PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING A FERMENTATION PRODUCT

- NOVOZYMES A/S

The present invention relates to processes for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material, wherein an alpha-amylase and optionally a thermostable protease, pullulanase and/or glucoamylase are present and/or added during liquefaction, wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The invention also relates to a composition suitable for use in a process of the invention.

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Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/961,269 filed Apr. 24, 2018, now allowed, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/648,477 filed May 29, 2015, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,227,613, which is a continuation-in-part under 35 U.S.C. 120 of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/388,595 filed on Sep. 26, 2014 as a U.S. National Phase Application under 35 U.S. C. 371 of International Application No. PCT/US2013/034337 filed on Mar. 28, 2013, which claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. 119 of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/617,799, filed on Mar. 30, 2012; and, a 35 U.S.C. 371 national application of PCT/US2013/071982 filed Nov. 26, 2013, which claims priority or the benefit under 35 U.S.C. 119 of U.S. provisional application No. 61/731,806 filed Nov. 30, 2012, the contents of which are fully incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to processes for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material. The invention also relates to a composition suitable for use in a process of the invention.

REFERENCE TO A SEQUENCE LISTING

This application contains a Sequence Listing in computer readable form. The computer readable form is incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Production of fermentation products, such as ethanol, from starch-containing material is well-known in the art. Industrially two different kinds of processes are used today. The most commonly used process, often referred to as a “conventional process”, and includes liquefying gelatinized starch at high temperature using typically a bacterial alpha-amylase, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation carried out in the presence of a glucoamylase and a fermentation organism. Another well-known process, often referred to as a “raw starch hydrolysis”-process (RSH process), includes simultaneously saccharifying and fermenting granular starch below the initial gelatization temperature typically in the presence of at least a glucoamylase.

Despite significant improvement of fermentation product production processes over the past decade a significant amount of residual starch material is not converted into the desired fermentation product, such as ethanol. At least some of the unconverted residual starch material, e.g., sugars and dextrins, is in the form of non-fermentable Maillard products.

Therefore, there is still a desire and need for providing processes for producing fermentation products, such as ethanol, from starch-containing material that can provide a higher fermentation product yield, or other advantages, compared to a conventional process.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to processes of producing fermentation products, such as ethanol, from starch-containing material using a fermenting organism.

In the first aspect the invention relates to processes for producing fermentation products, such as ethanol, from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

    • i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:
      • an alpha-amylase;
      • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
      • optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
    • ii) saccharifying using a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
    • iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

Suitable cellulolytic compositions are described below. In a preferred embodiment the cellulolytic composition is derived from Trichoderma reesei.

In a preferred embodiment liquefaction is carried out at a temperature between from 70-1000C, such as between 75-95° C., such as between 75-90° C., preferably between 80-90° C., such as 82-88° C., such as around 85° C.

In an embodiment the pH during liquefaction is from 4.5-5.0, such as between 4.5-4.8. In another embodiment liquefaction is carried out at a pH above 5.0-6.5, such as above 5.0-6.0, such as above 5.0-5.5, such as between 5.2-6.2, such as around 5.2, such as around 5.4, such as around 5.6, such as around 5.8.

In a second aspect the invention relates to an enzyme composition comprising:

    • an alpha-amylase;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme.

The alpha-amylase present may be any alpha-amylase, preferably a bacterial alpha-amylase, in particular from Bacillus stearothermophilus, especially a thermostable variant thereof.

Examples of thermostable variants are given below. Preferred examples include alpha-amylases selected from the group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants:

    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V; and
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S.

The composition of the invention optionally comprises a pullulanase. The pullulanase may be a family GH57 pullulanase, such as a pullulanase which includes an X47 domain as disclosed in WO 2011/087836. More examples are given in the “Pullulanase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below.

In embodiments of the invention a thermostable protease and/or a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a glucoamylases, are optionally present.

Examples of thermostable proteases can be found in the “Protease Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below. In a preferred embodiment the thermostable protease is a variant of the Thermoascus aurantiacus protease shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 herein or a protease derived from a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus, in particular the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein, SEQ ID NO: 29 herein or disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726-B1.

Examples of suitable optional carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, preferably thermostable carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, in particular a thermostable glucoamylase, can be found in the “Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzymes Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below.

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a glucoamylase, is Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase, or a variant thereof.

Other enzyme activities may also be present.

Definitions Enzymes:

Cellulolytic composition, cellulolytic enzymes or cellulase means a preparation comprising one or more (e.g., several) enzymes that hydrolyze a cellulosic material. Such enzymes include endoglucanase(s), cellobiohydrolase(s), beta-glucosidase(s), or combinations thereof. The two basic approaches for measuring cellulolytic activity include: (1) measuring the total cellulolytic activity, and (2) measuring the individual cellulolytic activities (endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, and beta-glucosidases) as reviewed in Zhang et al., Outlook for cellulase improvement: Screening and selection strategies, 2006, Biotechnology Advances 24: 452-481. Total cellulolytic activity is usually measured using insoluble substrates, including Whatman N_1 filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, bacterial cellulose, algal cellulose, cotton, pretreated lignocellulose, etc. The most common total cellulolytic activity assay is the filter paper assay using Whatman N_1 filter paper as the substrate. The assay was established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Ghose, 1987, Measurement of cellulase activities, Pure Appl. Chem. 59: 257-68).

Cellulolytic enzyme activity is determined by measuring the increase in hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme(s) under the following conditions: 1-50 mg of cellulolytic enzyme protein/g of cellulose in Pretreated Corn Stover (“PCS”) (or other pretreated cellulosic material) for 3-7 days at a suitable temperature, e.g., 50° C., 55° C., or 60° C., compared to a control hydrolysis without addition of cellulolytic enzyme protein. Typical conditions are 1 ml reactions, washed or unwashed PCS, 5% insoluble solids, 50 mM sodium acetate pH 5, 1 mM MnSO4, 50° C., 55° C., or 60° C., 72 hours, sugar analysis by AMINEX® HPX-87H column (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, Calif., USA).

Family 61 glycoside hydrolase: The term “Family 61 glycoside hydrolase” or “Family GH61” or “GH61” means a polypeptide falling into the glycoside hydrolase Family 61 according to Henrissat B., 1991, A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino-acid sequence similarities, Biochem. J. 280: 309-316, and Henrissat B., and Bairoch A., 1996, Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases, Biochem. J. 316: 695-696. The enzymes in this family were originally classified as a glycoside hydrolase family based on measurement of very weak endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase activity in one family member. The structure and mode of action of these enzymes are non-canonical and they cannot be considered as bona fide glycosidases. However, they are kept in the CAZy classification on the basis of their capacity to enhance the breakdown of lignocellulose when used in conjunction with a cellulase or a mixture of cellulases.

Polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity: The term “polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity” means a GH61 polypeptide that catalyzes the enhancement of the hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by enzyme having cellulolytic activity. For purposes of the present invention, cellulolytic enhancing activity is determined by measuring the increase in reducing sugars or the increase of the total of cellobiose and glucose from the hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme under the following conditions: 1-50 mg of total protein/g of cellulose in PCS, wherein total protein is comprised of 50-99.5% w/w cellulolytic enzyme protein and 0.5-50% w/w protein of a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity for 1-7 days at a suitable temperature, e.g., 50° C., 55° C., or 60° C., and pH, e.g., 5.0 or 5.5, compared to a control hydrolysis with equal total protein loading without cellulolytic enhancing activity (1-50 mg of cellulolytic protein/g of cellulose in PCS). In an aspect, a mixture of CELLUCLAST® 1.5 L (Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) in the presence of 2-3% of total protein weight Aspergillus oryzae beta-glucosidase (recombinantly produced in Aspergillus oryzae according to WO 02/095014) or 2-3% of total protein weight Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (recombinantly produced in Aspergillus oryzae as described in WO 2002/095014) of cellulase protein loading is used as the source of the cellulolytic activity.

The GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity enhance the hydrolysis of a cellulosic material catalyzed by enzyme having cellulolytic activity by reducing the amount of cellulolytic enzyme required to reach the same degree of hydrolysis preferably at least 1.01-fold, e.g., at least 1.05-fold, at least 1.10-fold, at least 1.25-fold, at least 1.5-fold, at least 2-fold, at least 3-fold, at least 4-fold, at least 5-fold, at least 10-fold, or at least 20-fold.

Beta-glucosidase: The term “beta-glucosidase” means a beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-glucose residues with the release of beta-D-glucose.

For purposes of the present invention, beta-glucosidase activity is determined using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrate according to the procedure of Venturi et al., 2002, Extracellular beta-D-glucosidase from Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum: production, purification and some biochemical properties, J. Basic Microbiol. 42: 55-66. One unit of beta-glucosidase is defined as 1.0 μmole of p-nitrophenolate anion produced per minute at 25° C., pH 4.8 from 1 mM p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrate in 50 mM sodium citrate containing 0.01% TWEEN® 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate).

Cellobiohydrolase: The term “cellobiohydrolase” means a 1,4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.91) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, cellooligosaccharides, or any beta-1,4-linked glucose containing polymer, releasing cellobiose from the reducing or non-reducing ends of the chain (Teeri, 1997, Crystalline cellulose degradation: New insight into the function of cellobiohydrolases, Trends in Biotechnology 15: 160-167; Teeri et al., 1998, Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases: why so efficient on crystalline cellulose?, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 26: 173-178).

Cellobiohydrolase activity is determined according to the procedures described by Lever et al., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 47: 273-279; van Tilbeurgh et al., 1982, FEBS Letters, 149: 152-156; van Tilbeurgh and Claeyssens, 1985, FEBS Letters, 187: 283-288; and Tomme et al., 1988, Eur. J. Biochem. 170: 575-581. In the present invention, the Tomme et al. method can be used to determine cellobiohydrolase activity.

Endoglucanase: The term “endoglucanase” means an endo-1,4-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.4) that catalyzes endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in cellulose, cellulose derivatives (such as carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose), lichenin, beta-1,4 bonds in mixed beta-1,3 glucans such as cereal beta-D-glucans or xyloglucans, and other plant material containing cellulosic components.

Endoglucanase activity can be determined by measuring reduction in substrate viscosity or increase in reducing ends determined by a reducing sugar assay (Zhang et al., 2006, Biotechnology Advances 24: 452-481). For purposes of the present invention, endoglucanase activity is determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate according to the procedure of Ghose, 1987, Pure and Appl. Chem. 59: 257-268, at pH 5, 40° C.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to processes of producing fermentation products, such as ethanol from starch-containing material using a fermenting organism.

In the first aspect the invention relates to processes for producing fermentation products, preferably ethanol, comprising the steps of:

    • i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:
      • an alpha-amylase;
      • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
      • optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
    • ii) saccharifying using a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
    • iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

Steps ii) and iii) are carried out either sequentially or simultaneously. In a preferred embodiment steps ii) and iii) are carried out simultaneously. The alpha-amylase, optional thermostable protease, optional carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, preferably glucoamylase, and/or, optional a pullulanase, may be added before and/or during liquefaction step i). A composition of the invention may suitably be used in a process of the invention. However, the enzymes may also be added separately. Examples of alpha-amylases can be found in the “Alpha-Amylase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below. Examples of thermostable proteases can be found in the “Protease Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below. Examples of suitable optional carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, preferably thermostable carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, in particular a thermostable glucoamylase, can be found in the “Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzymes Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below. A suitable optional pullulanase can be found in the “Pullulanase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section below.

The pH during liquefaction may be between 4-7. In an embodiment the pH during liquefaction is from 4.5-5.0, such as between 4.5-4.8. In another embodiment liquefaction is carried out at a pH above 5.0-6.5, such as above 5.0-6.0, such as above 5.0-5.5, such as between 5.2-6.2, such as around 5.2, such as around 5.4, such as around 5.6, such as around 5.8.

According to the invention the temperature is above the initial gelatinization temperature. The term “initial gelatinization temperature” refers to the lowest temperature at which solubilization of starch, typically by heating, begins. The temperature can vary for different starches.

In an embodiment the temperature during liquefaction step i) is in the range from 70-1000C, such as between 75-95° C., such as between 75-90° C., preferably between 80-90° C., such as between 82-88° C., such as around 85° C.

In an embodiment, the process of the invention further comprises, prior to the step i), the steps of:

    • a) reducing the particle size of the starch-containing material, preferably by dry milling;
    • b) forming a slurry comprising the starch-containing material and water.

The starch-containing starting material, such as whole grains, may be reduced in particle size, e.g., by milling, in order to open up the structure, to increase surface area, and allowing for further processing. Generally there are two types of processes: wet and dry milling. In dry milling whole kernels are milled and used. Wet milling gives a good separation of germ and meal (starch granules and protein). Wet milling is often applied at locations where the starch hydrolysate is used in production of, e.g., syrups. Both dry and wet milling are well known in the art of starch processing. According to the present invention dry milling is preferred. In an embodiment the particle size is reduced to between 0.05 to 3.0 mm, preferably 0.1-0.5 mm, or so that at least 30%, preferably at least 50%, more preferably at least 70%, even more preferably at least 90% of the starch-containing material fit through a sieve with a 0.05 to 3.0 mm screen, preferably 0.1-0.5 mm screen. In another embodiment at least 50%, preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 80%, especially at least 90% of the starch-containing material fit through a sieve with #6 screen.

The aqueous slurry may contain from 10-55 w/w-% dry solids (DS), preferably 25-45 w/w-% dry solids (DS), more preferably 30-40 w/w-% dry solids (DS) of starch-containing material.

The slurry may be heated to above the initial gelatinization temperature, preferably to between 80-90° C., between pH 4-7, preferably between 4.5-5.0 or 5.0 and 6.0, for 30 minutes to 5 hours, such as around 2 hours.

The alpha-amylase, optional thermostable protease, optional carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular thermostable glucoamylase, and/or optional pullulanase may initially be added to the aqueous slurry to initiate liquefaction (thinning). In an embodiment only a portion of the enzymes is added to the aqueous slurry, while the rest of the enzymes are added during liquefaction step i).

Liquefaction step i) is according to the invention carried out for 0.5-5 hours, such as 1-3 hours, such as typically around 2 hours.

The aqueous slurry may in an embodiment be jet-cooked to further gelatinize the slurry before being subjected to liquefaction in step i). The jet-cooking may be carried out at a temperature between 110-145° C., preferably 120-140° C., such as 125-135° C., preferably around 1300C for about 1-15 minutes, preferably for about 3-10 minutes, especially around about 5 minutes.

Saccharification and Fermentation

One or more carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, in particular glucoamylase, may be present and/or added during saccharification step ii) and/or fermentation step iii). The carbohydrate-source generating enzyme may preferably be a glucoamylase, but may also be an enzyme selected from the group consisting of: beta-amylase, maltogenic amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The carbohydrate-source generating enzyme added during saccharification step ii) and/or fermentation step iii) is typically different from the optional carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular thermostable glucoamylase, optionally added during liquefaction step i). In a preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, in particular glucoamylase, is added together with a fungal alpha-amylase.

Examples of carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, including glucoamylases, can be found in the “Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzyme Present and/or Added During Saccharification and/or Fermentation”-section below.

When doing sequential saccharification and fermentation, saccharification step ii) may be carried out at conditions well-known in the art. For instance, the saccharification step ii) may last up to from about 24 to about 72 hours. In an embodiment pre-saccharification is done. Pre-saccharification is typically done for 40-90 minutes at a temperature between 30-65° C., typically about 60° C. Pre-saccharification is in an embodiment followed by saccharification during fermentation in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (“SSF). Saccharification is typically carried out at temperatures from 20-75° C., preferably from 40-70° C., typically around 600C, and at a pH between 4 and 5, normally at about pH 4.5.

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (“SSF”) is widely used in industrial scale fermentation product production processes, especially ethanol production processes. When doing SSF the saccharification step ii) and the fermentation step iii) are carried out simultaneously. There is no holding stage for the saccharification, meaning that a fermenting organism, such as yeast, and enzyme(s), may be added together. However, it is also contemplated to add the fermenting organism and enzyme(s) separately. SSF is according to the invention typically carried out at a temperature from 25° C. to 40° C., such as from 28° C. to 35° C., such as from 30° C. to 34° C., preferably around about 32° C. In an embodiment fermentation is ongoing for 6 to 120 hours, in particular 24 to 96 hours. In an embodiment the pH is between 3.5-5, in particular between 3.8 and 4.3.

Fermentation Medium

“Fermentation media” or “fermentation medium” refers to the environment in which fermentation is carried out. The fermentation medium includes the fermentation substrate, that is, the carbohydrate source that is metabolized by the fermenting organism. According to the invention the fermentation medium may comprise nutrients and growth stimulator(s) for the fermenting organism(s). Nutrient and growth stimulators are widely used in the art of fermentation and include nitrogen sources, such as ammonia; urea, vitamins and minerals, or combinations thereof.

Fermenting Organisms

The term “Fermenting organism” refers to any organism, including bacterial and fungal organisms, especially yeast, suitable for use in a fermentation process and capable of producing the desired fermentation product. Especially suitable fermenting organisms are able to ferment, i.e., convert, sugars, such as glucose or maltose, directly or indirectly into the desired fermentation product, such as ethanol. Examples of fermenting organisms include fungal organisms, such as yeast. Preferred yeast includes strains of Saccharomyces spp., in particular, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Suitable concentrations of the viable fermenting organism during fermentation, such as SSF, are well known in the art or can easily be determined by the skilled person in the art. In one embodiment the fermenting organism, such as ethanol fermenting yeast, (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is added to the fermentation medium so that the viable fermenting organism, such as yeast, count per mL of fermentation medium is in the range from 105 to 1012, preferably from 107 to 1010, especially about 5×107.

Examples of commercially available yeast includes, e.g., RED STAR™ and ETHANOL RED™ yeast (available from Fermentis/Lesaffre, USA), FALl (available from Fleischmann's Yeast, USA), SUPERSTART and THERMOSACC™ fresh yeast (available from Ethanol Technology, WI, USA), BIOFERM AFT and XR (available from NABC—North American Bioproducts Corporation, GA, USA), GERT STRAND (available from Gert Strand AB, Sweden), and FERMIOL (available from DSM Specialties).

Starch-Containinq Materials Any suitable starch-containing material may be used according to the present invention.

The starting material is generally selected based on the desired fermentation product. Examples of starch-containing materials, suitable for use in a process of the invention, include whole grains, corn, wheat, barley, rye, milo, sago, cassava, tapioca, sorghum, rice, peas, beans, or sweet potatoes, or mixtures thereof or starches derived there from, or cereals. Contemplated are also waxy and non-waxy types of corn and barley. In a preferred embodiment the starch-containing material, used for ethanol production according to the invention, is corn or wheat.

Fermentation Products

The term “fermentation product” means a product produced by a process including a fermentation step using a fermenting organism. Fermentation products contemplated according to the invention include alcohols (e.g., ethanol, methanol, butanol; polyols such as glycerol, sorbitol and inositol); organic acids (e.g., citric acid, acetic acid, itaconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, gluconic acid); ketones (e.g., acetone); amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid); gases (e.g., H2 and CO2); antibiotics (e.g., penicillin and tetracycline); enzymes; vitamins (e.g., riboflavin, B12, beta-carotene); and hormones. In a preferred embodiment the fermentation product is ethanol, e.g., fuel ethanol; drinking ethanol, i.e., potable neutral spirits; or industrial ethanol or products used in the consumable alcohol industry (e.g., beer and wine), dairy industry (e.g., fermented dairy products), leather industry and tobacco industry. Preferred beer types comprise ales, stouts, porters, lagers, bitters, malt liquors, happoushu, high-alcohol beer, low-alcohol beer, low-calorie beer or light beer. Preferably processes of the invention are used for producing an alcohol, such as ethanol. The fermentation product, such as ethanol, obtained according to the invention, may be used as fuel, which is typically blended with gasoline. However, in the case of ethanol it may also be used as potable ethanol.

