COATINGS WITH TUNABLE AMINE DENSITY

Molecules or salts thereof are provided, having the structure in Formula I, wherein n2 and n4 are the same or different and are independently 1, 2, or 3, and n3 is 1 to 20; X is oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur; wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 are as described herein. Methods are also provided for the synthesis of and use of the provided molecules in applications for diagnostic testing.

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Description
CROSS-REFERENCE

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/348,485, filed on May 8, 2019, which is a U.S. National Phase of International Application No. PCT/US2017/060724, filed on Nov. 8, 2017, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/419,864, filed Nov. 9, 2016, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed herein are molecules or salts thereof, having the structure:

    • wherein R1 and R2 can be the same or different and can be independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R8, wherein R8 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound can form a ring; or wherein at least one of R1 or R2 can comprise a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, polysaccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof;
    • R3, oriented from N to X, can be alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl ; or wherein R3 can be —(CR9R10CR11R12)n—, wherein n can be 1 to 100, and R9, R10, R11, and R12 can be the same or different and can be independently hydrogen, halo, alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 can be

      • wherein n2 and n4 can be the same or different and can be independently 1, 2, or 3, and n3 can be 1 to 20, or wherein R3 can be a polymer comprising alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, aminoheteroalkyl, and amidoalkyl;
    • X can be O, NR13, or S, wherein R13 is hydrogen or alkyl;
    • R4, oriented from X to C, can be alkyl, alkylether, and alkylthioether, wherein each of alkyl, alkylether, and alkylthioether can be optionally substituted with hydroxyl, thiol, amino, or halo;
    • R5, R6, and R7 can be the same or different and can be independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy; and

wherein at least one of R5, R6, or R7 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

In some aspects the molecules or salts of structure I can comprise a solid phase. In some aspects, the solid phase can comprise a silicon atom.

Also disclosed herein are molecules or salts thereof, having the structure:

    • wherein R1 and R2 can be the same or different and can be independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R8, wherein R8 can be alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound can form a ring; or wherein at least one of R1 or R2 can comprise a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, polysaccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof;
    • R3, oriented from NR1R2 to NH can be alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 can be —(CR7R8CR9R10)n— wherein n can be 1 to 100, and R7, R8, R9, and R10 can be the same or different and can be hydrogen, halo, alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 can be

      • wherein n2 and n4 can be the same or different and can be independently 1, 2, or 3, and n3 can be 1 to 20; or wherein R3 can be a polymer or dendrimer comprising alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, and amino-substituted amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl;
    • R4, R5, and R6 can be the same or different and can be independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy;
    • (*) is a carbon center, wherein said carbon center can be in an R-configuration or S-configuration; and

wherein at least one of R4, R5, or R6 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

In some aspects, the carbon center can be in an R-configuration. In some aspects, the carbon center can be in an S-configuration. In some aspects are molecules or salts comprising a solid phase. In some aspects the solid phase can comprise a silicon atom. In some aspects are molecules of structure II, wherein R3 can comprise alkyl, aminoheteroalkyl, polyamidoaminoalkyl, or polyaminoalkyl.

Also disclosed herein are molecules or salts thereof, having the structure:

wherein:

  • n1 can be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7;
  • n2 and n3 can be the same or different and can be independently about 1 to about 1000;
  • R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, and R20 can be the same or different and can be hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R24, wherein R24 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound, R3 and R4 and the N to which they are bound, R5 and R6 and the N to which they are bound, R7 and R8 and the N to which they are bound, R9 and R10 and the N to which they are bound, R11 and R12 and the N to which they are bound, R13 and R14 and the N to which they are bound, R15 and R16 and the N to which they are bound, R17 and R18 and the N to which they are bound, and R19 and R20 and the N to which they are bound independently optionally form a ring;
  • R3, R4, and R5 can be the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy;
  • (*), (**), and (***) are carbon centers, wherein said carbon centers can be independently in an R-configuration or S-configuration, or can be achiral centers;
  • (****) is a second carbon center, wherein said second carbon center can be in an R-configuration or an S-configuration; and
    wherein at least one of R21, R22, or R23 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

In some aspects, a carbon center can be in an R-configuration. In some aspects, the carbon center can be in an S-configuration. In some aspects the molecules or salts of structures III, IV, V, or VI can comprise a solid phase. In some aspects, the solid phase can comprise a silicon atom.

In some aspects are methods of synthesizing molecules or salts of structure I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects, the method can comprise forming an oxygen-silicon covalent bond between a solid substrate and a first molecule. In some aspects, the first molecule can comprise a silicon at a first end and an epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate at a second end. In some aspects, the method can further comprise forming a Y-carbon covalent bond between a carbon atom of an epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate and a second molecule comprising an amino group. In some aspects, Y can be nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or selenium. In some aspects, the epoxide, isocyanate, or isothiocyanate and silicon can be linked by a group comprising an alkyl, alkylether, or alkylthioether, wherein each of alkyl, alkylether, or alkylthioether is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, thiol, amino, or halo. In some aspects, the second molecule can be an alkylamine, heteroalkylamine, amino-substituted alkylamine, amino-substituted heteroalkylamine, amidoalkylamine, amidoheteroalkylamine, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkylamine, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl. In some aspects, forming an oxygen-silicon bond can comprise a deposition reaction. In some aspects, a deposition reaction can be performed in the gas phase. In some aspects, the deposition reaction can comprise a chemical vapor deposition reaction. In some aspects, the chemical vapor deposition reaction can occur at an elevated temperature. In some aspects, the elevated temperature can be at least about 100° C., 110° C., 120° C., 130° C., 140° C., or 150° C. In some aspects, the first molecule can be 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) or any reactive aminosilane. In some aspects, the second molecule can be ethylenediamine (EDA), (ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDBA), tris (2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), polyamidoamine (PAMAM), or polyallylamine (PAAm). In some aspects, PAAm can have an average molecular weight of from about 1 KDa to about 100 KDa. In some aspects, the second molecule can have a boiling point of from about 100° C., to 300° C. In some aspects, the method can further comprise coupling the amino group to a protected amino acid or salt thereof. In some aspects, the protected amino acid salt can be a tert-butyl carbamate (Boc)- or 9-fluorenylmethyl carbamate (Fmoc)-protected amino acid. In some aspects, the amino acid can be glycine.

In some aspects are amino coatings comprising two or more of any one of the molecules or salts of structures I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects are methods of tuning the amino group density of the amino coating. In some aspects are arrays comprising two or more of any one of the molecules or salts of structures I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects, the array can comprise at least 2 of any one of the molecules or salts of structures I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects, the array can comprise a density of said amino groups from about 1×1010 groups per cm2 to about 1×1014 groups per cm2. In some aspects, molecules can be stereoenriched or racemtates. In some aspects, molecules or salts can have an enantiomeric excess of at least about 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%. In some aspects, at least one of the molecules or salts can form a coating. In some aspects, the coating has a thickness of from about 1 angstrom to about 25 angstroms. In some aspects, molecules or their salts are cross-linked. In some aspects, arrays can further comprise instructions for their use.

