PEPTIDOMIMETIC MACROCYCLES AND FORMULATIONS THEREOF

Aqueous pharmaceutical formulations, for parenteral administration, comprising peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle binds to MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of treating diseases and disorders using the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein.

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Description
CROSS REFERENCE

This application is a Continuation application of U.S. application Ser. No. 17/091,267 filed Nov. 6, 2020, which application is a Continuation application of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/864,687 filed Sep. 24, 2015, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,905,739, which application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/054,842, filed Sep. 24, 2014, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

SEQUENCE LISTING

The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted electronically in ASCII format and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Jun. 4, 2021, is named 35224-803.301_SL.txt and is 1,382,300 bytes in size.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE

The human transcription factor protein p53 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage and cellular stress, and thereby plays a critical role in protecting cells from malignant transformation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 (also known as HDM2 or human double minute 2) negatively regulates p53 function through a direct binding interaction that neutralizes the p53 transactivation activity, leads to export from the nucleus of p53 protein, and targets p53 for degradation via the ubiquitylation-proteasomal pathway. Loss of p53 activity, either by deletion, mutation, or MDM2 overexpression, is the most common defect in human cancers. Tumors that express wild type p53 are vulnerable to pharmacologic agents that stabilize or increase the concentration of active p53. In this context, inhibition of the activities of MDM2 has emerged as a validated approach to restore p53 activity and resensitize cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. MDMX (also known as MDM4, HDM4 or human double minute 4) has more recently been identified as a similar negative regulator of p53, and studies have revealed significant structural homology between the p53 binding interfaces of MDM2 and MDMX. MDMX has also been observed to be overexpressed in human tumors. The p53-MDM2 and p53-MDMX protein-protein interactions are mediated by the same 15-residue alpha-helical transactivation domain of p53, which inserts into hydrophobic clefts on the surface of MDM2 and MDMX. Three residues within this domain of wild type p53 (F19, W23, and L26) are essential for binding to MDM2 and MDMX.

There remains a considerable need for compounds capable of binding to and modulating the activity of p53, MDM2 and/or MDMX. Provided herein are aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprising p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycles that modulate an activity of p53. Also provided herein are aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprising p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycles that inhibit the interactions between p53, MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins. Further, provided herein are aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprising p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycles that can be used for treating diseases including but not limited to cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE

In one aspect, the disclosure provides an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle that binds to MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a buffering agent, a tonicity agent, and a stabilizing agent wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is equal to or greater than 15 mg/mL and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprises less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. The micelle forming agent can be solutol-HS-15. In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle forms a micelle in absence of a surfactant.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising (i) a peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is equal to or greater than 15 mg/mL; (ii) a buffering agent; (iii) a stabilizing agent; and (iv) a tonicity agent, wherein the molar ratio of the peptidomimetic macrocycle to the buffering agent is in the range of 0.01-2.5.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle that binds to a target protein with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a buffering agent, a tonicity agent, and a stabilizing agent wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is equal to or greater than 15 mg/mL and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprises less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has: (a) a length value of from 10 to 24 amino acids, (b) a von Heijne value of from 2 to 10, (c) a net charge of from −4 to +2, (d) a percent alanine content of from 15% to 50%, (e) or any combination of (a)-(d).

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is not precipitated in the formulation. In some embodiments, an aqueous solubility of the peptidomimetic macrocycle is determined by evaluating the turbidity of a solution comprising the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an amphipathicity that falls in a range that is optimal for cell permeability.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a length value of from 14 to 20 amino acids. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a von Heijne value of from 2 to 9. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a von Heijne value of from 3 to 8. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a von Heijne value of from 4 to 7. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a net charge of from −2 to 0. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a percent alanine content of from 15% to 40%. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a percent alanine content of from 20% to 40%. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a percent alanine content of from 25% to 40%. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a length value of from 14 to 20 amino acids, a von Heijne value of from 4 to 7, a net charge of from −2 to 0, and a percent alanine content of from 25% to 40%. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is soluble, does not have off-target effects, or a combination thereof.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a first C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a second C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a third C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a fourth C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a fifth C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises a sixth C-terminal amino acid that is hydrophobic.

In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker is N-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker, and wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 amino acids that are C-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker.

In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker is N-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker, and wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hydrophobic amino acids that are C-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker.

In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker is N-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker, and wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises 1, 2, or 3 glutamines that are C-terminal to the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker.

In some embodiments, the amino acid that is hydrophobic is a small hydrophobic amino acid. In some embodiments, the amino acid that is hydrophobic is an alanine, a D-alanine, or an Aib.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is a helical polypeptide. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises an α-helix. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof comprises an amphipathic α-helix.

In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker or the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker is an α,α-disubstituted amino acid. In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker and the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker are α,α-disubstituted amino acids. In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker and the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker are separated by two amino acids. In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker and the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker are separated by three amino acids. In some embodiments, the first amino acid connected to the crosslinker and the second amino acid connected to the crosslinker are separated by six amino acids. In some embodiments, the crosslinker spans 1 turn of an α-helix of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the crosslinker spans 2 turns of an α-helix of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the length of the crosslinker is from about 5 Å to about 9 Å per turn of an α-helix of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof provides a therapeutic effect. In some embodiments, an ability of the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to penetrate cell membranes by an energy-dependent process is improved relative to a corresponding uncrosslinked peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the ability of the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to penetrate cell membranes by an energy-independent process is improved relative to a corresponding uncrosslinked peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some embodiments, the energy-dependent process is primary active transport, secondary transport, endocytosis, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the energy-dependent process is active transport. In some embodiments, the energy-independent process is passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, filtration, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the energy-independent process is passive transport.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to HDM2 with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to HDM2 or HDM4 with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to HDM4 with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to a PB1 peptide binding site of a PA protein with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to a PB2 peptide binding site of a PB1 protein with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to viral polymerase, for example, a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof inhibits an influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In some embodiments, the virus is influenza virus. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is capable of competing with the binding of a peptide of the sequence MDVNPTLLFLKVPAQ (SEQ ID NO: 1) or MERIKELRNLM (SEQ ID NO: 2) to the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to MCL-1, BCL-XL, BCL-2, or a combination thereof with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to MCL-1 with a KD value of 1×107 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to BCL-XL with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof binds to BCL-2 with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an IC50 value of 100 nM or less to a target protein. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an EC50 value of 100 μM or less.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an IC50 value of 10 nM or less to a target protein. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an EC50 value of 10 μM or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an IC50 value of 1 nM or less to a target protein. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has an EC50 value of 1 μM or less.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a penetration efficiency value of 100 or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a penetration efficiency value of 10 or less. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof has a penetration efficiency value of 1 or less.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle penetrates cell membranes by an energy-dependent process and binds to an intracellular target with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the energy-dependent process comprises primary active transport, secondary transport, or endocytosis. In some embodiments, the energy-dependent process comprises active transport. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle penetrates cell membranes by an energy-independent process and binds to an intracellular target with a KD value of 1×10−7 M or less. In some embodiments, the energy-independent process comprises passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, or filtration. In some embodiments, the energy-independent process comprises passive transport.

In some embodiments, the amount of the buffering agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is 0.001-10% w/v, the stabilizing agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is 0.001-10% w/v and, the amount of the tonicity agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure 1.0-10% w/v.

The pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the peptidomimetic macrocycle can be a sodium salt. In some examples, the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the peptidomimetic macrocycle can be a potassium, lithium, calcium, zinc or magnesium salt.

Any suitable amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle can be used in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure. In some examples, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can be from about 0.1-10% w/v. For example, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can be about 1% w/v, 1.5% w/v, or 2% w/v. In some examples, the concentration of the peptidomimetic macrocycle present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is about 15-100 mg/mL. In some examples, the concentration of the peptidomimetic macrocycle present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is about 15-50 mg/mL. In some examples, the concentration of the peptidomimetic macrocyclc present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is about 15, 20, 25, or 50 mg/mL.

Any suitable buffering agent can be used in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations described herein. In some examples, the buffering agent is selected from a group consisting of ammonia solution, calcium carbonate, tribasic calcium phosphate, citric acid dihydrate, citric acid monohydrate, dibasic sodium phosphate, diethanolamine, malic acid, monobasic sodium phosphate, monoethanolamine, monosodium glutamate, phosphoric acid, phosphate-citrate buffer (dibasic sodium phosphate and citric acid), potassium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium borate, sodium citrate dehydrate, sodium hydroxide, sodium lactate, sodium carbonate, and triethanolamine (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane). In some examples, the buffering agent is a phosphate buffer. In some examples, the buffering agent is selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate or a mixture thereof. In some examples, the buffering agent is 20 mM phosphate buffer

The amount of the buffering agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be from about 0.001-10% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the buffering agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 0.01-10%% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the buffering agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 0.01-5% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the buffering agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 0.01-1% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the buffering agent present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is about 0.2% w/v.

The stabilizing agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be a non-ionic stabilizing agent. In some examples, the stabilizing agent is a fatty acid ester. In some examples, the stabilizing agent can be a surfactant. In some for examples, the stabilizing agent is a non-ionic surfactant. In some for examples, the stabilizing agent is an anti-oxidant. In some examples the stabilizing agent can be selected from a group consisting of polyoxyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, polyoxypropylene glycol alkyl ethers, glucoside alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene glycol octylphenol ethers, polyoxyethylene glycol alkylphenol ethers, glycerol alkyl esters, polyoxyethylene glycol sorbitan alkyl esters, sorbitan alkyl esters, cocamide MEA, cocamide DEA, dodecyldimethylamine oxide, block copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, and polyethoxylated tallow amine. In some examples, the stabilizing agent can be a polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester. In some examples, stabilizing agent can be polysorbate 20, polysorbate 21, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 61, polysorbate 65, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 81, polysorbate 85 or polysorbate 120. In some examples, the stabilizing agent can be polysorbate 20.

The amount of the stabilizing agent present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is from about 0.001-10% w/v, for example from about 0.01-0.05% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the stabilizing agent present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations is about 0.03% w/v. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise 250-350 ppm polysorbate 20. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure can be a solution. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be sterile. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be colorless. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be a frozen solution. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can be refrigerated solution.

In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be particulate-free. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise less than about 6,000 particles of size ≥10 μm in about 5 mL of the aqueous formulation. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise less than about 600 particles of size ≥25 μm in about 5 mL of the aqueous formulation.

In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations are dissolved into a diluent prior to administration into a subject. The diluent can be water for injection. In some examples, thee diluent can be solution of dextrose in water. The amount of the diluent can be from about 50-99% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the diluent can be about 90% w/v.

In some examples, the tonicity agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be a non-ionic tonicity agent. In some examples, the tonicity agent can be a sugar or a sugar alcohol. In some examples, the tonicity agent can be a mono- or a disaccharide. In some cases, the tonicity agent can be selected from a groups consisting of glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose, and mixtures thereof.

In some examples, the tonicity agent can be mannitol, glycerin, or a combination thereof. In some examples the tonicity agent can be D-trehalose.

The amount of the tonicity agent present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be from about 1-15% w/v. In some examples, the amount of the tonicity agent present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be about 8% w/v. The concentration of the tonicity agent can be from about 200-300 mM. In some examples, the concentration of the tonicity agent is 240 mM.

The pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be from about 4.0-9.0. In some examples the pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 4.5-8.5. In some examples the pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 5.0-8.0. In some examples the pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 5.5-7.5. In some examples the pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure is from about 7.0-7.5.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be stable for at least two years at a temperature of about −20° C.-25° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least one year at a temperature of about −20° C.-25° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 6 months at a temperature of about −20° C.-25° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 3 months at a temperature of about −20° C.-25° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 3 months at a temperature of about 45° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 6 months at a temperature of about 45° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 3 weeks at a temperature of about 75° C. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be stable for at least 1.5 weeks at a temperature of about 75° C.

In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations upon storage for 24 months at from about 2° C.-8° C. can comprise at least 95% of the initial amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations upon storage for 12 months at from about 2° C.-8° C. can comprise at least 95% of the initial amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations upon storage for 6 months at from about 2° C.-8° C. can comprise at least 95% of the initial amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In some cases, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations upon storage for 3 months at from about 2° C.-8° C. can comprise at least 95% of the initial amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle.

The osmolality of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be from about 100-600 milliosmoles per kilogram, for example from about 220-400 milliosmoles per kilogram.

The endotoxin level of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be at most 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10 EU/mL2. In some examples, the endotoxin level of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be at most 4.5 EU/mL2.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be contained in a container. The container can be a single use container or a multi-use container. In some examples, the container can be a glass vial. In some examples, the container is a pre-filled syringe to be used alone or in an injection device. In some examples, the container is a cartridge for a pen injection system, or a glass ampoule. In some examples, the container is a 20 mL, 10 mL, or a 5 mL glass serum vial. The glass vial can comprise borosilicate glass or polycarbonate. The container can comprise stopper and/or cap. The stopper can be a rubber stopper. The container can comprise a seal for example an aluminum seal.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be prepared by adding the peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to water or an aqueous solution, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle is capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins. The pharmaceutically acceptable salt can be a sodium salt, potassium salt or calcium salt. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be prepared by dissolving a sodium salt of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in water. The method can further comprise adding a buffering agent and a stabilizing agent.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be suitable for administration to a subject without reconstitution or dilution. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can require reconstitution prior to administration to a subject. Reconstitution can involve dilution with an aqueous solution, for example with a solution of dextrose in water.

In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent in solutol-HS-15. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle forms a micelle in absence of a surfactant. In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation does not form micelle.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can further comprise a preservative. The preservative can be selected from a group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, EDTA and combination thereof.

In some examples, the preservative can be selected from a group consisting of phenol, meta-cresol and combination thereof.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can further comprise a co-solvent. The co-solvent can be selected from a group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylacetamide (DMA) and combinations thereof.

The molecular weight of the peptidomimetic macrocycle can be in the range of 1800-2000 D. In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle has an observed mass (m/e) in the range of 900-1000 D.

In another aspect the disclosure provides an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle that binds to MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, phosphate buffering agent. D-trehalose, and polysorbate 20, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises an amino acid sequence which is at least about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% identical to an amino acid sequence in any of Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, and Table 1c. In some examples, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can be equal to or greater than 15 mg/mL. In some examples, the amount of D-trehalose in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be about 8% w/v. The amount of polysorbate 20 in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be about 0.03% w/v. In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent.

The peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can comprise an amino acid sequence which is at least about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% identical to an amino acid sequence in any of Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, and Table 1c, and wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle has the formula:

wherein:
each A, C, and D is independently an amino acid;
each B is independently an amino acid,

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];
each E is independently an amino acid selected from the group consisting of Ala (alanine), D-Ala (D-alanine), Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid), Sar (N-methyl glycine), and Ser (serine);

each R1 and R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo, or forms a macrocycle-forming linker U connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;

each R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;

each L and L is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;

each L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, hetemcycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;

each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;

each R, is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue:

each v is independently an integer from 1-1000:

each w is independently an integer from 3-1000;

u is an integer from 1-10;

each x, y and z is independently an integer from 0-10: and

each n is independently an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle has formula:

wherein:

each of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 is individually an amino acid, wherein at least three of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Alaa-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3) or Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala5-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4), where each X is an amino acid;

each D and E is independently an amino acid;

each R1 and R2 are independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-; or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;

each L or L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(Rb)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

R7 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

R8 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

v is an integer from 1-1000; and

w is an integer from 0-1000.

In some examples, at least one of the macrocycle-forming linker in the Formulas provided herein has a formula -L1-L2-, wherein

L1 and L2 are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3; and
each R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each n is independently an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments w is an integer from 3-1000, for example 3-500, 3-200, 3-100, 3-50, 3-30, 3-20, or 3-10. In some examples, Xaa5 is Glu or an amino acid analog thereof. In some examples each E is independently an amino acid selected from Ala (alanine), D-Ala (D-alanine), Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid), Sar (N-methyl glycine), and Ser (serine). In some examples, [D]v is -Leu1-Thr2. In some examples, w is 3-6. In some examples, w is 6-10. In some examples, w is 6. In some examples, v is 1-10. In some examples, v is 2-10. In some examples, v is 2-5. In some examples, v is 2.

In some examples, L1 and L2 in the Formulas above are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, or heterocycloarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5. In some examples, L, and L2 are independently alkylene or alkenylene. In some examples, L is alkylene, alkenylene, or alkynylene. In some examples, L is alkylene. In some examples, L is C3-C16 (alkylene. In some examples, L is C10-C14 alkylene.

In some examples, R1 and R2 in the Formulas above are independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-. In some examples, R1 and R2 are H. In some examples, R1 and R2 are independently alkyl. In some examples, R1 and R2 are methyl.

In some examples, x+y+z in the Formulas here is 6.

In some examples, in the Formulas here, u is 1.

In some examples, each E is Ser or Ala or an analog thereof.

In some examples, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise at least one amino acid which is an amino acid analog.

In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations is a peptidomimetic macrocycle shown in Table 1c.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptidomimetic macrocycle that is capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins and wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is greater than 15 mg/mL and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation contains less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can further comprise a buffering agent, a stabilizing agent, and/or tonicity agent.

The cancer can be selected from the group consisting of head and neck cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and glioma. In some examples, the cancer is selected from a group consisting of bladder cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, CNS cancer, colon cancer, ocular tumor, renal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma (tumor of the placenta), prostate cancer, sarcoma, skin cancer, soft tissue cancer, gastric cancer, gall bladder cancer, biliary cancer, renal cancer, neoblastoma, or neuroendocrine cancer.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of modulating the activity of p53 and/or MDM2 and/or MDMX in a subject comprising administering to the subject an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins, wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is greater than 15 mg/mL and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation contains less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can further comprise a buffering agent, a tonicity agent, and/or a stabilizing agent.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of antagonizing the interaction between p53 and MDM2 and/or between p53 and MDMX proteins in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins, wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is greater than 15 mg/mL and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation contains less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can further comprise a buffering agent, a stabilizing agent and/or a tonicity agent.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of making an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising adding greater than 15 mg/mL of a peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to water or an aqueous solution, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle is capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins and wherein the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprises less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. In some examples, the method comprises adding a sodium salt of the peptidomimetic macrocycle to water or an aqueous solution. The aqueous solution can comprise a buffering agent. The aqueous solution can also comprise a tonicity agent. The aqueous solution can further comprise a stabilizing agent.

The method can further comprise adjusting the pH of the solution comprising the buffering agent and the stabilizing agent during the addition of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. The pH can be adjusted by addition of a pH adjusting agent. In some examples, the pH is adjusted to be in the range of from about 6.0-8.0.

The amount of the pH adjusting agent added can be from about 0.01-10% w/v, for example about 0.091% w/v. The pH adjusting agent can comprise an acid or a base. In some examples, the pH adjusting agent comprises phosphoric acid. In some examples, the pH adjusting agent comprises sodium hydroxide, for example 0.1 N NaOH.

The method can further comprise filtration of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation obtained after the addition of the peptidomimetic macrocycle to the aqueous solution. The filtration is performed under vacuum or under pressure. The filtration can comprise sterilizing filtration. In some examples, the filtration comprises use of membrane filter. In some examples, the membrane filter comprises cellulose or cellulose derivative, cellulosic ester (MCE), comprise polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene, polyvinylidene chloride, or polyvinylidene fluoride. The membrane filter can have a pore size in the range from about 10 nm-10 μm, for example 0.2 μm. The filtration can result in clarification of the aqueous formulation. The filtering can involve passing the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation through one or more membrane filters.

In another aspect, the disclosure provides a kit comprising, in suitable container means, an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising a peptidomimetic macrocycle and instructions for administration of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation to a human subject, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle is capable of binding to MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins and wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is greater than 15 mg/mL and the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprises less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent. The instructions can be for intravenous administration of the aqueous formulation.

In some embodiments, the amount of aqueous pharmaceutical formulation made is about 1 liter to about 100 liters. In some embodiments, the amount of aqueous pharmaceutical formulation made is about 10 litres to about 100 litres. In some embodiments the amount of aqueous pharmaceutical formulation made is about 10 liters to about 50 liters.

A kit for formulating an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising, in suitable container means, a peptidomimetic macrocycle capable of binding to the MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is greater than 15 mg/mL and the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprises less than 2% w/v of any micelle forming agent.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The novel features of the disclosure are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present disclosure will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the disclosure are utilized, and the accompanying drawings of which:

FIG. 1. Shows a flow diagram of the manufacturing process of an exemplary aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure.

FIG. 2. Shows the observation pictures for Example 5.

FIG. 3 Shows a plot of viable SJSA-1 cells (%) vs. log concentration (μM) of indicated peptide after incubation of the cells with the peptide for 72 hr in 10% serum.

FIG. 4 Shows the 12-month stability results for Aileron peptide-1. The data support greater than 2 year shelf life at −20-5° C.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE

While preferred embodiments of the present disclosure have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the disclosure. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the disclosure described herein can be employed in practicing the disclosure. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the disclosure and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.

Definitions

As used herein, the term “macrocycle” refers to a molecule having a chemical structure including a ring or cycle formed by at least 9 covalently bonded atoms.

As used herein, the term “peptidomimetic macrocycle” or “crosslinked polypeptide” refers to a compound comprising a plurality of amino acid residues joined by a plurality of peptide bonds and at least one macrocycle-forming linker which forms a macrocycle between a first naturally-occurring or non-naturally-occurring amino acid residue (or analog) and a second naturally-occurring or non-naturally-occurring amino acid residue (or analog) within the same molecule. Peptidomimetic macrocycle include embodiments where the macrocycle-forming linker connects the a carbon of the first amino acid residue (or analog) to the a carbon of the second amino acid residue (or analog). The peptidomimetic macrocycles optionally include one or more non-peptide bonds between one or more amino acid residues and/or amino acid analog residues, and optionally include one or more non-naturally-occurring amino acid residues or amino acid analog residues in addition to any which form the macrocycle. A “corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide” when referred to in the context of a peptidomimetic macrocycle is understood to relate to a polypeptide of the same length as the macrocycle and comprising the equivalent natural amino acids of the wild-type sequence corresponding to the macrocycle.

As used herein, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to those salts which are suitable for pharmaceutical use, preferably for use in humans and lower animals without undue irritation, allergic response and the like. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of amines, carboxylic acids, and other types of compounds, are well known in the art. For example, S. M. Berge, et al., describe pharmaceutically acceptable salts in detail in J Pharmaceutical Sciences, 66: 1-19 (1977), incorporated herein by reference. The salts can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention, or separately by reacting a free base or free acid function with a suitable reagent, as described generally below. For example, a free base function can be reacted with a suitable acid. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts can, include metal salts such as alkali metal salts, e. g. sodium, potassium, and lithium salts; and alkaline earth metal salts, e. g. calcium or magnesium salts. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable, nontoxic acid addition salts are salts of an amino group formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and perchloric acid or with organic acids such as acetic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid or malonic acid or by using other methods used in the art such as ion exchange. Other pharmaceutically acceptable salts include adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, gluconate, hemisulfate, heptanoate. hexanoate, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, p-toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, valerate salts, and the like.

