Disclosed herein are RNA molecules with particular nucleotide sequences that, through Watson-Crick base pairing, enable the RNAs to form a hydrogel.
This application is a continuation application of and claims priority to both U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/727,043 filed on Oct. 6, 2017 and U.S. provisional application No. 62/404,837 filed on Oct. 6, 2016, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference into the present application.STATEMENT OF RIGHTS UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH
This invention was made with government support under grant number NS060812 awarded by the National Institutes of Health, and grant number W81XWH-09-1-0568 awarded by the U.S. Department of Defense. The government has certain rights in the invention.SEQUENCE LISTING
The instant application contains a Sequence Listing, created on Aug. 24, 2016; the file, in ASCII format, is designated 0794159P_SeqListing_ST25.txt and is 6.36 kilobytes in size. The file is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety into the instant application.TECHNICAL FIELD
The disclosure relates to hydrogels, particularly RNA hydrogels.BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE
Hydrogels are three-dimensional polymer networks, and these networks can be formed by chemical cross-linking of monomers or self-assembly of monomers through non-covalent interactions (1). An naturally occurring biomolecules except RNA are known capable of forming hydrogels (2, 3). The other type of nucleic acids, DNA, can readily form hydrogels since double-stranded DNA with compatible sticky ends can be designed to form hydrogel networks by self-assembly. In contrast, RNAs are generally single stranded, form intra-strand double helixes, and adopt complex tertiary structures, through Watson-Crick base paring (guanine-cytosine or G-C and adenine-uracil or A-U), noncanonical base pairing (e.g., G-U or A-A) and complex tertiary interactions, such as base stacking, kissing loops and pseudoknots (4, 5). As such, RNAs have been shown to act in additional roles as catalysts (6), aptamers (7) and riboswitches (8). However, RNA has not been reported to form a molecular network, resulting in a hydrogel, presumably because no RNA has been shown to possess “sticky ends” and/or modular sequence segments as designer building blocks for network assembly through intermolecular interactions.SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE
In one aspect, the disclosure relates to an RNA capable of forming a hydrogel. The RNA of the disclosure comprises a 5′ region, a first loop region, an inter-loop region, a second loop region and a 3′ region. In one embodiment, the 5′ region, which is approximately 31 nucleotides in length, comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14 or SEQ ID NO: 26. The first loop region (also referred to herein as Motif 1 or M1), having between 3 and 12 nucleotides, comprises a nucleotide sequence made up of all As, only 3 As, or a variety of substitutions. Exemplary embodiments of the first loop region include nucleotide sequences such as SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO: 20. A second loop region comprises approximately 10 nucleotides and, for example, has the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 23. The RNA further comprises an inter-loop region extending from Loop 1 to Loop 2, comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21 or SEQ ID NO: 22. The RNA's 3′ region comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 24 or SEQ ID NO: 25.
The RNA of the disclosure, through Watson-Crick base pairing, roughly comprises the secondary structure of A, as shown below:
In one aspect, the RNA of the disclosure comprises a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 12, and SEQ ID NO: 13.
In one embodiment, the RNA forms a hydrogel at room temperature.
All patents, published applications and other references cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference into the present application. Methodologies used in developing the present invention are well known to those of skill in the art and are described, for example, in Oligonucleotide Synthesis, 1984 (M. L. Gait ed.), the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference. In the description that follows, certain conventions will be followed as regards the usage of terminology. In general, terms used herein are intended to be interpreted consistently with the meaning of those terms as they are known to those of skill in the art.RNA Hydrogels
Described herein are RNAs that form hydrogels. The hydrogel structure formed is a polymeric network, not a precipitate or aggregate, both of which can be pelleted by centrifugation. The formation of this polymer network is sequence-dependent but not concentration dependent.
In one embodiment, an RNA capable of forming a hydrogel as disclosed herein is an oligonucleotide comprising, from 5′ to 3′, a 5′ terminal region extending to a first loop region (Loop 1 shown below) followed by an inter-loop region leading to a second loop (Loop 2 shown below) followed by a 3′ terminal region.
In one embodiment, the RNA comprises a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 23 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 24. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3.
In one embodiment, the RNA comprises a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 22, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 25. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8.
In one embodiment, the RNA comprises a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 18, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 22, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 18 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 25. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10.
In one embodiment, the RNA comprises a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 19, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 23 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 24. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11.
In one embodiment, the RNA contains a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 20, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 23 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 24. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 12.