In some aspects are methods for making an array. In some aspects, making an array can comprise associating the molecule or salt of structure I, II, III, IV, V, or VI with a substrate. In some aspects, making an array can comprise any of the methods disclosed herein for making molecules or salts of structures I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects, the array comprises a density of amino group about 1×1010 groups per cm2 to about 1×1014 groups per cm2. In some aspects are methods comprising tuning the density of said amino groups on said array. In some aspects are kits. In some aspects, kits comprise the molecules of structures I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. In some aspects, kits comprise a binding moiety. In some aspects, a binding moiety can be an antibody. In some aspects, a binding moiety can emit a signal. In some aspects are methods of making kits. In some aspects, methods of making kits can comprise forming a kit with the molecules or salts of structures I, II, III, IV, V, VI. In some aspects are molecules or salts made by the process of the methods disclosed herein. In some aspects are arrays made by the process of the methods disclosed herein.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

All publications, patents, and patent applications herein are incorporated by reference in their entireties. In the event of a conflict between a term herein and a term in an incorporated reference, the term herein controls.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The novel features described herein are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the features described herein will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative examples, in which the principles of the features described herein are utilized, and the accompanying drawings of which:

FIG. 1. depicts a GPTMS-PAAm surface coating, prepared by chemical vapor deposition. GPTMS is 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane.

FIG. 2. depicts a GPTMS-TAEA surface coating prepared by chemical vapor deposition.

FIG. 3. depicts the reactive amine density of GPTMS-TAEA surface coatings prepared by either solution phase reaction or chemical vapor deposition.

FIG. 4. Depicts the reactive amine density of GPTMS-TEA coating compared to a GPTMS coating.

FIG. 5. depicts a GPTMS-HMDA linker prepared by chemical vapor deposition

FIG. 6. Depicts reactive amine densities for GPTMS-linked EDA, TAEA, PAMAM, and PAAm amino coatings. Also depicted are reactive amine densities for aminosilane coatings APTES, APDEMS, and APDIPES.

FIG. 7 reactive amine densities for GPTMS-TAEA linkers with chemical vapor deposition performed at 100, 125, and 150 degrees Celcius.

FIG. 8 depicts reactive amine densities fro GPTMS-linked EDA, TAEA, and PAAm surface coatings.

FIG. 9 depicts water contact angle and thickness properties for GPTMS-linked-EDA and Boc-Gly surface coatings at different deposition conditions.

FIG. 10 depicts surface amine densities of GPTMS-TAEA, GPTMS-PAAm, and APTES surface coatings.

FIG. 11 depicts the use of a diluent to tune the reaction of forming second coating layer.

FIG. 12 depicts the experimental conditions for use of a diluent to tune the reaction of forming a second coating layer.

FIG. 13 depicts thickness and water contact angle analysis of amino coatings produced with a diluent in the formation of the second coating layer.

FIG. 14 depicts reactive amine density of amino coatings under various reaction conditions.

FIG. 15 depicts the use of a molecular array for immunosignaturing.

FIG. 16 depicts the arrangement of features on a molecular array.

FIG. 17 depicts substrate characteristics, coating compositions, deposition methods, and analytical characterization methods.

FIG. 18 depicts a scheme for peptide synthesis.

FIG. 19 depicts protected amino acids.

FIG. 20 depicts aminosilane coating structures.

FIG. 21 depicts why surface properties control important.

FIG. 22 depicts thickness and water contact angle analysis of amino coatings.

FIG. 23 depicts a scheme for a reactive amine density assay.

FIG. 24 depicts an amine density analysis of amino coatings.

FIG. 25 depicts an AFM analysis of the smoothness of deposition of amino coatings.

FIG. 26 depicts an experimental process for side chain deprotection.

FIG. 27 depicts an outline of a peptide synthesis process.

FIG. 28 depicts a thickness analysis of peptide-functionalized amino coatings.

FIG. 29 depicts thickness and XPS analysis of amino coatings.

FIG. 30 depicts a scheme for peptide synthesis, amine capping, and MALDI-MS analysis.

FIG. 31 depicts a scheme for peptide synthesis, amine capping, and MALDI-MS analysis.

FIG. 32 depicts a thickness analysis of amino coatings.

FIG. 33 depicts a thickness analysis of amino coatings.

FIG. 34 depicts procedures for surface preparation for MALDI-MS analysis.

FIG. 35 depicts a MALDI-MS analysis of array coatings.

FIG. 36 depicts a purity analysis of peptides synthesized on amino coatings.

FIG. 37 depicts a MALDI-MS analysis of array coatings.

FIG. 38 depicts a purity analysis of peptides synthesized on amino coatings.

FIG. 39 depicts a MALDI-MS analysis of array coatings.

FIG. 40 depicts a purity analysis of peptides synthesized on amino coatings.

FIG. 41 depicts a MALDI-MS analysis of array coatings.

FIG. 42 depicts a purity analysis of peptides synthesized on amino coatings.

FIG. 43 depicts a summary of amino coating properties.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Several aspects are described below with reference to example applications for illustration. It should be understood that numerous specific details, relationships, and methods are set forth to provide a full understanding of the features described herein. One having ordinary skill in the relevant art, however, will readily recognize that the features described herein can be practiced without one or more of the specific details or with other methods. The features described herein are not limited by the illustrated ordering of acts or events, as some acts can occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other acts or events. Furthermore, not all illustrated acts or events are required to implement a methodology in accordance with the features described herein.

The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular cases only and is not intended to be limiting. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms “including”, “includes”. “having”, “has”. “with”, or variants thereof are used in either the detailed description and/or the claims, such terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising”.

The term “about” or “approximately” can mean within an acceptable error range for the particular value as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art, which will depend in part on how the value is measured or determined, i.e. the limitations of the measurement system. For example, “about” can mean within 1 or more than 1 standard deviation. Alternatively, “about” can mean a range of up to 20%, up to 10%, up to 5%, or up to 1% of a given value. Alternatively, particularly with respect to biological systems or processes, the term can mean within an order of magnitude, within 5-fold, and more preferably within 2-fold, of a value. Where particular values are described in the application and claims, unless otherwise stated the term “about” meaning within an acceptable error range for the particular value should be assumed. The term “about” has the meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. In some embodiments, the term “about” refers to ±10%. In some embodiments, the term “about” refers to ±5%.

Overview

Detecting and diagnosing immune-mediated disorders, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer, is challenging, with patients having a difficult time receiving an accurate or correct diagnosis. In many instances, patients are often misdiagnosed with other autoimmune conditions because of the closely related nature of these diseases. The disclosure, in one aspect, relates to compounds, methods, and devices that identify differential patterns of peripheral-blood antibody binding to a array-bound molecular library. Differential binding of patient samples to the array results in specific binding patterns or signatures indicative of the disease state of the patient. These binding signatures can accurately determine or diagnose a disease activity, including but not limited to autoimmune disease activity, infectious disease activity, cancer activity, and diabetes disease activity. The identification of such differential binding activity, or signature, is referred to as “immunosignaturing.” Synthesized peptide libraries have been commonly used for antibody binding characterization. However, protein and robotically printed peptide arrays have been cost-prohibitive and in situ synthesized peptide arrays have suffered from lack of scalability, poor reproducibility and low production quality. The technologies herein, in one aspect, will enable reliable, low cost, and scaleable methods for construction and use of arrays for immunosignaturing assays.

In some embodiments, arrays with chemical libraries produced by the technologies disclosed herein are used for immune-based diagnostic assays, for example, immunosignature assays. In one aspect, using a patient's antibody repertoire from a drop of blood bound to the arrays, a fluorescence binding profile image of the bound array provide sufficient information to identify and classify a disease state. The arrays disclosed herein incorporate analytical measurements capability within each synthesized array using orthogonal analytical methods including ellipsometry, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence. These measurements enable longitudinal qualitative and quantitative assessment of array synthesis performance.