As used herein, the term “stability” can refer to chemical stability and/or physical stability. As used herein, the phrase chemical stability means the ability of a compound to maintain its chemical identity over time. Accordingly, stability implies the ability of a chemical species to resist oxidation or other degradation, for example. As used herein, the phrase physical stability means the ability of a composition to maintain consistent physical properties over time. The ability of a composition to maintain a consistent disintegration time over time is exemplary of physical stability. In some embodiments, stability can also refer to the maintenance of a defined secondary structure in solution by a peptidomimetic macrocycle as measured by circular dichroism, NMR or another biophysical measure, or resistance to proteolytic degradation in vitro or in vivo. Non-limiting examples of secondary structures contemplated herein are α-helices, 310 helices, β-turns, and s-pleated sheets.

The term “amino acid” refers to a molecule containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group. Suitable amino acids include, without limitation, both the D- and L-isomers of the naturally-occurring amino acids, as well as non-naturally occurring amino acids prepared by organic synthesis or other metabolic routes. The term amino acid, as used herein, includes, without limitation, α-amino acids, natural amino acids, non-natural amino acids, and amino acid analogs.

The term “α-amino acid” refers to a molecule containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group bound to a carbon which is designated the α-carbon.

The term “β-amino acid” refers to a molecule containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group in a β configuration.

The term “naturally occurring amino acid” refers to any one of the twenty amino acids commonly found in peptides synthesized in nature, and known by the one letter abbreviations A, R, N, C, D, Q, E, G, H, I, L, K, M, F, P, S, T, W, Y and V.

The following table shows a summary of the properties of natural amino acids:

3- 1- Side- Side-chain Letter Letter chain charge Hydropathy Amino Acid Code Code Polarity (pH 7.4) Index Alanine Ala A nonpolar neutral 1.8 Arginine Arg R polar positive −4.5 Asparagine Asn N polar neutral −3.5 Aspartic acid Asp D polar negative −3.5 Cysteine Cys C polar neutral 2.5 Glutamic acid Glu E polar negative −3.5 Glutamine Gln Q polar neutral −3.5 Glycine Gly G nonpolar neutral −0.4 Histidine His H polar positive (10%) −3.2 neutral (90%) Isoleucine Ile I nonpolar neutral 4.5 Leucine Leu L nonpolar neutral 3.8 Lysine Lys K polar positive −3.9 Methionine Met M nonpolar neutral 1.9 Phenylalanine Phe F nonpolar neutral 2.8 Proline Pro P nonpolar neutral −1.6 Serine Ser S polar neutral −0.8 Threonine Thr T polar neutral −0.7 Tryptophan Trp W nonpolar neutral −0.9 Tyrosine Tyr Y polar neutral −1.3 Valine Val V nonpolar neutral 4.2

“Hydrophobic amino acids” include small hydrophobic amino acids and large hydrophobic amino acids. “Small hydrophobic amino acid” are glycine, alanine, proline, and analogs thereof. “Large hydrophobic amino acids” are valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan, and analogs thereof. “Polar amino acids” are serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine, tyrosine, and analogs thereof. “Charged amino acids” are lysine, arginine, histidine, aspartate, glutamate, and analogs thereof.

The term “amino acid analog” refers to a molecule which is structurally similar to an amino acid and which can be substituted for an amino acid in the formation of a peptidomimetic macrocycle. Amino acid analogs include, without limitation, O-amino acids and amino acids where the amino or carboxy group is substituted by a similarly reactive group (e.g., substitution of the primary amine with a secondary or tertiary amine, or substitution of the carboxy group with an ester).

The term “non-natural amino acid” refers to an amino acid which is not one of the twenty amino acids commonly found in peptides synthesized in nature, and known by the one letter abbreviations A, R, N, C, D, Q, E, G, H, I, L, K, M, F, P, S, T, W, Y and V. Non-natural amino acids or amino acid analogs include, without limitation, structures according to the following:

Amino acid analogs include β-amino acid analogs. Examples of β-amino acid analogs include, but are not limited to, the following: cyclic β-amino acid analogs; β-alanine; (R)-β-phenylalanine; (R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-acetic acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(1-naphthyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-furyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-naphthyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-thienyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3,4-difluorophenyl)butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-benzothienyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-pyridyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-thienyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-iodophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-pyridyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid; (R)-3-amino-4-pentafluoro-phenylbutyric acid; (R)-3-amino-5-hexenoic acid; (R)-3-amino-5-hexynoic acid; (R)-3-amino-5-phenylpentanoic acid; (R)-3-amino-6-phenyl-5-hexenoic acid; (S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-acetic acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(1-naphthyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-furyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-naphthyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-thienyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid;

(S)-3-amino-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3,4-difluorophenyl)butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-benzothienyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-pyridyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-thienyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-iodophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-methylphenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-pyridyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butyric acid; (S)-3-amino-4-pentafluoro-phenylbutyric acid; (S)-3-amino-5-hexenoic acid; (S)-3-amino-5-hexynoic acid; (S)-3-amino-5-phenylpentanoic acid; (S)-3-amino-6-phenyl-5-hexenoic acid; 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylic acid; 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid; 3-amino-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-propionic acid; 3-amino-3-(2-thienyl)-propionic acid; 3-amino-3-(3-bromophenyl)-propionic acid; 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-propionic acid; 3-amino-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid; 3-amino-4,4,4-trifluoro-butyric acid; 3-aminoadipic acid; D-ρ-phenylalanine; 3-leucine; L-β-homoalanine; L-β-homoaspartic acid γ-benzyl ester; L-β-homoglutamic acid δ-benzyl ester; L-β-homoisoleucine; L-β-homoleucine; L-β-homomethionine; L-β-homophenylalanine; L-β-homoproline; L-β-homotryptophan; L-β-homovaline; L-β-benzyloxycarbonyl-β-homolysine; Nω-L-β-homoarginine; O-benzyl-L-β-homohydroxyproline; O-benzyl-L-β-homoserine; O-benzyl-L-β-homothreonine; O-benzyl-L-β-homotyrosine; γ-trityl-L-β-homoasparagine; (R)-3-phenylalanine; L-β-homoaspartic acid γ-t-butyl ester; L-β-homoglutamic acid δ-t-butyl ester; L-Nω-β-homolysine; Nδ-trityl-L-β-homoglutamine; Nω-2,2,4,6,7-pentamethyl-dihydrobenzofuran-5-sulfonyl-L-β-homoarginine; O-t-butyl-L-β-homohydroxy-proline; O-t-butyl-L-β-homoserine; O-t-butyl-L-β-homothreonine; O-t-butyl-L-β-homotyrosine; 2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid; and 2-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of alanine, valine, glycine or leucine. Examples of amino acid analogs of alanine, valine, glycine, and leucine include, but are not limited to, the following; α-methoxyglycine; α-allyl-L-alanine; α-aminoisobutyric acid; α-ethyl-leucine; β-(1-naphthyl)-D-alanine; β-(1-naphthyl)-L-alanine; β-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine; β-(2-naphthyl)-L-alanine; β-(2-pyridyl)-D-alanine; β-(2-pyridyl)-L-alanine; β-(2-thienyl)-D-alanine; β-(2-thienyl)-L-alanine; β-(3-benzothienyl)-D-alanine; β-(3-benzothienyl)-L-alanine; β-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine; β-(3-pyridyl)-L-alanine; β-(4-pyridyl)-D-alanine; β-(4-pyridyl)-L-alanine; β-chloro-L-alanine; β-cyano-L-alanin; β-cyclohexyl-D-alanine; β-cyclohexyl-L-alanine; β-cyclopenten-1-yl-alanine; β-cyclopentyl-alanine; β-cyclopropyl-L-Ala-OH.dicyclohexylammonium salt; β-t-butyl-D-alanine; β-t-butyl-L-alanine; γ-aminobutyric acid; L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; 2,4-dinitro-phenylglycine; 2,5-dihydro-D-phenylglycine; 2-amino-4,4,4-trifluorobutyric acid; 2-fluoro-phenylglycine; 3-amino-4,4,4-trifluoro-butyric acid; 3-fluoro-valine; 4,4,4-trifluoro-valine; 4,5-dehydro-L-leu-OH.dicyclohexylammonium salt; 4-fluoro-D-phenylglycine; 4-fluoro-L-phenylglycine; 4-hydroxy-D-phenylglycine; 5,5,5-trifluoro-leucine; 6-aminohexanoic acid; cyclopentyl-D-Gly-OH.dicyclohexylammonium salt; cyclopentyl-Gly-OH.dicyclohexylammonium salt; D-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; D-α-aminobutyric acid; D-α-t-butylglycine; D-(2-thienyl)glycine; D-(3-thienyl)glycine; D-2-aminocaproic acid; D-2-indanylglycine; D-allylglycine.dicyclohexylammonium salt; D-cyclohexylglycine; D-noryaline; D-phenylglycine; β-aminobutyric acid; β-aminoisobutyric acid; (2-bromophenyl)glycine; (2-methoxyphenyl)glycine; (2-methylphenyl)glycine; (2-thiazoyl)glycine; (2-thienyl)glycine; 2-amino-3-(dimethylamino)-propionic acid; L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; L-α-aminobutyric acid; L-α-t-butylglycine; L-(3-thienyl)glycine; L-2-amino-3-(dimethylamino)-propionic acid; L-2-aminocaproic acid dicyclohexyl-ammonium salt; L-2-indanylglycine; L-allylglycine.dicyclohexyl ammonium salt; L-cyclohexylglycine; L-phenylglycine; L-propargylglycine; L-norvaline; N-α-aminomethyl-L-alanine; D-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; L-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; β-cyclopropyl-L-alanine; (N-β-(2,4-dinitrophenyl))-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; (N-γ-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-D-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; (N-β-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-L-α,γ-diaminopropionic acid; (N-β-4-methyltrityl)-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; (N-β-allyloxycarbonyl)-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid; (N-γ-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-D-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; (N-γ-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-L-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; (N-γ-4-methyltrityl)-D-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; (N-γ-4-methyltrityl)-L-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; (N-γ-allyloxycarbonyl)-L-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; D-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid; 4,5-dehydro-L-leucine; cyclopentyl-D-Gly-OH; cyclopentyl-Gly-OH; D-allylglycine; D-homocyclohexylalanine; L-1-pyrenylalanine; L-2-aminocaproic acid; L-allylglycine; L-homocyclohexylalanine; and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-Bzl)-Gly-OH.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of arginine or lysine. Examples of amino acid analogs of arginine and lysine include, but are not limited to, the following; citrulline; L-2-amino-3-guanidinopropionic acid; L-2-amino-3-ureidopropionic acid; L-citrulline; Lys(Mc)2-OH; Lys(N3)—OH; Nδ-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-omithine; Nω-nitro-D-arginine; Nω-nitro-L-arginine; α-methyl-ornithine; 2,6-diaminoheptanedioic acid; L-omithine; (Nδ-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-cyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-D-ornithine; (Nδ-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-cyclohex-1-ylidene)ethyl)-L-omithine; (Nδ-4-methyltrityl)-D-ornithine; (Nδ-4-methyltrityl)-L-omithine; D-omithine; L-omithine, Arg(Me)(Pbf)-OH; Arg(Me)2-OH (asymmetrical); Arg(Me)2-OH (symmetrical); Lys(ivDde)-OH; Lys(Me)2-OH.HCl; Lys(Me3)2-OH chloride; Nω-nitro-D-arginine; and Nω-nitro-L-arginine.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of aspartic or glutamic acids. Examples of amino acid analogs of aspartic and glutamic acids include, but are not limited to, the following; α-methyl-D-aspartic acid; α-methyl-glutamic acid; α-methyl-L-aspartic acid; γ-methylene-glutamic acid; (N-γ-ethyl)-L-glutamine; [N-α-(4-aminobenzoyl)]-L-glutamic acid; 2,6-diaminopimelic acid; L-α-aminosuberic acid; D-2-aminoadipic acid; D-α-aminosuberic acid; α-aminopimelic acid; iminodiacetic acid; L-2-aminoadipic acid; threo-β-methyl-aspartic acid; γ-carboxy-D-glutamic acid γ,γ-di-t-butyl ester; γ-carboxy-L-glutamic acid γ,γ-di-t-butyl ester; Glu(OAll)-OH; L-Asu(OtBu)-OH; and pyroglutamic acid.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of cysteine and methionine. Examples of amino acid analogs of cysteine and methionine include, but are not limited to, Cys(farnesyl)-OH.Cys(famesyl)-OMe, α-methyl-methionine, Cys(2-hydroxyethyl)-OH, Cys(3-aminopropyl)-OH, 2-amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid, buthionine, buthioninesulfoximine, ethionine, methionine methylsulfonium chloride, selenomethionine, cysteic acid, [2- (4-pyridyl)ethyl]-DL-penicillamine, [2- (4-pyridyl)ethyl]-L-cysteine, 4-methoxybenzyl-D-penicillamine, 4-methoxybenzyl-L-penicillamine, 4-methylbenzyl-D-penicillamine, 4-methylbenzyl-L-penicillamine, benzyl-D-cysteine, benzyl-L-cysteine, benzyl-DL-homocysteine, carbamoyl-L-cysteine, carboxyethyl-L-cysteine, carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, diphenylmethyl-L-cysteine, ethyl-L-cysteine, methyl-L-cysteine, t-butyl-D-cysteine, trityl-L-homocysteine, trityl-D-penicillamine, cystathionine, homocystine, L-homocystine, (2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine, seleno-L-cystine, cystathionine, Cys(StBu)-OH, and acetamidomethyl-D-penicillamine.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Examples of amino acid analogs of phenylalanine and tyrosine include β-methyl-phenylalanine, β-hydroxyphenylalanine, α-methyl-3-methoxy-DL-phenylalanine, α-methyl-D-phenylalanine, α-methyl-L-phenylalanine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 2,4-dichloro-phenylalanine, 2- (trifluoromethyl)-D-phenylalanine, 2-(trifluoromethyl)-L-phenylalanine, 2-bromo-D-phenylalanine, 2-bromo-L-phenylalanine, 2-chloro-D-phenylalanine, 2-chloro-L-phenylalanine, 2-cyano-D-phenylalanine, 2-cyano-L-phenylalanine, 2-fluoro-D-phenylalanine, 2-fluoro-L-phenylalanine, 2-methyl-D-phenylalanine, 2-methyl-L-phenylalanine, 2-nitro-D-phenylalanine, 2-nitro-L-phenylalanine, 2;4;5-trihydroxy-phenylalanine, 3,4,5-trifluoro-D-phenylalanine, 3,4,5-trifluoro-L-phenylalanine, 3,4-dichloro-D-phenylalanine, 3,4-dichloro-L-phenylalanine, 3,4-difluoro-D-phenylalanine, 3,4-difluoro-L-phenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, 3,4-dimethoxy-L-phenylalanine, 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, 3,5-diiodo-D-tyrosine, 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine, 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-D-phenylalanine, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-L-phenylalanine, 3-amino-L-tyrosine, 3-bromo-D-phenylalanine, 3-bromo-L-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-D-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-L-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, 3-cyano-D-phenylalanine, 3-cyano-L-phenylalanine, 3-fluoro-D-phenylalanine, 3-fluoro-L-phenylalanine, 3-fluoro-tyrosine, 3-iodo-D-phenylalanine, 3-iodo-L-phenylalanine, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, 3-methoxy-L-tyrosine, 3-methyl-D-phenylalanine, 3-methyl-L-phenylalanine, 3-nitro-D-phenylalanine, 3-nitro-L-phenylalanine, 3-nitro-L-tyrosine, 4-(trifluoromethyl)-D-phenylalanine, 4-(trifluoromethyl)-L-phenylalanine, 4-amino-D-phenylalanine, 4-amino-L-phenylalanine, 4-benzoyl-D-phenylalanine, 4-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine, 4-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino-L-phenylalanine, 4-bromo-D-phenylalanine, 4-bromo-L-phenylalanine, 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine, 4-chloro-L-phenylalanine, 4-cyano-D-phenylalanine, 4-cyano-L-phenylalanine, 4-fluoro-D-phenylalanine, 4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine, 4-iodo-D-phenylalanine, 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine, homophenylalanine, thyroxine, 3,3-diphenylalanine, thyronine, ethyl-tyrosine, and methyl-tyrosine.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of proline. Examples of amino acid analogs of proline include, but are not limited to, 3,4-dehydro-proline, 4-fluoro-proline, cis-4-hydroxy-proline, thiazolidine-2-carboxylic acid, and trans-4-fluoro-proline.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of serine and threonine. Examples of amino acid analogs of serine and threonine include, but are not limited to, 3-amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylhexanoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, 2-amino-3-ethoxybutanoic acid, 2-amino-3-methoxybutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid, 2-amino-3-benzyloxypropionic acid, 2-amino-3-benzyloxypropionic acid, 2-amino-3-ethoxypropionic acid, 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid, and α-methylserine.

Amino acid analogs include analogs of tryptophan. Examples of amino acid analogs of tryptophan include, but are not limited to the following; α-methyl-tryptophan; β-(3-benzothienyl)-D-alanine; D-(3-benzothienyl)-L-alanine; 1-methyl-tryptophan; 4-methyl-tryptophan; 5-benzyloxy-tryptophan; 5-bromo-tryptophan; 5-chloro-tryptophan; 5-fluoro-tryptophan; 5-hydroxy-tryptophan; 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan; 5-methoxy-tryptophan; 5-methoxy-L-tryptophan; 5-methyl-tryptophan; 6-bromo-tryptophan; 6-chloro-D-tryptophan; 6-chloro-tryptophan; 6-fluoro-tryptophan; 6-methyl-tryptophan; 7-benzyloxy-tryptophan; 7-bromo-tryptophan; 7-methyl-tryptophan; D-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-norharman-3-carboxylic acid; 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-1-carboxylic acid; 7-azatryptophan; L-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-norharman-3-carboxylic acid; 5-methoxy-2-methyl-tryptophan; and 6-chloro-L-tryptophan.

In some embodiments, amino acid analogs are racemic. In some embodiments, the D isomer of the amino acid analog is used. In some embodiments, the L isomer of the amino acid analog is used. In other embodiments, the amino acid analog comprises chiral centers that are in the R or S configuration. In still other embodiments, the amino group(s) of a β-amino acid analog is substituted with a protecting group, e.g., tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC group), 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), tosyl, and the like. In yet other embodiments, the carboxylic acid functional group of a β-amino acid analog is protected, e.g., as its ester derivative. In some embodiments the salt of the amino acid analog is used.

A “non-essential” amino acid residue is a residue that can be altered from the wild-type sequence of a polypeptide without abolishing or substantially altering its essential biological or biochemical activity (e.g., receptor binding or activation). An “essential” amino acid residue is a residue that, when altered from the wild-type sequence of the polypeptide, results in abolishing or substantially abolishing the polypeptide's essential biological or biochemical activity.

A “conservative amino acid substitution” is one in which the amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a similar side chain. Families of amino acid residues having similar side chains have been defined in the art. These families include amino acids with basic side chains (e.g., K, R, H), acidic side chains (e.g., D, E), uncharged polar side chains (e.g., G, N, Q, S, T, Y, C), nonpolar side chains (e.g., A, V, L, I, P, F, M, W), beta-branched side chains (e.g., T, V, I) and aromatic side chains (e.g., Y, F, W, H). Thus, a predicted nonessential amino acid residue in a polypeptide, for example, is replaced with another amino acid residue from the same side chain family. Other examples of acceptable substitutions are substitutions based on isosteric considerations (e.g. norleucine for methionine) or other properties (e.g. 2-thienylalanine for phenylalanine, or 6-Cl-tryptophan for tryptophan).

The term “capping group” refers to the chemical moiety occurring at either the carboxy or amino terminus of the polypeptide chain of the subject peptidomimetic macrocycle. The capping group of a carboxy terminus includes an unmodified carboxylic acid (ie —COOH) or a carboxylic acid with a substituent. For example, the carboxy terminus can be substituted with an amino group to yield a carboxamide at the C-terminus. Various substituents include but are not limited to primary and secondary amines, including pegylated secondary amines. Representative secondary amine capping groups for the C-terminus include:

The capping group of an amino terminus includes an unmodified amine (ie —NH2) or an amine with a substituent. For example, the amino terminus can be substituted with an acyl group to yield a carboxamide at the N-terminus. Various substituents include but are not limited to substituted acyl groups, including C1-C6 carbonyls, C7-C30 carbonyls, and pegylated carbamates. Representative capping groups for the N-terminus include, but are not limited to, 4-FBzl (4-fluoro-benzyl) and the following:

The term “member” as used herein in conjunction with macrocycles or macrocycle-forming linkers refers to the atoms that form or can form the macrocycle, and excludes substituent or side chain atoms. By analogy, cyclodecane, 1,2-difluoro-decane and 1,3-dimethyl cyclodecane are all considered ten-membered macrocycles as the hydrogen or fluoro substituents or methyl side chains do not participate in forming the macrocycle.

The symbol “” when used as part of a molecular structure refers to a single bond or a trans or cis double bond.

The term “amino acid side chain” refers to a moiety attached to the α-carbon (or another backbone atom) in an amino acid. For example, the amino acid side chain for alanine is methyl, the amino acid side chain for phenylalanine is phenylmethyl, the amino acid side chain for cysteine is thiomethyl, the amino acid side chain for aspartate is carboxymethyl, the amino acid side chain for tyrosine is 4-hydroxyphenylmethyl, etc. Other non-naturally occurring amino acid side chains are also included, for example, those that occur in nature (e.g., an amino acid metabolite) or those that are made synthetically (e.g., an α,α di-substituted amino acid).

The term “α,α di-substituted amino” acid refers to a molecule or moiety containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group bound to a carbon (the α-carbon) that is attached to two natural or non-natural amino acid side chains.

The term “polypeptide” encompasses two or more naturally or non-naturally-occurring amino acids joined by a covalent bond (e.g., an amide bond). Polypeptides as described herein include full length proteins (e.g., fully processed proteins) as well as shorter amino acid sequences (e.g., fragments of naturally-occurring proteins or synthetic polypeptide fragments).

The term “first C-terminal amino acid” refers to the amino acid which is closest to the C-terminus. The term “second C-terminal amino acid” refers to the amino acid attached at the N-terminus of the first C-terminal amino acid.