Recovery

Subsequent to fermentation, or SSF, the fermentation product may be separated from the fermentation medium. The slurry may be distilled to extract the desired fermentation product (e.g., ethanol). Alternatively the desired fermentation product may be extracted from the fermentation medium by micro or membrane filtration techniques. The fermentation product may also be recovered by stripping or other method well known in the art.

Alpha-Amylase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction

According to the invention an alpha-amylase is present and/or added during liquefaction together with an optional thermostable protease, optional carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a thermostable glucoamylase, and/or optional pullulanase.

The alpha-amylase added during liquefaction step i) may be any alpha-amylase. Preferred are bacterial alpha-amylases, which typically are stable at temperature used during liquefaction.

Bacterial Alpha-Amylase

The term “bacterial alpha-amylase” means any bacterial alpha-amylase classified under EC 3.2.1.1. A bacterial alpha-amylase used according to the invention may, e.g., be derived from a strain of the genus Bacillus, which is sometimes also referred to as the genus Geobacillus. In an embodiment the Bacillus alpha-amylase is derived from a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus stearothermophilus, or Bacillus subtilis, but may also be derived from other Bacillus sp.

Specific examples of bacterial alpha-amylases include the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase of SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467, the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase of SEQ ID NO: 5 in WO 99/19467, and the Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase of SEQ ID NO: 4 in WO 99/19467 (all sequences are hereby incorporated by reference). In an embodiment the alpha-amylase may be an enzyme having a degree of identity of at least 60%, e.g., at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% to any of the sequences shown in SEQ ID NOS: 3, 4 or 5, respectively, in WO 99/19467.

In an embodiment the alpha-amylase may be an enzyme having a degree of identity of at least 60%, e.g., at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 91%, at least 92%, at least 93%, at least 94%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% to any of the sequences shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.

In a preferred embodiment the alpha-amylase is derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus. The Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase may be a mature wild-type or a mature variant thereof. The mature Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylases may naturally be truncated during recombinant production. For instance, the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase may be a truncated so it has around 491 amino acids (compared to SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467.

The Bacillus alpha-amylase may also be a variant and/or hybrid. Examples of such a variant can be found in any of WO 96/23873, WO 96/23874, WO 97/41213, WO 99/19467, WO 00/60059, and WO 02/10355 (all documents are hereby incorporated by reference). Specific alpha-amylase variants are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,093,562, 6,187,576, 6,297,038, and 7,713,723 (hereby incorporated by reference) and include Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (often referred to as BSG alpha-amylase) variants having a deletion of one or two amino acids at positions R179, G180, 1181 and/or G182, preferably a double deletion disclosed in WO 96/23873—see, e.g., page 20, lines 1-10 (hereby incorporated by reference), preferably corresponding to deletion of positions I181 and G182 compared to the amino acid sequence of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase set forth in SEQ ID NO: 3 disclosed in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein or the deletion of amino acids R179 and G180 using SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering (which reference is hereby incorporated by reference). Even more preferred are Bacillus alpha-amylases, especially Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylases, which have a double deletion corresponding to a deletion of positions 181 and 182 and further comprise a N193F substitution (also denoted I181*+G182*+N193F) compared to the wild-type BSG alpha-amylase amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 3 disclosed in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein. The bacterial alpha-amylase may also have a substitution in a position corresponding to S239 in the Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 4 in WO 99/19467, or a S242 variant of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase of SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.

In an embodiment the variant is a S242A, E or Q variant, preferably a S242Q variant, of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering). In an embodiment the variant is a position E188 variant, preferably E188P variant of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).

The bacterial alpha-amylase may in an embodiment be a truncated Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase. Especially the truncation is so that the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein, is around 491 amino acids long, such as from 480 to 495 amino acids long.

Bacterial Hybrid Alpha-Amylases

The bacterial alpha-amylase may also be a hybrid bacterial alpha-amylase, e.g., an alpha-amylase comprising 445 C-terminal amino acid residues of the Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (shown in SEQ ID NO: 4 of WO 99/19467) and the 37 N-terminal amino acid residues of the alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (shown in SEQ ID NO: 5 of WO 99/19467). In a preferred embodiment this hybrid has one or more, especially all, of the following substitutions:

G48A+T49I+G107A+H156Y+A181T+N190F+1201F+A209V+Q264S (using the Bacillus licheniformis numbering in SEQ ID NO: 4 of WO 99/19467). Also preferred are variants having one or more of the following mutations (or corresponding mutations in other Bacillus alpha-amylases): H154Y, A181T, N190F, A209V and Q264S and/or the deletion of two residues between positions 176 and 179, preferably the deletion of E178 and G179 (using SEQ ID NO: 5 of WO 99/19467 for position numbering).

In an embodiment the bacterial alpha-amylase is the mature part of the chimeric alpha-amylase disclosed in Richardson et al. (2002), The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 277, No 29, Issue 19 July, pp. 267501-26507, referred to as BD5088 or a variant thereof. This alpha-amylase is the same as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2007134207. The mature enzyme sequence starts after the initial “Met” amino acid in position 1.

Thermostable Alpha-Amylase

According to the invention the alpha-amylase may be a thermostable alpha-amylase, such as a thermostable bacterial alpha-amylase, preferably from Bacillus stearothermophilus. In an embodiment the alpha-amylase used according to the invention has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, of at least 15.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, of as at least 20.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, of as at least 25.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, of as at least 30.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, of as at least 40.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2, of at least 50.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2, of at least 60.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2, between 10-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2, between 15-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, between 20-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, between 25-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, between 30-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, between 40-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2, between 50-70.

In an embodiment the thermostable alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2, between 60-70.

In an embodiment of the invention the alpha-amylase is an bacterial alpha-amylase, preferably derived from the genus Bacillus, especially a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, in particular the Bacillus stearothermophilus as disclosed in WO 99/019467 as SEQ ID NO: 3 (SEQ ID NO: 1 herein) with one or two amino acids deleted at positions R179, G180, 1181 and/or G182, in particular with R179 and G180 deleted, or with I181 and G182 deleted, with mutations in below list of mutations.

In preferred embodiments the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylases have double deletion I181+G182, and optional substitution N193F, further comprising mutations selected from below list:

V59A + Q89R + G112D + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + D269E + D281N; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + I270L; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + H274K; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + Y276F; V59A + E129V + R157Y + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + H274K; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + D281N; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + G416V; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T; A91L + M96I + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F + L427M; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + N376* + I377*; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T; E129V + K177L + R179E + S242Q; E129V + K177L + R179V + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; M284V; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + Q254S + M284V. V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + Q254S + M284V;

In a preferred embodiment the alpha-amylase is selected from the group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants:

    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V; and
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).

It should be understood that when referring to Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase and variants thereof they are normally produced in truncated form. In particular, the truncation may be so that the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein, or variants thereof, are truncated in the C-terminal and are typically around 491 amino acids long, such as from 480-495 amino acids long.

In a preferred embodiment the alpha-amylase variant may be an enzyme having a degree of identity of at least 60%, e.g., at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 91%, at least 92%, at least 93%, at least 94%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99%, but less than 100% to the sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/19467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.

Protease Present and/or Added During Liquefaction

According to the invention a thermostable protease is optionally present and/or added during liquefaction together with an alpha-amylase, and optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a thermostable glucoamylase, and/or optionally a pullulanase.

Proteases are classified on the basis of their catalytic mechanism into the following groups: Serine proteases (S), Cysteine proteases (C), Aspartic proteases (A), Metallo proteases (M), and Unknown, or as yet unclassified, proteases (U), see Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, A. J. Barrett, N. D. Rawlings, J. F. Woessner (eds), Academic Press (1998), in particular the general introduction part.

In a preferred embodiment the thermostable protease used according to the invention is a “metallo protease” defined as a protease belonging to EC 3.4.24 (metalloendopeptidases); preferably EC 3.4.24.39 (acid metallo proteinases).

To determine whether a given protease is a metallo protease or not, reference is made to the above “Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes” and the principles indicated therein. Such determination can be carried out for all types of proteases, be it naturally occurring or wild-type proteases; or genetically engineered or synthetic proteases.

Protease activity can be measured using any suitable assay, in which a substrate is employed, that includes peptide bonds relevant for the specificity of the protease in question. Assay-pH and assay-temperature are likewise to be adapted to the protease in question. Examples of assay-pH-values are pH 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11. Examples of assay-temperatures are 30, 35, 37, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70 or 80° C.

Examples of protease substrates are casein, such as Azurine-Crosslinked Casein (AZCL-casein). Two protease assays are described below in the “Materials & Methods”-section, of which the so-called “AZCL-Casein Assay” is the preferred assay.

In an embodiment the thermostable protease has at least 20%, such as at least 30%, such as at least 40%, such as at least 50%, such as at least 60%, such as at least 70%, such as at least 80%, such as at least 90%, such as at least 95%, such as at least 100% of the protease activity of the Protease 196 variant or Protease Pfu determined by the AZCL-casein assay described in the “Materials & Methods” section.

There are no limitations on the origin of the protease used in a process of the invention as long as it fulfills the thermostability properties defined below.

In one embodiment the protease is of fungal origin.

The protease may be a variant of, e.g., a wild-type protease as long as the protease has the thermostability properties defined herein. In a preferred embodiment the thermostable protease is a variant of a metallo protease as defined above. In an embodiment the thermostable protease used in a process of the invention is of fungal origin, such as a fungal metallo protease, such as a fungal metallo protease derived from a strain of the genus Thermoascus, preferably a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, especially Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670 (classified as EC 3.4.24.39).

In an embodiment the thermostable protease is a variant of the mature part of the metallo protease shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 and shown as SEQ ID NO: 3 herein further with mutations selected from below list:

    • S5*+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • S5*+N26R+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • N26R+T46R+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • T46R+D79L+S87P+T116V+D142L;
    • D79L+P81R+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S38T+D79L+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+N98C+A112P+G135C+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L+T141C+M161C;
    • S36P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • A37P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S49P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S50P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+D142L;
    • S70V+D79L+Y82F+S87G+Y97W+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+Y97W+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • S70V+D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • Y82F+S87G+S70V+D79L+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • Y82F+S87G+D79L+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+Y82F+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+Y82F+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+D142L.

In an preferred embodiment the thermostable protease is a variant of the metallo protease disclosed as the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein with the following mutations:

D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L; D79L+S87P+D142L; or A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L.

In an embodiment the protease variant has at least 75% identity preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, but less than 100% identity to the mature part of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein.

The thermostable protease may also be derived from any bacterium as long as the protease has the thermostability properties defined according to the invention.

In an embodiment the thermostable protease is derived from a strain of the bacterium Pyrococcus, such as a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus (pfu protease) In an embodiment the protease is one shown as SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726-B1 (Takara Shuzo Company), SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein.

In another embodiment the thermostable protease is one disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or a protease having at least 80% identity, such as at least 85%, such as at least 90%, such as at least 95%, such as at least 96%, such as at least 97%, such as at least 98%, such as at least 99% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726-B1 or SEQ ID NO: 13 herein. The Pyroccus furiosus protease can be purchased from Takara Bio, Japan.

The Pyrococcus furiosus protease is a thermostable protease according to the invention. The commercial product Pyrococcus furiosus protease (Pfu S) was found to have a thermostability of 110% (80° C./70° C.) and 103% (90° C./70° C.) at pH 4.5 determined as described in Example 2 herein.

In one embodiment a thermostable protease used in a process of the invention has a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. determined as described in Example 2.

In an embodiment the protease has a thermostability of more than 30%, more than 40%, more than 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, such as more than 105%, such as more than 110%, such as more than 115%, such as more than 120% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.

In an embodiment protease has a thermostability of between 20 and 50%, such as between 20 and 40%, such as 20 and 30% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.

In an embodiment the protease has a thermostability between 50 and 115%, such as between 50 and 70%, such as between 50 and 60%, such as between 100 and 120%, such as between 105 and 115% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.

In an embodiment the protease has a thermostability value of more than 10% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C. determined as described in Example 2.

In an embodiment the protease has a thermostability of more than 10%, such as more than 12%, more than 14%, more than 16%, more than 18%, more than 20%, more than 30%, more than 40%, more that 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, more than 110% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.

In an embodiment the protease has a thermostability of between 10 and 50%, such as between 10 and 30%, such as between 10 and 25% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.

In an embodiment the protease has more than 20%, more than 30%, more than 40%, more than 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90% determined as Remaining Activity at 80° C.; and/or In an embodiment the protease has more than 20%, more than 30%, more than 40%, more than 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90% determined as Remaining Activity at 84° C.

Determination of “Relative Activity” and “Remaining Activity” is done as described in Example 2.

In an embodiment the protease may have a themostability for above 90, such as above 100 at 85° C. as determined using the Zein-BCA assay as disclosed in Example 3.

In an embodiment the protease has a themostability above 60%, such as above 90%, such as above 100%, such as above 110% at 85° C. as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.

In an embodiment protease has a themostability between 60-120, such as between 70-120%, such as between 80-120%, such as between 90-120%, such as between 100-120%, such as 110-120% at 85° C. as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.

In an embodiment the thermostable protease has at least 20%, such as at least 30%, such as at least 40%, such as at least 50%, such as at least 60%, such as at least 70%, such as at least 80%, such as at least 90%, such as at least 95%, such as at least 100% of the activity of the JTP196 protease variant or Protease Pfu determined by the AZCL-casein assay.

Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzyme Present and/or Added During Liquefaction

According to the invention a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a glucoamylase, preferably a thermostable glucoamylase, may optionally be present and/or added during liquefaction together with an alpha-amylase and an optional thermostable protease. As mentioned above, a pullulanase may also be optionally be present and/or added during liquefaction step i).

The term “carbohydrate-source generating enzyme” includes any enzymes generating fermentable sugars. A carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is capable of producing a carbohydrate that can be used as an energy-source by the fermenting organism(s) in question, for instance, when used in a process of the invention for producing a fermentation product, such as ethanol. The generated carbohydrates may be converted directly or indirectly to the desired fermentation product, preferably ethanol. According to the invention a mixture of carbohydrate-source generating enzymes may be used. Specific examples include glucoamylase (being glucose generators), beta-amylase and maltogenic amylase (being maltose generators).

In a preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is thermostable. The carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular thermostable glucoamylase, may be added together with or separately from the alpha-amylase and the thermostable protease.

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, preferably a thermostable glucoamylase, has a Relative Activity heat stability at 85° C. of at least 20%, at least 30%, preferably at least 35% determined as described in Example 4 (heat stability).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a relative activity pH optimum at pH 5.0 of at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, preferably at least 97%, such as 100% determined as described in Example 4 (pH optimum).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a pH stability at pH 5.0 of at least at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90% determined as described in Example 4 (pH stability).

In a specific and preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a thermostable glucoamylase, preferably of fungal origin, preferably a filamentous fungi, such as from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum, in particular the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in PCT/CN10/071753 published as WO 2011/127802 (which is hereby incorporated by reference) and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 or 14 herein.

In an embodiment the thermostable glucoamylase has at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% or 100% identity to the mature polypeptide shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.

In a preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a variant of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 and 14 herein, having a K79V substitution (using the mature sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering). The K79V glucoamylase variant has reduced sensitivity to protease degradation relative to the parent as disclosed in co-pending U.S. application No. 61/531,189 or PCT/US12/053779 (which are hereby incorporated by reference).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular thermostable glucoamylase, is derived from Penicillium oxalicum.

In an embodiment the thermostable glucoamylase is a variant of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 and 14 herein. In a preferred embodiment the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase is the one disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 and 14 herein having Val (V) in position 79 (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).

Contemplated Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase variants are disclosed in co-pending PCT application # PCT/EP12/070127 (which is hereby incorporated by reference).

In an embodiment these variants have reduced sensitivity to protease degradation.

In an embodiment these variant have improved thermostability compared to the parent.

More specifically, in an embodiment the glucoamylase has a K79V substitution (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering), corresponding to the PE001 variant, and further comprises at least one of the following substitutions or combination of substitutions:

  • T65A; or
  • Q327F; or
  • E501V; or
  • Y504T; or
  • Y504*; or
  • T65A+Q327F; or
  • T65A+E501V; or
  • T65A+Y504T; or
  • T65A+Y504*; or
  • Q327F+E501V; or
  • Q327F+Y504T; or
  • Q327F+Y504*; or
  • E501V+Y504T; or
  • E501V+Y504*; or
  • T65A+Q327F+E501V; or
  • T65A+Q327F+Y504T; or
  • T65A+E501V+Y504T; or
  • Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • T65A+Q327F+Y504*; or
  • T65A+E501V+Y504*; or
  • Q327F+E501V+Y504*; or
  • T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504*;
  • E501V+Y504T; or
  • T65A+K161S; or
  • T65A+Q405T; or
  • T65A+Q327W; or
  • T65A+Q327F; or
  • T65A+Q327Y; or
  • P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
  • R1K+D3W+K5Q+G7V+N8S+T10K+P11S+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
  • R1E+D3N+P4G+G6R+G7A+N8A+T10D+P11D+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P11F+T65A+Q327W; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
  • T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • T65A+S105P+Q327W; or
  • T65A+S105P+Q327F; or
  • T65A+Q327W+S364P; or
  • T65A+Q327F+S364P; or
  • T65A+S103N+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+K34Y+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+D445N+V447S; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+1172V+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+N502*; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+N502T+P563S+K571E; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+R31S+K33V+T65A+Q327F+N564D+K571S; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+S377T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V325T+Q327W; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+D445N+V447S+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+1172V+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+S377T+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+D26N+K34Y+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+1375A+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+K218A+K221D+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+S103N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+T10D+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+F12Y+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • K5A+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+T10E+E18N+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+T10E+E18N+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T+T568N; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T+K524T+G526A; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+K34Y+T65A+Q327F+D445N+V447S+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+R31S+K33V+T65A+Q327F+D445N+V447S+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+D26N+K34Y+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+F80*+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+K112S+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T+T516P+K524T+G526A; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+N502T+Y504*; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+S103N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • K5A+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T+T516P+K524T+G526A; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V79A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V79G+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V791+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V79L+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+V79S+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+L72V+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • S255N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+E74N+V79K+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+G220N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Y245N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q253N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+D279N+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+S359N+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+D370N+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+V460S+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+V460T+P468T+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+T463N+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+S465N+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+T477N+E501V+Y504T.

In a preferred embodiment the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase variant has a K79V substitution (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering), corresponding to the PE001 variant, and further comprises one of the following mutations:

  • P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
  • P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T.

The carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular, may be added in amounts from 0.1-100 micrograms EP/g, such as 0.5-50 micrograms EP/g, such as 1-25 micrograms EP/g, such as 2-12 micrograms EP/g DS.

Pullulanase Present and/or Added During

Liquefaction

Optionally a pullulanase may be present and/or added during liquefaction step i) together with an alpha-amylase and optionally a thermostable protease and/or carbohydrate-source generating enzyme. As mentioned above a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, preferably a thermostable glucoamylase, may also be present and/or added during liquefaction step i).

The pullulanase may be present and/or added during liquefaction step i) and/or saccharification step ii) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

Pullulanases (E.C. 3.2.1.41, pullulan 6-glucano-hydrolase), are debranching enzymes characterized by their ability to hydrolyze the alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds in, for example, amylopectin and pullulan.

Contemplated pullulanases according to the present invention include the pullulanases from Bacillus amyloderamificans disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,560,651 (hereby incorporated by reference), the pullulanase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 01/151620 (hereby incorporated by reference), the Bacillus deramificans disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 4 in WO 01/151620 (hereby incorporated by reference), and the pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 6 in WO 01/151620 (hereby incorporated by reference) and also described in FEMS Mic. Let. (1994) 115, 97-106.

Additional pullulanases contemplated according to the present invention included the pullulanases from Pyrococcus woesei, specifically from Pyrococcus woesei DSM No. 3773 disclosed in WO92/02614.