In some embodiments, detection of antibody binding on a peptide array poses some challenges that can be addressed by the technologies disclosed herein. The technologies disclosed herein address two potential shortcomings of using molecular arrays to profile antibody binding. First, non-specific antibody binding on a array is minimized by coating the solid support with a moderately hydrophilic monolayer comprising, in some embodiments, polyethylene glycol. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic monolayer is homogeneous. Second, synthesized library are linked to the surface using a linker that moves the peptide away from the surface of the solid support so that the peptide may be presented to an antibody in an unhindered orientation. The technologies disclosed herein include such linkers, which, in one aspect, connect chemical libraries to solid supports, including, in some aspects, arrays for immunosignaturing.

Molecules or linkers can also be known as coatings when, for example, formed on a solid support. The technologies herein relate to methods for synthesizing amino-containing coatings, which can be further functionalized at the amino group. The technologies herein further relate to methods for tuning the density of amino groups in coatings. Tuning the density of amino groups in coatings has the advantage of providing flexibility for optimizing the binding characteristics of coatings, and functionalized coatings, to binding moieties. Formation of coatings onto a solid phase can be achieved by solution phase or gas phase reactions. Solid phases can comprise native oxide, thermal oxide, or siloxane surfaces. Solid phases can comprise BTMSE.

Further disclosed herein are arrays comprising the molecules disclosed herein. In some aspects, the arrays comprise a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof chemically bound to the linker. In one aspect, the nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof comprise a chemical library. In some embodiments, the array is a peptide array. In some aspects, the peptide array is synthesized in situ.

One of the major deficiencies of in situ synthesized peptide arrays has been the inability to directly measure purity of the synthesized peptide features. In some embodiments, the technologies include qualitative in situ mass spectrometry of synthesized peptides directly from solid support. Mass spectrometry is performed by incorporating a gas-phase cleavable linker between the solid support and the synthesized peptides so that cleavage of the peptide is done without diffusion from the array feature. Following peptide cleavage, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is performed directly on the solid support by applying a thin aerosol matrix layer and subsequently focusing the MALDI laser on individual peptide features to acquire a mass spectrum for each synthesized peptide. Qualitative in situ MALDI mass spectrum from a peptide array feature produced using the photolithographic synthesis approach are also included in the methods and devices described herein. Other analyses known to those of skill in the art may also be used to quantify and/or qualify the fidelity of the in situ synthesis process disclosed herein.

Definitions

The terms “attach”, “bind”, “couple”, and “link” are used interchangeably and refer to covalent interactions (e.g., by chemically coupling), or non-covalent interactions (e.g., ionic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, hybridization, etc.). The terms “specific”, “specifically”, or specificity” refer to the preferential recognition, contact, and formation of a stable complex between a first molecule and a second molecule compared to that of the first molecule with any one of a plurality of other molecules (e.g., substantially less to no recognition, contact, or formation of a stable complex between the first molecule and any one of the plurality of other molecules). For example, two molecules may be specifically attached, specifically bound, specifically coupled, or specifically linked. Furthermore, “binding” may refer to either a specific interaction, such as the interaction of an antibody with an epitope, or it may refer to a non-specific interaction.

Nomenclature

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “alkyl” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can include both straight and branched chain hydrocarbons, containing, for instance, 1 to 20 carbons, 1 to 10 carbons, or 1 to 8 carbons, in the normal chain, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, t-butyl, isobutyl, pentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, heptyl, 4,4-dimethylpentyl, octyl, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, the various branched chain isomers thereof, and the like as well as such groups including 1 to 4 substituents such as halo, for example F, Br, Cl or I or CF3, alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, aryl(aryl) or diaryl, arylalkyl, arylalkyloxy, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyloxy, amino, hydroxyl, hydroxyalkyl, acyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryloxy, heteroarylalkyl, heteroarylalkoxy, aryloxyalkyl, alkylthio, arylalkylthio, aryloxyaryl, alkylamido, alkanoylamino, arylcarbonylamino, nitro, cyano, thiol, haloalkyl, trihaloalkyl and/or alkylthio.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “cycloalkyl” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can include saturated or partially unsaturated (containing 1 or 2 double bonds) cyclic hydrocarbon groups containing 1 to 3 rings, including monocyclic alkyl, bicyclic alkyl (or bicycloalkyl) and tricyclic alkyl (tricycloalkyl), containing a total of 3 to 20 carbons forming the ring and which may be fused to 1 or 2 aromatic rings as described for aryl, which includes cyclopropyl, cyclobuyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, cyclodecyl and cyclododecyl, cyclohexenyl, adamantyl, and the like, any of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents such as halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyl, aryl, aryloxy, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, hyroxyalkyl, alkylamido, alkanoylamino, oxo, acyl, arylcarbonylamino, amino, nitro, cyano, thiol and/or alkylthio and/or any of the substituents for alkyl.

The term “alkanoyl” as used herein alone or as part of another group can refer to alkyl linked to a carbonyl group.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “alkenyl” as used herein by itself or as part of another group can refer to straight or branched chain radicals of, for instance, 2 to 20 carbons in the normal chain, which include one to six double bonds in the normal chain, such as vinyl, 2-propenyl, 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 3-pentenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 2-heptenyl, 3-heptenyl, 4-heptenyl, 3-octenyl, 3-nonenyl, 4-decenyl, 3-undecenyl, 4-dodecenyl, 4, 8, 12-tetradecatrienyl, and the like, and which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents, namely, halogen, haloalkyl, alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, amino, hydroxyl, heteroaryl, cycloheteroalkyl, alkanoylamino, alkylamido, arylcarbonyl-amino, nitro, cyano, thiol, alkylthio and/or any of the alkyl substituents set out herein.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “alkynyl” as used herein by itself or as part of another group can refer to straight or branched chain radicals of 2 to 20 carbons in the normal chain, which include one triple bond in the normal chain, such as 2-propynyl, 3-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 4-pentynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 2-heptynyl, 3-heptynyl, 4-heptynyl, 3-octenyl, 3-nonenyl, 4-decenyl, 3-undecenyl, 4-dodecenyl and the like, and which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents, namely, halogen, haloalkyl, alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, amino, heteroaryl, cycloheterolalkyl, hydroxyl, alkanoylamino, alkylamido, arylcarbonylamino, nitro, cyano, thiol, and/or any of the alkyl substitutents set out herein.

The term “halogen” or “halo” as used herein alone or as part of another group can refer to chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “aryl” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can refer to monocyclic and biclic aromatic groups containing 6 to 10 carbons in the ring portion (such as phenyl or naphthyl including 1-naphthyl and 2-naphthyl) and may optionally include one to three additional rings fused to a carbocyclic ring or a heterocyclic ring (such as aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl or cycloheteroalkyl rings) and may be optionally substituted through available carbon atoms with 1, 2, or 3 groups selected from hydrogen, halo, halolalkyl, alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy, alkenyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, alkynyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, cycloheteroalkylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, aryloxy, aryloxyalkyl, arylalkoxy, arylthio, arylazo, heteroarylalkyl, heteroarylalkenyl, heteroarylheteroaryl, heteroaryloxy, hydroxyl, nitro, cyano, amino, substituted amino wherein the amino can include 1 or 2 substituents (which are alkyl, aryl or any of the other aryl compounds mentioned in the definitions), thiol, alkylthio, arylthio, heteroarylthio, arylthioalkyl, alkoxyarylthio, alkylcarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, alkylaminocarbonyl, arylaminocarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonyloxy, alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonylamino, arylsulfinyl, arylsulfinylalkyl, arylsulfonylamino or arylsulfonaminocarbonyl and/or any of the alkyl substituents set out herein.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “amino-substituted” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can refer to a chemical group having from 1 to 10 amino groups substituted thereon.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “alkylthio” (also known as “thioalkyl”) or “arylthio” (also known as “thioaryl”) as employed herein alone or as part of another group can include any of the above alkyl or aryl groups linked to a sulfur atom.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “selenoalkyl” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can include any of the above alkyl groups linked to a selenium atom.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “alkylamino” or “arylamino” as employed herein alone or as part of another group can include any of the above alkyl or aryl groups linked to a nitrogen atom.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “acyl” as employed herein by itself as part of another group, as defined herein, can refer to an organic radical linked to a carbonyl