In one embodiment, the RNA contains a 5′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, a first loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 17, an inter-loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21, a second loop region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 23 and a 3′ region comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 24. An exemplary embodiment of this RNA is one comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 13.
In some embodiments, the RNA hydrogel comprises a nucleotide sequence that, through Watson-Crick base pairing, roughly forms a molecule with the secondary structure shown below:
In one embodiment, an RNA hydrogel is an RNA whose sequence is essentially a double repeat of an aptamer with the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 8, SEQ ID NO:10, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 12 or SEQ ID NO: 13. This double motif aptamer comprises two units of a single aptamer, and a linker (as shown in below).
Aptamers that Give Rise to a Hydrogel
Disclosed are RNA molecules that can form hydrogels on their own. Previously, a unique RNA aptamer, designated CZ, was selected from a library of ˜1014 sequences using SELEX, an in vitro evolution experiment (9, 10). The goal was to find an RNA aptamer capable of positively enhancing AMPA receptor response to glutamate, the endogenous neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Positive modulation of AMPA receptors improves cognition (11). For instance, depolarization at dendritic spines via AMPA channels is linked to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a presumed substrate of memory (12). Studies of the interaction between glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems suggest a reduced glutamatergic transmission is linked to certain cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease (13). Potentiators of AMPA receptors are therefore drug candidates for a treatment of cognitive disorders (11, 14).
After a 13-round SELEX run, an RNA, designated “CZ aptamer” was isolated against GluA2, a key AMPA receptor subunit (15, 16). A second aptamer, 2CZ, which comprises two repeating units of CZ was designed and made based on the CZ sequence (
Surprisingly, the 2CZ aptamer formed an elastic solution in a standard enzymatic transcription reaction mixture (
The viscoelastic properties of 2CZ hydrogels were quantified using a dynamic mechanical spectrometer. Temperature sweep of an RNA solution (2.5% w/v 2CZ in 2 mM MgCl2 buffer) at a heating rate of 0.1° C./min decreased shear storage modulus G′≈300 Pa and loss modulus G″ 50 Pa at 5° C. to both lower than 1 Pa at 25° C., indicating gel-sol transition (
To understand structural origins of the viscoelastic properties of the 2CZ RNA solutions, real and reciprocal space characterizations were conducted. Cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) of a 2CZ RNA solution revealed faint but unmistakable features of randomly walking linear motifs with an average diameter of 4.0±0.4 nm on micrographs (
Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we investigated spatial correlation of RNA chains in solutions. Two-dimensional scattering patterns of 2CZ RNA solutions (1 and 2% of 2CZ RNA in HEPES buffer with 0, 2, and 5 mM of MgCl2) were collected at 25° C., and converted into 1D scattering intensity vs. scattering vector q=4πλ−1 sin(θ) where θ is the scattering angle and A is X-ray wavelength. All the 1D patterns (
Because the CZ RNA aptamer we discovered is uniquely capable of self-assembling to form a hydrogel network, a single RNA molecule must minimally contain two unique sequence segments. These two sequence segments would enable a single RNA molecule as a monomer to bind non-covalently with the same sequence segments of at least two other RNA molecules so that RNA molecules could “grow” longer to form dynamic suprastructures or a hydrogel network. These sequence segments, possibly in motif forms, for intermolecular interactions should still be available after an RNA first folds intramolecularly. To reveal the role of these unique sequences, we first used MFold (24) to predict secondary structures in the CZ RNA “monomer”. By MFold, a CZ aptamer shows two terminal motifs or Motif 1 on one end and Motif 2 on the other (see, Table 1).
Next, we created a series of site-specific mutants, based on these MFold-predicted motifs, and analyzed their gel-forming abilities by measuring G′ and G″ on two different temperature scales (see, Table 1). (a) Replacing Motif 1 with a classic tetraloop (25) abolished the gel-forming ability, suggesting this loop and its size (or a 12-nt loop) was essential (D1 in Table 1 as compared with the wild-type sequence). (b) To further investigate Motif 1, we kept the loop size but replaced three non-A nucleotides, i.e., CGU in the middle, with A's (D17, Table 1). It is well known that two GC base pairs (or GC from one RNA pair with CG from another RNA molecule) can form strong Watson-Crick interaction, known as “kissing interaction” (23). Such an interaction is strong enough to stabilize an RNA dimer, as is found in some retroviruses (26). Surprisingly, however, the mutant with the all A loop (D17, Table 1), which eliminated any possibility of forming “kissing loop” interaction with any two CZ aptamers, formed a hydrogel, if not a better gel (Table 1). This result indicated that the CGU tri-nucleotides were nonessential in gelation but suggested that the Motif 1 loop, dominated by As or adenines, might be special. (c) Indeed, the all U loop mutant with the same size (D23) was virtually defective in gelation (Table 1). (d) On Motif 2, replacing the loop that is capable of forming 8 Watson-Crick base pairs between two molecules, i.e., the AGUACUACA segment, eliminated the ability of RNA gelation (D2, Table 1).