The term “macrocyclization reagent” or “macrocycle-forming reagent” as used herein refers to any reagent which can be used to prepare a peptidomimetic macrocycle by mediating the reaction between two reactive groups. Reactive groups can be, for example, an azide and alkyne, in which case macrocyclization reagents include, without limitation, Cu reagents such as reagents which provide a reactive Cu(I) species, such as CuBr, CuI or CuOTf, as well as Cu(II) salts such as Cu(CO2CH3)2, CuSO4, and CuCl2 that can be converted in situ to an active Cu(I) reagent by the addition of a reducing agent such as ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate. Macrocyclization reagents can additionally include, for example, Ru reagents known in the art such as Cp*RuCl(PPh3)2, [Cp*RuCl]4 or other Ru reagents which can provide a reactive Ru(II) species. In other cases, the reactive groups are terminal olefins. In such embodiments, the macrocyclization reagents or macrocycle-forming reagents are metathesis catalysts including, but not limited to, stabilized, late transition metal carbene complex catalysts such as Group VIII transition metal carbene catalysts. For example, such catalysts are Ru and Os metal centers having a +2 oxidation state, an electron count of 16 and pentacoordinated. In other examples, catalysts have W or Mo centers. Various catalysts are disclosed in Grubbs et al., “Ring Closing Metathesis and Related Processes in Organic Synthesis” Acc. Chem. Res. 1995, 28, 446452, U.S. Pat. No. 5,811,515: U.S. Pat. No. 7,932,397; U.S. Application No. 2011/0065915: U.S. Application No. 2011/0245477: Yu et al., “Synthesis of Macrocyclic Natural Products by Catalyst-Controlled Stereoselective Ring-Closing Metathesis,” Nature 2011, 479, 88: and Peryshkov et al., “Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 20754. In yet other cases, the reactive groups are thiol groups. In such embodiments, the macrocyclization reagent is, for example, a linker functionalized with two thiol-reactive groups such as halogen groups. In some examples, the macrocyclization reagent include palladium reagents, for example Pd(PPh3)4.Pd(PPh3)2Cl2, Pd(dppe)Cl, Pd(dppp)Cl2, and Pd(dppf)Cl2. The term “halo” or “halogen” refers to fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine or a radical thereof.

The term “alkyl” refers to a hydrocarbon chain that is a straight chain or branched chain, containing the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, C1-C10 indicates that the group has from 1 to 10 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it. In the absence of any numerical designation, “alkyl” is a chain (straight or branched) having 1 to 20 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it.

The term “alkylene” refers to a divalent alkyl (i.e., —R—).

The term “alkenyl” refers to a hydrocarbon chain that is a straight chain or branched chain having one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. The alkenyl moiety contains the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, C2-C10 indicates that the group has from 2 to 10 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it. The term “lower alkenyl” refers to a C2-C6 alkenyl chain. In the absence of any numerical designation, “alkenyl” is a chain (straight or branched) having 2 to 20 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it.

The term “alkynyl” refers to a hydrocarbon chain that is a straight chain or branched chain having one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. The alkynyl moiety contains the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, C2-C10 indicates that the group has from 2 to 10 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it. The term “lower alkynyl” refers to a C2-C10 alkynyl chain. In the absence of any numerical designation, “alkynyl” is a chain (straight or branched) having 2 to 20 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it.

The term “aryl” refers to a 6-carbon monocyclic or 10-carbon bicyclic aromatic ring system wherein 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 atoms of each ring are substituted by a substituent. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl and the like. The term “arylalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy substituted with aryl.

“Arylalkyl” refers to an aryl group, as defined above, wherein one of the aryl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a C1-C5 alkyl group, as defined above. Representative examples of an arylalkyl group include, but are not limited to, 2-methylphenyl, 3-methylphenyl, 4-methylphenyl, 2-ethylphenyl, 3-ethylphenyl, 4-ethylphenyl, 2-propylphenyl, 3-propylphenyl, 4-propylphenyl, 2-butylphenyl, 3-butylphenyl, 4-butylphenyl, 2-pentylphenyl, 3-pentylphenyl, 4-pentylphenyl, 2-isopropylphenyl, 3-isopropylphenyl, 4-isopropylphenyl, 2-isobutylphenyl, 3-isobutylphenyl, 4-isobutylphenyl, 2-sec-butylphenyl, 3-sec-butylphenyl, 4-sec-butylphenyl, 2-t-butylphenyl, 3-t-butylphenyl and 4-t-butylphenyl.

“Arylamido” refers to an aryl group, as defined above, wherein one of the aryl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with one or more —C(O)NH2 groups. Representative examples of an arylamido group include 2-C(O)NH2-phenyl, 3-C(O)NH2-phenyl, 4-C(O)NH2-phenyl, 2-C(O)NH2-pyridyl, 3-C(O)NH2-pyridyl, and 4-C(O)NH2-pyridyl.

“Alkylheterocycle” refers to a C1-C5 alkyl group, as defined above, wherein one of the C1-C5 alkyl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a heterocycle. Representative examples of an alkylheterocycle group include, but are not limited to, —CH2CH2-morpholine, —CH2CH2-piperidine, —CH2CH2CH2-morpholine, and —CH2CH2CH2-imidazole.

“Alkylamido” refers to a C1-C5 alkyl group, as defined above, wherein one of the C1-C5 alkyl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a —C(O)NH2 group. Representative examples of an alkylamido group include, but are not limited to, —CH2—C(O)NH2, —CH2CH2—C(O)NH2. —CH2CH2CH2C(O)NH2. —CH2CH2CH2CH2C(O)NH2, —CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2C(O)NH2, —CH2CH(C(O)NH2)CH3, —CH2CH(C(O)NH2)CH2CH3, —CH(C(O)NH2)CH2CH3, —C(CH)2CH2C(O)NH2, —CH2—CH2—NH—C(O)—CH3, —CH2—CH2—NH—C(O)—CH3—CH3, and —CH2—CH—NH—C(O)—CH═CH2.

“Alkanol” refers to a C1-C5 alkyl group, as defined above, wherein one of the C1-C5 alkyl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a hydroxyl group. Representative examples of an alkanol group include, but are not limited to, —CH2OH, —CH2CH2OH, —CH2CH2CH2OH, —CH2CH2CH2CH2OH, —CH2CH2CH2 CH2CH2OH, —CH2CH(OH)CH3, —CH2CH(OH)CHCH3, —CH(OH)CH3 and —C(CH3)2CH2OH.

“Alkylcarboxy” refers to a C1-C5 alkyl group, as defined above, wherein one of the C1-C5 alkyl group's hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a —COOH group. Representative examples of an alkylcarboxy group include, but are not limited to, —CH2COOH, —CH2CH2COOH, —CH2CH2CH2COOH, —CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH, —CH2CH(COOH)CH3, —CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH, —CH2CH(COOH)CH2CH3, —CH(COOH)CH2CH3 and —C(CH3)2CH2COOH.

The term “cycloalkyl” as employed herein includes saturated and partially unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon groups having 3 to 12 carbons, preferably 3 to 8 carbons, and more preferably 3 to 6 carbons, wherein the cycloalkyl group additionally is optionally substituted. Some cycloalkyl groups include, without limitation, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl.

The term “heteroaryl” refers to an aromatic 5-8 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S (e.g., carbon atoms and 1-3, 1-6, or 1-9 heteroatoms of O, N, or S if monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic, respectively), wherein 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 atoms of each ring are substituted by a substituent. Examples of heteroaryl groups include pyridyl, furyl or furanyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, pyrimidinyl, thiophenyl or thienyl, quinolinyl, indolyl, thiazolyl, and the like.

The term “heteroarylalkyl” or the term “heteroaralkyl” refers to an alkyl substituted with a heteroaryl. The term “heteroarylalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy substituted with heteroaryl.

The term “heteroarylalkyl” or the term “heteroaralkyl” refers to an alkyl substituted with a heteroaryl. The term “heteroarylalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy substituted with heteroaryl.

The term “heterocyclyl” refers to a nonaromatic 5-8 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S (e.g., carbon atoms and 1-3, 1-6, or 1-9 heteroatoms of O, N, or S if monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic, respectively), wherein 0, 1, 2 or 3 atoms of each ring are substituted by a substituent. Examples of heterocyclyl groups include piperazinyl, pyrrolidinyl, dioxanyl, morpholinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, and the like.

The term “substituent” refers to a group replacing a second atom or group such as a hydrogen atom on any molecule, compound or moiety. Suitable substituents include, without limitation, halo, hydroxy, mercapto, oxo, nitro, haloalkyl, alkyl, alkaryl, aryl, aralkyl, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, aryloxy, amino, alkoxycarbonyl, amido, carboxy, alkanesulfonyl, alkylcarbonyl, and cyano groups.

In some embodiments, the compounds disclosed herein contain one or more asymmetric centers and thus occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, individual diastereomers and diastereomeric mixtures. All such isomeric forms of these compounds are included unless expressly provided otherwise. In some embodiments. the compounds disclosed herein are also represented in multiple tautomeric forms, in such instances, the compounds include all tautomeric forms of the compounds described herein (e.g., if alkylation of a ring system results in alkylation at multiple sites, the disclosure includes all such reaction products). All such isomeric forms of such compounds are included unless expressly provided otherwise. All crystal forms of the compounds described herein are included unless expressly provided otherwise.

As used herein, the terms “increase” and “decrease” mean, respectively, to cause a statistically significantly (i.e., p<0.1) increase or decrease of at least 5%.

As used herein, the recitation of a numerical range for a variable is intended to convey that the variable is equal to any of the values within that range. Thus, for a variable which is inherently discrete, the variable is equal to any integer value within the numerical range, including the end-points of the range. Similarly, for a variable which is inherently continuous, the variable is equal to any real value within the numerical range, including the end-points of the range. As an example, and without limitation, a variable which is described as having values between 0 and 2 takes the values 0, 1 or 2 if the variable is inherently discrete, and takes the values 0.0, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, or any other real values ≥0 and ≤2 if the variable is inherently continuous.

As used herein, unless specifically indicated otherwise, the word “or” is used in the inclusive sense of “and/or” and not the exclusive sense of “either/or.”

The term “on average” represents the mean value derived from performing at least three independent replicates for each data point.

The term “biological activity” encompasses structural and functional properties of a macrocycle. Biological activity is, for example, structural stability, alpha-helicity, affinity for a target, resistance to proteolytic degradation, cell penetrability, intracellular stability, in vivo stability, or any combination thereof.

The term “binding affinity” refers to the strength of a binding interaction, for example between a peptidomimetic macrocycle and a target. Binding affinity can be expressed, for example, as an equilibrium dissociation constant (“KD”), which is expressed in units which are a measure of concentration (e.g. M, mM, μM, nM etc). Numerically, binding affinity and KD values vary inversely, such that a lower binding affinity corresponds to a higher KD value, while a higher binding affinity corresponds to a lower KD value. Where high binding affinity is desirable, “improved” binding affinity refers to higher binding affinity and therefore lower KD values.

The term “in vitro efficacy” refers to the extent to which a test compound, such as a peptidomimetic macrocycle, produces a beneficial result in an in vitro test system or assay. In vitro efficacy can be measured, for example, as an “IC50” or “EC50” value, which represents the concentration of the test compound which produces 50% of the maximal effect in the test system.

The term “ratio of in vitro efficacies” or “in vitro efficacy ratio” refers to the ratio of IC50 or EC50 values from a first assay (the numerator) versus a second assay (the denominator). Consequently, an improved in vitro efficacy ratio for Assay 1 versus Assay 2 refers to a lower value for the ratio expressed as IC50 (Assay 1)/IC50 (Assay 2) or alternatively as EC50 (Assay 1)/EC50 (Assay 2). This concept can also be characterized as “improved selectivity” in Assay 1 versus Assay 2, which can be due either to a decrease in the IC50 or EC50 value for Target 1 or an increase in the value for the IC50 or EC50 value for Target 2.

“Micelle forming agent” as used herein can be an amphiphilic compound meaning a compound that contains both hydrophobic groups (tails) and hydrophilic groups (heads). Micelle forming agents include surfactant, for examples ionic, non-ionic, and zwitterionic surfactants.

The details of one or more particular embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

The term “Xaa” is used in the Formulas described herein to refer to any amino acids. This term can sometimes be followed by a number subscript, for e.g. “Xaa6.” The number subscript in these cases may or may not refer to the position of the amino acids “Xaa” in a sequence. For example in some but not all cases Xaa6 can mean that the amino acid “Xaa” is present at the sixth position in a sequence.

OVERVIEW

In one aspect the disclosure provides aqueous pharmaceutical formulations, for parenteral administration, comprising peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle binds to MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations provided herein are aqueous solution ready for injection (for example intravenously) or aqueous concentrations ready for dilution and injection. In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein do not contain micelles or are essentially free of micelles. In various embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprise less than 2% w/v of a micelle forming agent. In some examples the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprise less than 2%, 1.9%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.6%, 1.5%, 1.4%, 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.0%, 0.9%, 08%, 0.7%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.09%, 0.08%, 0.07%, 0.06%, or 0.05% w/v of a micelle forming agent. In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is sorbitol. In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic acid). In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is 1,2-distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-methyl-polyethyleneglycol conjugate. In some embodiments, no micelle forming agent is used, yet the molecule has micelle forming properties.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations comprise an aqueous diluent. In some examples, the diluent is water, purified water, water for injection, bacteriostatic water for injection, sterile water for injection, water for parenterals, PBS, and/or, sterile water for irrigation. In some embodiments, the diluent is water for injection. In some embodiments, the diluent is PBS. In some embodiments, the diluent is a solution of dextrose in water, for example 5% dextrose in water.

In various embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a cross-linked peptide comprising at least one macrocycle-forming linker which forms a macrocycle between a first amino acid residue (or analog) and a second amino acid residue. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle has the Formula (I):

wherein:
each A, C, and D is independently an amino acid:
each B is independently an amino acid

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];
each E is independently an amino acid selected from the group consisting of Ala (alanine), D-Ala (D-alanine), Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid), Sar (N-methyl glycine), and Ser (serine);
each R1 and R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo; or forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;
each R3 is independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each L and L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;
each L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;
each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent:
each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;
each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;
each v is independently an integer from 1-1000;
each w is independently an integer from 3-1000;
u is an integer from 1-10;
each x, y and z is independently an integer from 0-10; and

each n is independently an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments, the macrocycle-forming linker (L or L′) has a formula -L1-L2-, wherein L1 and L2 are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4-]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene:
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3; and
each R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each n is an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycle capable of binding to and modulating the activity of p53, MDM2 and/or MDMX. In some embodiments the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycle that inhibits the interactions between p53, MDM2 and/or MDMX proteins. In some embodiments the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycle that can be used for treating diseases including but not limited to cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases. In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle has a Formula I and comprises an amino acid sequence which is at least about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or more identical to an amino acid sequence in any of Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, and Table 1c. In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle in a peptidomimetic macrocycle from the any of Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, and Table 1c.

Any suitable dosage of peptidomimetic macrocycles can be formulated in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the present disclosure. Generally, the peptidomimetic macrocycle (or, in embodiments comprising two or more peptidomimetic macrocycles, each of the peptidomimetic macrocycle) is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount greater than or equal to 1 mg/mL. For example greater than or equal to 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL. In some examples, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 15 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 15 mg/mL to about 60 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 20 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 50 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 15 mg/mL to about 20 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles is present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount ranging from about 15 mg/mL to about 30 mg/mL. It will be readily apparent to those of skill that the peptidomimetic macrocycle dosage can be varied depending on several conditions including the peptidomimetic macrocycle used, the subject to be treated, and the disease, disorder or condition to be treated.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can additionally comprise a buffering agent. The buffering agent can be any agent capable of maintaining the pH of the aqueous formulation in the range of 4.0-9.0. For example, the buffering agent is selected from a group consisting of ammonia solution, calcium carbonate, tribasic calcium phosphate, citric acid monohydrate, dibasic sodium phosphate, diethanolamine, malic acid, monobasic sodium phosphate, monoethanolamine, monosodium glutamate, phosphoric acid, potassium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium borate, sodium citrate dehydrate, sodium hydroxide, sodium lactate and triethanolamine. In some embodiments, the buffering agent can be monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, or a mixture thereof. The pH of the formulation can be in the range of 4.0-9.0. For example, the pH can be in the range of about 4.5-8.5, about 5.0-8.0, about 5.5-7.5, about 7.0-7.5, about 7.0-8.0, about 7.0-9.0, or about 8.0-9.0. In some embodiments, the pH of the formulations is about 7.0. In some embodiments. the pH of the formulations is about 7.5. In some embodiments, the pH of the formulations is about 8.0.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can comprise a stabilizing agent. The stabilizing agent can be any pharmaceutically acceptable stabilizing agent. Such stabilizing agent can include, for example antioxidants and/or surfactants. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is a non-ionic stabilizing agent, for example as non-ionic surfactant. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is a fatty acid ester. The stabilizing agent can be selected from a group consisting of polyoxyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, polyoxypropylene glycol alkyl ethers, glucoside alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene glycol octylphenol ethers, polyoxyethylene glycol alkylphenol ethers, glycerol alkyl esters. polyoxyethylene glycol sorbitan alkyl esters, sorbitan alkyl esters, cocamide MEA, cocamide DEA. dodecyldimethylamine oxide, block copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, and polyethoxylated tallow amine. In some examples, the stabilizing agent is a polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, for example polysorbate 20, polysorbate 21, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 61, polysorbate 65, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 81, polysorbate 85 or polysorbate 120.

In some embodiments, the tonicity of the instant aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be adjusted, for example the tonicity of the formulations can be such that the formulations are isotonic with the physiologic fluid. Such formulations can further comprise one or more tonicity adjusting agent (tonicity agent) to adjust the tonicity of the formulations. Any pharmaceutically acceptable tonicity agent can be used. In some examples the tonicity agents are selected from a group consisting of electrolytes, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, and water-soluble glucans. In some examples the tonicity agent in NaCl or KCL. In some examples the tonicity agent is selected from a group consisting of fructose, glucose, mannose, mannitol, sorbose, xylose, maltose, lactose, sucrose. trehalose, dextran, pullulan, dextrin, cyclodextrin, soluble starch, hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethylcellulose. In some embodiments, the tonicity agent is trehalose.

In some examples, the formulations of the present disclosure further comprise one or more additional excipients. For example a preservative or a co-solvent.

Also provided herein are methods of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein. The method comprises adding a peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to an aqueous solution. The aqueous solution can comprise one or more of a buffering agent, a stabilizing agent, and a tonicity agent. The method can further comprise adding a pH adjusting agent to maintain the pH of the mixture at a specified level. In some embodiments, the method comprises adding a desired amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt (for example sodium, potassium or lithium salt) thereof to water. In some embodiments, the method comprises adding a desired amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to an aqueous solution comprising a buffering agent, a stabilizing agent, and a tonicity agent.

Also provided herein is a method for treating a disease, condition or disorder that can be treated, alleviated, or prevented by administering to a subject an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation as described herein. The method comprises, administering to the subject the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation in an amount effective to treat, alleviate or prevent the disease, condition, or disorder. In some embodiments, the disease, condition, or disorder is a p53 mediated disease, condition, or disorder. In some embodiments, the disease, condition, or disorder is a MDM2 and/or MDMX mediated disease, condition, or disorder. In some embodiments, the disease, condition, or disorder is a hyperproliferative disease and/or an inflammatory disorder. In some embodiments, the disease, condition, or disorder is cancers and neoplastic conditions. In some examples, the cancer is selected from a group consisting of pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma, neuroendocrine cancers, CNS cancers, brain tumors, bone cancer, skin cancer, ocular tumor, rectal cancer, choriocarcinoma (tumor of the placenta), sarcoma and soft tissue cancer, testicular cancer, gall bladder cancer, and biliary cancer. In some examples, the cancer is selected from a group consisting of bladder cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, CNS cancer, colon cancer, ocular tumor, renal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma (tumor of the placenta), prostate cancer, sarcoma, skin cancer, soft tissue cancer, gastric cancer, gall bladder cancer, biliary cancer, renal cancer, neoblastoma, or neuroendocrine cancer. Non-limiting examples of ocular tumor include choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma, choroidal metastasis, choroidal hemangioma, choroidal osteoma, iris melanoma, uveal melanoma, melanocytoma, metastasis retinal capillary hemangiomas, congenital hypertrophy of the RPE, RPE adenoma or retinoblastoma. In some cases, the cancer is selected from non-small cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, colon cancer, CNS cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. In some examples, the cancer is breast cancer. In some examples, the cancer is gall bladder cancer. In some examples, the cancer is biliary cancer. In some examples, the cancer is neuroendocrine cancer. In some examples, the cancer is bone cancer. In some examples, the cancer is the bone cancer is osteosarcoma. In some examples, the cancer is skin cancer. In some examples, the cancer is melanoma.

In another aspect, the present disclosure provides kits for treating a disease, condition or disorder, wherein the kit comprises the aqueous pharmaceutical disclosed herein. The formulations can be packaged in any suitable container, for example a bottle or a vial. In some examples, the formulations can be packed in glass serum vial. In some examples, the formulations can be packed in serum vials composed of borosilicate glass. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a 1 mL, a 2 mL, a 3 mL, a 4 mL, a 5 mL, a 10 mL, a 20 mL, a 30 mL, or a 50 mL glass vial. The bottles and/or vials can be equipped with stoppers and/or seals. For example, the formulations can be packaged into glass vials equipped with Teflon stoppers and/or a flip-off cap. The flip-off cap can be a plastic cap. The glass container can be an ampoule. The formulations can be packaged in multidose form or in single dose form. In some cases, the formulations are packaged in multidose forms. In some embodiments the formulations are packaged as single dose units. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises instructions, wherein the instructions direct the administration of the formulation to treat the subject in need thereof. The kit can also include a device for administration of the formulation.

Aqueous Pharmaceutical Formulations of Peptidomimetic Macrocycles for Parenteral Administration

In one aspect, the disclosure provides aqueous pharmaceutical formulations, suitable for parenteral administration, comprising peptidomimetic macrocycles, as described herein and an aqueous diluent. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations provided herein can be suitable for intravenous, intra-arterial, intrathecal, or subcutaneous administration. In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations are suitable for intravenous administration. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations described herein can provide improved solubility and/or stability of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In particular embodiments. the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations provide increased solubility of the peptidomimetic macrocycles compared to the solubility of the peptidomimetic macrocycles peptide in water alone.

In some examples, the aqueous diluent is water, purified water, water for injection, bacteriostatic water for injection, sterile water for injection, water for parenterals, sterile water for irrigation, various sterile solution of electrolytes and or dextrose. In some embodiments, the diluent is a pH buffered solution (e.g. phosphate-buffered saline), sterile saline solution, Ringer's solution or dextrose solution. In some embodiments, the diluent is water for injection. In some embodiments, the diluent is a solution of dextrose in water, for example 5% dextrose in water.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations my further comprise a co-solvent. A co-solvent is any solvent that facilitates/enhances the solubility of the peptidomimetic macrocycles (or of the one or more excipients) in the aqueous diluent. The co-solvent is preferably water miscible. In some embodiments, the co-solvent is ethyl alcohol, glycerin, polyethylene glycol, or propylene glycol. In some embodiments, the co-solvent is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). dimethylacetamide (DMA) or a combination thereof.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations provided herein are aqueous solution ready for injection (for example intravenously) or aqueous concentrations ready for dilution and injection. In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein do not contain micelles or are essentially free of micelles.