group; examples of acyl groups include any of the R groups attached to a carbonyl, such as alkanoyl, alkenoyl, aroyl, aralkanoyl, heteroaroyl, cycloalkanoyl, cycloheteroalkanoyl and the like.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “cycloheteroalkyl” as used herein alone or as part of another group can refer to a 5-, 6-, or 7-membered saturated or partially unsaturated ring which can include 1 to 2 heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen and/or sulfur, linked through a carbon atom or a heteroatom, where possible, optionally via the linker (CH2)r (where r is 1, 2, or 3).

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “heteroaryl” as used herein alone or as part of another group can refer to a 5- or 6-membered aromatic ring which can include 1, 2, 3 or 4 heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, and such rings fused to an aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl or cycloheteroalkyl ring, and includes possible N-oxides. The heteroaryl group may optionally include 1 to 4 substituents such as any of the substituents set out above for alkyl.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “heteroalkyl” as used herein alone or as part of another group can refer to an alkyl group, as defined herein, which can include 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. The heteroalkyl group may optionally include 1 to 4 substituents such as any of the substituents set out above for alkyl.

All stereoisomers of compounds are contemplated, either in admixture or in pure or substantially pure form. Compounds can have asymmetric carbon centers at any of the carbon atoms including any one of the R substituents. Compounds can be either optically active or optically inactive. Asymmetric carbon centers can be independently in an R- or S-configuration. As defined herein asymmetric carbons are carbons that are a stereogenic center. Consequently, compounds of structures I, IA, or II can exist in enantiomeric or diastereomeric forms or in mixtures thereof. Enantiomeric mixtures can exist with an enantiomeric excess of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5% or 100%. Diastereomeric mixtures can exist with a diastereomeric ratio of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 8:1, 9:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 100:1, or 500:1. The processes for preparation of the molecules disclosed herein can utilize racemates, enantiomers or diastereomers as starting materials. When diastereomeric or enantiomeric products are prepared, they can be separated by conventional methods, for example, by chromatographic or fractional crystallization.

A polynucleotide, as used herein, can be any type of nucleic acid molecule, including DNA, RNA, a hybridization thereof, or any combination thereof. For example, a polynucleotide can be cDNA, genomic DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, or microRNA.

A peptide, polypeptide, or protein can be contemplated to include any fragments thereof, in particular, immunologically detectable fragments. A peptide can be contemplated to include an α-peptide, a β-peptide, or a γ-peptide.

Methods

Methods disclosed herein can include synthesizing coatings on solid supports. Characteristics of coatings prepared by the methods disclosed herein can be analyzed by various methods understood by person of skill in the art. Methods of analysis can include, ellipsometry, water contact angle (WCA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), colorimetry, mass-spectrometry, including MALDI-MS, and the like.

In some embodiments, forming coatings can comprise coupling an aminosilane to a substrate. In some embodiments, the aminosilane can comprise 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), 3-aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane (APDEMS), or 3-aminopropyldiisopropylethoxysilane (APDIPES).

In some embodiments, forming coatings can comprise a first step comprising forming a first coating layer. In some embodiments, the first step can comprise forming an oxygen-silicon bond between a sold substrate and a first molecule. In some embodiments, the first molecule can comprise a silicon at a first end and an epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate at a second end. In some embodiments, the first step can be performed in solution phase or in gas phase. In some embodiments, forming coatings can further comprise a second step comprising coupling a second molecule to the epoxide, isocyante, or thioisocyanate of the first molecule to form a second coating layer. Coatings, as used herein, can be understood to encompass both single layer coatings and coatings comprising a first layer and a second layer. In some embodiments, the second molecule can have a boiling point of about 100° C., 110° C., 120° C., 130° C., 140° C., 150° C., 160° C., 170° C., 180° C., 190° C., 200° C., 210° C., 220° C., 230° C. 240° C., 250° C., 260° C. 270° C., 280° C. 290° C., 300° C. 310° C., 320° C. 330° C., 340° C., or 350° C. In some embodiments, the second step can comprise using a diluent. In some embodiments, a diluent can be an alcohol. In some embodiments, the alcohol can be ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol (also known as isopropanol), 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol (also known as isoamyl or isopentyl alcohol), 2-methylbutan-1-ol, 2,2-dimethylpropan-1-ol (also known as neopentyl alcohol), 3-methylbutan-2-ol, or 2-methylbutan-2-ol (also known as tert-amyl alcohol).

In some embodiments, formation of a coating can be accomplished by a deposition reaction. In some embodiments, the deposition reaction can be a chemical vapor deposition reaction. In some embodiments, coatings can be characterized by their water contact angle. In some embodiments, coatings can have a water contact angle of about 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, 90°, 100°, 110°, 120°, 130°, 140°, 150°, or 160°. In some embodiments, coatings can have a contact angle from about about 10° to about 120°. In some embodiments, coatings can have a water contact angle from about 40° to about 90°. In some embodiments, coatings can be characterized by their thickness. In some embodiments, thickness can be measured by ellipsometry. In some embodiments, coatings can have a thickness of about 0.5 angstroms (Å), 0.6 Å, 0.7 Å, 0.8 Å, 0.9 Å, 1 Å, 2 Å, 3 Å, 4 Å, 5 Å, 6 Å, 7 Å, 8 Å, 9 Å, 10 Å, 1 Å, 12 Å, 13 Å, 14 Å, 15 Å, 16 Å, 17 Å, 18 Å, 19 Å, 20 Å, 25 Å, 30 Å, 35 Å, 40 Å, 45 Å, 50 Å, 60 Å, 70 Å, 80 Å, 90 Å, or 100 Å. In some embodiments, coatings can have a thickness of from about 1 Å to about 10 Å. In some embodiments, coatings can have a thickness of from about 5 Å to about 7 Å. In some embodiments, coatings can be characterized by their smoothness. In some embodiments, coating smoothness can be measured by AFM. In some embodiments, coatings can have a smoothness of a root mean square of roughness (Rq) of about 0.10 nm, 0.11 nm, 0.12 nm, 0.13 nm, 0.14 nm, 0.15 nm, 0.16 nm, 0.17 nm, 0.18 nm, 0.19 nm, 0.20 nm, 0.21 nm, 0.22 nm, 0.23 nm, 0.24 nm, 0.25 nm, 0.26 nm, 0.27 nm, 0.28 nm, 0.29 nm, or 0.30 nm. In some embodiments, coatings can have an Rq of from about 0.1 nm to about 0.3 nm. In some embodiments, coatings can have an Rq of from about 0.2 to about 0.25 nm. In some embodiments, coatings can have a density of amino groups of about 1×109, 1×1010, 1×1011, 1×1012, 1×1013, 1×1014, or 1×1015 amino groups per square centimeter.