In an embodiment the pullulanase is a family GH57 pullulanase. In an embodiment the pullulanase includes an X47 domain as disclosed in U.S. 61/289,040 published as WO 2011/087836 (which are hereby incorporated by reference). More specifically the pullulanase may be derived from a strain of the genus Thermococcus, including Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis, such as the Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanase shown in SEQ ID NO: 11 truncated at site X4 right after the X47 domain (i.e., amino acids 1-782 in SEQ ID NOS: 11 and 12 herein). The pullulanase may also be a hybrid of the Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanases or a T. hydrothermalis/T. litoralis hybrid enzyme with truncation site X4 disclosed in U.S. 61/289,040 published as WO 2011/087836 (which is hereby incorporated by reference) and disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 12 herein.

In another embodiment the pullulanase is one comprising an X46 domain disclosed in WO 2011/076123 (Novozymes).

The pullulanase may according to the invention be added in an effective amount which include the preferred amount of about 0.0001-10 mg enzyme protein per gram DS, preferably 0.0001-0.10 mg enzyme protein per gram DS, more preferably 0.0001-0.010 mg enzyme protein per gram DS. Pullulanase activity may be determined as NPUN. An Assay for determination of NPUN is described in the “Materials & Methods”-section below.

Suitable commercially available pullulanase products include PROMOZYME D, PROMOZYME™ D2 (Novozymes A/S, Denmark), OPTIMAX L-300 (DuPont-Genencor, USA), and AMANO 8 (Amano, Japan).

Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzyme Present and/or Added During Saccharification and/or Fermentation

According to the invention a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, preferably a glucoamylase, may be present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation.

In a preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase, of fungal origin, preferably from a stain of Aspergillus, preferably A. niger, A. awamori, or A. oryzae; or a strain of Trichoderma, preferably T. reesei; or a strain of Talaromyces, preferably T. emersonii,

Glucoamylase

According to the invention the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation may be derived from any suitable source, e.g., derived from a microorganism or a plant. Preferred glucoamylases are of fungal or bacterial origin, selected from the group consisting of Aspergillus glucoamylases, in particular Aspergillus niger G1 or G2 glucoamylase (Boel et al. (1984), EMBO J. 3 (5), p. 1097-1102), or variants thereof, such as those disclosed in WO 92/00381, WO 00/04136 and WO 01/04273 (from Novozymes, Denmark); the A. awamori glucoamylase disclosed in WO 84/02921, Aspergillus oryzae glucoamylase (Agric. Biol. Chem. (1991), 55 (4), p. 941-949), or variants or fragments thereof. Other Aspergillus glucoamylase variants include variants with enhanced thermal stability: G137A and G139A (Chen et al. (1996), Prot. Eng. 9, 499-505); D257E and D293E/Q (Chen et al. (1995), Prot. Eng. 8, 575-582); N182 (Chen et al. (1994), Biochem. J. 301, 275-281); disulphide bonds, A246C (Fierobe et al. (1996), Biochemistry, 35, 8698-8704; and introduction of Pro residues in position A435 and S436 (Li et al. (1997), Protein Eng. 10, 1199-1204.

Other glucoamylases include Athelia rolfsii (previously denoted Corticium rolfsii) glucoamylase (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,727,026 and (Nagasaka et al. (1998) “Purification and properties of the raw-starch-degrading glucoamylases from Corticium rolfsii, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:323-330), Talaromyces glucoamylases, in particular derived from Talaromyces emersonii (WO 99/28448), Talaromyces leycettanus (US patent no. Re. 32,153), Talaromyces duponti, Talaromyces thermophilus (U.S. Pat. No. 4,587,215). In a preferred embodiment the glucoamylase used during saccharification and/or fermentation is the Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448.

Bacterial glucoamylases contemplated include glucoamylases from the genus Clostridium, in particular C. thermoamylolyticum (EP 135,138), and C. thermohydrosulfuricum (WO 86/01831).

Contemplated fungal glucoamylases include Trametes cingulata, Pachykytospora papyracea; and Leucopaxillus giganteus all disclosed in WO 2006/069289; or Peniophora rufomarginata disclosed in WO2007/124285; or a mixture thereof. Also hybrid glucoamylase are contemplated according to the invention. Examples include the hybrid glucoamylases disclosed in WO 2005/045018. Specific examples include the hybrid glucoamylase disclosed in Table 1 and 4 of Example 1 (which hybrids are hereby incorporated by reference).

In an embodiment the glucoamylase is derived from a strain of the genus Pycnoporus, in particular a strain of Pycnoporus as described in WO 2011/066576 (SEQ ID NOs 2, 4 or 6), such as SEQ ID NO: 28 herein, or from a strain of the genus Gloeophyllum, such as a strain of Gloeophyllum sepiarium or Gloeophyllum trabeum, in particular a strain of Gloeophyllum as described in WO 2011/068803 (SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16). In a preferred embodiment the glucoamylase is SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803 or SEQ ID NO: 26 herein.

In a preferred embodiment the glucoamylase is SEQ ID NO: 27 herein. In an embodiment the glucoamylase is derived from a strain of the genus Nigrofomes, in particular a strain of Nigrofomes sp. disclosed in WO 2012/064351 (SEQ ID NO: 2) (all references hereby incorporated by reference). Contemplated are also glucoamylases which exhibit a high identity to any of the above mentioned glucoamylases, i.e., at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% or even 100% identity to any one of the mature parts of the enzyme sequences mentioned above, such as any of SEQ ID NOs: 26, 27, 28 or 29 herein, preferably SEQ ID NO: 26 herein.

Glucoamylases may in an embodiment be added to the saccharification and/or fermentation in an amount of 0.0001-20 AGU/g DS, preferably 0.001-10 AGU/g DS, especially between 0.01-5 AGU/g DS, such as 0.1-2 AGU/g DS.

In an embodiment the glucoamylase is added as a blend further comprising an alpha-amylase. In a preferred embodiment the alpha-amylase is a fungal alpha-amylase, especially an acid fungal alpha-amylase. The alpha-amylase is typically a side activity.

In an embodiment the glucoamylase is a blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448 as SEQ ID NO: 7 and Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/069289.

In an embodiment the glucoamylase is a blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus nigerglucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290.

In an embodiment the alucoamylase is a blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus nigerglucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290.

In an embodiment the glucoamylase is a blend comprising Gloeophyllum sepiarium glucoamylase shown as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803 and Rhizomucor pusillus with an Aspergillus nigerglucoamylase linker and starch-binding domain (SBD), disclosed SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 2013/006756 with the following substitutions: G128D+D143N.

In an embodiment the alpha-amylase may be derived from a strain of the genus Rhizomucor, preferably a strain the Rhizomucor pusillus, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO2013/006756, or the genus Meripilus, preferably a strain of Meripilus giganteus.

In a preferred embodiment the alpha-amylase is derived from a Rhizomucor pusillus with an Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and starch-binding domain (SBD), disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290.

In an embodiment the Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase or the Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with an Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and starch-binding domain (SBD) has at least one of the following substitutions or combinations of substitutions: D165M; Y141W; Y141R; K136F; K192R; P224A; P224R; S123H+Y141W; G20S+Y141W; A76G+Y141W; G128D+Y141W; G128D+D143N; P219C+Y141W; N142D+D143N; Y141W+K192R; Y141W+D143N; Y141W+N383R; Y141W+P219C+A265C; Y141W+N142D+D143N; Y141W+K192R V410A; G128D+Y141W+D143N; Y141W+D143N+P219C; Y141W+D143N+K192R; G128D+D143N+K192R; Y141W+D143N+K192R+P219C; G128D+Y141W+D143N+K192R; or G128D+Y141W+D143N+K192R+P219C (using SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 2013/006756 for numbering). In a preferred embodiment the glucoamylase blend comprises Gloeophyllum sepiarium glucoamylase (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803) and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase.

In a preferred embodiment the glucoamylase blend comprises Gloeophyllum sepiarium glucoamylase shown as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803 and Rhizomucor pusillus with an Aspergillus nigerglucoamylase linker and starch-binding domain (SBD), disclosed SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 2013/006756 with the following substitutions: G128D+D143N

Commercially available compositions comprising glucoamylase include AMG 200 L; AMG 300 L; SAN™ SUPER, SAN™ EXTRA L, SPIRIZYME™ PLUS, SPIRIZYME™ FUEL, SPIRIZYME™ B4U, SPIRIZYME™ ULTRA, SPIRIZYME™ EXCEL, SPIRIZYME ACHIEVE and AMG™ E (from Novozymes A/S); OPTIDEX™ 300, GC480, GC417 (from DuPont-Genencor); AMIGASE™ and AMIGASE™ PLUS (from DSM); G-ZYME™ G900, G-ZYME™ and G990 ZR (from DuPont-Genencor).

Maltogenic Amylase

The carbohydrate-source generating enzyme present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation may also be a maltogenic alpha-amylase. A “maltogenic alpha-amylase” (glucan 1,4-alpha-maltohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.133) is able to hydrolyze amylose and amylopectin to maltose in the alpha-configuration. A maltogenic amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus strain NCIB 11837 is commercially available from Novozymes A/S. Maltogenic alpha-amylases are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,598,048, 4,604,355 and 6,162,628, which are hereby incorporated by reference. The maltogenic amylase may in a preferred embodiment be added in an amount of 0.05-5 mg total protein/gram DS or 0.05-5 MANU/g DS.

Cellulolytic Composition Present and/or Added During Saccharification and/or Fermentation

According to the invention a cellulolytic composition is present during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF).

The cellulolytic composition may be any cellulolytic composition, comprising a beta-glucosidase, a cellobiohydrolase and an endoglucanase.

Examples of suitable cellulolytic composition can be found in WO 2008/151079 and co-pending patent application PCT/US12/052163 published as WO 2013/028928 which are incorporated by reference.

In preferred embodiments the cellulolytic composition is derived from a strain of Trichoderma, Humicola, or Chrysosporium.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition is derived from a strain of Trichoderma reesei, Humicola insolens and/or Chrysosporium lucknowense.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a beta-glucosidase, preferably one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus oryzae, such as the one disclosed in WO 2002/095014 or the fusion protein having beta-glucosidase activity disclosed in WO 2008/057637, or Aspergillus fumigatus, such as one disclosed in WO 2005/047499 or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein or an Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase variant disclosed in WO 2012/044915 (Novozymes), such as one with the following substitutions F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y; or a strain of the genus a strain Penicillium, such as a strain of the Penicillium brasilianum disclosed in WO 2007/019442, or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as a strain of Trichoderma reesei.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity such as one derived from the genus Thermoascus, such as a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, such as the one described in WO 2005/074656 as SEQ ID NO: 2; or one derived from the genus Thielavia, such as a strain of Thielavia terrestris, such as the one described in WO 2005/074647 as SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 8; or one derived from a strain of Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus, such as the one described in WO 2010/138754 as SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2; or one derived from a strain derived from Penicillium, such as a strain of Penicillium emersonii, such as the one disclosed in WO 2011/041397 or SEQ ID NO: 23 herein.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), such as one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus, such as the Cel7a CBHI disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/057140 or SEQ ID NO: 24 herein, or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as a strain of Trichoderma reesei.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II, such as one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus or SEQ ID NO: 25 herein; or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as Trichoderma reesei, or a strain of the genus Thielavia, such as a strain of Thielavia terrestris, such as cellobiohydrolase II CEL6A from Thielavia terrestris.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a beta-glucosidase.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity, a beta-glucosidase, and a CBH I.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity, a beta-glucosidase, a CBH I, and a CBH II.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition, further comprising Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/074656), and Aspergillus oryzae beta-glucosidase fusion protein (WO 2008/057637).

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition, further comprising Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/074656) and Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 of WO 2005/047499) or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein.

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition further comprising Penicillium emersonii GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity disclosed in WO 2011/041397 and Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 of WO 2005/047499) or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein or a variant thereof with the following substitutions F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y.

In a preferred embodiment the cellulolytic composition comprising one or more of the following components:

    • (i) an Aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase I;
    • (ii) an Aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase II;
    • (iii) an Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase or variant thereof; and
    • (iv) a Penicillium sp. GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity; or homologs thereof.

In an preferred embodiment the cellulolytic composition is derived from Trichoderma reesei comprising GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity derived from a strain of Penicillium emersonii (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/041397 or SEQ ID NO: 23 herein), Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/047499 SEQ ID NO: 22 herein) variant F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y) disclosed in WO 2012/044915; Aspergillus fumigatus Cel7A CBH1 disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 6 in WO2011/057140 (SEQ ID NO: 24 herein) and Aspergillus fumigatus CBH II disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 18 in WO 2011/057140 (SEQ ID NO: herein).

In an embodiment the cellulolytic composition is dosed from 0.0001-3 mg EP/g DS, preferably, 0.0005-2 mg EP/g DS, preferably 0.001-1 mg/g DS, more preferably 0.005-0.5 mg EP/g DS, and even more preferably 0.01-0.1 mg EP/g DS.

Examples of Preferred Processes of the Invention

In a preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2) of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C.:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T1/2 (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C.:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering);
    • optionally a protease, derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In another preferred embodiment the process of the invention relates to a process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease, derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and optionally
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In an embodiment the process of the invention comprises the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. at a pH between 5.0 and 6.5 using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182+N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition, such as a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic composition, is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, in particular a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic composition comprising one or more polypeptides selected from the group consisting of:

    • GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity,
    • beta-glucosidase;
    • Cellobiohydrolase I;
    • Cellobiohydrolase II;
    • or a mixture of two, three, or four thereof.

In an embodiment the invention relates to processes, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. at a pH between 5.0 and 6.5 using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F
    • K79V+P2N+P4F+P11F+T65A+Q327F (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme selected from the group of Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase or Gloeophyllum serpiarium glucoamylase;

iii) fermenting using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast wherein a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

In an embodiment the pullulanase present and/or added during liquefaction step i) is a family GH57 pullulanase, wherein the pullulanase preferably includes an X47 domain as disclosed in WO 2011/087836.

In another embodiment the pullulanase is derived from a strain from the genus Thermococcus, including Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis, or a hybrid thereof.

In an embodiment the pullulanase is truncated Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanase at site X4 or a T. hydrothermalis/T. litoralis hybrid enzyme with truncation site X4 disclosed in WO 2011/087836 or shown in SEQ ID NO: 12 herein.

In an embodiment the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (SEQ ID NO: 1 herein) is the mature alpha-amylase or corresponding mature alpha-amylases having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 1.

In an embodiment the Pyrococcus furiosus protease (SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein) and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus protease (SEQ ID NO: 3) are the mature proteases or corresponding mature proteases having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 13 or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein, or SEQ ID NO: 3, respectively.

In an embodiment the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase (SEQ ID NO: 14 herein) is the mature glucoamylase or corresponding mature glucoamylase having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 14 herein.

A Composition Comprisinq Alpha-Amylase and Protease

A composition of the invention comprises an alpha-amylase and a thermostable protease.

The composition may also further comprise a thermostable carbohydrate-source generating enzyme and/or optionally a pullulanase too.

Therefore, in this aspect the invention relates to composition comprising:

i) an alpha-amylase;

ii) a protease has a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and optionally

iii) a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme.

Alpha-Amylase:

The alpha-amylase may be any alpha-amylase, such as bacterial alpha-amylases, such as alpha-amylases derived from the genus Bacillus, such as Bacillus stearothermophilus.

The alpha-amylase may be a thermostable alpha-amylase. The thermostable alpha-amylase may have a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaC2) of at least 10, such as at least 15, such as at least 20, such as at least 25, such as at least 30, such as at least 40, such as at least 50, such as at least 60, such as between 10-70, such as between 15-70, such as between 20-70, such as between 25-70, such as between 30-70, such as between 40-70, such as between 50-70, such as between 60-70.

In an embodiment the alpha-amylase is selected from the group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants, in particular truncated to be 491 amino acids long, such as from 480 to 495 amino acids long, with mutations selected from the group of:

    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V; and
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).

It should be understood that these alpha-amylases are only specific examples. Any alpha-amylase disclosed above in the “Alpha-Amylase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction”-section above may be used as the alpha-amylase component in a composition of the invention.

Protease:

A composition of the invention comprises a thermostable protease.

There is no limitation on the origin of the protease component as long as it fulfills the thermostability properties defined herein.

In a preferred embodiment the protease is a variant of the Thermoascus aurantiacus protease mentioned above having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. determined as described in Example 2.

In a specific preferred embodiment the protease is a variant of the metallo protease derived from Thermoascus aurantiacus disclosed as the mature part of SEQ ID NO. 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein with mutations selected from the group of:

    • D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+D142L; and
    • A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L.

In another preferred embodiment the protease is derived from a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726, SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein.

It should be understood that these proteases are only examples. Any protease disclosed above in the “Protease Present and/or Added During Liquefaction” section above may be used as the protease component in a composition of the invention.

Carbohydrate-Source Generating Enzymes:

A composition of the invention may further comprise a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular a glucoamylase, which has a heat stability at 850C, pH 5.3, of at least 30%, preferably at least 35%.

Said carbohydrate-source generating enzyme may be a thermostable glucoamylase having a Relative Activity heat stability at 850C of at least 20%, at least 30%, preferably at least 35% determined as described in Example 4 (Heat stability).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a relative activity pH optimum at pH 5.0 of at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, preferably at least 97%, such as 100% determined as described in Example 4 (pH optimum).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a pH stability at pH 5.0 of at least at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90% determined as described in Example 4 (pH stability).

In a preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a thermostable glucoamylase, preferably of fungal origin, preferably a filamentous fungi, such as from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in PCT/CN10/071753 published as WO 2011/127802 (which is hereby incorporated by reference), or a variant thereof, and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 or 14 herein.

In an embodiment the glucoamylase, or a variant thereof, may have at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% or 100% identity to the mature polypeptide shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NO: 9 or 14 herein.

In a specific and preferred embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a variant of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 and 14 herein, having a K79V substitution (using the mature sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering). The K79V glucoamylase variant has reduced sensitivity to protease degradation relative to the parent as disclosed in co-pending U.S. application No. 61/531,189 published as WO 2013/036526 (which is hereby incorporated by reference).

Examples of suitable thermostable Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase variants are listed above and in Examples 15 and 16 below or Examples 10 and 11 in WO 2013/053801 (hereby incorporated by reference).

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme has pullulanase side activity.

It should be understood that these carbohydrate-source generating enzymes, in particular glucoamylases, are only examples. Any carbohydrate-source generating enzyme disclosed above in the “Carbohydrate-source generating enzyme Present and/or Added During Liquefaction” section above may be used as component in a composition of the invention.

Pullulanase:

A composition of the invention may further comprise a pullulanase. In an embodiment the pullulanase is a family GH57 pullulanase. In a preferred embodiment the pullulanase includes an X47 domain as disclosed in U.S. 61/289,040 published as WO 2011/087836 (which are hereby incorporated by reference).

Specifically the pullulanase may be derived from a strain from the genus Thermococcus, including Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis or a hybrid thereof.

The pullulanase may be Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanase truncated at site X4 or a Thermococcus hydrothermalis/T. litoralis hybrid enzyme with truncation site X4 as disclosed in U.S. 61/289,040 published as WO 2011/087836.

In another embodiment the pullulanase is one comprising an X46 domain disclosed in WO 2011/076123 (Novozymes).

It should be understood that these pullulanases are only specific examples. Any pullulanase disclosed above in the “Pullulanase Present and/or Added During Liquefaction” section above may be used as the optional pullulanase component in a composition of the invention.

Preferred Compositions of the Invention

In a preferred embodiment the composition of the invention comprising

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and optionally
    • optionally a glucoamylase derived from Penicillium oxalicum.

The glucoamylase may optionally be substituted or combined with a pullulanase preferably derived from Thermococcus litoralis or Thermococcus hydrothermalis.

In a preferred embodiment the composition comprises

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a glucoamylase derived from Penicillium oxalicum.

In a preferred embodiment the composition comprises

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).

In an embodiment the composition comprises:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182+N193F; and further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

In an embodiment the invention relates to compositions comprising

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F
    • K79V+P2N+P4F+P11F+T65A+Q327F (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).