In various embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprise less than 2% w/v of a micelle forming agent. In some examples the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprise less than 2%, 1.9%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.6%, 1.5%, 1.4%, 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.0%, 0.9%, 08/6, 0.7%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.09%, 0.08%, 0.07%, 0.06%, or 0.05% w/v of a micelle forming agent. In some examples the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprise 0.0001%-2%, 0.0005-%2%, 0.001%-2%, 0.005%-2%, 0.01%-2%, 0.05%-2%, 0.1%-2%, 0.2%-2%, 0.3%-2%, 0.4%-2%, 0.5%-2%, 0.6%-2%, 0.7%-2%, 0.8%-2%, 0.9%-2%, 1.0%-2%, 1.1%-2%, 1.2%2%, 1.3%-2%, 1.4%-2%, 1.5%-2%,1.6%2%, 1.7%-2%, 1.8%-2%, 1.9%-2%, 0.0001%-1.8%, 0.0005%-1.8%, 0.001%-1.8%, 0.005%-1.8%, 0.01%-1.8%, 0.05%-1.8%, 1.0%-1.8%, 1.1%-1.8%, 1.2%-1.8%, 1.3%-1.8%, 1.4%-1.8%, 1.5%-1.8%, 1.6%-1.8%, 0.8%-1.8%, 0.9%-1.8%, 1.0%-1.8%, 1.1%-1.8%, 1.2%-%1.8%, 1.6%-1.8%, 1.6%-1.8%, 0.0001%-1.6%, 0.0005%-1.6%, 0.001%-1.6%, 0.005%-1.6%, 0.01%-1.6%, 0.05%-1.6%, 0.1%-1.6%, 0.2%-1.6%, 0.3%-1.6%, 0.4%-1.6%, 0.5%-1.6%, 0.6%-1.6%, 0.7%-1.6%, 0.8%-1.6%, 0.9%1.6%, 1.0%-1.6%, 1.1%-1.6%, 1.2%-1.6%, 1.3%-1.6%, 1.4%-1.6%, 1.5%-1.6%, 0.0001%-1.4%, 0.0005%-1.4%, 0.001%-1.4%, 0.005%-1.4%, 0.01%-1.4%, 0.05%-1.4%, 0.1%-1.4%, 0.2%-1.4%, 0.3%-1.4%, 0.4%-1.4%, 0.5%-1.4%, 0.6%-1.4%, 0.7%-1.4%, 0.8%- 1.4%, 0.9%-1.4%, 1.0%-1.4%, 1.1%-1.4%, 1.2%-1.4%, 1.3-1.4%, 0.0001%-1.2%, 0.0005%-1.2%, 0.001%-0.2%, 0.005%-1.2%, 0.01%-1.2%, 0.05%-1.2%, 0.1%-1.2%, 0.2%-1.2%, 0.3%-1.2%, 0.4%-1.2%, 0.5%-1.2%, 0.6%-1.2%, 0.7%-1.2%, 0.8%-1.2%, 0.9%-1.2%, 1.0%-1.2%, 1.1%-1.2%, 0.0001%-1%, 0.0005%-1%, 0.001%-1%, 0.005%-1%, 0.01%-1%, 0.05%-1%, 0.1%-1%, 0.2%-1%, 0.3%-1%, 0.4%-1%, 0.5%-1%, 0.6%-1%, 0.7%-1%, 0.0001%-0.8%, 0.0005%-0.8%, 0.001%-0.8%, 0.005/6-0.8%, 0.01/6-0.8%, 0.05/6-0.8%, 0.1%-0.8%, 0.2%-0.8%, 0.3%-0.8%, 0.4%-0.8%, 0.5%-0.8%, 0.6%-0.8%, 0.7%-0.8%, 0.0001%-0.6%, 0.0005%0.6%, 0.001%-0.6%, 0.005%-0.6%, 0.01%-0.6%, 0.05%-0.6%, 0.1%-0.6%, 0.2%-0.6%, 0.3%-0.6%, 0.4%-0.6%, 0.5%-0.6%, 0.0001%-0.4%, 0.0005%-0.4%, 0.001%-0.4%, 0.005% Y0-0.4%, 0.01%-0.4%, 0.05% Y0-0.4%, 0.1%-0.4%, 0.2%-0.4%, 0.3%-0.4%, 0.0001%-0.2%, 0.0005%-0.2%, 0.001%-0.2%, 0.005%-0.2%, 0.01%-0.2%, 0.05%-0.2%, 0.1%-0.2%, 0.0001%-0.1%, 0.0005%-0.1%, 0.001%-0.1%, 0.005%-0.1%, 0.01%-0.1%, 0.05%-0.1, 0.0001%-0.05%, 0.0005%-0.05%, 0.001%-0.05/0, 0.005%-0.05%, 0.01%-0.05%, 0.0001%-0.01%, 0.0005%-0.01%, 0.001%-0.01%, 0.005%-0.01%, 0.0001%-0.005%, 0.0005%-0.005%, 0.001%-0.005%, 0.0001%-0.001%, 0.0005%-0.001%, or 0.0001%-0.0005% w/v of a micelle forming agent. In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is sorbitol. In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is Polyethylene glycol-Poly(lactic acid). In some embodiments, the micelle forming agent is 1,2-Distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-methyl-polyethyleneglycol conjugate. In some embodiments, no micelle-forming agent is added in the formulation, but the molecule has micelle-forming properties.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can additionally comprise one or more excipients suitable for aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. Exemplary excipients that can be present in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations described herein are described below.

Buffering Agents

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure can comprise one or more buffering agent, for example a pharmaceutically acceptable buffering agent. Buffering agent can be used to control pH of the formulation and/or to maintain stability of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. The pH range of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can be pH 2 to pH 12, pH 4 to pH 9, pH 5 to pH9, or pH 6 to pH 8. In some embodiments the aqueous solution is buffered to a pH of about 5.0-9.0. In some embodiments the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is buffered to a pH of about 6.0-8.0. In some embodiments the pH of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is in the range of about 6.5-8.0, about 7.0-8.0, about 7.5-8.0, about 6.0-7.5, about 6.5-7.5, about 7.0-7.5, 6.0-7.0, about 6.5-7.0, about 7.0-7.5, or about 7.5-8.0. In some embodiments the aqueous solution is buffered to a pH of about 6.0, about 6.5, about 7.0, about 7.5, about 8.0 or about 8.5. In some embodiments the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is buffered to a pH of about 7.0, about 7.1, about 7.2, about 7.3, about 7.4, about 7.5, about 7.6, about 7.7, about 7.8, about 7.9, or about 8.0. In some embodiments the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is buffered to a pH of about 7.3-7.5.

Any buffering that can be safe for injection into mammalian tissue. particularly into humans, can be used in the pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure. Buffering agent can be any agent capable of driving an acidic or basic solution to a certain pH state, and then preventing a change from that state. Buffering agents that can be used in the instant aqueous pharmaceutical formulations include citrate, acetate, phosphate, maleate, tartrate, borate, carbonate, bicarbonate, succinate, or glutamate buffers.

In some examples, the buffering agent is lithium lactate, magnesium lactate, sodium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium lactate, lithium phosphate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, calcium phosphate, sodium polyphosphate, potassium polyphosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, potassium pyrophosphate, disodium hydrogenphosphate, dipotassium hydrogenphosphate, trisodium phosphate, tripotassium phosphate, potassium metaphosphate, lithium maleate, sodium maleate, potassium maleate, calcium maleate, lithium tartarate, sodium tartarate, potassium tartarate, calcium tartarate, lithium succinate, sodium succinate, potassium succinate, calcium succinate, lithium acetate, sodium acetate, potassium acetate, calcium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium glucomate, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide/sodium bicarbonate coprecipitate, sodium citrate, sodium tartarate, sodium carbonate, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, magnesium silicate, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, calcium bicarbonate, or mixture thereof.

In some examples, the buffering agent is a citrate buffer. Non-limiting examples of suitable citrate buffers include lithium citrate monohydrate, sodium citrate monohydrate, potassium citrate monohydrate, calcium citrate monohydrate, lithium citrate dihydrate, sodium citrate dihydrate, potassium citrate dihydrate, calcium citrate dihydrate, lithium citrate trihydrate, sodium citrate trihydrate, potassium citrate trihydrate, calcium citrate trihydrate, lithium citrate tetrahydrate, sodium citrate tetrahydrate, potassium citrate tetrahydrate, calcium citrate tetrahydrate, lithium citrate pentahydrate, sodium citrate pentahydrate, potassium citrate pentahydrate, calcium citrate pentahydrate, lithium citrate hexahydrate, sodium citrate hexahydrate, potassium citrate hexahydrate, calcium citrate hexahydrate, lithium citrate heptahydrate, sodium citrate heptahydrate, potassium citrate heptahydrate, or calcium citrate heptahydrate.

In some examples, the buffering agent is a phosphate buffer. Non-limiting examples of suitable phosphate buffering agents that can be used in the formulations of the instant disclosure include, without limitation, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, dibasic potassium phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, potassium pyrophosphate, disodium hydrogenphosphate, dipotassium hydrogenphosphate, potassium metaphosphate, calcium phosphate, tribasic, calcium phosphate, dibasic anhydrous, calcium phosphate dibasic, hydrate. In one embodiment, the buffering agent is a phosphate buffer. In one embodiment buffering agent is NaH2PO4. In one embodiment, the buffering agent is Na2HPO4. In one embodiment the buffering agent is a mixture of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4. In one embodiment buffering agent is KH2PO4. In one embodiment, the buffering agent is K2HPO4. In one embodiment the buffering agent is a mixture of KH2PO4 and K2HPO4.

Tonicity Adjusting Agents

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can comprise one or more tonicity adjusting agents in order to adjust the tonicity/osmolarity of the formulations. For example, the tonicity/osmolarity of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be adjusted to be isotonic with human plasma. This can help to avoid damage to the tissues. In various embodiments, the osmolarity of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can be in the range of 250 to 1000 mOsM. For example, the osmolarity of the formulations can be about 250-300 mOsM, 250-350 mOsM, 250-400 mOsM, 250-450 mOsM, 250-500 mOsM, 250-550 mOsM, 250-600 mOsM, 250-650 mOsM, 250-700 mOsM, 250-750 mOsM, 250-800 mOsM, 250-850 mOsM, 250-900 mOsM, 250-950 mOsM, 300-350 mOsM, 300-400 mOsM, 300-450 mOsM, 300-500 mOsM, 300-550 mOsM, 300-600 mOsM, 300-650 mOsM, 300-700 mOsM, 300-750 mOsM, 300-800 mOsM, 300-850 mOsM, 300-900 mOsM, 300-950 mOsM, 300-1000 mOsM, 350-400 mOsM, 350-450 mOsM, 350-500 mOsM, 350-550 mOsM, 350-600 mOsM, 350-650 mOsM, 350-700 mOsM, 350-750 mOsM, 350-800 mOsM, 350-850 mOsM, 350-900 mOsM, 350-950 mOsM, 350-1000 mOsM, 400-450 mOsM, 400-500 mOsM, 400-550 mOsM, 400-600 mOsM, 400-650 mOsM, 400-700 mOsM, 400-750 mOsM, 400-800 mOsM, 400-850 mOsM, 400-900 mOsM, 400-950 mOsM, 400-1000 mOsM, 450-500 mOsM, 450-550 mOsM, 450-600 mOsM, 450-650 mOsM, 450-700 mOsM, 450-750 mOsM, 450-800 mOsM, 450-850 mOsM, 450-900 mOsM, 450-950 mOsM, 450-1000 mOsM, 500-550 mOsM, 500-600 mOsM, 500-650 mOsM, 500-700 mOsM, 500-750 mOsM, 500-800 mOsM, 500-850 mOsM, 500-900 mOsM, 500-950 mOsM, 500-1000 mOsM, 550-600 mOsM, 550-650 mOsM, 550-700 mOsM, 550-750 mOsM, 550-800 mOsM, 550-850 mOsM, 550-900 mOsM, 550-950 mOsM, 550-1000 mOsM, 600-650 mOsM, 600-700 mOsM, 600-750 mOsM, 600-800 mOsM, 600-850 mOsM, 600-900 mOsM, 600-950 mOsM, 600-1000 mOsM, 650-700 mOsM, 650-750 mOsM, 650-800 mOsM, 650-850 mOsM, 650-900 mOsM, 650-950 mOsM, 650-1000 mOsM, 700-750 mOsM, 700-800 mOsM, 700-850 mOsM, 700-900 mOsM, 700-950 mOsM, 700-1000 mOsM, 750-800 mOsM, 750-850 mOsM, 750-900 mOsM, 750-950 mOsM, 750-1000 mOsM, 800-850 mOsM, 800-900 mOsM, 800-950 mOsM, 800-1000 mOsM, 850-900 mOsM, 850-950 mOsM, 850-1000 mOsM, 900-950 mOsM, 900-1000 mOsM, or 950-1000 mOsM. In some embodiments, the osmolarity of the formulations is in the range of 250 to 450 mOsM. For example the osmolarity of the formulations can be about 250 mOsM, about 300 mOsM, about 350 mOsM, about 400 mOsM, or about 450 mOsM. In some embodiments, the formulation is isotonic with biologic fluids, i.e., the osmolarity is about 300 mOsM.

The tonicity adjusting agents can be ionic tonicity adjusting agents or non-ionic tonicity adjusting agents.

In some embodiments, the isotonic agent is an ionic-isotonic agent. In some embodiments, the isotonic agent is a non-ionic isotonic agent. In some embodiments, the isotonic agent is a mixture of one or more ionic and/or non-ionic isotonic agent. In a some embodiment of the disclosure the isotonic agent is selected from the group consisting of a salt (e.g. sodium chloride, boric acid, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate), a sugar or sugar alcohol, an amino acid (e.g. L-glycine, L-histidine, arginine, lysine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, tryptophan, threonine), an alditol (e.g. glycerol (glycerine), 1,2-propanediol (propyleneglycol), 1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, polyethyleneglycol (e.g. PEG400), or mixtures thereof. Any sugar such as mono-, di-, or polysaccharides, or water-soluble glucans, including for example fructose, glucose, mannose, sorbose, xylose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, dextran, pullulan, dextrin, cyclodextrin, soluble starch, hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethylcellulose-Na can be used. In some examples, the tonicity adjusting agent is selected from a group consisting of dextrose, glycerin, mannitol, trehalose, potassium chloride and sodium chloride. In some example, the tonicity adjusting agent is trehalose, for example D- trehalose. In some example, the tonicity adjusting agent is sodium chloride. In some example, the tonicity adjusting agent is potassium chloride. The use of an tonicity adjusting agent in aqueous pharmaceutical formulations is well-known to the skilled person. For convenience reference is made to Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th edition, 1995.

Stabilizing Agent

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations described herein comprise a stabilizing agent. Non-limiting examples of stabilizing agents that can be used include acacia, agar, albumin, alginic acid, aluminum stearate, ammonium alginate, arabinose, arginine HCL, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, bentonite, butylated hydroxytoluene, calcium alginate, calcium stearate, carboxymethylcellulose calcium. carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, cellobiose, cellulose ceratonia, colloidal silicon dioxide, cyclodextrins, diethanolamine, dextran, edentates, ethylcellulose, ethylene glycol palmitostearate, fructose, gentiobiose, glucose, glucosamine, glycine, glycerin monostearate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl starch, hypromellose, hyaluronic acid, invert sugar, isomaltose, lactose, lecithin, magnesium aluminum silicate, mannose, mannitol, maltose, mineral oil and lanolin alcohols, monoethanolamine, N-methyl pyrollidone, pectin, polacrilin potassium, poloxamer (for example poloxamer 124, poloxamer 188, poloxamer 237, poloxamer 338, or poloxamer 407), polyoxyethylene sobitan fatty acid esters, polyvinyl alcohol, potassium alginate, potassium chloride, povidone (for example povidone K-12, povidone K-15, povidone K-17, povidone K-25, povidone K-20, povidone K-60, povidone K-90, or povidone K-120), propyl gallate, propylene glycol, propylene glycol alginate, raffinose, sodium acetate, sodium alginate, sodium borate, sodium chloride, sodium stearyl fumarate, sorbitol, stearyl alcohol, sucrose, sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin, starch, trehalose, white wax, xanthan gum, xylitol, yellow wax and zinc acetate.

In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is a polyoxyethylene sobitan fatty acid ester, for example polysorbate 20, polysorbate 21, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 61, polysorbate 65, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 81, polysorbate 85 or polysorbate 120. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 20.

In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 21. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 40. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 60. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 61. In some embodiments. the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 65. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 80. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 81. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 85. In some embodiments, the stabilizing agent is polysorbate 120.

Preservatives-Antioxidants, Antimicrobial and Chelating Agents

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can comprise one or more antioxidants in order to prevent/minimize the oxidation of the peptidomimetic macrocycle and/or the excipients present in the formulation The antioxidants can also be used as a stabilizing agent. The anti-oxidants which can be used to form aqueous pharmaceutical formulations the disclosure include, but are not limited to, propyl, octyl and dodecyl esters of gallic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, usually purchased as a mixture of ortho and meta isomers), green tea extract, uric acid, cysteine, pyruvate, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, ascorbic acid, salts of ascorbic acid such as ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbate, ascorbyl glucosamine, vitamin E (i.e., tocopherols such as α-tocopherol), derivatives of vitamin E (e.g., tocopheryl acetate), retinoids such as retinoic acid, retinol, trans-retinol, cis-retinol, mixtures of trans-retinol and cis-retinol, 3-dehydroretinol and derivatives of vitamin A (e.g., retinyl acetate, retinal and retinyl palmitate, also known as tetinyl palmitate), sodium citrate, sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, sodium bisulfate, lycopene, anthocyanids, bioflavinoids (e.g., hesperitin, naringen, rutin and quercetin), superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), indole-3-carbinol, pycnogenol, melatonin, sulforaphane, pregnenolone, lipoic acid and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3[2H]-furanone. In various embodiments, one or more of the above antioxidants are excluded, or are present in less than effective amounts.

In some embodiments the antioxidant is ascorbic acid, citric acid, acetylcysteine, sulfurous acid salts (such as bisulfite, metasulfite), and monothioglyercol.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can comprise one or more antimicrobial agent. Suitable antimicrobial agents that can be used include alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, boric acid, bronopol, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylparaben, carbon dioxide, bentonite, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorbutanol, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol (meta cresol), dimethyl ether, ethylparaben, glycerin, hexetidine, imidurea, inactivation by magnesium trisilicate, isopropyl alcohol, lactic acid, methylparaben, monothioglycerol, parabens (methyl, propyl, butyl), phenol. phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric salts (acetate, borate, nitrate) phenylmercuric borate, phenylmercuric nitrate, potassium benzoate, potassium metabisulfite, potassium sorbate, propionic acid, propyl gallate, propylene glycol, propylparaben, sodium acetate, sodium benzoate, sodium borate, sodium lactate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium propionate, sodium sulfite, sorbic acid, synergists, edetic acid, thimerosal, xylitol, or other agents known to those skilled in the art. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent used is methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent used is benzalkonium chloride.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can comprise one or more chelating agents.

Non-limiting examples of chelating agents which can be used to form aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure include, but are not limited to, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), EDTA disodium, calcium disodium edetate, EDTA trisodium, albumin, transferrin, desferoxamine, desferal, desferoxamine mesylate, EDTA tetrasodium and EDTA dipotassium, sodium metasilicate, citric acid monohydrate, fumaric acid, malic acid, maltol, or combinations of any of these. In some embodiments, the formulations of the current disclosure contain no or essentially no chelating agents. In some further embodiments, the formulations are solutions containing no chelating agents.

In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure comprise no or essentially no preservatives. In some further embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations are solutions containing no preservatives.

Surfactants

The solubility of the components of the present formulations can be enhanced by a surfactant or other appropriate co-solvent in the composition. Such co-solvents include polysorbate 20, 60, and 80, Pluronic® F68, F-84 and P-103, cyclodextrin, or other agents known to those skilled in the art. Such co-solvents can be employed at a level of from about 0.01% to 2% by weight. In addition, the surfactant can be used to prevent aggregation of the compound.

Surfactants which can be used to form aqueous pharmaceutical formulations include, but are not limited to, hydrophilic surfactants, lipophilic surfactants, and mixtures thereof. That is, a mixture of hydrophilic surfactants can be employed, a mixture of lipophilic surfactants can be employed, or a mixture of at least one hydrophilic surfactant and at least one lipophilic surfactant can be employed.

In some embodiments of the disclosure, the surfactant can be the sodium salt form of the compound, which can include the monosodium salt form. Suitable sodium salt surfactants can be selected based on desirable properties, including high speed of polymerization, small resultant particle sizes suitable for delivery, good polymerization yields, stability including freeze-thaw and shelf-life stability, improved surface tension properties, and lubrication properties.

The surfactant can be any suitable, non-toxic compound that is non-reactive with the medicament and that substantially reduces the surface tension between the medicament, the excipient and the site of administration. Some useful surfactants are: oleic acid available under the trade names Mednique 6322 and Emersol 6321 (from Cognis Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio); cetylpyridinium chloride (from Arrow Chemical, Inc. Westwood, N.J.): soya lecithin available under the trade name Epikuron 200 (from Lucas Meyer Decatur, Ill.); polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monolaurate available under the tradename Tween 20 (from ICI Specialty Chemicals, Wilmington, Del.): polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monostearate available under the tradename Tween 60 (from ICI); polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monooleate available under the tradename Tween 80 (from ICI); polyoxyethylene (10) stearyl ether available under the tradename Brij 76 (from ICI); polyoxyethylene (2) oleyl ether available under the tradename Brij 92 (frown ICI); Polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-ethylenediamine block copolymer available under the tradename Tetronic 150 R1 (from BASF); polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene block copolymers available under the trade names Pluronic L-92, Pluronic L-121 end Pluronic F 68 (from BASF); castor oil ethoxylate available under the tradename Alkasurf CO-40 (from Rhone-Poulenc Mississauga Ontario, Canada): and mixtures thereof.

A suitable hydrophilic surfactant can generally have an HLB value of at least 10, while suitable lipophilic surfactants can generally have an HLB value of or less than about 10. An empirical parameter used to characterize the relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of non-ionic amphiphilic compounds is the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (“HLB” value). Surfactants with lower HLB values are more lipophilic or hydrophobic, and have greater solubility in oils, while surfactants with higher HLB values are more hydrophilic, and have greater solubility in aqueous solutions. Hydrophilic surfactants are generally considered to be those compounds having an HLB value greater than about 10, as well as anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic compounds for which the HLB scale is not generally applicable. Similarly, lipophilic (i.e., hydrophobic) surfactants are compounds having an HLB value equal to or less than about 10. However, HLB value of a surfactant is merely a rough guide generally used to enable formulation of industrial, pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions.

Hydrophilic surfactants can be either ionic or non-ionic. Suitable ionic surfactants include, but are not limited to, alkylammonium salts: fusidic acid salts; fatty acid derivatives of amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides: glyceride derivatives of amino acids, oligopeptides, and polypeptides; lecithins and hydrogenated lecithins; lysolecithins and hydrogenated lysolecithins; phospholipids and derivatives thereof; lysophospholipids and derivatives thereof: carnitine fatty acid ester salts; salts of alkylsulfates; fatty acid salts; sodium docusate: acyl lactylates: mono- and di-acetylated tartaric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides: succinylated mono- and di-glycerides; citric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides; and mixtures thereof.

Within the aforementioned group, some ionic surfactants include, by way of example: lecithins, lysolecithin, phospholipids, lysophospholipids and derivatives thereof; carnitine fatty acid ester salts: salts of alkylsulfates; fatty acid salts; sodium docusate: acyl lactylates; mono- and di-acetylated tartaric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides; succinylated mono- and di-glycerides; citric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides; and mixtures thereof.