In some embodiments, coatings can be coupled at the amine to a target analyte to form a target analyte-functionalized coating. In some embodiments, a target analyte can be a peptide. A peptide can be from about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100 amino acids. In some embodiments, peptides can comprise a library of peptides. In some embodiments, peptides can have protected side chains. In some embodiments, peptide side chains can be protected as benzyl ethers. In some embodiments, a coating can be coupled to a peptide by stepwise coupling of each of amino acid of the peptide.

Some embodiments comprise functionalizing an amino coating. Amino coatings can be functionalized by coupling the amino groups of the amino coating to molecules. A molecule can be a building block. In some embodiments, coupling comprises: coupling of an amino group to the carboxylic acid of a first building block. In some embodiments, a building block can comprise a carboxylic acid and a protected amine. In some embodiments, a building block can be an N-protected amino acid. In some embodiments, the protected amino acid can comprise a Boc-protected amine or an Fmoc-protected amine. In some embodiments, coupling can further comprise deprotection of the coupled building block. In some embodiments, coupling can further comprise coupling of the amino group of the deprotected first building block to the carboxylic acid of a second building block. In some embodiments, functionalizing of an amino coating can comprise iterative couplings to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100 building blocks. In some embodiments, protected building blocks can be protected amino acids.

In some embodiments, functionalizing an amino coating can further comprise performing a capping step after any one of the described coupling steps. Capping can comprise reacting amino groups with a reagent to form a protected, or capped, amino group. Capping can comprise reacting amino groups that were not consumed in the preceding coupling reaction. Capping reagents can comprise acetic anhydride, acetyl chloride, acetyl fluoride, or an acylglycine. In some aspects, the capping step can form an alkylamine, arylamine, acetamide, carbamate, phthalimide, enamine, sulfonamide, or N-protected amino acid. In some aspects, the N-protected amino acid can be an N-acyl-protected amino acid. In some aspects, the protected amino acid can be acetyl glycine.

In some embodiments, forming coatings can comprise a first step comprising forming a first coating layer. In some embodiments, the first step can comprise forming an oxygen-silicon bond between a sold substrate and a first molecule. In some embodiments, the first molecule can comprise a silicon at a first end and an epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate at a second end. In some embodiments, the first step can be performed in solution phase or in gas phase. In some embodiments, forming coatings can further comprise a second step comprising forming a second coating layer. In some embodiments, forming said second coating layer can comprise a chemical vapor deposition reaction.

Supports/Substrates/Solid Phases

The present disclosure provides solid supports (also known as solid phases, substrates, or supports). The nature and geometry of a support or substrate can depend upon a variety of factors, including the type of array (e.g., one-dimensional, two-dimensional or three-dimensional). Generally, a substrate can be composed of any material which will permit coupling of a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof, which will not melt or degrade under the conditions used to couple said nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof to said solid support. A solid support can be composed of any material which will permit coupling of a target analyte, and/or other moiety at one or more discrete regions and/or discrete locations within the discrete regions. A solid support can be composed of any material which will permit washing or physical or chemical manipulation without dislodging a target analyte or binding moiety from the solid support.

A substrate may take a variety of configurations ranging from simple to complex, depending on the intended use of the array. Thus, a substrate can have an overall slide or plate configuration, such as a rectangular or disc configuration. A standard microplate configuration can be used. In some embodiments, the surface may be smooth or substantially planar, or have irregularities, such as depressions or elevations. For example, the substrates of the presently disclosed subject matter can include at least one surface on which a pattern of recombinant virion microspots can be coupled or deposited. In some instances, a substrate may have a rectangular cross-sectional shape, having a length of from about 10-200 mm, 40-150 mm, or 75-125 mm; a width of from about 10-200 mm, 20-120 mm, or 25-80 mm, and a thickness of from about 0.01-5.0 mm, 0.1-2 mm, or 0.2 to 1 mm.

A support may be organic or inorganic; may be metal (e.g., copper or silver) or non-metal; may be a polymer or nonpolymer; may be conducting, semiconducting or nonconducting (insulating); may be reflecting or nonreflecting; may be porous or nonporous; etc. A solid support as described above can be formed of any suitable material, including metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, polymers (particularly organic polymers in any suitable form including woven, nonwoven, molded, extruded, cast, etc.), silicon, silicon oxide, and composites thereof.

Suitable materials for use as substrates include, but are not limited to, polycarbonate, gold, silicon, silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, indium, tantalum oxide, niobium oxide, titanium, titanium oxide, platinum, iridium, indium tin oxide, diamond or diamond-like film, acrylic, styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers, ethylene/acrylic acid, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), ABS/polycarbonate. ABS/polysulfone, ABS/polyvinyl chloride, ethylene propylene, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), nitrocellulose, nylons (including nylon 6, nylon 6/6, nylon 6/6-6, nylon 6/9, nylon 6/10, nylon 6/12. nylon 11 and nylon 12), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyacrylate, polycarbonate, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), poly(ethylene) (PE) (including low density, linear low density, high density, cross-linked and ultra-high molecular weight grades), poly(propylene) (PP), cis and trans isomers of poly(butadiene) (PB), cis and trans isomers of poly (isoprene), polyethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene homopolymer, polypropylene copolymers, polystyrene (PS) (including general purpose and high impact grades), polycarbonate (PC), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PECL or PCL), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and its homologs, poly(methyl acrylate) and its homologs, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid), polyorthoesters, poly(anhydrides), nylon, polyimides, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polybutadiene (PB), polyvinylalcohol (PVA), polyacrylamide and its homologs such as poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide), fluorinated polyacrylate (PFOA), poly(ethylene-butylene) (PEB), poly(styrene-acrylonitrile) (SAN), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and its derivatives, polyolefin plastomers, fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), perfluoroalkoxyethylene (PFA), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), polyethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), metal oxides, glass, silicon oxide or other inorganic or semiconductor material (e.g., silicon nitride), compound semiconductors (e.g., gallium arsenide, and indium gallium arsenide), and combinations thereof.

Examples of well-known solid supports include polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene, dextran, nylon, amylases, glass, natural and modified celluloses (e.g., nitrocellulose), polyacrylamides, agaroses and magnetite. In some instances, the solid support can be silica or glass because of its great chemical resistance against solvents, its mechanical stability, its low intrinsic fluorescence properties, and its flexibility of being readily functionalized. In one embodiment, the substrate can be glass, particularly glass coated with nitrocellulose, more particularly a nitrocellulose-coated slide (e.g., FAST slides).

In some embodiments, the support can be planar. In some instances, the support can be spherical. In some instances, the support can be a bead. In some instances, a support can be magnetic. In some instances, a magnetic solid support can comprise magnetite, maghemite, FePt, SrFe, iron, cobalt, nickel, chromium dioxide, ferrites, or mixtures thereof. In some instances, a support can be nonmagnetic. In some embodiments, the nonmagnetic solid support can comprise a polymer, metal, glass, alloy, mineral, or mixture thereof. In some instances a nonmagnetic material can be a coating around a magnetic solid support. In some instances, a magnetic material may be distributed in the continuous phase of a magnetic material. In some embodiments, the solid support comprises magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. In some instances, a solid support can comprise a combination of a magnetic material and a nonmagnetic material. In some embodiments, the magnetic material is at least about 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, or about 80% by weight of the total composition of the solid support. In some embodiments, the bead size can be quite large, on the order of 100-900 microns or in some cases even up to a diameter of 3 mm. In other embodiments, the bead size can be on the order of 1-150 microns. The average particle diameters of beads can be in the range of about 2 μm to several millimeters, e.g., diameters in ranges having lower limits of 2 μm, 4 μm, 6 μm, 8 μm, 10 μm, 20 μm, 30 μm, 40 μm, 50 μm, 60 μm, 70 μm, 80 μm, 90 μm, 100 μm, 150 μm, 200 μm, 300 μm, or 500 μm, and upper limits of 20 μm, 30 μm, 40 μm, 50 μm, 60 μm, 70 μm, 80 μm, 90 μm, 100 μm, 150 μm, 200 μm, 300 μm, 500 μm, 750 μm, 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm.