The mutation experiment further allowed us to evaluate the individual role of the two motifs in forming RNA network structures. In Motif 2, there is a contiguous eight nucleotide segment that can form two G:C and six A:U Watson-Crick base pairs between two CZ aptamers through Motif 2. Furthermore, there are five nucleotides on each side of this segment that could form additional four A:U, four G:C and two G:U base pairs. However, the mutant with two M2 motifs (D12, Table 1) did not form a hydrogel, suggesting Watson-Crick base pairing was not strong enough on its own to form stable intermolecular network interaction. Second, the RNA with two M1 motifs did not form a hydrogel either (D11, Table 1). But, the mutant RNA with two all A-loops did form a hydrogel (D17i2 with the mutated Motif 1, Table 1). These results showed that both Motifs 1 and 2 in the same RNA molecule or CZ aptamer are required to act together in forming RNA network structures. However, the all A-loop Motif 1 is strong enough on its own or as a single design module to form a hydrogel network (D17i2). In other words, based on the ability to form strong RNA network structures, an all A-loop motif (12 As) is superior to the wild-type Motif 1 which contains 9 As but three non-A nucleotides or CGU. The CGU tri-nucleotides, however, are essential for the biological activity of the wild-type CZ aptamer (
It is interesting to note that adenine dominates the wild-type M1 loop sequence (and in D17 mutant, adenine is the only nucleotide in the M1 loop sequence). It is plausible that adenine bases form a unique tertiary structure. Such a structure allows As to be packed by base stacking, because they lack the exocyclic atoms of other bases (27). This is perhaps similar to a three-A sequence known as A-minor motif. A-minor motifs, as found in large ribosomal subunits, can stabilize contacts between RNA helices, interactions between loops and helices, and the conformations of junctions and tight turns as well as RNA-protein contacts (27). That a mutant RNA (D17) with the all-A M1 loop was just as capable as the wild-type CZ RNA in gelation (see the G″ and G″ data in Table 1) suggested that the interaction emanating from As from M1 is critical in the formation of network interaction for the hydrogel. We note, however, other types of RNA tertiary interactions may be also important in the intermolecular interaction among RNA monomers, such as sacrificial bonding (28), leading to the formation of RNA supramolecular network structure that is also heterogeneous in both sizes and shapes.
Our study illustrates that an RNA molecule with specific sequence motifs that can interact with other RNA molecules in sufficient concentration can form a hydrogel by self-assembling into a polymeric network structure without the help and/or presence of any other regent including a cross linker. In this case, each of the two motifs serves as an “arm” in its own direction to extend its non-covalent contact with the same or complementary motif but from another RNA molecule. Together, the CZ RNA aptamer with the two motifs is like an “elbow joint” as a design module to build a complex RNA network matrix. Moreover, the hydrogel formed by a structurally-engineered 2CZ RNA aptamer or by a mutant with dual all A-loops (D17i2) suggests that RNA hydrogels (using CZ aptamer to build a different but gel-forming competent RNA) should allow us to retain the original biological function. RNA hydrogels can be further explored for diverse applications such as drug delivery with further structure modifications by chemical cross-linking to change, for example, mesh size (2, 3, 29).EXAMPLES Example 1 Materials and Methods GluA2Qflip AMPA Receptor Expression in HEK-293 Cells.