Ionic surfactants can be the ionized forms of lecithin, lysolecithin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidylserine, PEG-phosphatidylethanolamine, PVP-phosphatidylethanolamine, lactylic esters of fatty acids, stearoyl-2-lactylate, stearoyl lactylate, succinylated monoglycerides, mono/diacetylated tartaric acid esters of mono/diglycerides, citric acid esters of mono/diglycerides. cholylsarcosine, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, palmitate, oleate, ricinoleate, linoleate, linolenate, stearate, lauryl sulfate, teracecyl sulfate, docusate, lauroyl carnitines, palmitoyl carnitines, myristoyl camitines, and salts and mixtures thereof.

Hydrophilic non-ionic surfactants can include, but not limited to, alkylglucosides; alkylmaltosides; alkylthioglucosides: lauryl macrogolglycerides: polyoxyalkylene alkyl ethers such as polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers: polyoxyalkylene alkylphenols such as polyethylene glycol alkyl phenols: polyoxyalkylene alkyl phenol fatty acid esters such as polyethylene glycol fatty acids monoesters and polyethylene glycol fatty acids diesters; polyethylene glycol glycerol fatty acid esters; polyglycerol fatty acid esters; polyoxyalkylene sorbitan fatty acid esters such as polyethylene glycol sorbitan fatty acid esters; hydrophilic transesterification products of a polyol with at least one member of the group consisting of glycerides, vegetable oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, fatty acids, and sterols: polyoxyethylene sterols, derivatives, and analogues thereof; polyoxyethylated vitamins and derivatives thereof: polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymers; and mixtures thereof; polyethylene glycol sorbitan fatty acid esters and hydrophilic transesterification products of a polyol with at least one member of the group consisting of triglycerides, vegetable oils, and hydrogenated vegetable oils. The polyol can be glycerol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, propylene glycol, pentaerythritol, or a saccharide.

Other hydrophilic-non-ionic surfactants include, without limitation, PEG-10 laurate, PEG-12 laurate, PEG-20 laurate, PEG-32 laurate, PEG-32 dilaurate, PEG-12 oleate, PEG-15 oleate, PEG-20 oleate, PEG-20 dioleate, PEG-32 oleate, PEG-200 oleate, PEG-400 oleate, PEG-15 stearate, PEG-32 distearate, PEG-40 stearate.

PEG-100 stearate, PEG-20 dilaurate, PEG-25 glyceryl trioleate, PEG-32 dioleate, PEG-20 glyceryl laurate, PEG-30 glyceryl laurate, PEG-20 glyceryl stearate, PEG-20 glyceryl oleate, PEG-30 glyceryl oleate, PEG-30 glyceryl laurate, PEG-40 glyceryl laurate, PEG-40 palm kernel oil, PEG-50 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-40 castor oil, PEG-35 castor oil, PEG-60 castor oil, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-60 corn oil, PEG-6 caprate/caprylate glycerides, PEG-8 caprate/caprylate glycerides, polyglyceryl-10 laurate, PEG-30 cholesterol, PEG-25 phyto sterol. PEG-30 soya sterol, PEG-20 trioleate, PEG-40 sorbitan oleate, PEG-80 sorbitan laurate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, POE-9 lauryl ether, POE-23 lauryl ether, POE-10 oleyl ether, POE-20 oleyl ether, POE-20 stearyl ether, tocopheryl PEG-100 succinate, PEG-24 cholesterol, polyglyceryl-10 oleate, Tween 40, Tween 60, sucrose monostearate, sucrose monolaurate, sucrose monopalmitate, PEG 10-100 nonyl phenol series, PEG 15-100 octyl phenol series, and poloxamers.

Suitable lipophilic surfactants include, by way of example only: fatty alcohols: glycerol fatty acid esters; acetylated glycerol fatty acid esters; lower alcohol fatty acids esters; propylene glycol fatty acid esters; sorbitan fatty acid esters; polyethylene glycol sorbitan fatty acid esters; sterols and sterol derivatives; polyoxyethylated sterols and sterol derivatives; polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers: sugar esters; sugar ethers; lactic acid derivatives of mono- and di-glycerides: hydrophobic transesterification products of a polyol with at least one member of the group consisting of glycerides, vegetable oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, fatty acids and sterols; oil-soluble vitamins/vitamin derivatives; and mixtures thereof. Within this group, some lipophilic surfactants include glycerol fatty acid esters, propylene glycol fatty acid esters, and mixtures thereof, or are hydrophobic transesterification products of a polyol with at least one member of the group consisting of vegetable oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and triglycerides.

In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure contain no surfactants. In some embodiments, the formulations of the disclosure are intravenous formulations containing no surfactants. In some further embodiments the formulations contain substantially no surfactant, i.e. contain less than approximately 0.0001% by weight of surfactants. In some embodiments, the formulations contain essentially no surfactants.

If desired, however, the formulations can contain surface-active agents conventionally employed, such as oleic acid, lecithin, sorbitan trioleate, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate, polyoxypropylene/polyoxyethylene block copolymers, polyoxypropylene/polyoxyethylene/ethylene diamine block copolymers, ethoxylated castor oil and the like, where the proportion of surface-active agents, if present, can be about 0.0001 to 1% by weight, or about 0.001 to 0.1% by weight, based on the total formulation. Other suitable surfactant/emulsifying agents would be known to one of skill in the art and are listed in the CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, Vol. 2, 7th Edition (1997).

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can further include other pharmacological active ingredients as far as they do not contradict the purpose of the present disclosure. The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations for example can comprise solubilizing agents, bulking agents, dissolution enhancers, wetting agents, emulsifiers, suspending agents, antibacterial agents, sweeteners, perfuming agents, flavoring agents, and combinations thereof.

Some of the excipients or additives can have more than one possible function or use, depending on their properties and the nature of the formulation. In a combination of plural active ingredients, their respective contents can be suitably increased or decreased in consideration of their effects and safety.

Peptidomimetic Macrocycles

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle has the Formula (I):

wherein:
each A, C, and D is independently an amino acid;
each B is independently an amino acid

[—NH-L-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];

each E is independently an amino acid selected from the group consisting of Ala (alanine), D-Ala (D-alanine), Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid), Sar (N-methyl glycine), and Ser (serine);

each R, independently is hydrogen. alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;

each R1 and R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-: or forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;

each L and L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker:

each L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—], each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR, —N(R6)2, —SR, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

each v is independently an integer;

each w is independently an integer from 3-1000;

u is an integer from 1-10;

each x, y and z is independently an integer from 0-10; and

each n is independently an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments, each v and w is independently integers between 1-30. In some embodiments, w is an integer from 3-1000, for example 3-500, 3-200, 3-100, 3-50, 3-30, 3-20, or 3-10. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3 or 6. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3. In other embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 6.

In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles are also provided of the formula:

wherein:

each of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 is individually an amino acid, wherein at least three of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa4, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3), where each X is an amino acid;

each D and E is independently an amino acid;

each R1 and R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-; or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;

each L or L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue:

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

v is an integer from 1-1000, for example 1-500, 1-200, 1-100, 1-50, 1-30, 1-20 or 1-10; and

w is an integer from 3-1000, for example 3-500, 3-200, 3-100, 3-50, 3-30, 3-20, or 3-10.

In some embodiments, each v and w is independently an integer between 1-30. In some embodiments, w is an integer from 3-1000, for example 3-500, 3-200, 3-100, 3-50, 3-30, 3-20, or 3-10. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3 or 6. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3. In other embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 6.

In some embodiments of any of the Formulas described herein, at least three of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3). In other embodiments, at least four of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3). In other embodiments, at least five of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3). In other embodiments, at least six of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3). In other embodiments, at least seven of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-His5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10-X11-Ser12 (SEQ ID NO: 3).

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle has the Formula:

wherein:

each of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 is individually an amino acid, wherein at least three of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4), where each X is an amino acid:

each D is independently an amino acid:

each E is independently an amino acid, for example an amino acid selected from Ala (alanine), D-Ala (D-alanine), Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid), Sar (N-methyl glycine), and Ser (serine);

each R1 and R2 are independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-; or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;

each L or L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent:

each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue:

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue:

v is an integer from 1-1000, for example 1-500, 1-200, 1-100, 1-50, 1-30, 1-20, or 1-10;

w is an integer from 3-1000, for example 3-500, 3-200, 3-100, 3-50, 3-30, 3-20, or 3-10; and.

In some embodiments of the above Formula, at least three of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4). In other embodiments of the above Formula, at least four of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4).In other embodiments of the above Formula, at least five of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4). In other embodiments of the above Formula, at least six of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4) In other embodiments of the above Formula, at least seven of Xaa3, Xaa5, Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, and Xaa10 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence Phe3-X4-Glu5-Tyr6-Trp7-Ala8-Gln9-Leu10/Cba10-X11-Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 4).

In some embodiments, w is an integer from 3-10, for example 3-6, 3-8, 6-8, or 6-10. In some embodiments, w is 3. In other embodiments, w is 6. In some embodiments, v is an integer from 1-10, for example 2-5. In some embodiments, v is 2.

In one embodiment, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) is Formula (Ia):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof wherein:

each of Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa10, Xaa11, Xaa12, and Xaa13 is independently an amino acid, wherein at least three, four, five, or each of Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa10, Xaa11, Xaa12, are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence X5-Thr6-Leu7-Leu8-X9-Leu10-Lys11/Ala11-Val12/Ala12 (SEQ ID NO: 6), where each of X5 and X9 is independently an amino acid.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (Ia) is Formula (Ia-1):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each Xaa14 is independently an amino acid.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (Ia) is Formula (Ia-2):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each Xaa14 and Xaa15 is independently an amino acid.

In one embodiment, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) is Formula (Ib):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein: each of Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, Xaa10, Xaa11 and Xaa13 is independently an amino acid, wherein at least three, four, five, or each of Xaa6, Xaa7, Xaa8, Xaa9, Xaa10, and Xaa11 are the same amino acid as the amino acid at the corresponding position of the sequence X5-Thr6-Leu7-Leu8-Phe9-Leu10-Lys11/Ala11-X12 (SEQ ID NO: 7), where each of X5 and X12 is independently an amino acid.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (Ib) is Formula (Ib-1):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each Xaa14 is independently an amino acid.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (Ib) is Formula (Ib-2):

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein each Xaa14 and Xaa15 is independently an amino acid.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (IX):

wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle binds MCL-1 selectively over another protein that has a BH3 domain. wherein:

each A, C, D, and E is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid;

each B is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid, amino acid analog

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];

each L is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;

each L′ is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5, or a bond, or together with R1 and the atom to which both R1 and L′ are bound forms a ring;

each L″ is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5, or a bond, or together with R2 and the atom to which both R2 and L″ are bound forms a ring;

each R1 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-, or together with L′ and the atom to which both R1 and L′ are bound forms a ring;

each R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-, or together with L″ and the atom to which both R2 and L″ are bound forms a ring;

each R3 is independently hydrogen. alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5;

each L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]. each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;

each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;

each n is independently an integer from 1-5;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety. a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

each v and w is independently an integer from 1-1000;

u is an integer from 1-10; and

each x, y and z is independently an integer from 0-10, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle having the formula (SEQ ID NO: 8):

wherein:

each D and E is independently an amino acid residue;

each R1 and R2 are independently alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, each being optionally substituted with halo-; —H, or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of the D or E amino acid residues;

each L is a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula -L1-L2- or -L1-L2-L3-;

each L1, L2, and L3 are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R3 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each K is independently O, S, SO. SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

R7 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

R8 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

each of Xaa1 and Xaa2 is independently an amino acid residue or absent:

Xaa3 is Ala, Aib, Asp, Asn, Cys, Glu, Gln, His, Ile, Lys, Leu, Met, Arg, Ser, Thr, Val, Trp, Tyr, or an analog of any of the foregoing;

v is an integer from 1-1000:

w is an integer from 0-1000; and

n is an integer from 1-5, or

a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle of the formula:

wherein:

each D and E is independently an amino acid residue;

R1 and R2 are independently alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, each being optionally substituted with halo-; —H, or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of the D or E amino acid residues;

each L or L′ is independently a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula -L1-L2- or -L1-L-L-; L1, L2, and L are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene. heterocycloalkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R3 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R;

each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;

each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety. a radioisotope, or a therapeutic agent;

R7 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

R8 is —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl. aryl, or heteroaryl, each being optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

each of Xaa1 and Xaa2 is independently an amino acid residue or absent:

v is an integer from 1-1000;

w is an integer from 0-1000; and

n is an integer from 1-5, or

a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle comprising an amino acid sequence of formula:


X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-X7-X8-X9-X10-X11-X12-X13-X14-X15-X16-X17-X18-X19-X20-X21

wherein:

X1 is Ile, Arg, Ala, Lys, Pro, Leu, Asp, Glu, His, Ser, Gln, Phe, an analog thereof, or absent;

X2 is Trp, Arg, Ala, Asn, Phe, Pro, Leu, Ser, Lys, Tyr, His, Cou, Cou2, Cou4, Cou7, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X3 is Ile, Ala, Leu, Phe, Tyr, Val, Asp, Trp, Pro, Gln, Chg, Ac5c, Ac6c, Tha, Bip, Cha, Adm, hCha, an analog thereof, or absent;

X4 is Ala, Gln, Asp, Val, Gly. Ser, Leu, Phe, Cha, A4, an analog, thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X5 is Gln, Ala, Leu, Phe, Tyr, Gly, Ile, Val, Arg, Glu, Pro, Asp, MO, MO2, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X6 is Glu, Gln, His, Ala, Ser, Arg, Ile, Leu, Thr, Phe, Val, Tyr, Gly, Nle, St, an analog thereof, or absent;

X7 is Ala, Leu, Phe, Ile, 2Nal, 1Nal, 3cf, Chg. Cha, Adm, hCha, Igl, Bip, an analog thereof, or absent;

X8 is Arg, Ala, Asp, Glu, Thr, His, Gln, Gly, Asn, Phe, Cit, St, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X9 is Arg, Ala, Asp, Lys, Asn, Gly, Ser, Gln, Cys, Nle, St, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X10 is Ile, Val, Ala, Asp, Asn, Phe, Tba, hL, hhL, Nle, Chg, Cha, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X11 is Gly, Val, Ala. Leu, Ile, Asp, Glu, Cha, Aib, Abu, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X12 is Asp, Ala, Asn, Gly, Arg, Glu, Lys, Leu, Ne, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X13 is Ala, Glu, Gln, Leu, Lys, Asp, Tyr, lie, Ser, Cys, St, Sta5, Aib, Ne, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X14 is Phe, Ala, Leu, Val, Tyr, Glu, His, Ile, Nle, 1Nal, 2Nal, Chg, Cha, BiP, an analog thereof, or a crosslinked amino acid;

X15 is Asn, Gln, Ser, His, Glu, Asp, Ala, Leu, lie, St, Ne, Aib, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X16 is Ala, Glu, Asp, Arg, Lys, Phe, Gly, Gln, Aib, Cha, St, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X17 is Phe, Tyr, Ala, Leu, Asn, Ser, Gln, Arg, His, Thr, Cou2, Cou3, Cou7, Dpr, Amf, Damf, Amye, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent;

X18 is Tyr, Ala. Ile, Phe, His, Arg, Lys, Trp, Orn, Amf, Amyc, Cha, 2Nal, an analog thereof, or absent;

X19 is Ala, Lys, Arg, His, Ser, Gln, Glu, Asp, Thr, Aib, Cha, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent; and

X20 is Arg, His, Ala, Thr, Lys, Amr, an analog thereof, a crosslinked amino acid, or absent; and

X21 is Arg, His, Ala, Amr, an analog thereof, or absent, or

a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof,

wherein at least two of the amino acids of the amino acid sequence are a crosslinked amino acid.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle comprising an amino acid sequence with C-terminal amino acid residues that are -His-His, wherein the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises a crosslink connecting at least two amino acid residues, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof. In an embodiment of any of the Formulas described herein, of the macrocycle-forming linker (L or L′) has a formula -L1-L2-, wherein

L1 and L2 are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4-], each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;
each R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5; and
n is an integer from 1-5.

In some embodiments, L (or L′) is a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula

Exemplary embodiments of such macrocycle-forming linkers L are shown below.

In an embodiment of any of the Formulas described herein, L1 and L2, either alone or in combination, form a triazole or a thioether.

In an embodiment of any of the Formulas described herein, L1 and L2, either alone or in combination, do not form a triazole or a thioether.

In one example, at least one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-. In another example, both R1 and R2 are independently alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-. In some embodiments, at least one of R1 and R2 is methyl. In other embodiments, R1 and R2 are methyl.

In some embodiments, x+y+z is at least 3. In other embodiments, x+y+z is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3 or 6. In some embodiments, the sum of x+y+z is 3. In other embodiments, the sum of x+v+z is 6. Each occurrence of A, B, C. D or E in a macrocycle or macrocycle precursor is independently selected. For example, a sequence represented by the formula [A]x, when x is 3, encompasses embodiments where the amino acids are not identical, e.g. Gln-Asp-Ala as well as embodiments where the amino acids are identical, e.g. Gln-Gln-Gln. This applies for any value of x, y, or z in the indicated ranges. Similarly, when u is greater than 1, each compound can encompass peptidomimetic macrocycles which are the same or different. For example, a compound can comprise peptidomimetic macrocycles comprising different linker lengths or chemical compositions.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises a secondary structure which is an α-helix and Ra is —H, allowing intrahelical hydrogen bonding. In some embodiments, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is an α,α-disubstituted amino acid. In one example, B is an α,α-disubstituted amino acid. For instance, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is 2-aminoisobutyric acid. In other embodiments, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is

In other embodiments, the length of the macrocycle-forming linker L as measured from a first Cα to a second Cα is selected to stabilize a desired secondary peptide structure, such as an α-helix formed by residues of the peptidomimetic macrocycle including, but not necessarily limited to, those between the first Cα to a second Cα.

In some embodiments. a peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) has Formula:

wherein:
each A, C, D, and E is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid:
each B is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid, amino acid analog,

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-]
each L is independently a macrocycle-forming linker;
each L′ is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5, or a bond, or together with R1 and the atom to which both R1 and L′ are bound forms a ring;
each L″ is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene, each being optionally substituted with R5, or a bond, or together with R2 and the atom to which both R2 and L′ are bound forms a ring;
each R1 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-, or together with L′ and the atom to which both R1 and L′ are bound forms a ring;
each R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-, or together with L″ and the atom to which both R2 and L″ are bound forms a ring;
each R3 is independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;
each n is independently an integer from 1-5;
each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;

each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;

each v and w is independently an integer from 1-1000, for example 1-500, 1-200, 1-100, 1-50, 1-40, 1-25, 1-20, 1-15, or 1-10; and
each u, x, y and z is independently an integer from 0-10.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles have the Formula I:

wherein:
each A, C, D, and E is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid;
each B is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid, amino acid analog,

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];
each R1 and R2 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl. arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-;
each R3 is independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each L is independently a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula

each L1, L2 and L3 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;
each R4 is alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;
each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2, CO, CO2, or CONR3;
each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent:
each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with a D residue;
each R8 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, optionally substituted with R5, or part of a cyclic structure with an E residue;
each v and w is independently an integer from 1-1000;
each u, x, y and z is independently integers from 0-10; and
n is an integer from 1-5.

In one embodiment, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) is:

wherein each R1 and R2 is independently —H. alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-.

In related embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) is:

wherein each R1′ and R2′ is independently an amino acid.
In other embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle of Formula (I) is a compound of any of the formulas shown below:

wherein “AA” represents any natural or non-natural amino acid side chain and “” is [D]v, [E]w as defined above, and n is an integer between 0 and 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500. In some embodiments, n is 0. In other embodiments, n is less than 50.

Exemplary embodiments of the macrocycle-forming linker L are shown below.

In other embodiments, D and/or E in the compound of Formula I are further modified in order to facilitate cellular uptake. In some embodiments, lipidating or PEGylating a peptidomimetic macrocycle facilitates cellular uptake, increases bioavailability, increases blood circulation, alters pharmacokinetics, decreases immunogenicity and/or decreases the needed frequency of administration.

In other embodiments, at least one of [D] and [E] in the compound of Formula I represents a moiety comprising an additional macrocycle-forming linker such that the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises at least two macrocycle-forming linkers. In a specific embodiment, a peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises two macrocycle-forming linkers. In an embodiment, u is 2.

In some embodiments, any of the macrocycle-forming linkers described herein can be used in any combination with any of the sequences shown in Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, and Table 1c and also with any of the R-substituents indicated herein.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises at least one α-helix motif. For example, A, B and/or C in the compound of Formula I include one or more α-helices. As a general matter, α-helices include between 3 and 4 amino acid residues per turn. In some embodiments, the α-helix of the peptidomimetic macrocycle includes 1 to 5 turns and, therefore, 3 to 20 amino acid residues. In specific embodiments, the α-helix includes 1 turn, 2 turns, 3 turns, 4 turns, or 5 turns. In some embodiments, the macrocycle-forming linker stabilizes an α-helix motif included within the peptidomimetic macrocycle. Thus, in some embodiments, the length of the macrocycle-forming linker L from a first Ca to a second Ca is selected to increase the stability of an α-helix. In some embodiments, the macrocycle-forming linker spans from 1 turn to 5 turns of the α-helix. In some embodiments, the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 1 turn, 2 turns, 3 turns, 4 turns, or 5 turns of the α-helix. In some embodiments, the length of the macrocycle-forming linker is approximately 5 Å to 9 Å per turn of the α-helix, or approximately 6 Å to 8 Å per turn of the α-helix. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 1 turn of an α-helix, the length is equal to approximately 5 carbon-carbon bonds to 13 carbon-carbon bonds, approximately 7 carbon-carbon bonds to 11 carbon-carbon bonds, or approximately 9 carbon-carbon bonds. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 2 turns of an α-helix, the length is equal to approximately 8 carbon-carbon bonds to 16 carbon-carbon bonds, approximately 10 carbon-carbon bonds to 14 carbon-carbon bonds, or approximately 12 carbon-carbon bonds. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 3 turns of an α-helix, the length is equal to approximately 14 carbon-carbon bonds to 22 carbon-carbon bonds, approximately 16 carbon-carbon bonds to 20 carbon-carbon bonds, or approximately 18 carbon-carbon bonds. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 4 turns of an α-helix, the length is equal to approximately 20 carbon-carbon bonds to 28 carbon-carbon bonds, approximately 22 carbon-carbon bonds to 26 carbon-carbon bonds, or approximately 24 carbon-carbon bonds. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 5 turns of an α-helix, the length is equal to approximately 26 carbon-carbon bonds to 34 carbon-carbon bonds, approximately 28 carbon-carbon bonds to 32 carbon-carbon bonds, or approximately 30 carbon-carbon bonds. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 1 turn of an α-helix, the linkage contains approximately 4 atoms to 12 atoms, approximately 6 atoms to 10 atoms, or approximately 8 atoms. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 2 turns of the α-helix, the linkage contains approximately 7 atoms to 15 atoms, approximately 9 atoms to 13 atoms, or approximately 11 atoms. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 3 turns of the α-helix, the linkage contains approximately 13 atoms to 21 atoms, approximately 15 atoms to 19 atoms, or approximately 17 atoms. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 4 turns of the α-helix, the linkage contains approximately 19 atoms to 27 atoms, approximately 21 atoms to 25 atoms, or approximately 23 atoms. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 5 turns of the α-helix, the linkage contains approximately 25 atoms to 33 atoms, approximately 27 atoms to 31 atoms, or approximately 29 atoms. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 1 turn of the α-helix, the resulting macrocycle forms a ring containing approximately 17 members to 25 members, approximately 19 members to 23 members, or approximately 21 members. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 2 turns of the α-helix, the resulting macrocycle forms a ring containing approximately 29 members to 37 members, approximately 31 members to 35 members, or approximately 33 members. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 3 turns of the α-helix, the resulting macrocycle forms a ring containing approximately 44 members to 52 members, approximately 46 members to 50 members, or approximately 48 members. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 4 turns of the α-helix, the resulting macrocycle forms a ring containing approximately 59 members to 67 members, approximately 61 members to 65 members, or approximately 63 members. Where the macrocycle-forming linker spans approximately 5 turns of the α-helix, the resulting macrocycle forms a ring containing approximately 74 members to 82 members, approximately 76 members to 80 members, or approximately 78 members.