In some embodiments, the support can comprise an array. In some embodiments, the array comprises a target analyte. In some embodiments, the target analyte comprises a nucleoside, a nucleotide, a polynucleotide, a peptide, a peptoid, a saccharide, a polysaccharide, an aptamer, or an antibody or fragment thereof. In some embodiments, the target analyte comprises a library of target analytes.

In some embodiments, an array comprises a library of molecules. In some embodiments, the array can comprise at least about 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, or 1015 molecules per 1 cm2. In some embodiments, a molecule can comprise a sequence of monomers. In some embodiments, the sequence of monomers can comprise a sequence of amino acids. In some embodiments, a feature can be a region on a substrate from about 0.5 microns to about 200 microns in diameter. In some embodiments, the array can have a plurality of features. In some embodiments, the center-to-center distance between features can be from about 1 micron to about 300 microns. In some embodiments, the array can comprise at least about 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, 200,000, 300,000, 400,000, or 500,000, 1 million, 2 million, 3 million, 4 million, or 8 million features per 1 cm2. In some embodiments, at least about 40% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least about 50% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least about 60% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least about 70% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least about 80% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least about 90% of the molecules in the library are distinct. In some embodiments, at least 50% of the molecules in the library are at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 monomers in length. In some embodiments, at least 50% of the molecules in the library are at most 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 monomers in length. In some embodiments, the library comprises a median monomer length of about 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 monomers. In some embodiments, the array can comprise at least 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, 300,000, 400,000, 500,000, 600,000, 700,000, 800,000, 900,000, 106, or 107 sequentially distinct library molecules. In some embodiments, the array substrate can be selected from wafers, slides, and beads. In some embodiments, the library can be an in-situ synthesized chemical library. In some embodiments, the molecules can be polynucleotides, peptides, peptoids, or poly saccharides.

Binding Moiety

An analyte binding moiety, also referred to as a binding moiety (or domain) can be the region, molecule, domain, portion, fragment, or moiety that binds to a target analyte. Thus, a binding moiety confers the ability to bind or specifically bind to given target. A binding moiety can be a nucleic acid molecule or can be proteinaceous. Binding moieties include, but are not limited to, RNAs DNAs, RNA-DNA hybrids, small molecules (e.g., drugs or metabolites), aptamers, polypeptides, proteins, antibodies, viruses, virus particles, cells, fragments thereof, and combinations thereof.

In some embodiments, a binding moiety can be a polypeptide, a protein, or any fragment thereof. In some embodiments, a polypeptide or protein can be an engineered or recombinant polypeptide or protein. In some embodiments, a binding moiety is an antibody or fragment thereof. An antibody can be of any isotype (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and IgY), class (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1, IgA2), subclass or modified version thereof. Antibodies may include complete immunoglobulins or fragments thereof. An antibody fragment can refer to one or more fragments of an antibody that retains the ability to specifically bind to a target molecule, such as an antigen.

In some embodiments, a binding moiety can be an aptamer. An aptamer is an isolated nucleic acid molecule that can bind with high specificity and affinity to a target analyte, such as a protein. An aptamer comprises a three dimensional structure held in certain conformation(s) that provide chemical contacts to specifically bind a given target. In some embodiments, a binding moiety is small molecule. For example, a small molecule can be a macrocyclic molecule, an inhibitor, a drug, or chemical compound. In some embodiments, a binding moiety is a cell. For example, a binding moiety can be an inact cell, a cell treated with a compound (e.g, a drug), a fixed cell, a lysed cell, or any combination thereof.

Detection Methods

Detection methods for detecting bound binding moieties can include photometric and non-photometric means. In some embodiments, such methods process includes a method to detect and measure absorbance, fluorescence, refractive index, polarization or light scattering. These include direct and/or indirect means to measure such parameters. Methods involving fluorescence include fluorescent tagging in immunological methods such as ELISA or sandwich assay. Methods involving refractive index include surface Plasmon resonance (SPR), grating coupled methods (e.g., sensors uniform grating couplers, wavelength-interrogated optical sensors (WIOS) and chirped grating couplers), resonant minor and interferometric techniques. Methods involving polarization include ellipsometry. Light scattering methods may also be used. Other means for tagging and/or separating and/or detecting can also include magnetic means. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or gas phase ion spectrometry may all be used.

Non-photometric methods of detection include, without limitation, magnetic resonance imaging, gas phase ion spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and multipolar coupled resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a spectroscopic technique used by scientists to obtain microscopic chemical and physical information about molecules. Gas phase ion spectrometers include mass spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers and total ion current measuring devices.

Binding assays can also be useful, e.g., for identifying disease related antibodies (binding moieties) that interact with the target analytes described herein. For example, antibodies or other molecules that bind target analytes can be identified in binding assays. Binding assays can involve, but are not limited to, use of isolated polypeptides, crude extracts, or cell-based assays. In some embodiments the assays described herein can be used to a) identify subjects whose have a first disease or a second disease; (b) assess the impact of an disease therapy; and (c) monitor disease progression.

Binding assays can involve contacting a target analyte with a sample comprising a binding moiety (antibody) and allowing sufficient time for the molecule and test agents to form a binding complex. Any binding complexes formed can be detected using any of a number of established analytical techniques. Binding assays include, but are not limited to, methods that measure co-precipitation or co-migration on non-denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gels, co-migration on Western blots, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunoradiometric assay, fluoroimmunoassay, chemiluminescent assay, bioluminescent assay, fluorescence activated cells sorting (FACS), or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

Diagnostics

The methods and apparatus disclosed herein can be used to screen for various diseases or conditions, including an alteration in the state of the body or of some of the organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the functions and/or causing symptoms such as discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or even death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. A disease or condition can also include a distemper, ailing, ailment, amalady, disorder, sickness, illness, complain, interdisposition and/or affectation.

For example, samples containing binding moieties from a diseased animal can be simultaneously screened for the binding moieties' ability to interact with an array. These interactions can be compared to those of samples from individuals that are not in a disease state, not presenting symptoms of persons in the disease state, or presenting symptoms of the disease state. For example, the levels of binding moieties in samples from a diseased animal can be simultaneously determined. These levels can be compared to those of samples from individuals that are not in a disease state, not presenting symptoms of persons in the disease state, or presenting symptoms of the disease state.

The methods, kits, and compositions described herein can be used in medical diagnostics, drug discovery, molecular biology, immunology and toxicology. Arrays can be used for large scale binding assays in numerous diagnostic and screening applications. The multiplexed measurement of quantitative variation in levels of large numbers of target analytes (e.g., proteins) allows the recognition of patterns defined by several to many different target analytes. The multiplexed identification of large numbers of interactions between target analytes and binding moieties allows for the recognition of binding and interaction patterns defined by several to many different interactions between target analytes and binding moieties. Many physiological parameters and disease-specific patterns can be simultaneously assessed. One embodiment involves the separation, identification and characterization of proteins present in a biological sample. For example, by comparison of disease and control samples, it is possible to identify disease specific target analytes. These target analytes can be used as targets for drug development or as molecular markers of disease. Substrate-bound molecules of the present invention may also be used as solid phase filtration devices, wherein capture agents are attached to the surface.