In an embodiment the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (SEQ ID NO: 1 herein), or a variant thereof, is the mature alpha-amylase or corresponding mature alpha-amylases having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 1.

In an embodiment the Pyrococcus furiosus protease (SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 20 herein) and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus protease (SEQ ID NO: 3), or a variant thereof, is the mature protease or corresponding mature protease having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein, or SEQ ID NO: 3, respectively.

In an embodiment the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase (SEQ ID NO: 14 herein), or a variant thereof, is the mature glucoamylase or corresponding mature glucoamylase having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity, at least 97%, at least 98% identity, or at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 14 herein.

In an embodiment the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme, in particular glucoamylase, is derived from a strain of Penicillium, such as Penicillium oxalicum.

Materials & Methods Materials:

Alpha-Amylase A (AAA): Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase with the mutations I181*+G182*+N193F truncated to 491 amino acids (SEQ ID NO: 1)
Alpha-Amylase 1407 (AA1407): Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase with the mutations I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S truncated to 491 amino acids (SEQ ID NO: 1)
Alpha-Amylase 369 (AA369): Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase with the mutations: I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V truncated to 491 amino acids (SEQ ID NO: 1);
Protease 196: Metallo protease derived from Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670 disclosed as amino acids 1-177 in SEQ ID NO: 3 herein and amino acids 1-177 in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2003/048353 with the following mutations: A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L.
Protease Pfu: Protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus purchased from Takara Bio (Japan) as Pfu Protease S (activity 10.5 mg/mL) and also shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein.
Protease Pfu2: Protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus shown in SEQ ID NO: 29 herein
Glucoamylase PO: Mature part of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in PCT/CN10/071753 published as WO 2011/127802 and shown in SEQ ID NO: 9 herein.
Glucoamylase PE001: Variant of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase having a K79V substitution using the mature sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering.
Glucoamylase 493 (GA493): Variant of Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase variant PE001 further having the following substitutions: P11F+T65A+Q327F (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
Glucoamylase 498 (GA498): Variant of Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase variant PE001 further having the following substitutions: P2N+P4F+P11F+T65A+Q327F (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
Glucoamylase BL: Blend of Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448 as SEQ ID NO: 7 and Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/069289 in a ratio of about 9:1.
Glucoamylase BL2: Blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290 as side activities (ratio about 65:15:1).
Glucoamylase BL3: Blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290 as side activities (ratio about 21:5:1).
Glucoamylase BL4: Blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290 with the following substitutions: G128D+D143N (activity ratio AGU:AGU:FAU(F): approx. 30:7:1).
Cellulolytic Composition A (CCA): Cellulase composition from Trichoderma reesei sold as CELLUCLAST 1.5 L (Novozymes A/S, Denmark)
Cellulolytic Composition B (CCB): Cellulolytic composition derived from Trichoderma reesei comprising GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity derived from a strain of Penicillium emersonii (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/041397 or SEQ ID NO: 23 herein), Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/047499 SEQ ID NO: 22 herein) variant F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y) disclosed in WO 2012/044915; Aspergillus fumigatus Cel7A CBH1 disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 6 in WO2011/057140 (SEQ ID NO: 24 herein) and Aspergillus fumigatus CBH II disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 18 in WO 2011/057140 (SEQ ID NO: 25 herein).
Yeast: RED STAR ETHANOL RED™ available from Red Star/Lesaffre, USA.
Substrate in Examples 18 and 19: Ground corn and backset was obtained from a commercial plant in the USA.

Methods Identity:

The relatedness between two amino acid sequences or between two nucleotide sequences is described by the parameter “identity”.

For purposes of the present invention the degree of identity between two amino acid sequences, as well as the degree of identity between two nucleotide sequences, may be determined by the program “align” which is a Needleman-Wunsch alignment (i.e. a global alignment). The program is used for alignment of polypeptide, as well as nucleotide sequences. The default scoring matrix BLOSUM50 is used for polypeptide alignments, and the default identity matrix is used for nucleotide alignments. The penalty for the first residue of a gap is −12 for polypeptides and −16 for nucleotides. The penalties for further residues of a gap are −2 for polypeptides, and −4 for nucleotides. “Align” is part of the FASTA package version v20u6 (see W. R. Pearson and D. J. Lipman (1988), “Improved Tools for Biological Sequence Analysis”, PNAS 85:2444-2448, and W. R. Pearson (1990) “Rapid and Sensitive Sequence Comparison with FASTP and FASTA,” Methods in Enzymology 183:63-98). FASTA protein alignments use the Smith-Waterman algorithm with no limitation on gap size (see “Smith-Waterman algorithm”, T. F. Smith and M. S. Waterman (1981) J. Mol. Biol. 147:195-197).

Protease Assays AZCL-Casein Assay

A solution of 0.2% of the blue substrate AZCL-casein is suspended in Borax/NaH2PO4 buffer pH9 while stirring. The solution is distributed while stirring to microtiter plate (100 microL to each well), 30 microL enzyme sample is added and the plates are incubated in an Eppendorf Thermomixer for 30 minutes at 45° C. and 600 rpm. Denatured enzyme sample (100° C. boiling for 20 min) is used as a blank. After incubation the reaction is stopped by transferring the microtiter plate onto ice and the coloured solution is separated from the solid by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4° C. 60 microL of supernatant is transferred to a microtiter plate and the absorbance at 595 nm is measured using a BioRad Microplate Reader.

pNA-Assay

50 microL protease-containing sample is added to a microtiter plate and the assay is started by adding 100 microL 1 mM pNA substrate (5 mg dissolved in 100 microL DMSO and further diluted to 10 mL with Borax/NaH2PO4 buffer pH 9.0). The increase in OD405 at room temperature is monitored as a measure of the protease activity.

Glucoamylase Activity (AGU)

Glucoamylase activity may be measured in Glucoamylase Units (AGU).

The Novo Glucoamylase Unit (AGU) is defined as the amount of enzyme, which hydrolyzes 1 micromole maltose per minute under the standard conditions 37° C., pH 4.3, substrate: maltose 23.2 mM, buffer: acetate 0.1 M, reaction time 5 minutes.

An autoanalyzer system may be used. Mutarotase is added to the glucose dehydrogenase reagent so that any alpha-D-glucose present is turned into beta-D-glucose. Glucose dehydrogenase reacts specifically with beta-D-glucose in the reaction mentioned above, forming NADH which is determined using a photometer at 340 nm as a measure of the original glucose concentration.

AMG incubation: Substrate: maltose 23.2 mM Buffer: acetate 0.1M pH: 4.30 ± 0.05 Incubation temperature: 37° C. ± 1 Reaction time: 5 minutes Enzyme working range: 0.5-4.0 AGU/mL

Color reaction: GlucDH: 430 U/L Mutarotase: 9 U/L NAD: 0.21 mM Buffer: phosphate 0.12M; 0.15M NaCl pH: 7.60 ± 0.05 Incubation temperature: 37° C. ± 1 Reaction time: 5 minutes Wavelength: 340 nm

A folder (EB-SM-0131.02/01) describing this analytical method in more detail is available on request from Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Acid Alpha-Amylase Activity (AFAU)

Acid alpha-amylase activity may be measured in AFAU (Acid Fungal Alpha-amylase Units), which are determined relative to an enzyme standard. 1 AFAU is defined as the amount of enzyme which degrades 5.260 mg starch dry matter per hour under the below mentioned standard conditions.

Acid alpha-amylase, an endo-alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1) hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds in the inner regions of the starch molecule to form dextrins and oligosaccharides with different chain lengths. The intensity of color formed with iodine is directly proportional to the concentration of starch. Amylase activity is determined using reverse colorimetry as a reduction in the concentration of starch under the specified analytical conditions.

Standard Conditions/Reaction Conditions:

    • Substrate: Soluble starch, approx. 0.17 g/L
    • Buffer: Citrate, approx. 0.03 M
    • Iodine (I2): 0.03 g/L
    • CaCl2: 1.85 mM
    • pH: 2.50±0.05
    • Incubation temperature: 40° C.
    • Reaction time: 23 seconds
    • Wavelength: 590 nm
    • Enzyme concentration: 0.025 AFAU/mL
    • Enzyme working range: 0.01-0.04 AFAU/mL

A folder EB-SM-0259.02/01 describing this analytical method in more detail is available upon request to Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Alpha-Amylase Activity (KNU)

The alpha-amylase activity may be determined using potato starch as substrate. This method is based on the break-down of modified potato starch by the enzyme, and the reaction is followed by mixing samples of the starch/enzyme solution with an iodine solution. Initially, a blackish-blue color is formed, but during the break-down of the starch the blue color gets weaker and gradually turns into a reddish-brown, which is compared to a colored glass standard.

One Kilo Novo alpha amylase Unit (KNU) is defined as the amount of enzyme which, under standard conditions (i.e., at 37° C.+/−0.05; 0.0003 M Ca2+; and pH 5.6) dextrinizes 5260 mg starch dry substance Merck Amylum solubile.

A folder EB-SM-0009.02/01 describing this analytical method in more detail is available upon request to Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Determination of FAU(F)

FAU(F) Fungal Alpha-Amylase Units (Fungamyl) is measured relative to an enzyme standard of a declared strength.

Reaction conditions Temperature 37° C. pH 7.15 Wavelength 405 nm Reaction time 5 min Measuring time 2 min

A folder (EB-SM-0216.02) describing this standard method in more detail is available on request from Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Determination of Pullulanase Activity (NPUN)

Endo-pullulanase activity in NPUN is measured relative to a Novozymes pullulanase standard. One pullulanase unit (NPUN) is defined as the amount of enzyme that releases 1 micro mol glucose per minute under the standard conditions (0.7% red pullulan (Megazyme), pH 5, 40° C., 20 minutes). The activity is measured in NPUN/ml using red pullulan. 1 mL diluted sample or standard is incubated at 40° C. for 2 minutes. 0.5 mL 2% red pullulan, 0.5 M KCl, 50 mM citric acid, pH 5 are added and mixed. The tubes are incubated at 40° C. for 20 minutes and stopped by adding 2.5 ml 80% ethanol. The tubes are left standing at room temperature for 10-60 minutes followed by centrifugation 10 minutes at 4000 rpm. OD of the supernatants is then measured at 510 nm and the activity calculated using a standard curve.

The present invention is described in further detail in the following examples which are offered to illustrate the present invention, but not in any way intended to limit the scope of the invention as claimed. All references cited herein are specifically incorporated by reference for that which is described therein.

EXAMPLES Example 1 Stability of Alpha-Amylase Variants

The stability of a reference alpha-amylase (Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase with the mutations I181*+G182*+N193F truncated to 491 amino acids (SEQ ID NO: 1 numbering)) and alpha-amylase variants thereof was determined by incubating the reference alpha-amylase and variants at pH 4.5 and 5.5 and temperatures of 75° C. and 85° C. with 0.12 mM CaC2 followed by residual activity determination using the EnzChek® substrate (EnzChek® Ultra Amylase assay kit, E33651, Molecular Probes).

Purified enzyme samples were diluted to working concentrations of 0.5 and 1 or 5 and 10 ppm (micrograms/ml) in enzyme dilution buffer (10 mM acetate, 0.01% Triton X100, 0.12 mM CaC2, pH 5.0). Twenty microliters enzyme sample was transferred to 48-well PCR MTP and 180 microliters stability buffer (150 mM acetate, 150 mM MES, 0.01% Triton X100, 0.12 mM CaC2, pH 4.5 or 5.5) was added to each well and mixed. The assay was performed using two concentrations of enzyme in duplicates. Before incubation at 75° C. or 85° C., 20 microliters was withdrawn and stored on ice as control samples. Incubation was performed in a PCR machine at 75° C. and 85° C. After incubation samples were diluted to 15 ng/mL in residual activity buffer (100 mM Acetate, 0.01% Triton ×100, 0.12 mM CaC2, pH 5.5) and 25 microliters diluted enzyme was transferred to black 384-MTP. Residual activity was determined using the EnzChek substrate by adding 25 microliters substrate solution (100 micrograms/ml) to each well. Fluorescence was determined every minute for 15 minutes using excitation filter at 485-P nm and emission filter at 555 nm (fluorescence reader is Polarstar, BMG). The residual activity was normalized to control samples for each setup.

Assuming logarithmic decay half life time (T1/2 (min)) was calculated using the equation: T1/2 (min)=T(min)*LN(0.5)/LN(% RA/100), where T is assay incubation time in minutes, and % RA is % residual activity determined in assay.

Using this assay setup the half life time was determined for the reference alpha-amylase and variant thereof as shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1 T½ (min) T½ (min) (pH 4.5, 85° C., T½ (min) (pH 4.5, 75° C., 0.12 mM (pH 5.5, 85° C., Mutations 0.12 mM CaCl2) CaCl2) 0.12 mM CaCl2) Reference Alpha-Amylase A 21 4 111 Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 32 6 301 the substitution V59A Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 28 5 230 the substitution V59E Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 28 5 210 the substitution V59I Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 30 6 250 the substitution V59Q Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 149 22 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + G112D + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 28 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 112 16 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + D269E + D281N Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 168 21 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + I270L Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 24 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + H274K Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 91 15 ND the substitutions V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + Y276F Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 141 41 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + R157Y + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 62 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 49 >480 the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 53 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + H274K Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 57 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 37 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + D281N Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 51 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 45 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + G416V Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 143 21 >480 the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 22 ND the substitutions V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 38 ND the substitutions A91L + M96I + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 57 11 402 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 174 44 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 49 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F + L427M Reference Alpha-Amylase A with >180 49 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 177 36 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + N376* + I377* Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 94 13 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 129 24 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 148 30 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179E + S242Q Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 78 9 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179V Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 178 31 >480 the substitutions E129V + K177L + R179V + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 66 17 >480 the substitutions K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 30 6 159 the substitutions K220P + N224L + Q254S Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 35 7 278 the substitution M284T Reference Alpha-Amylase A with 59 13 ND the substitutions M284V ND not determined

The results demonstrate that the alpha-amylase variants have a significantly greater half-life and stability than the reference alpha-amylase.

Example 2 Preparation of Protease Variants and Test of Thermostability Strains and Plasmids

E. coli DH12S (available from Gibco BRL) was used for yeast plasmid rescue. pJTP000 is a S. cerevisiae and E. coli shuttle vector under the control of TPI promoter, constructed from pJC039 described in WO 01/92502, in which the Thermoascus aurantiacus M35 protease gene (WO 03048353) has been inserted.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae YNG318 competent cells: MATa Dpep4[cir+] ura3-52, leu2-D2, his 4-539 was used for protease variants expression. It is described in J. Biol. Chem. 272 (15), pp 9720-9727, 1997.

Media and Substrates

10× Basal solution: Yeast nitrogen base w/o amino acids (DIFCO) 66.8 g/l, succinate 100 g/l, NaOH 60 g/l.
SC-glucose: 20% glucose (i.e., a final concentration of 2%=2 g/100 ml)) 100 ml/l, 5% threonine 4 ml/l, 1% tryptophan 10 ml/l, 20% casamino acids 25 ml/l, 10× basal solution 100 ml/l. The solution is sterilized using a filter of a pore size of 0.20 micrometer. Agar (2%) and H2O (approx. 761 ml) is autoclaved together, and the separately sterilized SC-glucose solution is added to the agar solution.
YPD: Bacto peptone 20 g/l, yeast extract 10 g/l, 20% glucose 100 ml/l.

YPD+Zn: YPD+0.25 mM ZnSO4.

PEG/LiAc solution: 40% PEG4000 50 ml, 5 M Lithium Acetate 1 ml.
96 well Zein micro titre plate:

Each well contains 200 microL of 0.05-0.1% of zein (Sigma), 0.25 mM ZnSO4 and 1% of agar in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5.

DNA Manipulations

Unless otherwise stated, DNA manipulations and transformations were performed using standard methods of molecular biology as described in Sambrook et al. (1989) Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual, Cold Spring Harbor lab. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.; Ausubel, F. M. et al. (eds.) “Current protocols in Molecular Biology”, John Wiley and Sons, 1995; Harwood, C. R. and Cutting, S. M. (Eds.).

Yeast Transformation

Yeast transformation was performed using the lithium acetate method. 0.5 microL of vector (digested by restriction endonucleases) and 1 microL of PCR fragments is mixed. The DNA mixture, 100 microL of YNG318 competent cells, and 10 microL of YEAST MAKER carrier DNA (Clontech) is added to a 12 ml polypropylene tube (Falcon 2059). Add 0.6 ml PEG/LiAc solution and mix gently. Incubate for 30 min at 30° C., and 200 rpm followed by 30 min at 42° C. (heat shock). Transfer to an eppendorf tube and centrifuge for 5 sec. Remove the supernatant and resolve in 3 ml of YPD. Incubate the cell suspension for 45 min at 200 rpm at 30° C. Pour the suspension to SC-glucose plates and incubate 30° C. for 3 days to grow colonies. Yeast total DNA are extracted by Zymoprep Yeast Plasmid Miniprep Kit (ZYMO research).

DNA Sequencing

E. coli transformation for DNA sequencing was carried out by electroporation (BIO-RAD Gene Pulser). DNA Plasmids were prepared by alkaline method (Molecular Cloning, Cold Spring Harbor) or with the Qiagen® Plasmid Kit. DNA fragments were recovered from agarose gel by the Qiagen gel extraction Kit. PCR was performed using a PTC-200 DNA Engine. The ABI PRISM™ 310 Genetic Analyzer was used for determination of all DNA sequences.

Construction of Protease Expression Vector

The Thermoascus M35 protease gene was amplified with the primer pair Prot F (SEQ ID NO: 4) and Prot R (SEQ ID NO: 5). The resulting PCR fragments were introduced into S. cerevisiae YNG318 together with the pJC039 vector (described in WO 2001/92502) digested with restriction enzymes to remove the Humicola insolens cutinase gene.

The Plasmid in yeast clones on SC-glucose plates was recovered to confirm the internal sequence and termed as pJTP001.

Construction of Yeast Library and Site-Directed Variants

Library in yeast and site-directed variants were constructed by SOE PCR method (Splicing by Overlap Extension, see “PCR: A practical approach”, p. 207-209, Oxford University press, eds. McPherson, Quirke, Taylor), followed by yeast in vivo recombination.

General Primers for Amplification and Sequencing

The primers AM34 (SEQ ID NO:5) and AM35 (SEQ ID NO:6) were used to make DNA fragments containing any mutated fragments by the SOE method together with degenerated primers (AM34+Reverse primer and AM35+forward primer) or just to amplify a whole protease gene (AM34+AM35).

PCR reaction system: Conditions: 48.5 microL H2O 1 94° C. 2 min 2 beads puRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR 2 94° C. 30 sec (Amersham Biosciences) 0.5 micro L × 2 100 pmole/microL 3 55° C. 30 sec of primers 0.5 microL template DNA 4 72° C. 90 sec 2-4 25 cycles 5 72° C. 10 min

DNA fragments were recovered from agarose gel by the Qiagen gel extraction Kit. The resulting purified fragments were mixed with the vector digest. The mixed solution was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to construct libraries or site-directed variants by in vivo recombination.

Relative Activity Assay

Yeast clones on SC-glucose were inoculated to a well of a 96-well micro titre plate containing YPD+Zn medium and cultivated at 28° C. for 3 days. The culture supernatants were applied to a 96-well zein micro titer plate and incubated at at least 2 temperatures (ex. 60° C. and 65° C., 70° C. and 75° C., 70° C. and 80° C.) for more than 4 hours or overnight. The turbidity of zein in the plate was measured as A630 and the relative activity (higher/lower temperatures) was determined as an indicator of thermoactivity improvement. The clones with higher relative activity than the parental variant were selected and the sequence was determined.

Remaining Activity Assay

Yeast clones on SC-glucose were inoculated to a well of a 96-well micro titre plate and cultivated at 28° C. for 3 days. Protease activity was measured at 65° C. using azo-casein (Megazyme) after incubating the culture supernatant in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5, for 10 min at a certain temperature (80° C. or 84° C. with 4° C. as a reference) to determine the remaining activity. The clones with higher remaining activity than the parental variant were selected and the sequence was determined.