In other embodiments, provided are peptidomimetic macrocycles of Formula (IV) or (IVa):

wherein:
each A, C, D, and E is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid, and the terminal D and E independently optionally include a capping group;
each B is independently a natural or non-natural amino acid, amino acid analog,

[—NH-L3-CO—], [—NH-L3-SO2—], or [—NH-L3-];
each R1 and R2 are independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-; or at least one of R1 and R2 forms a macrocycle-forming linker L′ connected to the alpha position of one of said D or E amino acids;
each R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each L independently is a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula -L1-L2-;
each L1, L2 and L3 are independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, cycloarylene, heterocycloarylene, or [—R4—K—R4—]n, each being optionally substituted with R5;

each R4 is independently alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, heteroalkylene, cycloalkylene, heterocycloalkylene, arylene, or heteroarylene;

each K is independently O, S, SO, SO2 CO, CO2, or CONR3;
each R5 is independently halogen, alkyl, —OR6, —N(R6)2, —SR6, —SOR6, —SO2R6, —CO2R6, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R6 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, a fluorescent moiety, a radioisotope or a therapeutic agent;
each R7 is independently —H, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloaryl, or heterocycloaryl, optionally substituted with R5;
each v and w are independently integers from 1-1000;
u is an integer from 1-10;
each x, y and z are independently integers from 0-10; and
each n independently is an integer from 1-5.

In one example, L1 and L2, either alone or in combination, do not form a triazole or a thioether.

In one example, at least one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-. In another example, both R1 and R2 are independently alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with halo-. In some embodiments, at least one of R1 and R2 is methyl. In other embodiments, R1 and R2 are methyl.

In some embodiments, x+v+z is at least 1. In other embodiments, x+y+z is at least 2. In other embodiments, x+y+z is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10. Each occurrence of A, B, C, D or E in a macrocycle or macrocycle precursor is independently selected. For example, a sequence represented by the formula [A]x, when x is 3, encompasses embodiments where the amino acids are not identical, e.g. Gin-Asp-Ala as well as embodiments where the amino acids are identical. e.g. Gln-Gln-Gln. This applies for any value of x, y, or z in the indicated ranges.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises a secondary structure which is an α-helix and R8 is —H, allowing intrahelical hydrogen bonding. In some embodiments, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is an α,α-disubstituted amino acid. In one example, B is an α,α-disubstituted amino acid. For instance, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is 2-aminoisobutyric acid. In other embodiments, at least one of A, B, C, D or E is

In other embodiments, the length of the macrocycle-forming linker L as measured from a first Cα to a second Cα is selected to stabilize a desired secondary peptide structure, such as an α-helix formed by residues of the peptidomimetic macrocycle including, but not necessarily limited to, those between the first Cα to a second Cα.

Exemplary embodiments of the macrocycle-forming linker -L1-L2- are shown below.

In some embodiments, L is a macrocycle-forming linker of the formula

Exemplary embodiments of such macrocycle-forming linkers L are shown below.

Unless otherwise stated, any compounds (including peptidomimetic macrocycles, macrocycle precursors, and other compositions) are also meant to encompass compounds which differ only in the presence of one or more isotopically enriched atoms. For example, compounds having the described structures except for the replacement of a hydrogen by a deuterium or tritium, or the replacement of a carbon by 13C- or 14C-enriched carbon are within the scope of this disclosure.

In some embodiments, the compounds disclosed herein can contain unnatural proportions of atomic isotopes at one or more of atoms that constitute such compounds. For example, the compounds can be radiolabeled with radioactive isotopes, such as for example tritium (3H), iodine-125 (125I) or carbon-14 (14C). In other embodiments, one or more carbon atoms is replaced with a silicon atom. The compounds (including peptidomimetic macrocycles, macrocycle precursors, and other compositions) also include salts thereof. For example, salts of acidic and basic amino acids. All isotopic variations of the compounds disclosed herein, whether radioactive or not, are contemplated herein.

The compound or peptidomimetic macrocycles described herein can be at least 1% pure, at least 2% pure, at least 3% pure, at least 4% pure, at least 5% pure, at least 6% pure, at least 7% pure, at least 8% pure, at least 9% pure, at least 10% pure, at least 11% pure, at least 12% pure, at least 13% pure, at least 14% pure, at least 15% pure, at least 16% pure, at least 17% pure, at least 18% pure, at least 19% pure, at least 20% pure, at least 21% pure, at least 22% pure, at least 23% pure, at least 24% pure, at least 25% pure, at least 26% pure, at least 27% pure, at least 28% pure, at least 29% pure, at least 30% pure, at least 31% pure, at least 32% pure, at least 33% pure, at least 34% pure, at least 35% pure, at least 36% pure, at least 37% pure, at least 38% pure, at least 39% pure, at least 40% pure, at least 41% pure, at least 42% pure, at least 43% pure, at least 44% pure, at least 45% pure, at least 46% pure, at least 47% pure, at least 48% pure, at least 49% pure, at least 50% pure, at least 51% pure, at least 52% pure, at least 53% pure, at least 54% pure, at least 55% pure, at least 56% pure, at least 57% pure, at least 58% pure, at least 59% pure, at least 60% pure, at least 61% pure, at least 62% pure, at least 63% pure, at least 64% pure, at least 65% pure, at least 66% pure, at least 67% pure, at least 68% pure, at least 69% pure, at least 70% pure, at least 71% pure, at least 72% pure, at least 73% pure, at least 74% pure, at least 75% pure, at least 76% pure, at least 77% pure, at least 78% pure, at least 79% pure, at least 80% pure, at least 81% pure, at least 82% pure, at least 83% pure, at least 84% pure, at least 85% pure, at least 86% pure, at least 87% pure, at least 88% pure, at least 89% pure, at least 90% pure, at least 91% pure, at least 92% pure, at least 93% pure, at least 94% pure, at least 95% pure, at least 96% pure, at least 97% pure, at least 98% pure, at least 99% pure, at least 99.1% pure, at least 99.2% pure, at least 99.3% pure, at least 99.4% pure, at least 99.5% pure, at least 99.6% pure, at least 99.7% pure, at least 99.8% pure, or at least 99.9% pure on a chemical, optical. isomeric, enantiomeric, or diastereomeric basis. Purity can be assessed, for example, by HPLC, MS, LC/MS, melting point, or NMR.

Two or more peptides can share a degree of homology. A pair of peptides can have, for example, up to about 20% pairwise homology, up to about 25% pairwise homology, up to about 30% pairwise homology, up to about 35% pairwise homology, up to about 40% pairwise homology, up to about 45% pairwise homology, up to about 50% pairwise homology, up to about 55% pairwise homology, up to about 60% pairwise homology, up to about 65% pairwise homology, up to about 70% pairwise homology, up to about 75% pairwise homology, up to about 80% pairwise homology, up to about 85% pairwise homology, up to about 90% pairwise homology, up to about 95% pairwise homology, up to about 96% pairwise homology, up to about 97% pairwise homology, up to about 98% pairwise homology, up to about 99% pairwise homology, up to about 99.5% pairwise homology, or up to about 99.9% pairwise homology. A pair of peptides can have. for example, at least about 20% pairwise homology, at least about 25% pairwise homology, at least about 30% pairwise homology, at least about 35% pairwise homology, at least about 40% pairwise homology, at least about 45% pairwise homology. at least about 50% pairwise homology, at least about 55% pairwise homology, at least about 60% pairwise homology, at least about 65% pairwise homology, at least about 70% pairwise homology. at least about 75% pairwise homology, at least about 80% pairwise homology, at least about 85% pairwise homology, at least about 90% pairwise homology, at least about 95% pairwise homology, at least about 96% pairwise homology, at least about 97% pairwise homology, at least about 98% pairwise homology, at least about 99% pairwise homology, at least about 99.5% pairwise homology, at least about 99.9% pairwise homology.

Various methods and software programs can be used to determine the homology between two or more peptides, such as NCBI BLAST, Clustal W, MAFFT, Clustal Omega, AlignMe, Praline, or another suitable method or algorithm.

The circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be about 1-24 h. For example the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can me about 2-24 h, 4-24 h, 6-24 h, 8-24 h, 10-24 h, 12-24 h, 14-24 h, 16-24 h, 18-24 h, 20-24 h, 22-24 h, 1-20 h, 4-20 h, 6-20 h, 8-20 h, 10-20 h, 12-20 h, 14-20 h, 16-20 h, 18-20 h, 1-16 b, 4-16 h, 6-16 h, 8-16 b, 10-16 b, 12-16 h, 14-16 b, 1-12 h, 4-12 h, 6-12 h, 8-12 h, 10-12 h, 1-8 h, 4-8 h, 6-8 h, or 1-4 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be bout 1-12 h, for example about 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, 11 h, or 12 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 2 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 4 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 6 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 8 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 10 h.

The half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue can be about 1-24 h. For example the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can me about 1-24 h, 5-24 h, 10-24 h, 15-24 h, 20-24 h, 1-22 h, 5-22 h, 10-22 h, 15-22 h, 20-22 h, 1-20 h, 5-20 h, 15-20 h, 1-18 h, 5-18 h, 10-18 h, 15-18 h, 1-16 h, 5-16 h, 10-16 h, 15-16 h, 1-14 h, 5-14 h, 10-14 h, 1-12 h, 5-12 h, 10-12 h, 1-10 h, 5-10 h, 1-8 h, 5-8 h, 1-6 h, 5-6 h, or 1-4 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be bout 5-20 h, for example about 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, 11 h, 12 h, 13 h, 14 h, 15 h, 16 h, 17 h, 18 h, 19 h or 20 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 2 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 4 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 6 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 8 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 10 h.

The circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be greater than, equal to, or less than the half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be greater than the half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood can be equal to the half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue. In some examples, the half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue is greater than the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood. This can facilitate administration of the peptidomimetic macrocycles at a lower dose and/or at lower frequency. In some embodiments, the half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in biological tissue is at least 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, 11 h, or 12 h greater than the than the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 4 h and the half-life of the in biological tissue is about 10 h. In some examples, the circulating half-life of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in human blood is about 6 h and the half-life of the in biological tissue is about 10 h.

The cross-linked peptides of the disclosure can be modeled after the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53 (“p53 peptidomimetic macrocycles”). These cross-linked peptides contain at least two modified amino acids that together form an intramolecular cross-link that can help to stabilize the α-helical secondary structure of a portion of p53 that is thought to be important for binding of p53 to MDM2 and for binding of p53 to MDMX. Accordingly, a cross-linked polypeptide described herein can have improved biological activity relative to a corresponding polypeptide that is not cross-linked. The p53 peptidomimetic macrocycles are thought to interfere with binding of p53 to MDM2 and/or of p53 to MDMX, thereby liberating functional p53 and inhibiting its destruction. The p53 peptidomimetic macrocycles described herein can be used therapeutically, for example to treat cancers and other disorders characterized by an undesirably low level or a low activity of p53, and/or to treat cancers and other disorders characterized by an undesirably high level of activity of MDM2 or MDMX. The p53 peptidomimetic macrocycles can also be useful for treatment of any disorder associated with disrupted regulation of the p53 transcriptional pathway, leading to conditions of excess cell survival and proliferation such as cancer and autoimmunity, in addition to conditions of inappropriate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis such as neurodegeneration and immune deficiencies. In some embodiments, the p53 peptidomimetic macrocycles bind to MDM2 (e.g., GenBank® Accession No.: 228952: GI:228952) and/or MDMX (also referred to as MDM4; GenBank® Accession No.: 88702791; GI:88702791).

Table 1 shows a list of peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MDM2/MDMX-binding helix of p53 that were prepared. Tables 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d and 1e show a list of selected peptidomimetic macrocycles from Table 1. Table If shows a list of selected peptidomimetic macrocycles from Table 1e. A partial staple scan was performed on the linear peptide p-CF3-Phe7-D-PMI-β. SP-757, a potent and selective MDM2 antagonist, was prepared by including an i, i+7 crosslink to the sequence of p-CF3-Phe-7-D-PMI-b. SP-757 exhibited SJSA-1 sarcoma cell killing activity at a single digit micromolar concentration (EC50=1.5 mM). (FIG. 3). SP-763 was prepared by increasing the alanine content to 35% while maintaining the net charge and Von Heijne score by adding four alanine residues to the C-terminus of SP-757. SP-763 exhibited improved SJSA-1 sarcoma cell killing activity (EC50=0.15 mM) compared to SP-757 (FIG. 3). SP-763 exhibited similar cell killing activity as SP-449.