For the identification of CZ potentiating aptamers, we ran SELEX against the GluA2Qflip variant transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells. HEK-2933 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin in a 37° C., 5% COP, humidified incubator. The DNA plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein and large T-antigen were cotransfected in HEK 293S cells (1). For SELEX, the transfected cells were harvested 48 hours after transfection, and the membrane fragment that contained the GluA2Qflip receptor was prepared as described (1). The fragmented HEK-293 cell membrane containing the GluA2Qflip receptor was prepared by homogenizing the cells using a 50 mM Tris acetate buffer (pH=7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, followed by centrifugation to collect the membrane fragments.Selex
The preparation of the RNA library and the protocol of running SELEX were described previously (1). For binding in the initial round of selection, the RNA library with ˜1014 random sequences was dissolved in the extracellular buffer, which contained (in mM) 150 NaCl, 3 KCl, 1 CaCl2), 1 MgCl2, 10 HEPES (pH 7.4). The membrane-bound receptor was adjusted to a final concentration of 8 nM as determined by [3H]AMPA binding. A total of 13-round SELEX were carried out against GluA2Qflip. In each round before mixing with the RNA pool, the receptor containing membrane was first preincubated in 1× extracellular buffer containing 400 μM cyclothiazide (CTZ) for 5 min at 37° C., and then for additional 5 min after supplementing 10 mM glutamate in the mixture. The membrane bound RNAs were separated from the solution through a 25 mm nitrocellular filter with 0.45 μm pore size. Any useful RNAs were eluted from the filter, which contained membrane-bound RNAs, using 8 M urea. The eluted RNA through extraction of the aqueous phase (1) was then precipitated in ethanol, air-dried, and dissolved in H2O. The sample was then subject to reverse transcription and PCR, as described (1). In all but the first four rounds, the RNA pool was pretreated, prior to a new round of SELEX, by a negative selection procedure in which cell membrane fragments that contained no GluA2Qflip was used to “filter off” any unwanted RNAs.
Sequencing of DNA pools for identification of CZ aptamer.
For identification of CZ aptamer, we carried out two methods of sequencing. At the end of the 13th selection round, the DNA pools from rounds 10, 12, and 13 were separately cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector (Invitrogen) for sequencing. Sequencing alignment and comparison allowed us to identify the CZ sequence by this method (the CZ sequence appearance rate was 1.2%). We also attempted next generation deep sequencing (the deep sequencing was done at the Mass Medical School Deep Sequencing Core facility). From two separate SELEX runs, the highest appearance of the CZ sequence we found was 0.1% in round 6, the fourth most populous sequences in that pool (we did not do deep sequencing analysis beyond round 6).Whole-Cell Current Recording Assay of the CZ Potentiating Function.
The procedure for whole-cell current recording to assay putative aptamers was previously described (1,2). All recordings were at −60 mV and 22° C. The recording electrode was filled with the buffer (in mM): 110 CsF, 30 CsCl, 4 NaCl, 0.5 CaCl2, 5 EGTA, and 10 HEPES (pH 7.4 adjusted by CsOH). The extracellular buffer composition was a 50 mM Tris acetate buffer (pH=7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. The whole-cell current was recorded using an Axopatch 200B amplifier at a cutoff frequency of 2-20 kHz by a built-in, four-pole Bessel filter and digitized at 5-50 kHz sampling frequency using a Digidata 1322A (Molecular Devices). pClamp 8 (Molecular Devices) was used for data acquisition. A flow device (1,2) was used to apply glutamate in the absence and presence of aptamers, including CZ aptamer, to a cell expressing GluA2Qflip receptors.
It should be noted that once assembled into a hydrogel, CZ and 2 CZ RNA no longer showed biological activity or AMPA receptor potentiation. Monomeric CZ and 2 CZ aptamer were active. To make sure we had RNA aptamer prior to polymerization, we first used Amicon centrifuge filters to get RNA aptamer. For example, Amicon filters with 50 k Dalton molecular weight cut off was used to prepare CZ RNA sample for electrophysiology assay. The flow-through was collected, which contained monomeric RNA because the CZ RNA has MW of 32.5 k Dalton. Polymerized RNA was retained on the top of the filter. When too concentrated, gel formation was observed. PAGE gel was also used, similar to the one shown in
An RNA in vitro transcription reaction contained 0.3 μM DNA template, 25 mM of each NTPs (i.e., ATP, CTP, GTP and UTP), 50 ng/μl of T7 RNA polymerase, 0.005 unit/pi of pyrophosphatase, 25 mM of MgCl2, 10 mM DTT, 2 mM spermidine, and 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.5). The transcription mixture was incubated at 37° C. overnight and then kept at 4° C. AH the RNA aptamers and mutants were purified for experiments reported in this study. Specifically, a tubular PAGE column (Bio-Rad Prepcell 491) was used to purify RNA from a transcription mixture. The detailed method has been described previously (3). Briefly, the polyacrylamide gel column was formed by 80 ml of 12% acrylamide/bis-acrylamide (37.5:1) solution in 1× Tris-Borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer containing 8 M urea. For each run, about 1 ml of the transcription mixture was mixed with 1 ml of gel loading buffer H (Bio-Rad), which contained 95% of formamide. The RNA transcription sample with loading buffer was incubated at 95° C. for 5 min before being loaded onto the column. The elution of the RNA sample was monitored by a UV detector and collected in a fraction collector (BioFrac, Bio-Rad) at 1.5 nil/fraction. The fractions were then pooled based on the chromatography trace and concentrated in an Amicon filtration centrifuge tube (Millipore). The TBE buffer in the eluted samples was exchanged with 25 mM HEPES buffer by spinning in an Amicon filtration tube; the same procedure was repeated two more times. The concentration of the collected sample was determined by UV absorption at 260 nm, using a Nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific).Rheology Study.
