saliva and PBS. Positive controls are measured for saliva alone and the saliva/PBS mixture used for sample dilution. The results show that Formulation A-2 is significantly more effective in killing bacteria compared to any of the commercial competitors.
While the present invention has been described with reference to embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations may be made therein without departing from the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
1. An oral care composition, comprising:
- an orally acceptable carrier;
- zinc phosphate; and
- stannous fluoride.
2. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the zinc phosphate is a preformed salt of zinc phosphate.
3. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein zinc phosphate is present in an amount sufficient so that the stannous fluoride dissociates to provide a therapeutically effective amount of stannous ions in aqueous solution.
4. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the amount of zinc phosphate is from 0.05 to 5% by weight, relative to the weight of the oral care composition.
5. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the amount of the stannous fluoride is from 0.05% to 5% by weight, relative to the weight of the oral care composition.
6. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the amount of the water is about 12% by weight or more, relative to the weight of the oral care composition.
7. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the oral care composition further comprises an abrasive.
8. The oral care composition of claim 1, further comprising one or more humectants and/or one or more surfactants.
9. The oral care composition of claim 1, further comprising an effective amount of one or more alkali phosphate salts.
10. The oral care composition of claim 1, further comprising a whitening agent.
11. The oral care composition of claim 1, further comprising one or more sources of zinc ions in addition to the zinc phosphate.
12. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the oral care composition is a dentifrice, powder, cream, strip or gum.
13. An oral care composition according to claim 1, which comprises:
- from 0.5 to 3% by weight zinc phosphate;
- from 0.05 to 11% by weight stannous fluoride;
- a silica abrasive.
14. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the oral care composition is a gel.
15. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the pH of the composition is less than 7.
16. A method of treating or reducing dental enamel erosion comprising administering a composition according to claim 1 to the oral cavity of a subject in need thereof.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein at least one tooth is remineralized after administration of said composition.
Filed: Mar 4, 2019
Publication Date: Jun 27, 2019
Applicant: Colgate-Palmolive Company (New York, NY)
Inventors: Aarti REGE (East Windsor, NJ), Richard SULLIVAN (Atlantic Highlands, NJ), David SURIANO (Edison, NJ), Nihal DOGU (Dayton, NJ), Mary COLLIGAN (Hillsborough, NJ), Steven FISHER (Middlesex, NJ), Andre MORGAN (Robbinsville, NJ)
Application Number: 16/291,472