TABLE 1 List of peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MDM2/MDMX-binding helix of p53 that were prepared. SEQ ID Exact Found Calc Calc Calc SP NO: Sequence Isomer Mass Mass (M + 1)/1 (M + 2)/2 (M + 3)/3 SP1 9 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAA-NH2 1456.78 729.44 1457.79 729.4 486.6 SP2 10 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAibA-NH2 1470.79 736.4 1471.8 736.4 491.27 SP3 11 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SANle-NH2 1715.97 859.02 1716.98 858.99 573 SP4 12 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAL-NH2 1715.97 859.02 1716.98 858.99 573 SP5 13 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAM-NH2 1733.92 868.48 1734.93 867.97 578.98 SP6 14 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAhL-NH2 1729.98 865.98 1730.99 866 577.67 SP7 15 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAF-NH2 1749.95 876.36 1750.96 875.98 584.32 SP8 16 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAI-NH2 1715.97 859.02 1716.98 858.99 573 SP9 17 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SACHg-NH2 1741.98 871.98 1742.99 872 581.67 SP10 18 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAAib-NH2 1687.93 845.36 1688.94 844.97 563.65 SP11 19 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1673.92 838.01 1674.93 837.97 558.98 SP12 20 Ac-LTF$r8AYWASL$S$Nle-NH2 1767.04 884.77 1768.05 884.53 590.02 SP13 21 Ac-LTF$r8AYWASL$S$A-NH2 1724.99 864.23 1726 863.5 576 SP14 22 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AANle-NH2 1498.82 750.46 1499.83 750.42 500.61 SP15 23 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAL-NH2 1498.82 750.46 1499.83 750.42 500.61 SP16 24 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAM-NH2 1516.78 759.41 1517.79 759.4 506.6 SP17 25 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAhL-NH2 1512.84 757.49 1513.85 757.43 505.29 SP18 26 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAF-NH2 1532.81 767.48 1533.82 767.41 511.94 SP19 27 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAI-NH2 1498.82 750.39 1499.83 750.42 500.61 SP20 28 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAChg-NH2 1524.84 763.48 1525.85 763.43 509.29 SP21 29 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AACha-NH2 1538.85 770.44 1539.86 770.43 513.96 SP22 30 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAAib-NH2 1470.79 736.84 1471.8 736.4 491.27 SP23 31 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAibV-NH2 1771.01 885.81 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP24 32 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAibV-NH2 iso2 1771.01 886.26 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP25 33 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAibAA-NH2 1758.97 879.89 1759.98 880.49 587.33 SP26 34 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAibAA-NH2 iso2 1758.97 880.34 1759.98 880.49 587.33 SP27 35 Ac-HLTF$r8HHWHQL$AANleNle- 2056.15 1028.86 2057.16 1029.08 686.39 NH2 SP28 36 Ac-DLTF$r8HHWHQL$RRLV-NH2 2190.23 731.15 2191.24 1096.12 731.08 SP29 37 Ac-HHTF$r8HHWHQL$AAML-NH2 2098.08 700.43 2099.09 1050.05 700.37 SP30 38 Ac-F$r8HHWHQL$RRDCha-NH2 1917.06 959.96 1918.07 959.54 640.03 SP31 39 Ac-F$r8HHWHQL$HRFV-NH2 1876.02 938.65 1877.03 939.02 626.35 SP32 40 Ac-HLTF$r8HHWHQL$AAhLA-NH2 2028.12 677.2 2029.13 1015.07 677.05 SP33 41 Ac-DLTF$r8HHWHQL$RRCHgl-NH2 2230.26 1115.89 2231.27 1116.14 744.43 SP34 42 Ac-DLTF$r8HHWHQL$RRCHgl-NH2 iso2 2230.26 1115.96 2231.27 1116.14 744.43 SP35 43 Ac-HHTF$r8HHWHQL$AAChav-NH2 2106.14 1053.95 2107.15 1054.08 703.05 SP36 44 Ac-F$rF8HHWHQL$RRDa-NH2 1834.99 918.3 1836 918.5 612.67 SP37 45 Ac-F$r8HHWHQL$HRAibG-NH2 1771.95 886.77 1772.96 886.98 591.66 SP38 46 Ac-F$r8AYWAQL$HHNleL-NH2 1730.97 866.57 1731.98 866.49 578 SP39 47 Ac-F$r8AYWSAL$HQANle-NH2 1638.89 820.54 1639.9 820.45 547.3 SP40 48 Ac-F$r8AYWVQL$QHChgl-NH2 1776.01 889.44 1777.02 889.01 593.01 SP41 49 Ac-F$r8AYWTAL$QQNlev-NH2 1671.94 836.97 1672.95 836.98 558.32 SP42 50 Ac-F$r8AYWYQL$HAibAa-NH2 1686.89 844.52 1687.9 844.45 563.3 SP43 51 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$HHLa-NH2 1903.05 952.27 1904.06 952.53 635.36 SP44 52 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$HHLa-NH2 iso2 1903.05 952.27 1904.06 952.53 635.36 SP45 53 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$HQNlev-NH2 1922.08 962.48 1923.09 962.05 641.7 SP46 54 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$HQNlev-NH2 iso2 1922.08 962.4 1923.09 962.05 641.7 SP47 55 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$QQMl-NH2 1945.05 973.95 1946.06 973.53 649.36 SP48 56 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$QQMl-NH2 iso2 1945.05 973.88 1946.06 973.53 649.36 SP49 57 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$HAibhLV-NH2 1893.09 948.31 1894.1 947.55 632.04 SP50 58 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AHFA-NH2 1871.01 937.4 1872.02 936.51 624.68 SP51 59 Ac-HLTF$r8HHWHQL$AANlel-NH2 2056.15 1028.79 2057.16 1029.08 686.39 SP52 60 Ac-DLTF$r8HHWHQL$RRLa-NH2 2162.2 721.82 2163.21 1082.11 721.74 SP53 61 Ac-HHTF$r8HHWHQL$AAMv-NH2 2084.07 1042.92 2085.08 1043.04 695.7 SP54 62 Ac-F$r8HHWHQL$RRDA-NH2 1834.99 612.74 1836 918.5 612.67 SP55 63 Ac-F$r8HHWHQL$HRFCha-NH2 1930.06 966.47 1931.07 966.04 644.36 SP56 64 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHAm 1443.82 1445.71 1444.83 722.92 482.28 SP57 65 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHiAm 1443.82 723.13 1444.83 722.92 482.28 SP58 66 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHnPr3Ph 1491.82 747.3 1492.83 746.92 498.28 SP59 67 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHnBu33Me 1457.83 1458.94 1458.84 720 92 486.95 SP60 68 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHnPr 1415.79 709.28 1416.8 708.9 472.94 SP61 69 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHnEt2Ch 1483.85 1485.77 1484.86 742.93 495.62 SP62 70 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHnEt2Cp 1469.83 1470.78 1470.84 735.92 490.95 SP63 71 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NHHex 1457.83 730.19 1458.84 729.92 486.95 SP64 72 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIA-NH2 1771.01 885.81 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP65 73 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIA-NH2 iso2 1771.01 866.8 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP66 74 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAMA-NH2 1731.94 867.08 1732.95 866.98 578.32 SP67 75 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAMA-NH2 iso2 1731.94 867.28 1732.95 866.98 578.32 SP68 76 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1771.01 867.1 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP69 77 AC-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 iso2 1771.01 886.89 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP70 78 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1771.01 886.8 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP71 79 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1771.01 887.09 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP72 80 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAMa-NH2 1731.94 867.17 1732.95 866.98 578.32 SP73 81 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAMa-NH2 iso2 1731.94 867.37 1732.95 866.98 578.32 SP74 82 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANlea-NH2 1771.01 887.08 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP75 83 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANlea-NH2 iso2 1771.01 887.08 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP76 84 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAIv-NH2 1742.02 872.37 1743.03 872.02 581.68 SP77 85 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAIv-NH2 iso2 1742.02 872.74 1743.03 872.02 581.68 SP78 86 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAMv-NH2 1817 910.02 1818.01 909.51 606.67 SP79 87 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AANlev-NH2 1742.02 872.37 1743.03 872.02 581.68 SP80 88 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AANlev-NH2 iso2 1742.02 872.28 1743.03 872.02 581.68 SP81 89 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIl-NH2 1813.05 907.81 1814.06 907.53 605.36 SP82 90 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAIl-NH2 iso2 1813.05 907.81 1814.06 907.53 605.36 SP83 91 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAMl-NH2 1773.99 887.37 1775 888 592.34 SP84 92 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANlel-NH2 1813.05 907.61 1814.06 907.53 605.36 SP85 93 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANlel-NH2 iso2 1813.05 907.71 1814.06 907.53 605.36 SP86 94 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAMA-NH2 1575.82 789.02 1576.83 788.92 526.28 SP87 95 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AANleA-NH2 1557.86 780.14 1558.87 779.94 520.29 SP88 96 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAIa-NH2 1557.86 780.33 1558.87 779.94 520.29 SP89 97 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAMa-NH2 1575.82 789.3 1576.83 788.92 526.28 SP90 98 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AANlea-NH2 1557.86 779.4 1558.87 779.94 520.29 SP91 99 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAIv-NH2 1585.89 794.29 1586.9 793.95 529.64 SP92 100 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAMv-NH2 1603.85 803.08 1604.86 802.93 535.62 SP93 101 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AANlev-NH2 1585.89 793.46 1586.9 793.95 529.64 SP94 102 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAIl-NH2 1599.91 800.49 1600.92 800.96 534.31 SP95 103 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AAMl-NH2 1617.86 809.44 1618.87 809.94 540.29 SP96 104 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AANlel-NH2 1599.91 801.7 1600.92 800.96 534.31 SP97 105 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AANlel-NH2 iso2 1599.91 801.42 1600.92 800.96 534.31 SP98 106 Ac-LTF$r8AYSclWAQL$SAA-NH2 1707.88 855.72 1708.89 854.95 570.3 SP99 107 Ac-LTF$r8AY6clWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1707.88 855.35 1708.89 854.95 570.3 SP100 108 Ac-WTF$r8FYWSQL$AVAa-NH2 1922.01 962.21 1923.02 962.01 641.68 SP101 109 Ac-WTF$r8FYWSQL$AVAa-NH2 iso2 1922.01 962.49 1923.02 962.01 641.68 SP102 110 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$AVA -NH2 1802.98 902.72 1803.99 902.5 602 SP103 111 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$AVA-NH2 iso2 1802.98 903 1803.99 902.5 602 SP104 112 Ac-WTF$r8FYWSQL$SAAa-NH2 1909.98 956.47 1910.99 956 637.67 SP105 113 Ac-WTF$r8FYWSQL$SAAa-NH2 iso2 1909.98 956.47 1910.99 956 637.67 SP106 114 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$AVAaa-NH2 1945.05 974.15 1946.06 973.53 649.36 SP107 115 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$AVAaa-NH2 iso2 1945.05 973.78 1946.06 973.53 649.36 SP108 116 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AVG-NH2 1671.94 837.52 1672.95 836.98 558.32 SP109 117 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AVG-NH2 iso2 1671.94 837.21 1672.95 836.98 558.32 SP110 118 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AVQ-NH2 1742.98 872.74 1743.99 872.5 582 SP1I1 119 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AVQ-NH2 iso2 1742.98 872.74 1743.99 872.5 582 SP112 120 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAa-NH2 1673.92 838.23 1674.93 837.97 558.98 SP113 121 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAa-NH2 iso2 1673.92 838.32 1674.93 837.97 558.98 SP114 122 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1687.93 844.37 1688.94 844.97 563.65 SP115 123 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1687.93 844.81 1688.94 844.97 563.65 SP116 124 Ac-LTF$r8AYWEQLStSA#-NH2 1826 905.27 1827.01 914.01 609.67 SP117 125 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SLA-NH2 1715.97 858.48 1716.98 858.99 573 SP118 126 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SLA-NH2 iso2 1715.97 858.87 1716.98 858.99 573 SP119 127 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SWA-NH2 1788.96 895.21 1789.97 895.49 597.33 SP120 128 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SWA-NH2 iso2 1788.96 895.28 1789.97 895.49 597.33 SP121 129 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SVS-NH2 1717.94 859.84 1718.95 859.98 573.65 SP122 130 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SAS-NH2 1689.91 845.85 1690.92 845.96 564.31 SP123 131 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$SVG-NH2 1687.93 844.81 1688.94 844.97 563.65 SP124 132 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SAa-NH2 1717.91 859.76 1718.92 859.96 573.64 SP125 133 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1717.91 859.84 1718.92 859.96 573.64 SP126 134 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SVA-NH2 1745.94 873.82 1746.95 873.98 582.99 SP127 135 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SLA-NH2 1759.96 880.85 1760.97 880.99 587.66 SP128 136 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SWA-NH2 1832.95 917.34 1833.96 917.48 611.99 SP129 137 Ac-ETF$r8KYWAQL$SWA-NH2 1861.98 931.92 1862.99 932 621.67 SP130 138 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SVS-NH2 1761.93 881.89 1762.94 881.97 588.32 SP131 139 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SAS-NH2 1733.9 867.83 1734.91 867.96 578.97 SP132 140 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SVG-NH2 1731.92 866.87 1732.93 866.97 578.31 SP133 141 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SSa-NH2 1717.94 859.47 1718.95 859.98 573.65 SP134 142 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SSa-NH2 1733.9 867.83 1734.91 867.96 578.97 SP135 143 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SNa-NH2 1744.96 873.38 1745.97 873.49 582.66 SP136 144 Ac-ETF$r8VYWAQL$SNa-NH2 1760.91 881.3 1761.92 881.46 587.98 SP137 145 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SAa-NH2 1701.95 851.84 1702.96 851.98 568.32 SP138 146 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVA-NH2 1729.98 865.53 1730.99 866 577.67 SP139 147 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVA-NH2 iso2 1729.98 865.9 1730.99 866 577.67 SP140 148 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SWA-NH2 1816.99 909.42 1818 909.5 606.67 SP141 149 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVS-NH2 1745.98 873.9 1746.99 874 583 SP142 150 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVS-NH2 iso2 1745.98 873.9 1746.99 874 583 SP143 151 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SAS-NH2 1717.94 859.84 1718.95 859.98 573.65 SP144 152 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SAS-NH2 iso2 1717.94 859.91 1718.95 859.98 573.65 SP145 153 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVG-NH2 1715.97 858.87 1716.98 858.99 573 SP146 154 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$SVG-NH2 iso2 1715.97 858.87 1716.98 858.99 573 SP147 155 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCha$SAA-NH2 1771.96 886.85 1772.97 886.99 591.66 SP148 156 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCha$SAA-NH2 iso2 1771.96 886.85 1772.97 886.99 591.66 SP149 157 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCpg$SAA-NH2 1743.92 872.86 1744.93 872.97 582.31 SP150 158 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCPg$SAA-NH2 iso2 1743.92 872.86 1744.93 872.97 582.31 SP151 159 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQF$SAA-NH2 1765.91 883.44 1766.92 883.96 589.64 SP152 160 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQF$SAA-NH2 iso2 1765.91 883.89 1766.92 883.96 589.64 SP153 161 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1743.92 872.42 1744.93 872.97 582.31 SP154 162 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1743.92 873.39 1744 93 872.97 582.31 SP155 163 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1765.89 883.89 1766.9 883.95 589.64 SP156 164 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1765.89 883.96 1766.9 883.95 589.64 SP157 165 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1767.91 884.48 1768.92 884.96 590.31 SP158 166 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1767.91 884.48 1768.92 884.96 590.31 SP159 167 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQhL$SAA- 1781.92 891.44 1782.93 891.97 594.98 NH2 SP160 168 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQhL$SAA- iso2 1781.92 891.88 1782.93 891.97 594.98 NH2 SP161 169 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1747.88 874.34 1748.89 874.95 583.63 SP162 170 Ac-LTF$r8AYWVQL$SAA-NH2 1701.95 851.4 1702.96 851.98 568.32 SP163 171 Ac-LTF$8AHWAQL$SAA-NH2 1647.91 824.83 1648.92 824.96 550.31 SP164 172 Ac-LTF$r8AEWAQL$SAA-NH2 1639.9 820.39 1640.91 820.96 547.64 SP165 173 Ac-LTF$r8ASWAQL$SAA-NH2 1597.89 799.38 1598.9 799.95 533.64 SP166 174 Ac-LTF$r8AEWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1639.9 820.39 1640.91 820.96 547.64 SP167 175 Ac-LTF$r8ASWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1597.89 800.31 1598.9 799.95 533.64 SP168 176 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQL$SAA-NH2 1701.91 851.4 1702.92 851.96 568.31 SP169 177 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1701.91 851.4 1702.92 851.96 568.31 SP170 178 Ac-LTF$r8AHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1745 874.13 1746.01 873.51 582.67 SP171 179 Ac-ITF$r8FYWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1847.04 923.92 1848.05 924.53 616.69 SP172 180 Ac-ITF$r8EHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1803.01 903.17 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP173 181 Ac-ITF$rEHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1803.01 903.17 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP174 182 Ac-ETF$r8EHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1818.97 910.76 1819.98 910.49 607.33 SP175 183 Ac-ETF$r8EHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1818.97 910.85 1819.98 910.49 607.33 SP176 184 Ac-LTF$r8AHWVQL$AAIa-NH2 1773.03 888.09 1774.04 887.52 592.02 SP177 185 Ac-ITF$r8FYWVQL$AAIa-NH2 1875.07 939.16 1876.08 938.54 626.03 SP178 186 Ac-ITF$r8EYWVQL$AAIa-NH2 1857.04 929.83 1858.05 929.53 620.02 SP179 187 Ac-ITF$r8EHWVQL$AAIa-NH2 1831.04 916.86 1832.05 916.53 611.35 SP180 188 Ac-LTF$r8AEWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1736.99 869.87 1738 869.5 580 SP181 189 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQL$AAIa- 1799 900.17 1800.01 900.51 600.67 NH2 SP182 190 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQL$AAIa- iso2 1799 900.24 1800.01 900.51 600.67 NH2 SP183 191 Ac-LTF$r8AHWAQL$AHFA-NH2 1845.01 923.89 1846.02 923.51 616.01 SP184 192 Ac-ITF$r8FYWAQL$AHFA-NH2 1947.05 975.05 1948.06 974.53 650.02 SP1 85 193 Ac-ITF$r8HYWAQL$AHFA-NH2 iso2 1947.05 976.07 1948.06 974.53 650.02 SP186 194 Ac-ITF$r8FHWAQL$AEFA-NH2 1913.02 958.12 1914.03 957.52 638.68 SP187 195 Ac-ITF$r8FHWAQL$AEFA-NH2 iso2 1913.02 957.86 1914.03 957.52 638.68 SP188 196 Ac-ITF$r8EHWAQL$AHFA-NH2 1903.01 952.94 1904.02 952.51 635.34 SP189 197 Ac-ITF$r8EHWAQL$AHFA-NH2 iso2 1903.01 953.87 1904.02 952.51 635.34 SP190 198 Ac-LTF$r8AHWVQL$AHFA-NH2 1873.04 937.86 1874.05 937.53 625.35 SP191 199 Ac-ITF$r8FYWVQL$AHFA-NH2 1975.08 988.83 1976.09 988.55 659.37 SP192 200 Ac-ITF$r8EYWVQL$AHFA-NH2 1957.05 979.35 1958.06 979.53 653.36 SP193 201 AC-ITF$r8EHWVQL$AHFA-NH2 1931.05 967 1932.06 966.53 644.69 SP194 202 Ac-ITF$r8EHWVQL$AHFA-NH2 iso2 1931.05 967.93 1932.06 966.53 644.69 SP195 203 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAAL$SAA-NH2 1690.86 845.85 1691.87 846.44 564.63 SP196 204 Ac-LTF$r8AYWVAL$SAA-NH2 1644.93 824.08 1645.94 823.47 549.32 SP197 205 Ac-LTF$r8AHWAAL$SAA-NH2 1590.89 796.88 1591.9 796.45 531.3 SP198 206 Ac-LTF$r8AEWAAL$SAA-NH2 1582.88 791.9 1583.89 792.45 528.63 SP199 207 Ac-LTF$r8AEWAAL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1582.88 791.9 1583.89 792.45 528.63 SP200 208 Ac-LTF$r8ASWAAL$SAA-NH2 1540.87 770.74 1541.88 771.44 514.63 SP201 209 Ac-LTF$r8ASWAAL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1540.87 770.88 1541.88 771.44 514.63 SP202 210 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAIa-NH2 1713.99 857.39 1715 858 572.34 SP203 211 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1713.99 857.84 1715 858 572.34 SP204 212 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AHFA-NH2 1813.99 907.86 1815 908 605.67 SP205 213 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AHIa-NH2 1869.03 936.1 1870.04 935.52 624.02 SP206 214 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AHIa-NH2 iso2 1869.03 937.03 1870.04 935.52 624.02 SP207 215 Ac-LTF$r8AHWAQL$AHIa-NH2 1811.03 906.87 1812.04 906.52 604.68 SP208 216 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AHIa-NH2 1895.04 949.15 1896.05 948.53 632.69 SP209 217 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAFa-NH2 1804.99 903.2 1806 903.5 602.67 SP210 218 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAFa-NH2 iso2 1804.99 903.28 1806 903.5 602.67 SP211 219 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAWa-NH2 1844 922.81 1845.01 923.01 615.67 SP212 220 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAVa-NH2 1756.99 878.86 1758 879.5 586.67 SP213 221 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAVa-NH2 iso2 1756.99 879.3 1758 879.5 586.67 SP214 222 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AALa-NH2 1771.01 886.26 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP215 223 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AALa-NH2 iso2 1771.01 886.33 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP216 224 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1829.01 914.89 1830.02 915.51 610.68 SP217 225 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1829.01 915.34 1830.02 915.51 610.68 SP218 226 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAFa-NH2 1863 932.87 1864.01 932.51 622.01 SP219 227 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAFa-NH2 iso2 1863 932.87 1864.01 932.51 622.01 SP220 228 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAVa-NH2 1815 908.23 1816.01 908.51 606.01 SP221 229 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAVa-NH2 iso2 1815 908.31 1816.01 908.51 606.01 SP222 230 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 1803.01 903.17 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP223 231 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AAIa-NH2 iso2 1803.01 902.8 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP224 232 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AAWa-NH2 1876 939.34 1877.01 939.01 626.34 SP225 233 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AAWa-NH2 iso2 1876 939.62 1877.01 939.01 626.34 SP226 234 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AALa-NH2 1803.01 902.8 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP227 235 Ac-LTF$r8EHWAQL$AALa-NH2 iso2 1803.01 902.9 1804.02 902.51 602.01 SP228 236 Ac-ETF$r8EHWVQL$AALa-NH2 1847 924.82 1848.01 924.51 616.67 SP229 237 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAa-NH2 1728.96 865.89 1729.97 865.49 577.33 SP230 238 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAa-NH2 iso2 1728.96 865.89 1729.97 865.49 577.33 SP231 239 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAibA-NH2 1742.98 872.83 1743.99 872.5 582 SP232 240 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAibA-NH2 iso2 1742.98 872.92 1743.99 872.5 582 SP233 241 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAa-NH2 1800 901.42 1801.01 901.01 601.01 SP234 242 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$s8AAIa-NH2 1771.01 887.17 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP235 243 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$s8SAA-NH2 1673.92 838.33 1674.93 837.97 558.98 SP236 244 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$AANleA- 1783.01 892.64 1784.02 892.51 595.34 NH2 SP237 245 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQCba$AANleA- 1798.97 900.59 1799.98 900.49 600.66 NH2 SP238 246 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AANleA- 1841.01 922.05 1842.02 921.51 614.68 NH2 SP239 247 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$AWNleA- 1898.05 950.46 1899.06 950.03 633.69 NH2 SP240 248 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQCba$AWNleA- 1914.01 958.11 1915.02 958.01 639.01 NH2 SP241 249 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AWNleA- 1956.06 950.62 1957.07 979.04 653.03 NH2 SP242 250 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAFA-NH2 1890.99 946.55 1892 946.5 631.34 SP243 251 Ac- 1892.99 947.57 1894 947.5 632 LTF34F2$r8EYWAQCba$SANleA- NH2 SP244 252 Ac- 1885 943.59 1886.01 943.51 629.34 LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$SANleA- NH2 SP245 253 Ac-LTF$r8EYWSQCba$SANleA-NH2 1873 937.58 1874.01 937.51 625.34 SP246 254 Ac-LTF$r8EYWWQCba$SANleA- 1972.05 987.61 1973.06 987.03 658.36 NH2 SP247 255 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAIa-NH2 1841.01 922.05 1842.02 921.51 614.68 SP248 256 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQCba$SAAla- 1876.99 939.99 1878 939.5 626.67 NH2 SP249 257 Ac-LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAIa- 1869.01 935.64 1870.02 935.51 624.01 NH2 SP250 258 Pam-ETF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1956.1 979.57 1957.11 979.06 653.04 SP251 259 Ac-LThF$r8EFWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1741.94 872.11 1742.95 871.98 581.65 SP252 260 Ac-LTA$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1667.89 835.4 1668.9 834.95 556.97 SP253 261 Ac-LTF$r8EYAAQCba$SAA-NH2 1628.88 815.61 1629.89 815.45 543.97 SP254 262 Ac-LTF$r8EY2NalAQCba$SAA-NH2 1754.93 879.04 1755.94 878.47 585.98 SP255 263 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1685.92 844.71 1686.93 843.97 562.98 SP256 264 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAF-NH2 1819.96 911.41 1820.97 910.99 607.66 SP257 265 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAFa-NH2 1890.99 947.41 1892 946.5 631.34 SP258 266 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$SAF-NH2 1761.95 882.73 1762.96 881.98 588.32 SP259 267 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQCba$SAF- 1797.93 900.87 1798.94 899.97 600.32 NH2 SP260 268 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQCba$SAF- 1789.94 896.43 1790.95 895.98 597.65 NH2 SP261 269 Ac-LTF$r8EY6clWAQCba$SAF-NH2 1853.92 929.27 1854.93 927.97 618.98 SP262 270 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQCba$SAF-NH2 1777.94 890.87 1778.95 889.98 593.65 SP263 271 Ac-LTF$r8AYWWQCba$SAF-NH2 1876.99 939.91 1878 939.5 626.67 SP264 272 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$AAIa-NH2 1783.01 893.19 1784.02 892.51 595.34 SP265 273 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQCba$AAIa- 1818.99 911.23 1820 910.5 607.34 NH2 SP266 274 Ac-LTF$r8AY6clWAQCba$AAIa- 1816.97 909.84 1817.98 909.49 606.66 NH2 SP267 275 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQCbaRAAIa- 1811 906.88 1812.01 906.51 604.67 NH2 SP268 276 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAFa-NH2 1875 938.6 1876.01 938.51 626.01 SP269 277 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAFa-NH2 iso2 1875 938.6 1876.01 938.51 626.01 SP270 278 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQCba$AWNlea- 1914.01 958.42 1915.02 958.01 639.01 NH2 SP271 279 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AWNlea- 1956.06 979.42 1957.07 979.04 653.03 NH2 SP272 280 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQCba$AWNlea- 1972.01 987.06 1973.02 987.01 658.34 NH2 SP273 281 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQCba$AWNlea- iso2 1972.01 987.06 1973.02 987.01 658.34 NH2 SP274 282 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$SAFa-NH2 1832.99 917.89 1834 917.5 612 SP275 283 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$SAFa-NH2 iso2 1832.99 918.07 1834 917.5 612 SP276 284 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQL$AWNlea-NH2 1902.01 952.22 1903.02 952.01 635.01 SP277 285 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AWNlea-NH2 1944.06 973.5 1945.07 973.04 649.03 SP278 286 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQL$AWNlea-NH2 1960.01 981.46 1961.02 981.01 654.34 SP279 287 Dmaac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1788.98 896.06 1789.99 895.5 597.33 SP280 288 Hexac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1802 902.9 1803.01 902.01 601.67 SP281 289 Napac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1871.99 937.58 1873 937 625 SP282 290 Decac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1858.06 930.55 1859.07 930.04 620.36 SP283 291 Admac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1866.03 934.07 1867.04 934.02 623.02 SP284 292 Tmac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1787.99 895.41 1789 895 597 SP285 293 Pam-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1942.16 972.08 1943.17 972.09 648.39 SP286 294 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$AANleA- iso2 1783.01 892.64 1784.02 892.51 595.34 NH2 SP287 295 Ac-LTF34F2$Sr8EYWAQCba$AAIa- iso2 1876.99 939.62 1878 939.5 626.67 NH2 SP288 296 Ac-LTF34F2Rr8EYWAQCba$SAA- 1779.91 892.07 1780.92 890.96 594.31 NH2 SP289 297 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- iso2 1779.91 891.61 1780.92 890.96 594.31 NH2 SP290 298 Ac-LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$SAA- 1771.92 887.54 1772.93 886.97 591.65 NH2 SP291 299 Ac-LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$SAA- iso2 1771.92 887.63 1772.93 886.97 591.65 NH2 SP292 300 Ac-LTF$r8EYWSQCba$SAA-NH2 