Azo-Casein Assay

20 microL of samples were mixed with 150 microL of substrate solution (4 ml of 12.5% azo-casein in ethanol in 96 ml of 20 mM sodium acetate, pH 4.5, containing 0.01% triton-100 and 0.25 mM ZnSO4) and incubated for 4 hours or longer.

After adding 20 microL/well of 100% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution, the plate was centrifuge and 100 microL of supernatants were pipette out to measure A440.

Expression of Protease Variants in Aspergillus oryzae

The constructs comprising the protease variant genes were used to construct expression vectors for Aspergillus. The Aspergillus expression vectors consist of an expression cassette based on the Aspergillus niger neutral amylase II promoter fused to the Aspergillus nidulans triose phosphate isomerase non translated leader sequence (Pna2/tpi) and the Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase terminator (Tamg). Also present on the plasmid was the Aspergillus selective marker amdS from Aspergillus nidulans enabling growth on acetamide as sole nitrogen source. The expression plasmids for protease variants were transformed into Aspergillus as described in Lassen et al. (2001), Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4701-4707. For each of the constructs 10-20 strains were isolated, purified and cultivated in shake flasks.

Purification of Expressed Variants

  • 1. Adjust pH of the 0.22 μm filtered fermentation sample to 4.0.
  • 2. Put the sample on an ice bath with magnetic stirring. Add (NH4)2SO4 in small aliquots (corresponding to approx. 2.0-2.2 M (NH4)2SO4 not taking the volume increase into account when adding the compound).
  • 3. After the final addition of (NH4)2SO4, incubate the sample on the ice bath with gentle magnetic stirring for min. 45 min.
  • 4. Centrifugation: Hitachi himac CR20G High-Speed Refrigerated Centrifuge equipped with R20A2 rotor head, 5° C., 20,000 rpm, 30 min.
  • 5. Dissolve the formed precipitate in 200 ml 50 mM Na-acetate pH 4.0.
  • 6. Filter the sample by vacuum suction using a 0.22 μm PES PLUS membrane (IWAKI).
  • 7. Desalt/buffer-exchange the sample to 50 mM Na-acetate pH 4.0 using ultrafiltration (Vivacell 250 from Vivascience equipped with 5 kDa MWCO PES membrane) overnight in a cold room. Dilute the retentate sample to 200 ml using 50 mM Na-acetate pH 4.0. The conductivity of sample is preferably less than 5 mS/cm.
  • 8. Load the sample onto a cation-exchange column equilibrated with 50 mM Na-acetate pH 4.0. Wash unbound sample out of the column using 3 column volumes of binding buffer (50 mM Na-acetate pH 4.0), and elute the sample using a linear gradient, 0-100% elution buffer (50 mM Na-acetate+1 M NaCl pH 4.0) in 10 column volumes.
  • 9. The collected fractions are assayed by an endo-protease assay (cf. below) followed by standard SDS-PAGE (reducing conditions) on selected fractions. Fractions are pooled based on the endo-protease assay and SDS-PAGE.

Endo-Protease Assay

  • 1. Protazyme OL tablet/5 ml 250 mM Na-acetate pH 5.0 is dissolved by magnetic stirring (substrate: endo-protease Protazyme AK tablet from Megazyme—cat. # PRAK 11/08).
  • 2. With stirring, 250 microL of substrate solution is transferred to a 1.5 ml Eppendorf tube.
  • 3. 25 microL of sample is added to each tube (blank is sample buffer).
  • 4. The tubes are incubated on a Thermomixer with shaking (1000 rpm) at 50° C. for 15 minutes.
  • 5. 250 microL of 1 M NaOH is added to each tube, followed by vortexing.
  • 6. Centrifugation for 3 min. at 16,100×G and 25° C.
  • 7. 200 microL of the supernatant is transferred to a MTP, and the absorbance at 590 nm is recorded.

Results

TABLE 2 Relative activity of protease variants. Numbering of substitution(s) starts from N-terminal of the mature peptide in amino acids 1 to 177 of SEQ ID NO: 2. Relative activity Variant Substitution(s) 65° C./60° C. WT none 31% JTP004 S87P 45% JTP005 A112P 43% JTP008 R2P 71% JTP009 D79K 69% JTP010 D79L 75% JTP011 D79M 73% JTP012 D79L/S87P 86% JTP013 D79L/S87P/A112P 90% JTP014 D79L/S87P/A112P 88% JTP016 A73C 52% JTP019 A126V 69% JTP021 M152R 59%

TABLE 3 Relative activity of protease variants. Numbering of substitution(s) starts from N- terminal of the mature peptide in amino acids 1 to 177 of SEQ ID NO: 2. Relative activity Variant Substitution(s) and/or deletion (S) 70° C./65° C. 75° C./65° C. 75° C./70° C. WT none 59% 17% JTP036 D79L/S87P/D142L 73% 73% JTP040 T54R/D79L/S87P 71% JTP042 Q53K/D79L/S87P/I173V 108% JTP043 Q53R/D79L/S87P 80% JTP045 S41R/D79L/S87P 82% JTP046 D79L/S87P/Q158W 96% JTP047 D79L/S87P/S157K 85% JTP048 D79L/S87P/D104R 88% JTP050 D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 88% JTP051 S41R/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 102% JTP052 D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L/S157K 111% JTP053 S41R/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L/S157K 113% JTP054 ΔS5/D79L/S87P 92% JTP055 ΔG8/D79L/S87P 95% JTP059 C6R/D79L/S87P 92% JTP061 T46R/D79L/S87P 111% JTP063 S49R/D79L/S87P 94% JTP064 D79L/S87P/N88R 92% JTP068 D79L/S87P/T114P 99% JTP069 D79L/S87P/S115R 103% JTP071 D79L/S87P/T116V 105% JTP072 N26R/D79L/S87P 92% JTP077 A27K/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 106% JTP078 A27V/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 100% JTP079 A27G/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 104%

TABLE 4 Relative activity of protease variants. Numbering of substitution(s) starts from N- terminal of the mature peptide in amino acids 1 to 177 of SEQ ID NO: 2. Relative Remaining activity activity Variant Substitution(s) and/or deletion(s) 75° C./65° C. 80° C. 84° C. JTP082 ΔS5/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 129% 53% JTP083 T46R/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 126% JTP088 Y43F/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 119% JTP090 D79L/S87P/A112P/T124L/D142L 141% JTP091 D79L/S87P/A112P/T124V/D142L 154% 43% JTP092 ΔS5/N26R/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 60% JTP095 N26R/T46R/D79L/S87P/A112P/D142L 62% JTP096 T46R/D79L/S87P/T116V/D142L 67% JTP099 D79L/P81R/S87P/A112P/D142L 80% JTP101 A27K/D79L/S87P/A112P/T124V/D142L 81% JTP116 D79L/Y82F/S87P/A112P/T124V/D142L 59% JTP117 D79L/Y82F/S87P/A112P/T124V/D142L 94% JTP127 D79L/S87P/A112P/T124V/A126V/D142L 53%

TABLE 5 Relative activity of protease variants. Numbering of substitution(s) starts from N-terminal of the mature peptide in amino acids 1 to 177 of SEQ ID NO: 2. Relative activity Variant Substitutions 75° C./70° C. 80° C./70° C. 85° C./70° C. JTP050 D79L S87P A112P D142L 55% 23% 9% JTP134 D79L Y82F S87P A112P D142L 40% JTP135 S38T D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L 62% JTP136 D79L Y82F S87P A112P A126V D142L 59% JTP137 A27K D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L 54% JTP140 D79L S87P N98C A112P G135C D142L 81% JTP141 D79L S87P A112P D142L T141C M161C 68% JTP143 S36P D79L S87P A112P D142L 69% JTP144 A37P D79L S87P A112P D142L 57% JTP145 S49P D79L S87P A112P D142L 82% 59% JTP146 S50P D79L S87P A112P D142L 83% 63% JTP148 D79L S87P D104P A112P D142L 76% 64% JTP161 D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L 30% 12% JTP180 S70V D79L Y82F S87G Y97W A112P 52% D142L JTP181 D79L Y82F S87G Y97W D104P A112P 45% D142L JTP187 S70V D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L 45% JTP188 D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P D142L 43% JTP189 D79L Y82F S87G A112P A126V D142L 46% JTP193 Y82F S87G S70V D79L D104P A112P 15% D142L JTP194 Y82F S87G D79L D104P A112P A126V 22% D142L JTP196 A27K D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P 18% A126V D142L

TABLE 5 Relative activity of protease variants. Numbering of substitution(s) starts from N-terminal of the mature peptide in amino acids 1 to 177 of SEQ ID NO: 2. Relative activity Variant Substitutions 75° C./70° C. 80° C./70° C. JTP196 A27K D79L Y82F 102% 55% S87G D104P A112P A126V D142L JTP210 A27K Y82F S87G 107% 36% D104P A112P A126V D142L JTP211 A27K D79L Y82F 94% 44% D104P A112P A126V D142L JTP213 A27K Y82F D104P 103% 37% A112P A126V D142L

Example 3 Temperature Profile of Selected Variants Using Purified Enzymes

Selected variants showing good thermo-stability were purified and the purified enzymes were used in a zein-BCA assay as described below. The remaining protease activity was determined at 60° C. after incubation of the enzyme at elevated temperatures as indicated for 60 min.

Zein-BCA Assay:

Zein-BCA assay was performed to detect soluble protein quantification released from zein by variant proteases at various temperatures.

Protocol:

  • 1□ Mix 10 ul of 10 ug/ml enzyme solutions and 100 ul of 0.025% zein solution in a micro titer plate (MTP).
  • 2□ Incubate at various temperatures for 60 min.
  • 3□ Add 10 ul of 100% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution.
  • 4□ Centrifuge MTP at 3500 rpm for 5 min.
  • 5□ Take out 15 ul to a new MTP containing 100 ul of BCA assay solution (Pierce Cat #:23225, BCA Protein Assay Kit).
  • 6□ Incubate for 30 min. at 60° C.
  • 7□ Measure A562.
    The results are shown in Table 6. All of the tested variants showed an improved thermo-stability as compared to the wt protease.

TABLE 6 Zein-BCA assay Sample incubated 60 min at indicated temperatures (° C.) (μg/ml Bovine serum albumin equivalent peptide released) WT/Variant 60° C. 70° C. 75° C. 80° C. 85° C. 90° C. 95° C. WT 94 103 107 93 58 38 JTP050 86 101 107 107 104 63 36 JTP077 82 94 104 105 99 56 31 JTP188 71 83 86 93 100 75 53 JTP196 87 99 103 106 117 90 38

Example 4

Characterization of Penicillium oxalicum Glucoamylase

The Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase is disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 9 herein.

Substrate.

Substrate: 1% soluble starch (Sigma S-9765) in deionized water

Reaction buffer: 0.1 M Acetate buffer at pH 5.3
Glucose concentration determination kit: Wako glucose assay kit (LabAssay glucose, WAKO, Cat #298-65701).
Reaction condition.

20 microL soluble starch and 50 microL acetate buffer at pH 5.3 were mixed. 30 microL enzyme solution (50 micro g enzyme protein/ml) was added to a final volume of 100 microL followed by incubation at 37° C. for 15 min.

The glucose concentration was determined by Wako kits.

All the work carried out in parallel.

Temperature optimum.

To assess the temperature optimum of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase the “Reaction condition”-assay described above was performed at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95° C. The results are shown in Table 7.

TABLE 7 Temperature optimum Temperature (° C.) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 85 90 95 Relative activity 63.6 71.7 86.4 99.4 94.6 100.0 92.9 92.5 82.7 82.8 (%)

From the results it can be seen that the optimal temperature for Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase at the given conditions is between 50° C. and 70° C. and the glucoamylase maintains more than 80% activity at 95° C.
Heat stability.

To assess the heat stability of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase the Reaction condition assay was modified in that the enzyme solution and acetate buffer was preincubated for 15 min at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95° C. Following the incubation 20 microL of starch was added to the solution and the assay was performed as described above.

The results are shown in Table 8.

TABLE 8 Heat stability Temperature (° C.) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 85 90 95 Relative activity 91.0 92.9 88.1 100.0 96.9 86.0 34.8 36.0 34.2 34.8 (%)

From the results it can be seen that Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase is stable up to 70° C. after preincubation for 15 min in that it maintains more than 80% activity.

pH Optimum.

To assess the pH optimum of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase the Reaction condition assay described above was performed at pH 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 6.0 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0. Instead of using the acetate buffer described in the Reaction condition assay the following buffer was used 100 mM Succinic acid, HEPES, CHES, CAPSO, 1 mM CaC2, 150 mM KCl, 0.01% Triton X-100, pH adjusted to 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 6.0 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 or 11.0 with HCl or NaOH.

The results are shown in Table 9.

TABLE 9 pH optimum pH 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 Relative activity 71.4 78.6 77.0 91.2 84.2 100.0 55.5 66.7 30.9 17.8 15.9 16.1 (%)

From the results it can be seen that Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase at the given conditions has the highest activity at pH 5.0. The Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase is active in a broad pH range in the it maintains more than 50% activity from pH 2 to 7.

pH Stability.

To assess the heat stability of the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase the Reaction condition assay was modifed in that the enzyme solution (50 micro g/mL) was preincubated for 20 hours in buffers with pH 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 6.0 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0 using the buffers described under pH optimum. After preincubation, 20 microL soluble starch to a final volume of 100 microL was added to the solution and the assay was performed as described above.

The results are shown in Table 10.

TABLE 10 pH stability pH 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 Relative activity 17.4 98.0 98.0 103.2 100.0 93.4 71.2 90.7 58.7 17.4 17.0 17.2 (%)

From the results it can be seen that Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase, is stable from pH 3 to pH 7 after preincubation for 20 hours and it decreases its activity at pH 8.

Example 5 Thermostability of Protease Pfu.

The thermostability of the Pyrococcus furiosus protease (Pfu S) purchased from Takara Bio Inc, (Japan) was tested using the same methods as in Example 2. It was found that the thermostability (Relative Activity) was 110% at (80° C./70° C.) and 103% (90° C./70° C.) at pH 4.5.

Example 6

Cloning of Penicillium oxalicum Strain Glucoamylase Gene
Preparation of Penicillium oxalicum Strain cDNA.

The cDNA was synthesized by following the instruction of 3′ Rapid Amplifiction of cDNA End System (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, Calif., USA).

Cloning of Penicillium oxalicum Strain Glucoamylase Gene.

The Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase gene was cloned using the oligonucleotide primer shown below designed to amplify the glucoamylase gene from 5′ end.

Sense primer: 5′-ATGCGTCTCACTCTATTATCAGGTG-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 15)

The full length gene was amplified by PCR with Sense primer and AUAP (supplied by 3′ Rapid Amplifiction of cDNA End System) by using Platinum HIFI Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, Calif., USA). The amplification reaction was composed of 5 μl of 10×PCR buffer, 2 μl of 25 mM MgCl2, 1 μl of 10 mM dNTP, 1 μl of 10 uM Sense primer, 1 μl of 10 uM AUAP, 2 μl of the first strand cDNA, 0.5 μl of HIFI Taq, and 37.5 μl of deionized water. The PCR program was: 94° C., 3 mins; 10 cycles of 94° C. for 40 secs, 60° C. 40 secs with 1° C. decrease per cycle, 68° C. for 2 min; 25 cycles of 94° C. for 40 secs, 50° C. for 40 secs, 68° C. for 2 min; final extension at 68° C. for 10 mins.

The obtained PCR fragment was cloned into pGEM-T vector (Promega Corporation, Madison, Wis., USA) using a pGEM-T Vector System (Promega Corporation, Madison, Wis., USA) to generate plasmid AMG 1. The glucoamylase gene inserted in the plasmid AMG 1 was sequencing confirmed. E. coli strain TOP10 containing plasmid AMG 1 (designated NN059173), was deposited with the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ) on Nov. 23, 2009, and assigned accession number as DSM 23123.

Example 7

Expression of Cloned Penicillium oxalicum Glucoamylase

The Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase gene was re-cloned from the plasmid AMG 1 into an Aspergillus expression vector by PCR using two cloning primer F and primer R shown below, which were designed based on the known sequence and added tags for direct cloning by IN-FUSION™ strategy.

Primer F: (SEQ ID NO: 16) 5′ ACACAACTGGGGATCCACCATGCGTCTCACTCTATTATC Primer R: (SEQ ID NO: 17) 5′ AGATCTCGAGAAGCTTAAAACTGCCACACGTCGTTGG

A PCR reaction was performed with plasmid AMG 1 in order to amplify the full-length gene. The PCR reaction was composed of 40 μg of the plasmid AMG 1 DNA, 1 μl of each primer (100 μM); 12.5 μl of 2× Extensor Hi-Fidelity master mix (Extensor Hi-Fidelity Master Mix, ABgene, United Kingdom), and 9.5 μl of PCR-grade water. The PCR reaction was performed using a DYAD PCR machine (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, Calif., USA) programmed for 2 minutes at 94° C. followed by a 25 cycles of 94° C. for 15 seconds, 50° C. for 30 seconds, and 72° C. for 1 minute; and then 10 minutes at 72° C.

The reaction products were isolated by 1.0% agarose gel electrophoresis using 1×TAE buffer where an approximately 1.9 kb PCR product band was excised from the gel and purified using a GFX® PCR DNA and Gel Band Purification Kit (GE Healthcare, United Kingdom) according to manufacturer's instructions. DNA corresponding to the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase gene was cloned into an Aspergillus expression vector linearized with BamHI and HindIII, using an IN-FUSION™ Dry-Down PCR Cloning Kit (BD Biosciences, Palo Alto, Calif., USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The linearized vector construction is as described in WO 2005/042735 A1.

A 2 μl volume of the ligation mixture was used to transform 25 μl of Fusion Blue E. coli cells (included in the IN-FUSION™ M Dry-Down PCR Cloning Kit). After a heat shock at 42° C. for 45 sec, and chilling on ice, 250 μl of SOC medium was added, and the cells were incubated at 37° C. at 225 rpm for 90 min before being plated out on LB agar plates containing 50 μg of ampicillin per ml, and cultivated overnight at 37° C. Selected colonies were inoculated in 3 ml of LB medium supplemented with 50 μg of ampicillin per ml and incubated at 37° C. at 225 rpm overnight. Plasmid DNA from the selected colonies was purified using Mini JETSTAR (Genomed, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase gene sequence was verified by Sanger sequencing before heterologous expression. One of the plasmids was selected for further expression, and was named XYZ XYZ1471-4.

Protoplasts of Aspergillus niger MBin118 were prepared as described in WO 95/02043. One hundred μl of protoplast suspension were mixed with 2.5 μg of the XYZ1471-4 plasmid and 250 microliters of 60% PEG 4000 (Applichem) (polyethylene glycol, molecular weight 4,000), 10 mM CaCl2, and 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 were added and gently mixed. The mixture was incubated at 37° C. for 30 minutes and the protoplasts were mixed with 6% low melting agarose (Biowhittaker Molecular Applications) in COVE sucrose (Cove, 1996, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 133:51-56) (1M) plates supplemented with 10 mM acetamide and 15 mM CsCl and added as a top layer on COVE sucrose (1M) plates supplemented with 10 mM acetamide and 15 mM CsCl for transformants selection (4 ml topagar per plate). After incubation for 5 days at 37° C. spores of sixteen transformants were picked up and seed on 750 μl YP-2% Maltose medium in 96 deepwell MT plates. After 5 days of stationary cultivation at 30° C., 10 μl of the culture-broth from each well was analyzed on a SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gel, Griton XT Precast gel (BioRad, CA, USA) in order to identify the best transformants based on the ability to produce large amount of glucoamylase. A selected transformant was identified on the original transformation plate and was preserved as spores in a 20% glycerol stock and stored frozen (−80° C.).