In some embodiments, methods can be methods for diagnosing or detecting a disease or condition such as a cancer, inflammatory disease, immune disease, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, infectious disease, metabolic disease, or a perinatal condition. For example, the disease or condition can be a tumor, neoplasm, or cancer. The cancer can be, but is not limited to, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, hyperplastic polyp, adenoma, colorectal cancer, high grade dysplasia, low grade dysplasia, prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer (such as a glioblastoma), hematological malignancy, hepatocellular carcinoma, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or gastric cancer. The colorectal cancer can be CRC Dukes B or Dukes C-D. The hematological malignancy can be B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL-germinal center-like, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL-activated B-cell-like, or Burkitt's lymphoma. The disease or condition can also be a premalignant condition, such as Barrett's Esophagus. The disease or condition can also be an inflammatory disease, immune disease, or autoimmune disease. For example, the disease may be inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis, Type I diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriasis. Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease. Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease. CREST syndrome. Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. The disease or condition can also be a cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, or ischemia. The cardiovascular disease or condition can be high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. The disease or condition can also be a neurological disease, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down's syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g., stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The condition may also be fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. The disease or condition may also be an infectious disease, such as a bacterial, viral or yeast infection. For example, the disease or condition may be Whipple's Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. The disease or condition can also be a perinatal or pregnancy related condition (e.g., preeclampsia or preterm birth), zika virus, dengue fever, flavivirus, or a metabolic disease or condition, such as a metabolic disease or condition associated with iron metabolism.

In some embodiments, methods are methods for diagnosing or detecting an autoimmune disorder. In some embodiments, methods can be methods for determining a disease or condition or the progression of a disease or condition. Non-limiting examples of disorder associated with the immune system can include: autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), DiGeorge syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, seasonal allergies, perennial allergies, food allergies, anaphylaxis, mastocytosis, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, hypersplenism, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective immunoglobulin A deficiency, hyper IgM syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

Kits

Also provided are kits that find use in practicing the subject methods, as mentioned above. A kit can include one or more of the compositions described herein. A kit can include at least one nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof. A kit can include at least one binding moiety.

A kit can include a solid support. In some embodiments, the solid support is already functionalized with at least one molecule of structure I. In some embodiments, the solid support is already functionalized with at least one nucleoside, nucleotide, poly nucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof. A kit can include a reagent for coupling at least one nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof to the solid support.

The kit components may be present in separate containers, or one or more of the components may be present in the same container, where the containers may be storage containers and/or containers that are employed during the assay for which the kit is designed.

In addition to the above components, the subject kits may further include instructions for practicing the subject methods. These instructions may be present in the subject kits in a variety of forms, such as printed information on a suitable medium or substrate (e.g., a piece or pieces of paper on which the information is printed), in the packaging of the kit, in a package insert, etc. Yet another means would be a computer readable medium (e.g., diskette, CD, etc.), on which the information has been recorded. Yet another means that may be present is a website address which may be used via the internet to access the information at a removed site.

Communicating a Result

Additional embodiments relate to the communication of assay results or diagnoses or both to technicians, physicians or subjects, for example. In certain embodiments, computers will be used to communicate results of the assessing or diagnoses or both to interested parties, e.g., physicians and their subjects. In some embodiments, the assessing can be performed or results analyzed in a country or jurisdiction which differs from the country or jurisdiction to which the results or diagnoses are communicated. In some embodiments, a diagnosis based on the presence or absence in a test subject of a binding moiety or a binding signature, or signal identified may be communicated to the subject as soon as possible after the diagnosis is obtained. The diagnosis may be communicated to the subject by the subject's treating physician. Alternatively, the diagnosis may be sent to a test subject by email or communicated to the subject by phone. A computer may be used to communicate the diagnosis by email or phone. In certain embodiments, the message containing results of a diagnostic test may be generated and delivered automatically to the subject using a combination of computer hardware and software which will be familiar to artisans skilled in telecommunications. In certain embodiments, all or some of the method steps, including the assaying of samples, diagnosing of diseases, and communicating of method results or diagnoses, may be carried out in diverse (e.g., foreign) jurisdictions.

Other Embodiments

The section headings used herein are for organizational purposes only and are not to be construed as limiting the subject matter described.

It is to be understood that the methods and compositions described herein are not limited to the particular methodology, protocols, constructs, and reagents described herein and as such may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the methods and compositions described herein, which will be limited only by the appended claims. While preferred embodiments of the present disclosure have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the disclosure. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the disclosure described herein may be employed in practicing the disclosure. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the disclosure and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.

Several aspects are described with reference to example applications for illustration. Unless otherwise indicated, any embodiment can be combined with any other embodiment. It should be understood that numerous specific details, relationships, and methods are set forth to provide a full understanding of the features described herein. A skilled artisan, however, will readily recognize that the features described herein can be practiced without one or more of the specific details or with other methods. The features described herein are not limited by the illustrated ordering of acts or events, as some acts can occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other acts or events. Furthermore, not all illustrated acts or events are required to implement a methodology in accordance with the features described herein.

Some inventive embodiments herein contemplate numerical ranges. When ranges are present, the ranges include the range endpoints. Additionally, every sub range and value within the rage is present as if explicitly written out. The term “about” or “approximately” can mean within an acceptable error range for the particular value as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art, which will depend in part on how the value is measured or determined, e.g., the limitations of the measurement system. For example, “about” can mean within 1 or more than 1 standard deviation, per the practice in the art. Alternatively, “about” can mean a range of up to 20%, up to 10%, up to 5%, or up to 1% of a given value. Alternatively, particularly with respect to biological systems or processes, the term can mean within an order of magnitude, within 5-fold, or within 2-fold, of a value. Where particular values are described in the application and claims, unless otherwise stated the term “about” meaning within an acceptable error range for the particular value can be assumed.

EXAMPLES Example 1—GPTMS-PAAm

FIG. 1 illustrates a GPTMS-PAAm molecule.

Example 2—GPTMS-TAEA

FIG. 2 illustrates a GPTMS-TAEA molecule.

Example 3—GPTMS-HMDA

FIG. 5 illustrates a GPTMS-HMDA molecule

Claims

1. A molecule or salt thereof, having the structure:

wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R8, wherein R8 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound form a ring; or wherein at least one of R1 or R2 comprise a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, polysaccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof;
R3, oriented from N to X, is alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 is —(CR9R10CR11R12)n— wherein n is 1 to 100, and R9, R10, R11, and R12 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, halo, alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 is
wherein n2 and n4 are the same or different and are independently 1, 2, or 3, and n3 is 1 to 20; or wherein R3 is a polymer comprising alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, aminoheteroalkyl, and amidoalkyl;
X is O, NR13, or S, wherein R13 is hydrogen or alkyl;
R4, oriented from X to C, is alkyl, alkylether, and alkylthioether, wherein each of alkyl, alkylether, and alkylthioether is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, thiol, amino, or halo;
R5, R6, and R7 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy; and
wherein at least one of R5, R6, or R7 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

2. The molecule or salt of claim 1, comprising a solid phase.

3. The molecule or salt of claim 2, wherein said solid phase comprises a silicon atom.

4. A molecule or salt thereof having the structure:

wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R8, wherein R8 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound form a ring; or wherein at least one of R1 or R2 comprise a nucleoside, nucleotide, polynucleotide, peptide, peptoid, saccharide, polysaccharide, aptamer, or antibody or fragment thereof;
R3, oriented from NR1R2 to NH is alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 is —(CR7R8CR9R10)n—, wherein n is 1 to 100, and R7, R8, R9, and R10 are the same or different and are hydrogen, halo, alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl; or wherein R3 is
wherein n2 and n4 are the same or different and are independently 1, 2, or 3, and n3 is 1 to 20; or wherein R3 is a polymer or dendrimer comprising alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, and amino-substituted amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl;
R4, R5, and R6 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy;
(*) is a carbon center, wherein said carbon center is in an R-configuration or S-configuration; and
wherein at least one of R4, R5, or R6 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

5. The molecule or salt of claim 4, wherein said carbon center is in an R-configuration.

6. The molecule or salt of claim 4, wherein said carbon center is in an S-configuration.

7. The molecule or salt of any one claims 4 to 6, comprising said solid phase.

8. The molecule or salt of claim 7, wherein said solid phase comprises a silicon atom.

9. The molecule or salt of any one of claims 4 to 8, wherein R3 is alkyl, aminoheteroalkyl, polyamidoaminoalkyl, or polyaminoalkyl.