A Physica MCR101 rheometer (Anton Paar) was used in the rheology study. Peltier plate was employed for temperature control, Sample was tested in a chamber with water reservoir to minimize dehydration. All RNAs were PAGE purified, and the samples were tested at 3% (30 mg/ml) in 25 mM HEPES (pH7.5) with 25 mM of MgCl2. G′ and G″ lower than 1 Pa indicates the measured moduli were under the instrument resolution limit. The results are shown in Table 1 (including Table 1 cont'd),
Small angle X-ray scattering study was performed at the DuPont-Northwestern-Dow Collaborative Access Team (DND-CAT) located at Sector 5 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the Argonne National Laboratory, IL. RNA hydrogel samples were contained in borosilicate capillary tubes (Charles Supper) and characterized at 25° C. on a MAR CCD located at 8.5 m to the samples by illumination of monochromatic X-ray with wavelength λ=0.756 Å. The 2D patterns were integrated azimuthally for 1 dimensional scattering intensity versus scattering vector q=4πλ−1 sin(θ) where θ is the scattering. The collected 1D patterns were subtracted with blank capillary signal.Cryogenic-Transmission Electron Microscopy.
Standard cryogenic-TEM sample preparation and characterization procedures were employed. Thin film of 2CZ RNA solution was vitrified on a Lacey Formvar/Carbon grid (TedPella) in liquefied ethane using a Vitrobot (FEI). Prepared sample was imaged using a FEI Tecnai G2 F30 field-emission TEM.Cryogenic-Scanning Electron Microscopy.
2CZ RNA solution with 5 mM MgCl2 was vitrified under high pressure (˜2,100 bar) using Balzers HPM 010 high pressure freezer. The vitrified solution was etched at −100° C. for 2 minutes in a Leica ACE 600 high vacuum coater (lowest pressure achievable was 2.5×10−6 mbar) and coated with platinum (2.5 nm) at −108° C. Micrographs were recorded using a Hitachi SU 8230 scanning electron microscope at 10−4 Pa and −112° C.REFERENCES
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1. A synthetic RNA comprising:
- a 5′ region, a first loop region, an inter-loop region, a second loop region, and a 3′ region, wherein through Watson-Crick pairing, the synthetic RNA has the secondary structure of A,
2. The synthetic RNA of claim 1, wherein the 5′ region consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14.
3. The synthetic RNA of claim 2, wherein the first loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 19, and SEQ ID NO: 20.
4. The synthetic RNA of claim 2, wherein the inter-loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 21 or SEQ ID NO: 22.
5. The synthetic RNA of claim 2, wherein the second loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 18, and SEQ ID NO: 23.
6. The synthetic RNA of claim 2, wherein the 3′ region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 24 or SEQ ID NO: 25.
7. The synthetic RNA of claim 2, wherein the 5′ region consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14; the first loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO: 20; the inter-loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 21 or SEQ ID NO: 22; the second loop region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 18, and SEQ ID NO: 23; and the 3′ region consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 24 or SEQ ID NO: 25.
8. The synthetic RNA of claim 1, wherein a oligonucleotide consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 3, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
9. A synthetic RNA of claim 1 comprising tandem repeats of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 3, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
10. The synthetic RNA of claim 9, where the tandem repeats are separated by a linking/intervening nucleotide sequence.
11. The synthetic RNA of claim 8, wherein the oligonucleotide forms a hydrogel.
12. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a synthetic oligonucleotide consisting of the nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 3, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
13. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a hydrogel comprising an oligonucleotide with the nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 3, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13.