Cultivation.

The selected transformant was inoculated in 100 ml of MLC media and cultivated at 30° C. for 2 days in 500 ml shake flasks on a rotary shaker. 3 ml of the culture broth was inoculated to 100 ml of M410 medium and cultivated at 30° C. for 3 days. The culture broth was centrifugated and the supernatant was filtrated using 0.2 μm membrane filters.

Alpha-Cyclodextrin Affinity Gel.

Ten grams of Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, U.K) powder was suspended in and washed with distilled water on a sintered glass filter. The gel was suspended in coupling solution (100 ml of 12.5 mg/ml alpha-cyclodextrin, 0.5 M NaOH) and incubated at room temperature for one day with gentle shaking.

The gel was washed with distilled water on a sintered glass filter, suspended in 100 ml of 1 M ethanolamine, pH 10, and incubated at 50° C. for 4 hours for blocking. The gel was then washed several times using 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8 and 50 mM NaOAc, pH 4.0 alternatively. The gel was finally packed in a 35-40 ml column using equilibration buffer (50 mM NaOAc, 150 mM NaCl, pH 4.5).

Purification of Glucoamylase from Culture Broth.

Culture broth from fermentation of A. niger MBin118 harboring the glucoamylase gene was filtrated through a 0.22 μm PES filter, and applied on a alpha-cyclodextrin affinity gel column previously equilibrated in 50 mM NaOAc, 150 mM NaCl, pH 4.5 buffer. Unbound material was washed off the column with equilibration buffer and the glucoamylase was eluted using the same buffer containing 10 mM beta-cyclodextrin over 3 column volumes.

The glucoamylase activity of the eluent was checked to see, if the glucoamylase had bound to the alpha-cyclodextrin affinity gel. The purified glucoamylase sample was then dialyzed against 20 mM NaOAc, pH 5.0. The purity was finally checked by SDS-PAGE, and only a single band was found.

Example 8

Construction and Expression of a Site-Directed Variant of Penicillium oxalicum Glucoamylase

Two PCR reactions were performed with plasmid XYZ1471-4, described in Example 7, using primers K79V F and K79VR shown below, which were designed to substitute lysine K at position 79 from the mature sequence to valine (V) and primers F-NP003940 and R-NP003940 shown below, which were designed based on the known sequence and added tags for direct cloning by IN-FUSION™ strategy.

Primer K79V F 18mer (SEQ ID NO: 18) GCAGTCTTTCCAATTGAC Primer K79V R 18mer (SEQ ID NO: 19) AATTGGAAAGACTGCCCG Primer F-NP003940: (SEQ ID NO: 20) 5′ ACACAACTGGGGATCCACCATGCGTCTCACTCTATTATC Primer R-NP003940: (SEQ ID NO: 21) 5′ AGATCTCGAGAAGCTTAAAACTGCCACACGTCGTTGG

The PCR was performed using a PTC-200 DNA Engine under the conditions described below.

PCR reaction system: Conditions: 48.5 micro L H2O 1 94° C. 2 min 2 beads puRe Taq Ready-To- 2 94° C. 30 sec Go PCR Beads (Amersham Biosciences) 3 55° C. 30 sec 0.5 micro L × 2100 pmole/micro L Primers 4 72° C. 90 sec (K79V F + Primer R-NP003940, K79V R + 2-4 25 cycles Primer F-NP003940) 5 72° C. 10 min 0.5 micro L Template DNA

DNA fragments were recovered from agarose gel by the Qiagen gel extraction Kit according to the manufacturer's instruction. The resulting purified two fragments were cloned into an Aspergillus expression vector linearized with BamHI and HindIII, using an IN-FUSION™ M Dry-Down PCR Cloning Kit (BD Biosciences, Palo Alto, Calif., USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The linearized vector construction is as described in WO 2005/042735 A1.

The ligation mixture was used to transform E. coli DH5a cells (TOYOBO). Selected colonies were inoculated in 3 ml of LB medium supplemented with 50 μg of ampicillin per ml and incubated at 37° C. at 225 rpm overnight. Plasmid DNA from the selected colonies was purified using Qiagen plasmid mini kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The sequence of Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase site-directed variant gene sequence was verified before heterologous expression and one of the plasmids was selected for further expression, and was named pPoPE001.

Protoplasts of Aspergillus niger MBin118 were prepared as described in WO 95/02043. One hundred μl of protoplast suspension were mixed with 2.5 μg of the pPoPE001 plasmid and 250 microliters of 60% PEG 4000 (Applichem) (polyethylene glycol, molecular weight 4,000), 10 mM CaCl2, and 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 were added and gently mixed. The mixture was incubated at 37° C. for 30 minutes and the protoplasts were mixed with 1% agarose L (Nippon Gene) in COVE sucrose (Cove, 1996, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 133:51-56) supplemented with 10 mM acetamide and 15 mM CsCl and added as a top layer on COVE sucrose plates supplemented with 10 mM acetamide and 15 mM CsCl for transformants selection (4 ml topagar per plate). After incubation for 5 days at 37° C. spores of sixteen transformants were picked up and seed on 750 μl YP-2% Maltose medium in 96 deepwell MT plates. After 5 days of stationary cultivation at 30° C., 10 μl of the culture-broth from each well was analyzed on a SDS-PAGE gel in order to identify the best transformants based on the ability to produce large amount of the glucoamylase.

Example 9 Purification of Site-Directed Po AMG Variant PE001

The selected transformant of the variant and the strain expressing the wild type Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase described in Example 6 was cultivated in 100 ml of YP-2% maltose medium and the culture was filtrated through a 0.22 μm PES filter, and applied on a alpha-cyclodextrin affinity gel column previously equilibrated in 50 mM NaOAc, 150 mM NaCl, pH 4.5 buffer. Unbound materials was washed off the column with equilibration buffer and the glucoamylase was eluted using the same buffer containing 10 mM beta-cyclodextrin over 3 column volumes.

The glucoamylase activity of the eluent was checked to see, if the glucoamylase had bound to the alpha-cyclodextrin affinity gel. The purified glucoamylase samples were then dialyzed against 20 mM NaOAc, pH 5.0.

Example 10 Characterization of PE001 Protease Stability

40 μl enzyme solutions (1 mg/ml) in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5, were mixed with 1/10 volume of 1 mg/ml protease solutions such as aspergillopepsin I described in Biochem J. 1975 April; 147(1):45-53, or the commercially available product from Sigma and aorsin described in Biochemical journal [0264-6021] Ichishima yr: 2003 vol: 371 iss: Pt 2 pg: 541 and incubated at 4 or 32° C. overnight. As a control experiment, H2O was added to the sample instead of proteases. The samples were loaded on SDS-PAGE to see if the glucoamylases are cleaved by proteases.

In SDS-PAGE, PE001 only showed one band corresponding to the intact molecule, while the wild type glucoamylase was degraded by proteases and showed a band at lower molecular size at 60 kCa.

TABLE 11 The result of SDS-PAGE after protease treatment Wild type glucoamylase PE001 Protease aspergillopepsin I aorsin aspergillopepsin I aorsin control Incubation 4 32 4 32 4 32 4 32 4 temperature (° C.) intact 100% 90% 40% 10% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% glucoamylase (ca. 70 kDa) cleaved N.D. 10% 60% 90% N.D. N.D. N.D N.D N.D. glucoamylase (ca. 60 kDa) N.D.: not detected.

Example 11 Less Cleavage During Cultivation

Aspergillus transformant of the variant and the wild type Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase were cultivated in 6-well MT plates containing 4× diluted YP-2% maltose medium supplemented with 10 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH4.5, at 32° C. for 1 week.

The culture supernatants were loaded on SDS-PAGE.

TABLE 12 The result of SDS-PAGE of the culture supernatants Wild type glucoamylase PE001 intact glucoamylase (ca. 90% 100% 70 kDa) cleaved glucoamylase 10% N.D. (ca. 60 kDa) N.D.: not detected.

The wild type glucoamylase was cleaved by host proteases during fermentation, while the variant yielded only intact molecule.

Example 12 Glucoamylase Activity of Variant Compared to Parent

The glucoamylase activity measures as AGU as described above was checked for the purified enzymes of the wild type Penicillium oxalicum and the variant glucoamylase.

The Glucoamylase Unit (AGU) was defined as the amount of enzyme, which hydrolyzes 1 micromole maltose per minute under the standard conditions (37° C., pH 4.3, substrate: maltose 100 mM, buffer: acetate 0.1 M, reaction time 6 minutes).

TABLE 13 Relative specific activity AGU/mg Penicillium oxalicum wt 100% Penicillium oxalicum PE001 (SEQ ID NO: 14 + 102% K79V substitution)

Example 13 Purification of Glucoamylase Variants Having Increased Thermostability

The variants showing increased thermostability may be constructed and expressed similar to the procedure described in Example 8. All variants were derived from the PE001. After expression in YPM medium, variants comprising the T65A or Q327F substitution was micropurified as follows:

Mycelium was removed by filtration through a 0.22 μm filter. 50 μl column material (alpha-cyclodextrin coupled to Mini-Leak divinylsulfone-activated agarose medium according to manufacturer's recommendations) was added to the wells of a filter plate (Whatman, Unifilter 800 μl, 25-30 μm MBPP). The column material was equilibrated with binding buffer (200 mM sodium acetate pH 4.5) by two times addition of 200 μl buffer, vigorous shaking for 10 min (Heidolph, Titramax 101, 1000 rpm) and removal of buffer by vacuum (Whatman, UniVac 3). Subsequently, 400 μl culture supernatant and 100 μl binding buffer was added and the plate incubated 30 min with vigorous shaking. Unbound material was removed by vacuum and the binding step was repeated. Normally 4 wells were used per variant. Three washing steps were then performed with 200 μl buffer of decreasing ionic strength added (50/10/5 mM sodium acetate, pH 4.5), shaking for 15 min and removal of buffer by vacuum. Elution of the bound AMG was achieved by two times addition of 100 μl elution buffer (250 mM sodium acetate, 0.1% alpha-cyclodextrin, pH 6.0), shaking for 15 min and collection of eluted material in a microtiter plate by vacuum. Pooled eluates were concentrated and buffer changed to 50 mM sodium acetate pH 4.5 using centrifugal filter units with 10 kDa cut-off (Millipore Microcon Ultracel YM-10). Micropurified samples were stored at −18° C. until testing of thermostability.

Example 14 Protein Thermal Unfolding Analysis (TSA, Thermal Shift Assay).

Protein thermal unfolding of the T65A and Q327F variants, was monitored using Sypro Orange (In-vitrogen, S-6650) and was performed using a real-time PCR instrument (Applied Biosystems; Step-One-Plus).

In a 96-well plate, 25 microliter micropurified sample in 50 mM Acetate pH4,5 at approx. 100 microgram/ml was mixed (5:1) with Sypro Orange (resulting conc.=5×; stock solution from supplier=5000×). The plate was sealed with an optical PCR seal. The PCR instrument was set at a scan-rate of 76° C. pr. hr, starting at 25° C. and finishing at 96° C.

Protein thermal unfolding of the E501V+Y504T variant, was monitored using Sypro Orange (In-vitrogen, S-6650) and was performed using a real-time PCR instrument (Applied Biosystems; Step-One-Plus).

In a 96-well plate, 15 microliter purified sample in 50 mM Acetate pH4,5 at approx. 50 microgram/ml was mixed (1:1) with Sypro Orange (resulting conc.=5×; stock solution from supplier=5000×) with or without 200 ppm Acarbose (Sigma A8980). The plate was sealed with an optical PCR seal. The PCR instrument was set at a scan-rate of 76 degrees C. pr. hr, starting at 25° C. and finishing at 96° C.

Fluorescence was monitored every 20 seconds using in-built LED blue light for excitation and ROX-filter (610 nm, emission).

Tm-values were calculated as the maximum value of the first derivative (dF/dK) (ref.: Gregory et al; J Biomol Screen 2009 14: 700.)

TABLE 14a Sample Tm (Deg. Celsius) +/− 0.4 PO-AMG (PE001) 80.3 Variant Q327F 82.3 Variant T65A 81.9

TABLE 14b Sample Tm (Deg. Celsius) +/− 0.4 Acarbose: + PO-AMG (PE001) 79.5 86.9 Variant E501V Y504T 79.5 95.2

Example 15 Thermostability Analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Additional site specific variants having substitutions and/or deletions at specific positions were constructed basically as described in Example 8 and purified as described in Example 11.

The thermostability of the purified Po-AMG PE001 derived variants were determined at pH 4.0 or 4.8 (50 mM Sodium Acetate) by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) using a VP-Capillary Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MicroCal Inc., Piscataway, N.J., USA). The thermal denaturation temperature, Td (° C.), was taken as the top of the denaturation peak (major endothermic peak) in thermograms (Cp vs. T) obtained after heating enzyme solutions in selected buffers (50 mM Sodium Acetate, pH 4.0 or 4.8) at a constant programmed heating rate of 200 K/hr.

Sample- and reference-solutions (approximately 0.3 ml) were loaded into the calorimeter (reference: buffer without enzyme) from storage conditions at 10° C. and thermally pre-equilibrated for 10 minutes at 20° C. prior to DSC scan from 20° C. to 110° C. Denaturation temperatures were determined with an accuracy of approximately +/−1° C.

The isolated variants and the DSC data are disclosed in Table 15 below.

TABLE 15 Po- DSC Td DSC Td AMG (° C.) @ (° C.) @ name Mutations pH 4.0 pH 4.8 PE001 82.1 83.4 (SEQ ID NO: 14 + K79V) GA167 E501V Y504T 82.1 GA481 T65A K161S 84.1 86.0 GA487 T65A Q405T 83.2 GA490 T65A Q327W 87.3 GA491 T65A Q327F 87.7 GA492 T65A Q327Y 87.3 GA493 P11F T65A Q327F 87.8 88.5 GA497 R1K D3W K5Q G7V N8S T10K 87.8 88.0 P11S T65A Q327F GA498 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 88.3 88.4 GA003 P11F D26C K33C T65A Q327F 83.3 84.0 GA009 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327W E501V 88.8 Y504T GA002 R1E D3N P4G G6R G7A N8A T10D 87.5 88.2 P11D T65A Q327F GA005 P11F T65A Q327W 87.4 88.0 GA008 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F E501V 89.4 90.2 Y504T GA010 P11F T65A Q327W E501V Y504T 89.7 GA507 T65A Q327F E501V Y504T 89.3 GA513 T65A S105P Q327W 87.0 GA514 T65A S105P Q327F 87.4 GA515 T65A Q327W S364P 87.8 GA516 T65A Q327F S364P 88.0 GA517 T65A S103N Q327F 88.9 GA022 P2N P4S P11F K34Y T65A Q327F 89.7 GA023 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F D445N 89.9 V447S GA032 P2N P4S P11F T65A I172V Q327F 88.7 GA049 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F N502* 88.4 GA055 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F N502T 88.0 P563S K571E GA057 P2N P4S P11F R31S K33V T65A 89.5 Q327F N564D K571S GA058 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F S377T 88.6 GA064 P2N P4S P11F T65A V325T Q327W 88.0 GA068 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F D445N 90.2 V447S E501V Y504T GA069 P2N P4S P11F T65A I172V Q327F 90.2 E501V Y504T GA073 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F S377T 90.1 E501V Y504T GA074 P2N P4S P11F D26N K34Y T65A 89.1 Q327F GA076 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F I375A 90.2 E501V Y504T GA079 P2N P4S P11F T65A K218A K221D 90.9 Q327F E501V Y504T GA085 P2N P4S P11F T65A S103N Q327F 91.3 E501V Y504T GA086 P2N P4S T10D T65A Q327F E501V 90.4 Y504T GA088 P2N P4S F12Y T65A Q327F E501V 90.4 Y504T GA097 K5A P11F T65A Q327F E501V 90.0 Y504T GA101 P2N P4S T10E E18N T65A Q327F 89.9 E501V Y504T GA102 P2N T10E E18N T65A Q327F 89.8 E501V Y504T GA084 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F E501V 90.5 Y504T T568N GA108 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F E501V 88.6 Y504T K524T G526A GA126 P2N P4S P11F K34Y T65A Q327F 91.8 D445N V447S E501V Y504T GA129 P2N P4S P11F R31S K33V T65A 91.7 Q327F D445N V447S E501V Y504T GA087 P2N P4S P11F D26N K34Y T65A 89.8 Q327F E501V Y504T GA091 P2N P4S P11F T65A F80* Q327F 89.9 E501V Y504T GA100 P2N P4S P11F T65A K112S Q327F 89.8 E501V Y504T GA107 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F E501V 90.3 Y504T T516P K524T G526A GA110 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F E501V 90.6 N502T Y504*

Example 16

Thermostability Analysis by Thermo-Stress Test and pNPG Assay

Starting from one of the identified substitution variants from Example 15, identified as GA008, additional variants were tested by a thermo-stress assay in which the supernatant from growth cultures were assayed for glucoamylase (AMG) activity after a heat shock at 83° C. for 5 min.

After the heat-shock the residual activity of the variant was measured as well as in a non-stressed sample.

Description of Po-AMG pNPG Activity Assay:

The Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase pNPG activity assay is a spectrometric endpoint assay where the samples are split in two and measured thermo-stressed and non-thermo-stressed. The data output is therefore a measurement of residual activity in the stressed samples.

Growth:

A sterile micro titer plate (MTP) was added 200 μL rich growth media (FT X-14 without Dowfax) to each well. The strains of interest were inoculated in triplicates directly from frozen stocks to the MTP. Benchmark was inoculated in 20 wells. Non-inoculated wells with media were used as assay blanks. The MTP was placed in a plastic box containing wet tissue to prevent evaporation from the wells during incubation. The plastic box was placed at 34° C. for 4 days.

Assay:

50 μL supernatant was transferred to 50 μL 0.5 M NaAc pH 4.8 to obtain correct sample pH.

50 μL dilution was transferred to a PCR plate and thermo-stressed at 83° C. for 5 minutes in a PCR machine. The remaining half of the dilution was kept at RT.

20 μL of both stressed and unstressed samples was transferred to a standard MTP. 20 μL pNPG-substrate was added to start the reaction. The plate was incubated at RT for 1 hour.

The reaction was stopped and the colour developed by adding 50 μL 0.5M Na2CO3. The yellow colour was measured on a plate reader (Molecular Devices) at 405 nm.

Buffers: 0.5 M NaAc pH 4.8 0.25 M NaAc pH 4.8

Substrate, 6 mM pNPG:
15 mg 4-nitrophenyl D-glucopyranoside in 10 mL 0.25 NaAc pH 4.8

Stop/Developing Solution:

0.5 M Na2CO3

Data Treatment:

In Excel the raw Abs405 data from both stressed and unstressed samples were blank subtracted with their respective blanks. The residual activity (% res. act.=(Absunstressed−(Absunstressed−Absstressed))/Absunstressed*100%) was calculated and plotted relative to benchmark, Po-amg0008.

TABLE 16 Po-AMG name Mutations % residual activity GA008 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 100 E501V Y504T GA085 P2N P4S P11F T65A S103N 127 Q327F E501V Y504T GA097 K5A P11F T65A Q327F 106 E501V Y504T GA107 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 109 E501V Y504T T516P K524T G526A GA130 P2N P4S P11F T65A V79A 111 Q327F E501V Y504T GA131 P2N P4S P11F T65A V79G 112 Q327F E501V Y504T GA132 P2N P4S P11F T65A V79I 101 Q327F E501V Y504T GA133 P2N P4S P11F T65A V79L 102 Q327F E501V Y504T GA134 P2N P4S P11F T65A V79S 104 Q327F E501V Y504T GA150 P2N P4S P11F T65A L72V 101 Q327F E501V Y504T GA155 S255N Q327F E501V Y504T 105

TABLE 17 Po-AMG name Mutations % residual activity GA008 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 100 E501V Y504T GA179 P2N P4S P11F T65A E74N 108 V79K Q327F E501V Y504T GA180 P2N P4S P11F T65A G220N 108 Q327F E501V Y504T GA181 P2N P4S P11F T65A Y245N 102 Q327F E501V Y504T GA184 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q253N 110 Q327F E501V Y504T GA185 P2N P4S P11F T65A D279N 108 Q327F E501V Y504T GA186 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 108 S359N E501V Y504T GA187 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 102 D370N E501V Y504T GA192 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 102 V460S E501V Y504T GA193 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 102 V460T P468T E501V Y504T GA195 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 103 T463N E501V Y504T GA196 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 106 S465N E501V Y504T GA198 P2N P4S P11F T65A Q327F 106 T477N E501V Y504T

Example 17 Test for Glucoamylase Activity of Thermo-Stable Variants According to the Invention

All of the above described variants disclosed in tables 15, 16, and 17 have been verified for Glucoamylase activity on culture supernatants using the pNPG assay described in Example 16.