10. A molecule or salt thereof having the structure:

wherein:
n1=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7;
n2 and n3 are the same or different and are independently about 1 to about 1000;
R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, and R20 are the same or different and are hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, sulfonamidyl, acyl, or —CO2R24, wherein R24 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or arylcycloalkylalkyl; or wherein R1 and R2 and the N to which they are bound, R3 and R4 and the N to which they are bound, R5 and R6 and the N to which they are bound, R7 and R8 and the N to which they are bound, R9 and R10 and the N to which they are bound, R11 and R12 and the N to which they are bound, R13 and R14 and the N to which they are bound, R15 and R16 and the N to which they are bound, R17 and R18 and the N to which they are bound, and R19 and R20 and the N to which they are bound independently optionally form a ring;
R3, R4, and R5 are the same or different and are independently hydrogen, alkyl, silyl, or siloxy;
(*), (**), and (***) are carbon centers, wherein said carbon centers are independently in an R-configuration or S-configuration, or can be achiral centers;
(****) is a second carbon center, wherein said second carbon center is in an R-configuration or S-configuration; and
wherein at least one of R21, R22, or R23 optionally further comprises a solid phase.

11. The molecule of claim 10, wherein said carbon center is in an R-configuration.

12. The molecule of claim 10, wherein said carbon center is in an S-configuration.

13. A molecule or salt of any one of claims 10 to 12, comprising a solid phase.

14. A molecule or salt of claim 13, wherein said solid phase comprises a silicon atom.

15. A method of synthesizing the molecule or salt of any one of claims 1 to 14, comprising:

a. forming an oxygen-silicon covalent bond between a solid substrate and a first molecule comprising: i. said silicon at a first end and an epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate at a second end; b. forming a Y-carbon covalent bond between a carbon atom of said epoxide, isocyanate, or thioisocyanate and a second molecule comprising an amino group;
wherein Y is nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or selenium;
wherein said epoxide, isocyanate, or isothiocyanate and said silicon are linked by a group comprising an alkyl, alkylether, or alkylthioether, wherein each of alky, alkylether, or alkylthioether is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, thiol, amino, or halo.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein said second molecule is an alkylamine, heteroalkylamine, amino-substituted alkylamine, amino-substituted heteroalkylamine, amidoalkylamine, amidoheteroalkylamine, amino-substituted amidoheteroalkylamine, each optionally substituted with an alkyl, heteroalkyl, amino-substituted alkyl, amino-substituted heteroalkyl, amidoalkyl, amidoheteroalkyl, or amino-substituted amidoheteroalkyl.

17. The method of claim 15 or 16, wherein said forming an oxygen-silicon bond comprises a deposition reaction.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein said deposition reaction is performed in the gas phase.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein said deposition reaction comprises a chemical vapor deposition reaction.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein said chemical vapor deposition reaction occurs at an elevated temperature.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein said elevated temperature is at least about 100° C., 110° C., 120° C., 130° C., 140° C., or 150° C.

22. The method of any one of claims 15 to 21, wherein step b further comprises the use of a diluent.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein said diluent is an alcohol.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein said alcohol is isopropyl alcohol.

25. The method of any one of claim 15 or 24, wherein said first molecule is 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS).

26. The method of any one of claims 15 to 25, wherein said second molecule is ethylenediamine (EDA), (ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDBA), tris (2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), polyamidoamine (PAMAM), or polyallylamine (PAAm).

27. The method of claim 26, wherein said second molecule is PAAm.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein said PAAm has an average molecular weight of from about 1 KDa to about 100 KDa.

29. The method of any one of claims 15 to 28, wherein said second molecule has a boiling point of from about 100° C., to 300° C.

30. The method of any one of claims 15 to 29, further comprising coupling said amino group to a protected amino acid or salt thereof.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein said protected amino acid is a tert-butyl carbamate (Boc)- or 9-fluorenylmethyl carbamate (Fmoc)-protected amino acid.

32. The method of claim 30 or 31, wherein said amino acid is glycine.

33. An amino coating comprising two or more molecules or salts of any one of claims 1 to 14.

34. A method of tuning the amino group density of the amino coating of claim 33.

35. An array comprising at least 2 molecules or salts of any one of claims 1 to 14.

36. The array of claim 35, wherein said array comprises a density of said amino groups from about 1×1010 groups per cm2 to about 1×1014 groups per cm2.

37. The array of claim 35 or 36, wherein said molecules or salts are stereoenriched or a racemate.

38. The array of any one of claims 35 to 37, wherein said molecules or salts have an enantiomeric excess of at least about 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%.

39. The array of any one of claims 35 to 38, wherein at least some of said molecules or their salts form a coating, wherein said coating has a thickness of from about 1 angstrom to about 25 angstroms.

40. The array of any one of claims 35 to 39, wherein said molecules or their salts are cross-linked.

41. The array of any one of claims 35 to 40, further comprising instructions for use.

42. A method of making an array, comprising associating the molecule or salt of any one of claims 1 to 14 with a substrate.

43. A method of making an array, comprising the method of any one of claims 20 to 32.

44. The method of claim 42 or 43, wherein said array comprises a density of said amino groups from about 1×1010 groups per cm2 to about 1×1014 groups per cm2.

45. The method of any one of claims 42 to 44, comprising tuning the density of said amino groups on said array.

46. A kit, comprising the molecule or salt of any one of claims 1 to 14 and instructions for use.

47. A kit, comprising the array of any one of claims 35 to 41 and instructions for use.

48. The kit of claim 46 or 47, further comprising a binding moiety.

49. The kit of claim 48, wherein said binding moiety comprises an antibody.

50. The kit of claim 48 or 49, wherein said binding moiety emits a signal.

51. A method of making a kit, comprising forming the kit with the molecule or salt of any one of claims 1 to 14.

52. A molecule or salt thereof made by the process of any one of claims 15 to 32.

53. An array made by the process of any one of claims 42 to 45.

Patent History
Publication number: 20220290005
Type: Application
Filed: May 25, 2022
Publication Date: Sep 15, 2022
Inventors: Gaurav SAINI (Chandler, AZ), David SMITH (Scottsdale, AZ), Patrick WALSH (Chandler, AZ), Jae H. PARK (Gainsville, FL)
Application Number: 17/824,528
Classifications
International Classification: C09D 183/08 (20060101); B05D 1/00 (20060101); C07F 7/08 (20060101); C08F 30/08 (20060101); C08G 77/26 (20060101); C09D 143/04 (20060101); G01N 33/543 (20060101); C08G 65/336 (20060101); C07F 7/18 (20060101);