Example 18 Ethanol Production Using Alpha-Amylase a (AAA), Protease 196, and Glucoamylase 493 (GA493) for Liquefaction and Glucoamylase BL3 (BL3) and Cellulolytic Composition a (CCA) for Fermentation Liquefaction (Labomat)

Each liquefaction received ground corn (86.3% DS), backset (7.2% DS), and tap water targeting a total weight of 150 g at 32.50% Dry Solids (DS). Backset was blended at 30% w/w of total slurry weight. Initial slurry pH was 5.2 and was therefore not adjusted before liquefaction. All enzymes were added according to the table below.

Glucoamylase Alpha-Amylase A Protease 196 GA493 Mash #1 0.02% w/w corn as is none none Mash #2 0.02% w/w corn as is 0.001 JTPU/g DS 6 mcg/g DS

Liquefaction took place in a Labomat using the following conditions: 5° C./min. Ramp, 17 minute Ramp, 103 minute hold time at 850C, 40 rpm for the entire run, 200 mL stainless steel canisters. After liquefaction, all canisters were cooled in an ice bath and prepared for fermentation based on the protocol listed below under SSF.

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)

Two mashes above were adjusted to pH 5.0 with 50% w/w Sodium Hydroxide or 40% v/v sulfuric acid. Penicillin was applied to each mash to a total concentration of 3 ppm, and urea was added to each mash as nitrogen source to a final concentration of 1000 ppm. The tubes were prepared with mash by aliquoting approximately 4.5 g of mash per 15 mL pre-drilled test tubes to allow CO2 release. Novozymes glucoamylase Spirizyme Excel and cellulase Celluclast were dosed into the tubes according to the following table:

AMG Cellulase Treat- Dosage Cellulolytic Dosage ment AGU/ Composition mg EP/ # Mash Glucoamylase g DS (CC) g DS 1 Mash #1 BL3 0.60 2 Mash #1 BL3 0.60 A 0.10 3 Mash #2 BL3 0.60 4 Mash #2 BL3 0.60 A 0.10

Distilled water was added to each tube in the appropriate volume to keep the solids at the same concentration in all tubes. All treatments were conducted in five replicates. After enzyme dosage, each tube received 100 μL of rehydrated yeast. Rehydrated yeast was prepared by mixing 5.5 g of Fermentis RED STAR into 100 mL of tap water and incubating at 32° C. for about 30 minutes. All the tubes were vortexed, and then incubated in 32° C. water bath for 52 hours in the SSF process.

Fermentation sampling took place after 52 hours of fermentation. Each sample was deactivated with 50 μL of 40% v/v H2SO4, vortexing, centrifuging at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes, and filtering through a 0.45 μm Whatman PP filter. All samples were analyzed by HPLC.

Results:

Treatment Ethanol (g/L) Std Dev. CV AAA + BL3 124.48 0.0257 0.21% AAA + BL3 + CCA 125.21 0.0358 0.29% AAA + Protease196 + GA493 + 125.16 0.0317 0.25% BL3 AAA + Protease196 + GA493 + 125.43 0.0495 0.39% BL3 + CCA

With Cellulolytic Composition A (CCA) addition into the SSF process, there was a 0.73 g/L ethanol yield increase from the corn mash liquefied by Alpha-Amylase A (AAA). When adding Protease 196 and Glucoamylase 493 (GA493) together with Alpha-amylase A into the liquefaction, and adding Cellulolytic Composition A (CCA) into SSF, the total ethanol yield was increased by 1 g/L.

Example 19

Ethanol Production Using Alpha-Amylase a or Alpha-Amylase AA369, Protease Pfu2 and Glucoamylase 498 (GA498) for Liquefaction, and Glucoamylase BL4 with Cellulolytic Composition A or B (CCA or CCB) for Fermentation

Liquefaction (Labomat)

Each liquefaction received ground corn (86.3% DS), backset (7.2% DS), and tap water targeting a total weight of 375 g at 32.50% Dry Solids (DS). Backset was blended at 30% w/w of total slurry weight. Initial slurry pH was adjusted before liquefaction. All enzymes were added according to the table below.

Glucoamylase Amylase and Dose Protease and dose and dose Mash #1 LSCDS pH 5.8 0.024% w/w corn as is none none Mash #2 AA369 PFU2 GA498 pH 5.2 2.14 μg/g DS 0.0385 μg/g DS 4.5 μg/g DS

Liquefaction took place in a Labomat using the following conditions: In 200 mL stainless steel canisters increase temperature by 5° C./min up to 80° C.; hold 2 min, then 2° C./min up to 85° C.; hold at 85° C. for 103 min. After liquefaction, all mashes were stored frozen until they were prepared for fermentation based on the protocol listed below under SSF.

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)

Each mash above was adjusted to pH 5.0 with 50% w/w Sodium Hydroxide or 40% v/v sulfuric acid. Penicillin was applied to each mash to a total concentration of 3 ppm, and urea was added to each mash as nitrogen source to a final concentration of 800 ppm. Solids content of both mashes was adjusted to 30% by addition of water. The tubes were prepared with mash by aliquoting approximately 4.5 g of mash per 15 mL pre-drilled test tubes to allow CO2 release. Glucoamylase BL4 and Cellulolytic Composition CCA or CCB were dosed into the tubes according to the following table:

AMG Cellulase Treat- Dosage Cellulolytic Dosage ment AGU/ Composition mg EP/ # Mash Glucoamylase g DS (CC) g DS 1 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 none 0 2 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.05 3 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.15 4 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.3 5 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.05 6 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.15 7 Mash #1 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.3 8 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 none 0 9 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.05 10 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.15 11 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCB 0.3 12 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.05 13 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.15 14 Mash #2 BL4 0.60 CCA 0.3

Distilled water was added to each tube in the appropriate volume to keep the solids at the same concentration in all tubes. All treatments were conducted in five replicates. After enzyme dosage, each tube received 100 μL of rehydrated yeast. Rehydrated yeast was prepared by mixing 5.5 g of Fermentis RED STAR into 100 mL of tap water and incubated at 32° C. for about 30 minutes. All the tubes were vortexed, and then incubated in 32° C. water bath for 51 hours in the SSF process.

Fermentation sampling took place after 51 hours of fermentation. Each sample was deactivated with 50 μL of 40% v/v H2SO4, vortexing, centrifuging at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes, and filtering through a 0.45 μm Whatman PP filter. All samples were analyzed by HPLC.

Results:

Ethanol Std Treatment (g/L) Dev. CV AAA + BL4 114.99 0.67 0.58% AAA + BL4 + CCB 0.05 116.08 0.87 0.75% AAA + BL4 + CCB 0.15 117.17 0.86 0.73% AAA + BL4 + CCB 0.3 117.61 0.92 0.78% AAA + BL4 + CCA0.05 115.53 0.76 0.65% AAA + BL4 + CCA 0.15 115.46 0.92 0.79% AAA + BL4 + CCA 0.3 115.84 0.79 0.68% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 115.51 0.68 0.59% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCB 0.05 116.70 0.64 0.55% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCB 0.15 117.31 0.86 0.73% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCB 0.3 118.74 0.72 0.61% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCA 0.05 116.90 0.36 0.31% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCA 0.15 117.38 0.88 0.75% AA369 + GA498 + Pfu2 + BL4 + CCA 0.3 116.99 0.27 0.23%

With Cellulolytic Composition A (CCA) addition into the SSF process, there was an ethanol yield increase of up to 0.74% compared to the corn mash liquefied by Alpha-Amylase A (AAA) with no added Cellulolytic Composition in fermentation. With Cellulolytic Composition B (CCB) in the same mash, there was an ethanol yield increase of up to 2.28%.

When adding Protease Pfu2 and Glucoamylase 498 (GA498) together with Alpha-amylase 369 into the liquefaction, and adding Cellulolytic Composition A (CCA) into SSF, the total ethanol yield was increased by up to 1.62% compared to the same mash with no added Cellulolytic Composition. With Cellulolytic Composition B (CCB) in the same mash, there was an ethanol yield increase of up to 2.80%.

The invention described and claimed herein is not to be limited in scope by the specific aspects herein disclosed, since these aspects are intended as illustrations of several aspects of the invention. Any equivalent aspects are intended to be within the scope of this invention. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. In the case of conflict, the present disclosure including definitions will control.

The present invention is further described in the following numbered paragraphs:
1. A process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of:
i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and
    • optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
      ii) saccharifying using a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
      iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      2. The process of paragraph 1, further comprises, prior to the liquefaction step i), the steps of:
    • a) reducing the particle size of the starch-containing material, preferably by dry milling;
    • b) forming a slurry comprising the starch-containing material and water.
      3. The process of any of paragraphs 1-2, wherein at least 50%, preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 80%, especially at least 90% of the starch-containing material fit through a sieve with #6 screen.
      4. The process of any of paragraphs 1-3, wherein the pH during liquefaction is from 4.5-5.0, such as between 4.5-4.8.
      5. The process of any of paragraphs 1-3, wherein the pH during liquefaction is between above 5.0-6.5, such as above 5.0-6.0, such as above 5.0-5.5, such as between 5.2-6.2, such as around 5.2, such as around 5.4, such as around 5.6, such as around 5.8.
      6. The process of any of paragraphs 1-5, wherein the temperature during liquefaction is in the range from 70-100° C., such as between 75-95° C., such as between 75-90° C., preferably between 80-90° C., such as 82-88° C., such as around 85° C.
      7. The process of any of paragraphs 1-6, wherein a jet-cooking step is carried out after liquefaction in step i).
      8. The process of paragraph 7, wherein the jet-cooking is carried out at a temperature between 110-145° C., preferably 120-140° C., such as 125-135° C., preferably around 130° C. for about 1-15 minutes, preferably for about 3-10 minutes, especially around about 5 minutes.
      9. The process of any of paragraphs 1-8, wherein saccharification and fermentation is carried out sequentially or simultaneously.
      10. The process of any of paragraphs 1-9, wherein saccharification is carried out at a temperature from 20-75° C., preferably from 40-70° C., such as around 60° C., and at a pH between 4 and 5.
      11. The process of any of paragraphs 1-10, wherein fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is carried out carried out at a temperature from 25° C. to 40° C., such as from 28° C. to 35° C., such as from 30° C. to 34° C., preferably around about 32° C. In an embodiment fermentation is ongoing for 6 to 120 hours, in particular 24 to 96 hours.
      12. The process of any of paragraphs 1-11, wherein the fermentation product is recovered after fermentation, such as by distillation.
      13. The process of any of paragraphs 1-12, wherein the fermentation product is an alcohol, preferably ethanol, especially fuel ethanol, potable ethanol and/or industrial ethanol.
      14. The process of any of paragraphs 1-13, wherein the starch-containing starting material is whole grains.
      15. The process of any of paragraphs 1-14, wherein the starch-containing material is derived from corn, wheat, barley, rye, milo, sago, cassava, manioc, tapioca, sorghum, rice or potatoes.
      16. The process of any of paragraphs 1-15, wherein the fermenting organism is yeast, preferably a strain of Saccharomyces, especially a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
      17. The process of any of paragraphs 1-16, wherein the alpha-amylase is a bacterial or fungal alpha-amylase.
      18. The process of any of paragraphs 1-17, wherein the alpha-amylase is from the genus Bacillus, such as a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, in particular a variant of a Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/019467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.
      19. The process of paragraph 18, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase or variant thereof is truncated, preferably to have around 491 amino acids.
      20. The process of any of paragraphs 18 or 19, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a double deletion of positions I181+G182 and optionally a N193F substitution, or deletion of R179+G180 (using SEQ ID NO: 1 for numbering).
      21. The process of any of paragraphs 18-20 wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a substitution in position S242, preferably S242Q substitution.
      22. The process of any of paragraphs 18-21, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a substitution in position E188, preferably E188P substitution.
      23. The process of any of paragraphs 1-22, wherein the alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2) of at least 10, such as at least 15, such as at least 20, such as at least 25, such as at least 30, such as at least 40, such as at least 50, such as at least 60, such as between 10-70, such as between 15-70, such as between 20-70, such as between 25-70, such as between 30-70, such as between 40-70, such as between 50-70, such as between 60-70.
      24. The process of any of paragraphs 1-23, wherein the alpha-amylase is selected from the group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants with the following mutations in addition to I181*+G182* and optionally N193F:

V59A + Q89R + G112D + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + D269E + D281N; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + I270L; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + H274K; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + Y276F; V59A + E129V + R157Y + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + H208Y + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + H274K; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + D281N; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + G416V; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T; A91L + M96I + E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + Y276F + L427M; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + M284T; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S + N376* + I377*; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S; E129V + K177L + R179E + K220P + N224L + Q254S + M284T; E129V + K177L + R179E + S242Q; E129V + K177L + R179V + K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; K220P + N224L + S242Q + Q254S; M284V; V59A + Q89R + E129V + K177L + R179E + Q254S + M284V. V59A + E129V + K177L + R179E + Q254S + M284V;

25. The process of any of paragraphs 1-24, wherein the alpha-amylase is selected from the following group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants:
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V and
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 for numbering).
      26. The process of any of paragraphs 1-25, wherein the protease with a thermostability value of more than 25% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      27. The process of any of paragraphs 1-26, wherein the protease has a thermostability of more than 30%, more than 40%, more than 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, such as more than 105%, such as more than 110%, such as more than 115%, such as more than 120% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      28. The process of any of paragraphs 1-27, wherein the protease has a thermostability of between 20 and 50%, such as between 20 and 40%, such as 20 and 30% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      29. The process of any of paragraphs 1-28, wherein the protease has a thermostability between 50 and 115%, such as between 50 and 70%, such as between 50 and 60%, such as between 100 and 120%, such as between 105 and 115% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      30. The process of any of paragraphs 1-29, wherein the protease has a thermostability of more than 10%, such as more than 12%, more than 14%, more than 16%, more than 18%, more than 20%, more than 30%, more than 40%, more that 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, more than 110% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.
      31. The process of any of paragraphs 1-30, wherein the protease has thermostability of between 10 and 50%, such as between 10 and 30%, such as between 10 and 25% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.
      32. The process of any of paragraphs 1-31, wherein the protease has a themostability above 60%, such as above 90%, such as above 100%, such as above 110% at 850C as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.
      33. The process of any of paragraphs 1-32, wherein the protease has a themostability between 60-120, such as between 70-120%, such as between 80-120%, such as between 90-120%, such as between 100-120%, such as 110-120% at 850C as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.
      34. The process of any of paragraphs 1-33, wherein the protease is of fungal origin.
      35. The process of any of paragraphs 1-34, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease derived from a strain of the genus Thermoascus, preferably a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, especially Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670.
      36. The process of any of paragraphs 1-35, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease disclosed as the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein mutations selected from the group of:
    • S5*+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • S5*+N26R+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • N26R+T46R+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • T46R+D79L+S87P+T116V+D142L;
    • D79L+P81R+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+T124V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+T124V+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S38T+D79L+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+N98C+A112P+G135C+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L+T141C+M161C;
    • S36P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • A37P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S49P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • S50P+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+S87P+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+D142L;
    • S70V+D79L+Y82F+S87G+Y97W+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+Y97W+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • S70V+D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • D79L+Y82F+S87G+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • Y82F+S87G+S70V+D79L+D104P+A112P+D142L;
    • Y82F+S87G+D79L+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+Y82F+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+Y82F+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L;
    • A27K+D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L; and
    • D79L+S87P+D142L.
      37. The process of any of paragraphs 1-36, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease disclosed as the mature part of SEQ ID NO. 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein with the following mutations:

D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L: D79L+S87P+D142L; or A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L.

38. The process of any of paragraphs 1-37, wherein the protease variant has at least 75% identity preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, but less than 100% identity to the mature part of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein.
39. The process of any of paragraphs 1-38, wherein the protease variant of the Thermoascus aurantiacus protease shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 is one of the following:

    • D79L S87P D142L
    • D79L S87P A112P D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87P A112P D142L
    • S38T D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87P A112P A126V D142L
    • A27K D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L
    • S49P D79L S87P A112P D142L
    • S50P D79L S87P A112P D142L
    • D79L S87P D104P A112P D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L
    • S70V D79L Y82F S87G Y97W A112P D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87G Y97W D104P A112P D142L
    • S70V D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P D142L
    • D79L Y82F S87G A112P A126V D142L
    • Y82F S87G S70V D79L D104P A112P D142L
    • Y82F S87G D79L D104P A112P A126V D142L
    • A27K D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P A126V D142L
      40. The process of any of paragraphs 1-39, wherein the protease is of bacterial origin.
      41. The process of any of paragraphs 1-40, wherein the protease is derived from a strain of Pyrococcus, preferably a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus.
      42. The process of any of paragraphs 1-41, wherein the protease is the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726, SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein.
      43. The process of any of paragraphs 1-42, wherein the protease is one having at least 80%, such as at least 85%, such as at least 90%, such as at least 95%, such as at least 96%, such as at least 97%, such as at least 98%, such as at least 99% identity to in SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726 or SEQ ID NO: 13 herein.
      44. The process of any of paragraphs 1-43, wherein a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is present and/or added during liquefaction step i), preferably a glucoamylase.
      45. The process of any of paragraphs 1-44, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme present and/or added during liquefaction step i) is a glucoamylase having a heat stability at 850C, pH 5.3, of at least 20%, such as at least 30%, preferably at least 35%.
      46. The process of any of paragraphs 44-45, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a relative activity pH optimum at pH 5.0 of at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, preferably at least 97%.
      47. The process of any of paragraphs 44-46, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a pH stability at pH 5.0 of at least at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%.
      48. The process of any of paragraphs 44-47, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme present and/or added during liquefaction step i) is a glucoamylase, preferably derived from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.
      49. The process of paragraph 44-48, wherein the glucoamylase has at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% or 100% identity to the mature polypeptide shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.
      50. The composition of any of paragraphs 44-49, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a variant of the glucoamylase derived from a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 having a K79V substitution (using the mature sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
      51. The process of any of paragraphs 44-50, further wherein a glucoamylase is present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation.
      52. The process of any of paragraphs 1-51, wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is of fungal origin, preferably from a stain of Aspergillus, preferably A. niger, A. awamori, or A. oryzae; or a strain of Trichoderma, preferably T. reesei; or a strain of Talaromyces, preferably T. emersonii, or a strain of Pycnoporus, or a strain of Gloeophyllum, such as a strain of Gloeophyllum sepiarium or Gloeophyllum trabeum, such as one disclosed in WO 2011/068803 as any of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16, preferably SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803, or a strain of the Nigrofomes.
      53. The process of paragraph 52, wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is a blend comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448 as SEQ ID NO: 7 and Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/069289.
      54. The process of paragraphs 52 or 53 wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is a blend_comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO 99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290.
      55. The process of any of paragraphs 52-54, wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is a blend_comprising Talaromyces emersonii glucoamylase disclosed in WO99/28448, Trametes cingulata glucoamylase disclosed in WO 06/69289, and Rhizomucor pusillus alpha-amylase with Aspergillus nigerglucoamylase linker and SBD disclosed as V039 in Table 5 in WO 2006/069290.
      56. The process of paragraph 52, wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is a blend comprising Gloeophyllum sepiarium glucoamylase shown as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/068803 and Rhizomucor pusillus with an Aspergillus niger glucoamylase linker and starch-binding domain (SBD), disclosed SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 2013/006756 with the following substitutions: G128D+D143N.
      57. The process of any of paragraphs 1-56, further wherein a pullulanase is present during liquefaction and/or saccharification.
      58. The process of any of paragraphs 1-57, comprising the steps of:
      i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;
      ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
      iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      59. A process of paragraphs 1-58, comprising the steps of:
      i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:
    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;
      ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
      iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      60. A process of paragraphs 1-59, comprising the steps of:
    • i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C.:
      • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase
    • ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
    • iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      61. A process of paragraphs 1-60, comprising the steps of:
      i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S:
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
62. A process of paragraphs 1-61, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering),
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus;
    • optionally a pullulanase
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
63. The process of any of paragraphs 1-62, comprising the steps of:
i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;
      ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
      iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism
      wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      64. A process of paragraphs 1-63, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
65. A process of paragraphs 1-64, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C.:

    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 30% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

    • wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
      66. A process of paragraphs 1-65, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V:
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering);
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

67. A process of paragraphs 1-66, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);
    • ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
    • iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

68. A process of any of paragraphs 1-67, comprising the steps of:

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature between 80-90° C. at a pH between 5.0 and 6.5 using:

    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and optional substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 here;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering);

ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;

iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

wherein a cellulolytic composition, such as a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic composition, is present and/or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, in particular a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic composition comprising one or more polypeptides selected from the group consisting of:

    • GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity,
    • beta-glucosidase;
    • Cellobiohydrolase I;
    • Cellobiohydrolase II;
    • or a mixture of two, three, or four thereof.
      69. The process of any of paragraphs 57-68, wherein pullulanase present and/or added during liquefaction step i) is a family GH57 pullulanase, wherein the pullulanase preferably includes an X47 domain as disclosed in WO 2011/087836.
      70. The process of any of paragraphs 57-69, wherein the pullulanase is derived from a strain from the genus Thermococcus, including Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis or a hybrid thereof.
      71. The process of any of paragraphs 57-70, wherein the pullulanase is the truncated Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanase at site X4 or a T. hydrothermalis/T. litoralis hybrid enzyme with truncation site X4 disclosed in WO 2011/087836 or shown in SEQ ID NO: 12 herein.
      72. The process of any of paragraphs 57-71, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (SEQ ID NO: 1 herein) is the mature alpha-amylase or corresponding mature alpha-amylases having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 1.
      73. The process of any of paragraphs 41-72, wherein the Pyrococcus furiosus protease (SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein) and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus protease (SEQ ID NO: 3) is the mature protease or corresponding mature protease having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 13, SEQ ID NO: 29 herein, or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein, respectively.
      74. The process of any of paragraphs 48-73, wherein the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase (SEQ ID NO: 14 herein) is the mature glucoamylase or corresponding mature glucoamylase having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 14 herein.
      75. The process of paragraphs 1-74, wherein the cellulolytic composition is derived from a strain of Trichoderma, in particular Trichoderma reesei, or a strain of Humicola, in particular Humicola insolens, or a strain of Chrysosporium, in particular Chrysosporium lucknowense.
      76. The process of paragraphs 1-75, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a beta-glucosidase, a cellobiohydrolase and an endoglucanase.
      77. The process of any of paragraphs 1-76, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprising one or more polypeptides selected from the group consisting of:
    • GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity,
    • beta-glucosidase;
    • Cellobiohydrolase I;
    • Cellobiohydrolase II;
      or a mixture of two, three, or four thereof.
      78. The process of any of paragraphs 1-77, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a beta-glucosidase, preferably one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus oryzae, such as the one disclosed in WO 2002/095014 or the fusion protein having beta-glucosidase activity disclosed in WO 2008/057637, or Aspergillus fumigatus, such as the one disclosed in WO 2005/047499 or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein or an Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase variant disclosed in WO 2012/044915 or a strain of the genus a strain Penicillium, such as a strain of the Penicillium brasilianum disclosed in WO 2007/019442, or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as a strain of Trichoderma reesei.
      79. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-78, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity such as one derived from the genus Thermoascus, such as a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, such as the one described in WO 2005/074656 as SEQ ID NO: 2; or one derived from the genus Thielavia, such as a strain of Thielavia terrestris, such as the one described in WO 2005/074647 as SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 8; or one derived from a strain of Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus, such as the one described in WO 2010/138754 as SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2; or one derived from a strain derived from Penicillium, such as a strain of Penicillium emersonii, such as the one disclosed in WO 2011/041397 or SEQ ID NO: 23 herein.
      80. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-79, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), such as one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus, such as the Cel7a CBHI disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/057140 or SEQ ID NO: 24 herein, or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as a strain of Trichoderma reesei.
      81. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-80, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II, such as one derived from a strain of the genus Aspergillus, such as a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus; such as the one disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 25 herein or a strain of the genus Trichoderma, such as Trichoderma reesei, or a strain of the genus Thielavia, such as a strain of Thielavia terrestris, such as cellobiohydrolase II CEL6A from Thielavia terrestris.
      82. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-81, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a beta-glucosidase.
      83. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-82, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a beta-glucosidase.
      84. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-83, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity, a beta-glucosidase, and a CBHI.
      85. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-84, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity, a beta-glucosidase, a CBHI, and a CBHII.
      86. The process of any of paragraphs 1-85, wherein the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition, further comprising Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/074656), and Aspergillus oryzae beta-glucosidase fusion protein (WO 2008/057637).
      87. The process of any of paragraphs 1-86, wherein the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition, further comprising Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity (SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2005/074656) and Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 of WO 2005/047499) or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein.
      88. The process of any one of paragraphs 1-87, wherein the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition further comprising Penicillium emersonii GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity disclosed in WO 2011/041397 (SEQ ID NO: 23 herein) and Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase (SEQ ID NO: 2 of WO 2005/047499) or SEQ ID NO: 22 herein or a variant thereof with the following substitutions: F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y.
      89. The process of any of paragraphs 1-88, wherein the cellulolytic composition comprises one or more of the following components
    • (i) an Aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase I;
    • (ii) an Aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase II;
    • (iii) an Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase or variant thereof; and
    • (iv) a Penicillium sp. GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity; or homologs thereof.
      90. The process of any of paragraphs 1-89, wherein the cellulolytic composition is dosed from 0.0001-3 mg EP/g DS, preferably 0.0005-2 mg EP/g DS, preferably 0.001-1 mg/g DS, more preferred from 0.005-0.5 mg EP/g DS, even more preferred 0.01-0.1 mg EP/g DS.
      91. An enzyme composition comprising:
    • an alpha-amylase;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase; and
    • optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme.
      92 The composition of paragraph 91, wherein the alpha-amylase is a bacterial or fungal alpha-amylase.
      93. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-92, wherein the alpha-amylase is from the genus Bacillus, such as a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, in particular a variant of a Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/019467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.
      94. The composition of paragraph 93, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase or variant thereof is truncated, preferably to have around 491 amino acids.
      95. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-94, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a double deletion of positions I181+G182, and optionally a N193F substitution, or deletion of R179+G180 (using SEQ ID NO: 1 for numbering).
      96. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-95, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a substitution in position S242, preferably S242Q substitution.
      97. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-96, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a substitution in position E188, preferably E188P substitution.
      98. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-97, wherein the alpha-amylase has a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2) of at least 10, such as at least 15, such as at least 20, such as at least 25, such as at least 30, such as at least 40, such as at least 50, such as at least 60, such as between 10-70, such as between 15-70, such as between 20-70, such as between 25-70, such as between 30-70, such as between 40-70, such as between 50-70, such as between 60-70.
      99. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-98, wherein the alpha-amylase is selected from the group of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase variants:
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S:
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V; and
    • I181*+G182*+N193F+E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S.
      100. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-99, wherein the protease with a thermostability value of more than 25% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      101. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-100, wherein the protease has a thermostability of more than 30%, more than 40%, more than 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, such as more than 105%, such as more than 110%, such as more than 115%, such as more than 120% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      102. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-101, wherein the protease has a thermostability of between 20 and 50%, such as between 20 and 40%, such as 20 and 30% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      103. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-102, wherein the protease has a thermostability between 50 and 115%, such as between 50 and 70%, such as between 50 and 60%, such as between 100 and 120%, such as between 105 and 115% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.
      104. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-103, wherein the protease has a thermostability of more than 10%, such as more than 12%, more than 14%, more than 16%, more than 18%, more than 20%, more than 30%, more than 40%, more that 50%, more than 60%, more than 70%, more than 80%, more than 90%, more than 100%, more than 110% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.
      105. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-10486-99, wherein the protease has thermostability of between 10 and 50%, such as between 10 and 30%, such as between 10 and 25% determined as Relative Activity at 85° C./70° C.
      106. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-105, wherein the protease has a themostability above 60%, such as above 90%, such as above 100%, such as above 110% at 850C as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.
      107. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-106, wherein the protease has a themostability between 60-120, such as between 70-120%, such as between 80-120%, such as between 90-120%, such as between 100-120%, such as 110-120% at 850C as determined using the Zein-BCA assay.
      108. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-107, wherein the protease is of fungal origin.
      109. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-108, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease derived from a strain of the genus Thermoascus, preferably a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, especially Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670.
      110. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-109, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease disclosed as the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein with the following mutations:

D79L+S87P+A112P+D142L: D79L+S87P+D142L; or A27K+D79L+Y82F+S87G+D104P+A112P+A126V+D142L.

111. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-110, wherein the protease variant has at least 75% identity preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, but less than 100% identity to the mature part of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 2 disclosed in WO 2003/048353 or the mature part of SEQ ID NO: 1 in WO 2010/008841 or SEQ ID NO: 3 herein.
112. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-111, wherein the protease variant of the Thermoascus aurantiacus protease shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 herein is one of the following:

    • D79L S87P D142L;
    • D79L S87P A112P D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87P A112P D142L;
    • S38T D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87P A112P A126V D142L;
    • A27K D79L S87P A112P A126V D142L;
    • S49P D79L S87P A112P D142L;
    • S50P D79L S87P A112P D142L;
    • D79L S87P D104P A112P D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L;
    • S70V D79L Y82F S87G Y97W A112P D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87G Y97W D104P A112P D142L;
    • S70V D79L Y82F S87G A112P D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P D142L;
    • D79L Y82F S87G A112P A126V D142L;
    • Y82F S87G S70V D79L D104P A112P D142L;
    • Y82F S87G D79L D104P A112P A126V D142L;
    • A27K D79L Y82F S87G D104P A112P A126V D142L.
      113. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-112, wherein the protease is of bacterial origin.
      114. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-113, wherein the protease is derived from a strain of Pyrococcus, preferably a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus.
      115. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-114, wherein the protease is the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726, SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein.
      116. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-115, wherein the protease is one having at least 80%, such as at least 85%, such as at least 90%, such as at least 95%, such as at least 96%, such as at least 97%, such as at least 98%, such as at least 99% identity to in SEQ ID NO: 1 in U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,726, SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein.
      117. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-116, wherein a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase.
      118. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-117, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a heat stability at 850C, pH 5.3, of at least 20%, such as at least 30%, preferably at least 35%.
      119. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-118, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a relative activity pH optimum at pH 5.0 of at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, preferably at least 97%.
      120. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-120, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a pH stability at pH 5.0 of at least at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%.
      121. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-120, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase, preferably derived from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.
      122. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-121, wherein the glucoamylase has at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, even more preferably at least 93%, most preferably at least 94%, and even most preferably at least 95%, such as even at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99% or 100% identity to the mature polypeptide shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 or SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.
      123. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-122, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a variant of the glucoamylase derived from a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 2 in WO 2011/127802 having a K79V substitution (using the mature sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
      124. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-123, further comprising a glucoamylase.
      125. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-124, further comprising a pullulanase.
      126. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-125, comprising
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a glucoamylase derived from Penicillium oxalicum.
      127. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-126, comprising
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus;
    • a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • a glucoamylase derived from Penicillium oxalicum.
      128. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-127, comprising
    • an alpha-amylase, preferably derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus, having a T % (min) at pH 4.5, 85° C., 0.12 mM CaCl2 of at least 10;
    • optionally a protease, preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus or Thermoascus aurantiacus, having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a glucoamylase derived from Penicillium oxalicum.
      129. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-128, comprising
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182 and substitution N193F; and optionally further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering);
    • optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C. derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus;
    • optionally a pullulanase;
    • optionally a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
      130. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-129 comprises:
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181+G182+N193F; and further one of the following set of substitutions:
    • E129V+K177L+R179E;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+H208Y+K220P+N224L+Q254S;
    • V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V;
    • V59A+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V
    • E129V+K177L+R179E+K220P+N224L+S242Q+Q254S (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus, preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V;
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P11F+D26C+K33C+T65A+Q327F; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P2N+P4S+P11F+T65A+Q327F+E501V+Y504T; or
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327W+E501V+Y504T (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering); 131. The compositions of any of paragraphs 91-130, comprising
    • an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus having a double deletion I181*+G182*+N193F+V59A+Q89R+E129V+K177L+R179E+Q254S+M284V (using SEQ ID NO: 1 herein for numbering).
    • a protease derived from Pyrococcus furiosus preferably the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein;
    • a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 having substitutions selected from the group of:
    • K79V+P11F+T65A+Q327F
    • K79V+P2N+P4F+P11F+T65A+Q327F (using SEQ ID NO: 14 for numbering).
      132. The composition of any of paragraphs 126-131, wherein the pullulanase is a family GH57 pullulanase, wherein the pullulanase preferably includes an X47 domain as disclosed in WO 2011/087836.
      133. The composition of any of paragraphs 126-132, wherein the pullulanase is derived from a strain from the genus Thermococcus, including Thermococcus litoralis and Thermococcus hydrothermalis or a hybrid thereof.
      134. The composition of any of paragraphs 126-133, wherein the pullulanase is the truncated Thermococcus hydrothermalis pullulanase at site X4 or a T. hydrothermalis/T. litoralis hybrid enzyme with truncation site X4 disclosed in WO 2011/087836 or shown in SEQ ID NO: 12 herein.
      135. The composition of any of paragraphs 126-134, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (SEQ ID NO: 1 herein), or a variant thereof, is the mature alpha-amylase or corresponding mature alpha-amylases having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1.
      136. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-135, wherein the Pyrococcus furiosus protease (SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein) and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus protease (SEQ ID NO: 3 herein), or a variant thereof, is the mature protease or corresponding mature protease having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to SEQ ID NO: 13 herein or SEQ ID NO: 29 herein, or SEQ ID NO: 3, respectively.
      137. The composition of any of paragraphs 91-136, wherein the Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase (SEQ ID NO: 14 herein), or a variant thereof, is the mature glucoamylase or corresponding mature glucoamylase having at least 80% identity, at least 90% identity, at least 95% identity at least 96% identity at least 97% identity at least 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 14 herein.

Claims

1. A process for producing fermentation products from starch-containing material comprising the steps of: wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using: an alpha-amylase; optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.; and optionally a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
ii) saccharifying using a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme;
iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

2. The process of claim 1, wherein the pH during liquefaction is between above 5.0-6.5, such as above 5.0-6.0, such as above 5.0-5.5, such as between 5.2-6.2, such as around 5.2, such as around 5.4, such as around 5.6, such as around 5.8.

3. The process of claim 1, wherein the fermentation product is an alcohol, preferably ethanol, especially fuel ethanol, potable ethanol and/or industrial ethanol.

4. The process of claim 1, wherein the alpha-amylase is from the genus Bacillus, such as a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, in particular a variant of a Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.

5. The process of claim 4, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a double deletion of positions I181+G182 and optionally a N193F substitution, or deletion of R179+G180 (using SEQ ID NO: 1 for numbering).

6. The process of claim 1, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease derived from a strain of the genus Thermoascus, preferably a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, especially Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670.

7. The process of claim 1, wherein the protease is derived from a strain of Pyrococcus, preferably a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus.

8. The process of claim 1, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme present and/or added during liquefaction step i) is a glucoamylase, preferably derived from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.

9. The process of claim 1, further wherein a glucoamylase is present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation.

10. The process of claim 1, wherein the glucoamylase present and/or added during saccharification and/or fermentation is of fungal origin, preferably from a stain of Aspergillus, preferably A. niger, A. awamori, or A. oryzae; or a strain of Trichoderma, preferably T. reesei; or a strain of Talaromyces, preferably Talaromyces emersonii, or a strain of Pycnoporus, or a strain of Gloeophyllum, such as a strain of Gloeophyllum sepiarium or Gloeophyllum trabeum or a strain of the Nigrofomes.

11. The process of claim 1, comprising the steps of: wherein a cellulolytic composition is present or added during fermentation or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

i) liquefying the starch-containing material at a temperature above the initial gelatinization temperature using: an alpha-amylase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus; optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C., preferably derived from Pyrococcus furiosus and/or Thermoascus aurantiacus; and a Penicillium oxalicum glucoamylase;
ii) saccharifying using a glucoamylase enzyme;
iii) fermenting using a fermenting organism;

12. The process of claim 1, wherein the cellulolytic composition is derived from a strain of Trichoderma, in particular Trichoderma reesei, or a strain of Humicola, in particular Humicola insolens, or a strain of Chrysosporium, in particular Chrysosporium lucknowense.

13. The process of claim 1, wherein the cellulolytic composition is a Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme composition further comprising Penicillium emersonli GH61A polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 23 herein and Aspergillus fumigatus beta-glucosidase disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 22 herein or a variant thereof with the following substitutions: F100D, S283G, N456E, F512Y.

14. An enzyme composition comprising:

an alpha-amylase;
optionally a protease having a thermostability value of more than 20% determined as Relative Activity at 80° C./70° C.;
optionally a pullulanase; and
a carbohydrate-source generating enzyme.

15. The composition of claim 14, wherein the alpha-amylase is from the genus Bacillus, such as a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, in particular a variant of a Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase, such as the one shown in SEQ ID NO: 3 in WO 99/019467 or SEQ ID NO: 1 herein.

16. The composition of claim 14, wherein the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase has a double deletion of positions I181+G182, and optionally a N193F substitution, or deletion of R179+G180 (using SEQ ID NO: 1 for numbering).

17. The composition of claim 14, wherein the protease is a variant of the metallo protease derived from a strain of the genus Thermoascus, preferably a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus, especially Thermoascus aurantiacus CGMCC No. 0670.

18. The composition of claim 14, wherein the protease is derived from a strain of Pyrococcus, preferably a strain of Pyrococcus furiosus.

19. The composition of claim 14, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase having a heat stability at 850C, pH 5.3, of at least 20%, such as at least 30%, preferably at least 35%.

20. The composition of claim 14, wherein the carbohydrate-source generating enzyme is a glucoamylase, preferably derived from a strain of the genus Penicillium, especially a strain of Penicillium oxalicum disclosed as SEQ ID NOs: 9 or 14 herein.

Patent History
Publication number: 20200095615
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 4, 2019
Publication Date: Mar 26, 2020
Applicant: NOVOZYMES A/S (Bagsvaerd)
Inventors: Randall Deinhammer (Wake Forest, NC), Joyce Craig (Pittsboro, NC), Suzanne Clark (Youngsville, NC), John Matthews (Louisburg, NC), Anne Glud Hjulmand (Bagsvaerd), Chee-Leong Soong (Raleigh, NC), Zhengfang Kang (Raleigh, NC)
Application Number: 16/702,746
Classifications
International Classification: C12P 7/14 (20060101); C12N 9/62 (20060101); C12N 9/44 (20060101); C12N 9/28 (20060101); C12N 9/52 (20060101); C13K 1/06 (20060101); C12P 19/14 (20060101); C12N 9/26 (20060101); C12P 7/08 (20060101); C12P 7/06 (20060101); C12N 9/58 (20060101);