1759.92 881.9 1760.93 880.97 587.65 SP293 301 Ac-LTF$r8EYWSQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1759.92 881.9 1760.93 880.97 587.65 SP294 302 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1745.94 875.05 1746.95 873.98 582.99 SP295 303 Ac-LlT$r8AYWAQhL$SAF-NH2 1763.97 884.02 1764.98 882.99 589 SP296 304 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$SAF-NH2 iso2 1763.97 883.56 1764.98 882.99 589 SP297 305 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQhL$SAA- 1723.92 863.67 1724.93 862.97 575.65 NH2 SP298 306 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQhL$SAA- iso2 1723.92 864.04 1724.93 862.97 575.65 NH2 SP299 307 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQhL$SAA- 1715.93 859.44 1716.94 858.97 572.98 NH2 SP300 308 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQhL$SAA- iso2 1715.93 859.6 1716.94 858.97 572.98 NH2 SP301 309 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQhl$SAA-NH2 1703.93 853.96 1704.94 852.97 568.98 SP302 310 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQhL$SAA-NH2 iso2 1703.93 853.59 1704.94 852.97 568.98 SP303 311 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1829.01 915.45 1830.02 915.51 610.68 SP304 312 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- 1806.99 904.58 1808 904.5 603.34 NH2 SP305 313 Ac-LTF$r8AF4coohWAQL$AANleA- 1799 901.6 1800.01 900.51 600.67 NH2 SP306 314 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQL$AANleA-NH2 1787 894.75 1788.01 894.51 596.67 SP307 315 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQhL$AANleA- 1821 911.79 1822.01 911.51 608.01 NH2 SP308 316 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQhL$AANleA- iso2 1821 912.61 1822.01 911.51 608.01 NH2 SP309 317 Ac- 1813.02 907.95 1814.03 907.52 605.35 LTF$r8AF4coohWAQhL$AANleA- NH2 SP310 318 Ac- iso2 1813.02 908.54 1814.03 907.52 605.35 LTF$r8AF4coohWAQhL$AANLeA- NH2 SP311 319 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQhL$AANleA-NH2 1801.02 901.84 1802.03 901.52 601.35 SP312 320 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQhL$AANleA-NH2 iso2 1801.02 902.62 1802.03 901.52 601.35 SP313 321 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$AAAAa-NH2 1814.01 908.63 1815.02 908.01 605.68 SP314 322 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$AAAAa-NH2 iso2 1814.01 908.34 1815.02 908.01 605.68 SP315 323 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1871.04 936.94 1872.05 936.53 624.69 SP316 324 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAAa- iso2 1942.07 972.5 1943.08 972.04 648.37 NH2 SP317 325 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAAa- iso1 1942.07 972.5 1943.08 972.04 648.37 NH2 SP318 326 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$AANleA-NH2 1843.03 922.54 1844.04 922.52 615.35 SP319 327 Ac-AATF$r8AYWAQL$AANLA- 1800 901.39 1801.01 901.01 601.01 NH2 SP320 328 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANeAA-NH2 1842.04 922.45 1843.05 922.03 615.02 SP321 329 Ac-ALTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAA- 1913.08 957.94 1914.09 957.55 638.7 NH2 SP322 330 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$AANleAA- 1854.04 928.43 1855.05 928.03 619.02 NH2 SP323 331 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$AANleAA- 1856.06 929.4 1857.07 929.04 619.69 NH2 SP324 332 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAA-NH2 1814.96 909.37 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP325 333 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAA-NH2 iso2 1814.96 909.37 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP326 334 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAA-NH2 1886 944.61 1887.01 944.01 629.67 SP327 335 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAA-NH2 iso2 1886 944.61 1887.01 944.01 629.67 SP328 336 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1814.96 909.09 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP329 337 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAA-NH2 1886 944.61 1887.01 944.01 629.67 SP330 338 Ac-ALTF$rEYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1814.96 909.09 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP331 339 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1929.04 966.08 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP332 340 Ac-LTF$r8EY6clWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1777.89 890.78 1778.9 889.95 593.64 SP333 341 Ac- 1918.96 961.27 1919.97 960.49 640.66 LTF$r8EF4cooh6clWAQCba$SANleA- NH2 SP334 342 Ac- iso2 1918.96 961.27 1919.97 960.49 540.66 LTF$r8EF4cooh6clWAQCba$SANleA- NH2 SP335 343 Ac- 1902.97 953.03 1903.98 952.49 635.33 LTF$r8EF4cooh6clWAQCba$AAIa- NH2 SP336 344 Ac- iso2 1902.97 953.13 1903.98 952.49 635.33 LTF$r8EF4cooh6clWAQCba$AAIa- NH2 SP337 345 Ac-LTF$r8AY6cIWAQL$AAAAAa- 1905 954.61 1906.01 953.51 636.01 NH2 SP338 346 Ac-LTF$r8AY6ciWAQL$AAAAAa- iso2 1905 954.9 1906.01 953.51 636.01 NH2 SP339 347 Ac-F$r8AY6clWEAL$AAAAAAa- 1762.89 883.01 1763.9 882.45 588.64 NH2 SP340 348 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1945 974.31 1946.01 973.51 549.34 SP341 349 Ac-ETF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1945 974.49 1946.01 973.51 649.34 SP342 350 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAa- 2000.08 1001.6 2001.09 1001.05 667.7 NH2 SP343 351 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAa- iso2 2000.08 1001.6 2001.09 1001.05 667.7 NH2 SP344 352 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAAa- 1913.08 958.58 1914.09 957.55 638.7 NH2 SP345 353 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAAa- iso2 1913.08 958.58 1914.09 957.55 638.7 NH2 SP346 354 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAAAAa- 1941.04 972.55 1942.05 971.53 648.02 NH2 SP347 355 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAAAAa- iso2 1941.04 972.55 1942.05 971.53 648.02 NH2 SP348 356 Ac- 1969.04 986.33 1970.05 985.53 57.35 LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAAAAa- NH2 SP349 357 Ac- iso2 1969.04 986.06 1970.05 985.53 657.35 LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAAAAa- NH2 SP350 358 Ac-LTF$r8EYWSQCba$AAAAAa- 1957.04 980.04 1958.05 979.53 653.35 NH2 SP351 359 Ac-LTF$r8EYWSQCba$AAAAAa- iso2 1957.04 980.04 1958.05 979.53 653.35 NH2 SP352 360 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAa-NH2 1814.96 909 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP353 361 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAa-NH2 iso2 1814.96 909 1815.97 908.49 605.99 SP354 362 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAa-NH2 1886 944.52 1887.01 944.01 629.67 SP355 363 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAa-NH2 iso2 1886 944.98 1887.01 944.01 629.67 SP356 364 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAa- 1957.04 980.04 1958.05 979.53 653.35 NH2 SP357 365 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAa- iso2 1957.04 980.04 1958.05 979.53 653.35 NH2 SP358 366 Ac-AALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAa- 2028.07 1016.1 2029.08 1015.04 677.03 NH2 SP359 367 Ac-AALTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAa- iso2 2028.07 1015.57 2029.08 1015.04 677.03 NH2 SP360 368 Ac-RTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1786.94 895.03 1787.95 894.48 596.65 SP361 369 Ac-LRF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1798.98 901.51 1799.99 900.5 600.67 SP362 370 Ac-LTF$r8EYWRQCba$SAA-NH2 1828.99 916.4 1830 915.5 610.67 SP363 371 Ac-LTF$r8EYWARCba$SAA-NH2 1771.97 887.63 1772.98 886.99 591.66 SP364 372 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$RAA-NH2 1812.99 908.08 1814 907.5 605.34 SP365 373 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SRA-NH2 1828.99 916.12 1830 915.5 610.67 SP366 374 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAR-NH2 1828.99 916.12 1830 915.5 610.67 SP367 375 5-FAM-BaLTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- 2131 1067.09 2132.01 1066.51 711.34 NH2 SP368 376 5-FAM- 2158.08 1080.6 2159.09 1080.05 720.37 BaLTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 SP369 377 Ac-LAF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1799 901.05 1800.01 900.51 600.67 SP370 378 Ac-ATF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1786.97 895.03 1787.98 894.49 596.66 SP371 379 Ac-AAF$r8EYWAQLSAANleA-NH2 1756.96 880.05 1757.97 879.49 586.66 SP372 380 Ac-AAAF$r8EYWAQL$AANLeA- 1827.99 915.57 1829 915 610.34 NH2 SP373 381 Ac-AAAAF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA- 1899.03 951.09 1900.04 950.52 634.02 NH2 SP374 382 Ac-AATF$rSEYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1858 930.92 1859.01 930.01 620.34 SP375 383 Ac-AALTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA- 1971.09 987.17 1972.1 986.55 658.04 NH2 SP376 384 Ac-AAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleA- 2042.12 1023.15 2043.13 1022.07 681.71 NH2 SP377 385 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleAA-NH2 1900.05 952.02 1901.06 951.03 634.36 SP378 386 Ac-ALTF$rEYWAQL$AANleAA- 1971.09 987.63 1972.1 986.55 658.04 NH2 SP379 387 Ac-AALTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleAA- 2042.12 1022.69 2043.13 1022.07 681.71 NH2 SP380 388 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AANleAA- 1912.05 958.03 1913.06 957.03 638.36 NH2 SP381 389 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQhL$AANleAA- 1914.07 958.68 1915.08 958.04 639.03 NH2 SP382 390 Ac-ALTF$r8EYWAQhL$AANleAA- 1985.1 994.1 1986.11 993.56 662.71 NH2 SP383 391 Ac-LTF$r8ANmYWAQL$AANleA- 1785.02 894.11 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP384 392 Ac-LTF$r8ANmYWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1785.02 894.11 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP385 393 Ac-LTF$r8AYNmWAQL$AANleA- 1785.02 894.11 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP386 394 Ac-LTF$r8AYNmWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1785.02 894.11 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP387 395 Ac-LTF$r8AYAmwAQL$AANleA- 1785.02 894.01 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP388 396 Ac-LTF$r8AYAmWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1785.02 894.01 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP389 397 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAibQL$AANleA-NH2 1785.02 894.01 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP390 398 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAibQL$AANLeA-NH2 iso2 1785.02 894.01 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP391 399 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAibNleA-NH2 1785.02 394.38 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP392 400 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$AAibNleA-NH2 iso2 1785.02 894.38 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP393 401 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AaNleA-NH2 1771.01 887.54 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP394 402 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AaNleA-NH2 iso2 1771.01 887.54 1772 02 886.51 591.34 SP395 403 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$ASarNleA-NH2 1771.01 887.35 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP396 404 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$ASarNleA-NH2 iso2 1771.01 887.35 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP397 405 Ac-LTF$rAYWAQL$AANleAib-NH2 1785.02 894.75 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP398 406 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAib-NH2 iso2 1785.02 894.75 1786.03 893.52 596.01 SP399 407 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleNmA- 1785.02 894.6 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP400 408 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleNmA- iso2 1785.02 894.6 1786.03 893.52 596.01 NH2 SP401 409 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleSar-NH2 1771.01 886.98 1772.02 886.51 591.34 SP402 410 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleSar-NH2 iso2 1771.01 886.98 1772 02 886.51 591.34 SP403 411 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAAib- 1856.06 1857.07 929.04 619.69 NH2 SP404 412 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAAib- iso2 1856.06 1857.07 929.04 619.69 NH2 SP405 413 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleANmA- 1856.06 930.37 1857.07 929.04 619.69 NH2 SP406 414 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleANmA- iso2 1856.06 930.37 1857.07 929.04 619.69 NH2 SP407 415 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAa-NH2 1842.04 922.69 1843.05 922.03 615.02 SP408 416 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleAa-NH2 iso2 1842.04 922.69 1843.05 922.03 615.02 SP409 417 Ac-LFF$r8AYwAQL$AANleASar- 1842.04 922.6 1843.05 922.03 615.02 NH2 SP410 418 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleASar- iso2 1842.04 922.6 1843.05 922.03 615.02 NH2 SP411 419 Ac-LTF$/r8AYWAQL$/AANleA-NH2 1799.04 901.14 1800.05 900.53 600.69 SP412 420 Ac-LTFAibAYWAQLAibAANleA- 1648.9 826.02 1649.91 825.46 550.64 NH2 SP413 421 Ac-LTF$r8Cou4YWAQL$AANleA- 1975.05 989.11 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP414 422 Ac-LTF$r8Cou4YWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1975.05 989.11 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP415 423 Ac-LTF$r8AYWCou4QL$AANLeA- 1975.05 989.11 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP416 424 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$Cou4ANleA- 1975.05 989.57 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP417 425 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$Cou4ANleA- iso2 1975.05 989.57 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP418 426 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$ACou4NleA- 1975.05 989.57 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP419 427 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$ACou4NleA- iso2 1975.05 989.57 1976.06 988.53 659.36 NH2 SP420 428 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-OH 1771.99 887.63 1773 887 591.67 SP421 429 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-OH iso2 1771.99 887.63 1773 887 591.67 SP422 430 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- 1813.05 908.08 1814.06 907.53 605.36 NHnPr SP423 431 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1813.05 908.08 1814.06 907.53 605.36 NHnPr SP424 432 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- 1855.1 929.17 1856.11 928.56 619.37 NHnBu33Me SP425 433 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1855.1 929.17 1856.11 928.56 619.37 NHnBu33Me SP426 434 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- 1855.1 929.17 1856.11 928.56 619.37 NHHex SP427 435 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANeA- iso2 1855.1 929.17 1856.11 928.56 619.37 NHHex SP428 436 Ac-LTA$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1694.98 849.33 1695.99 848.5 566 SP429 437 Ac-LThL$r8AYWAQL$AANleA-NH2 1751.04 877.09 1752.05 876.53 584.69 SP430 438 Ac-LTF$r8AYAAQL$AANleA-NH2 1655.97 829.54 1656.98 828.99 553 SP431 439 Ac-LTF$r8AY2NalAQL$AANLeA- 1782.01 892.63 1783.02 892.01 595.01 NH2 SP432 440 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou4QCba$SAA-NH2 1947.97 975.8 1948.98 974.99 650.33 SP433 441 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QCba$SAA-NH2 16.03 974.9 17.04 9.02 6.35 SP434 442 Ac-LTF%r8EYWAQCba%SAA-NH2 1745.94 874.8 1746.95 873.98 582.99 SP435 443 Dmaac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- 1786.97 894.8 1787.98 894.49 596.66 NH2 SP436 444 Dmaac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1914.08 958.2 1915 09 958.05 539.03 NH2 SP437 445 Dmaac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAa- iso2 1914.08 958.2 1915 09 958.05 539.03 NH2 SP438 446 Dmaac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1972.08 987.3 1973.09 987.05 558.37 NH2 SP439 447 Dmaac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- iso2 1972.08 987.3 1973.09 987.05 558.37 NH2 SP440 448 Dmaac- 1912.05 957.4 1913.06 957.03 638.36 LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAIa-NH2 SP441 449 Dmaac- iso2 1912.05 957.4 1913.06 957.03 638.36 LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAIa-NH2 SP442 450 Dmaac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- 1814.05 908.3 1815.06 908.03 605.69 NH2 SP443 451 Dmaac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AANleA- iso2 1814.05 908.3 1815.06 908.03 605.69 NH2 SP444 452 Ac-LTF%r8AYWAQL%AANleA-NH2 1773.02 888.37 1774.03 887.52 592.01 SP445 453 Ac-LTF%r8EYWAQL%AAAAAa- 1931.06 966.4 1932.07 966.54 644.69 NH2 SP446 454 Cou6BaLTF$r8EYWAQhl$SAA-NH2 2018.05 1009.9 2019.06 1010.03 673.69 SP447 455 Cou8BaLTF$r8EYWAQhL$SAA-NH2 1962.96 982.34 1963.97 982.49 655.32 SP448 456 Ac-LTF4I$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2054.93 1028.68 2055.94 1028.47 685.98 NH2 SP449 457 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1929.04 966.17 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP550 458 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-OH 1930.02 966.54 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP551 459 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-OH iso2 1930.02 965.89 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP552 460 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAEL$AAAAAa-NH2 1930.02 966.82 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP553 461 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAEL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1930.02 966.91 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP554 462 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAEL$AAAAAa-OH 1931.01 967.28 1932.02 966.51 644.68 SP555 463 Ac-LTF$r8EY6clWAQL$AAAAAa- 1963 983.28 1964.01 982.51 655.34 NH2 SP556 464 Ac- 1957.05 980.04 1958.06 979.53 653.36 LTF$r8EF4bOH2WAQL$AAAAAa- NH2 SP557 465 Ac-AAALTF$rSEYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2142.15 1072.83 2143.16 1072.08 715.06 NH2 SP558 466 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1965.02 984.3 1966.03 983.52 656.01 NH2 SP559 467 Ac-RTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1972.06 987.81 1973.07 987.04 658.36 SP560 468 Ac-LTA$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1853.01 928.33 1854.02 927.51 618.68 SP561 469 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAibQL$AAAAAa- 1943.06 973.48 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP562 470 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAibAAAa- 1943.06 973.11 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP563 471 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAibAAa- 1943.06 973.48 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP564 472 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAibAa- 1943.06 973.48 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP565 473 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAiba- 1943.06 973.38 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP566 474 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAiba- iso2 1943.06 973.38 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP567 475 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAib- 1943.06 973.01 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP568 476 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AaAAAa-NH2 1929.04 966.54 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP569 477 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAaAAa-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP570 478 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAaAa-NH2 1929.04 966.54 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP571 479 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAaAa-NH2 iso2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP572 480 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAaa-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP573 481 AC-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAA-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP574 182 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$ASarAAAa- 1929.04 966.54 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP575 483 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AASarAAa- 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP576 484 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAASarAa- 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP577 485 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAASara- 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP578 486 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAASar- 1929.04 966.08 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP579 487 Ac-7LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1918.07 951.99 1919.08 960.04 640.37 NH2 SP58I 488 Ac-TF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1815.96 929.85 1816.97 908.99 606.33 SP582 489 Ac-F$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1714.91 930.92 1715.92 858.46 572.64 SP583 490 Ac-LVF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1927.06 895.12 1928.07 964.54 643.36 SP584 491 Ac-AAF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1856.98 859.51 1857.99 929.5 620 SP585 492 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAa-NH2 1858 824.08 1859.01 930.01 620.34 SP586 493 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAa-NH2 1786.97 788.56 1787.98 894.49 596.66 SP587 194 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAa-NH2 1715.93 1138.57 1716.94 858.97 572.98 SP588 495 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$Aa-NH2 1644.89 1144.98 1645.9 823.45 549.3 SP589 496 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$a-NH2 1573.85 1113.71 1574.86 787.93 525.62 SP590 497 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA-OH 1716.91 859.55 1717.92 859.46 573.31 SP591 498 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$A-OH 1574.84 975.14 1575.85 788.43 525.95 SP592 499 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA-NH2 1715.93 904.75 1716.94 858.97 572.98 SP593 500 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-OH 1744.91 802.49 1745.92 873.46 582.64 SP594 501 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$S-OH 1602.83 913.53 1603.84 802.42 535.28 SP595 502 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$S-NH2 1601.85 979.58 1602.86 801.93 534.96 SP596 503 4-FBzl-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2009.05 970.52 2010.06 1005.53 670.69 NH2 SP597 504 4-FBzl-LTF$8EYWAQCba$SAA- 1823.93 965.8 1824.94 912.97 608.98 NH2 SP598 505 Ac-LTF$r8RYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1956.1 988.28 1957.11 979.06 653.04 SP599 506 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1937.06 1003.54 1938.07 969.54 646.69 SP600 507 Ac-LTF$r8QYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1928.06 993.92 1929.07 965.04 643.69 SP601 508 Ac-LTF$r8CitYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1957.08 987 1958.09 979.55 653.37 NH2 SP602 509 Ac-LTF$r8GlaYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1973.03 983 1974.04 987.52 658.68 NH2 SP603 510 Ac-LTF$r8F4gYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2004.1 937.86 2005.11 1003.06 669.04 NH2 SP604 511 Ac-LTF$r82mRYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1984.13 958.58 1985.14 993.07 662.38 NH2 SP605 512 Ac-LTF$r8ipKYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1970.14 944.52 1971.15 986.08 657.72 NH2 SP606 513 Ac-LTF$r8F4NH2YWAQL$AAAAAa- 1962.08 946 1963.09 982.05 655.03 NH2 SP607 514 Ac-LTF$8EYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 1872.02 959.32 1873.03 937.02 625.01 SP608 515 Ac-LTF$r8EYWALL$AAAAAa-NH2 1914.07 980.88 1915.08 958.04 639.03 SP609 516 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAAibL$AAAAAa- 1886.03 970.61 1887.04 944.02 629.68 NH2 SP610 517 Ac-LTF$r8EYWASL$AAAAAa-NH2 1888.01 980.51 1889.02 945.01 630.34 SP611 518 Ac-LTF$r8EYWANL$AAAAAa-NH2 1915.02 1006.41 1916.03 958.52 639.35 SP612 519 Ac-LTF$r8EYWACitL$AAAAAa- 1958.07 1959.08 980.04 653.7 NH2 SP613 520 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAHL$AAAAAa-NH2 1938.04 966.24 1939.05 970.03 647.02 SP614 521 Ac-LTF$r8EYWARL$AAAAAa-NH2 1957.08 1958.09 979.55 653.37 SP615 522 Ac-LTF$r8EpYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2009.01 2010.02 1005.51 670.68 NH2 SP616 523 Cbm-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1590.85 1591.86 796.43 531.29 SP617 524 Cbm-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 1930.04 1931.05 966.03 644.35 NH2 SP618 525 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$SAAAAa-NH2 1945.04 1005.11 1946.05 973.53 649.35 SP619 526 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAASa-NH2 1945.04 986.52 1946.05 973.53 649.35 SP620 527 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$SAAASa-NH2 1961.03 993.27 1962.04 981.52 654.68 SP621 528 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQTba$AAAAAa- 1943.06 983.1 1944.07 972.54 648.69 NH2 SP622 529 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQAdm$AAAAAa- 2007.09 990.31 2008.1 1004.55 670.04 NH2 SP623 530 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCha$AAAAAa- 1969.07 987.17 1970.08 985.54 657.36 NH2 SP624 531 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQhCha$AAAAAa- 1983.09 1026.11 1984.1 992.55 662.04 NH2 SP625 532 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQF$AAAAAa-NH2 1963.02 957.01 1964.03 982.52 655.35 SP626 533 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQhF$AAAAAa-NH2 1977.04 1087.81 1978.05 989.53 660.02 SP627 534 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AANleAAa- 1971.09 933.45 1972.1 986.55 658.04 NH2 SP628 535 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQAdm$AANleAAa- 2049.13 1017.97 2050.14 1025.57 684.05 NH2 SP629 536 4-FBz- 2080.08 2081.09 1041.05 694.37 BaLTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP630 537 4-FBz-BaLTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- 1894.97 1895.98 948.49 632.66 NH2 SP631 538 Ac-LTF$r5EYWAQL$s8AAAAAa- 1929.04 1072.68 1930.05 965.53 644.02 NH2 SP632 539 Ac-LTF$r5EYWAQCba$s8SAA-NH2 1743.92 1107.79 1744.93 872.97 582.31 SP633 540 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAhhLAAa- 1999.12 2000.13 1000.57 667.38 NH2 SP634 541 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAAa- 2071.11 2072.12 1036.56 691.38 NH2 SP635 542 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAAAa- 2142.15 778.1 2143.16 1072.08 715.06 NH2 SP636 543 Ac- 2213.19 870.53 2214.2 1107.6 738.74 LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAAAAa- NH2 SP637 544 Ac-LTA$r8EYAAQCba$SAA-NH2 1552.85 1553.86 777.43 518.62 SP638 545 Ac-LTA$r8EYAAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1737.97 779.45 1738.98 869.99 580.33 SP639 546 Ac-LTF$r8EPmpWAQL$AAAAAa- 2007.03 779.54 2008.04 1004.52 670.02 NH2 SP640 547 Ac-LTF$r8EPmpWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1821.91 838.04 1822.92 911.96 608.31 SP641 548 Ac-ATF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1555.82 867.83 1556.83 778.92 519.61 SP642 549 Ac-LTF$r8HAWAQL$S-NH2 1505.84 877.91 1506.85 753.93 502.95 SP643 550 Ac-LTF$8HYWAQA$S-NH2 1555.82 852.52 1556.83 778.92 519.61 SP644 551 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SA-NH2 1672.89 887.18 1673.9 837.45 558.64 SP645 552 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$SAA-NH2 1731.92 873.32 1732.93 866.97 578.31 SP646 553 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1751.94 873.05 1752.95 876.98 584.99 SP647 554 Ac-LTF$r8SYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1701.91 844.88 1702.92 851.96 568.31 SP648 555 Ac-LTF$r8RYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1770.98 865.58 1771.99 886.5 591.33 SP649 556 Ac-LTT$r8KYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1742.98 936.57 1743.99 872.5 582 SP650 557 Ac-LTF$r8QYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 1742.94 930.93 1743.95 872.48 581.99 SP651 558 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAACba$SAA-NH2 1686.9 1032.45 1687.91 844.46 563.31 SP652 $59 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAA-NH2 1727.93 895.46 1728.94 864.97 576.98 SP653 560 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAA-OH 1858.99 824.54 1860 930.5 620.67 SP654 561 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAA-OH 1787.95 894.48 1788.96 894.98 596.99 SP655 562 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AA-OH 1645.88 856 1646.89 823.95 549.63 SP656 563 Ac- LTF$r8AF4bOH2WAQL$AAAAAa- NH2 SP657 564 Ac- LTF$r8AF4bOH2WAAL$AAAAAa- NH2 SP658 565 Ac-LTF$r8EF4bOH2WAQCba$SAA- NH2 SP659 566 Ac-LTF$r8ApYWAQL$AAAAAa- NH2 SP660 567 Ac-LTF$r8ApYWAAL$AAAAAa- NH2 SP661 568 Ac-LTF$r8EpYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 SP662 569 Ac- 1974.06 934.44 LTF$rda6AYWAQL$da5AAAAAa- NH2 SP663 570 Ac-LTF$rda6EYWAQCba$da5SAA- 1846.95 870.52 869.94 NH2 SP664 571 Ac-LTF$rda6EYWAQL$daSAAAAAa- NH2 SP665 572 Ac-LTF$ra9EYWAQL$a6AAAAAa- 936.57 935.51 NH2 SP666 573 Ac-LTF$ra9EYWAQL$a6AAAAAa- NH2 SP667 574 Ac-LTF$ra9EYWAQCba$a6SAA-NH2 SP668 575 Ac-LTA$ra9EYWAQCba$a6SAA- NH2 SP669 576 5-FAM- BaLTF$ra9EYWAQCba$a6SAA-NH2 SP670 577 5-FAM- 2316.11 BaLTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP671 578 5-FAM- 2344.15 BaLTF$/r8EYWAQL$/AAAAAa-NH2 SP672 579 5-FAM- 2240.08 BaLTA$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP673 580 5-FAM- 2258.11 BaLTF$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP674 581 5-FAM- 2274.07 BaATF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP675 582 5-FAM- 2286.1 BaLAF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP676 583 5-FAM- 2224.09 BaLTF$r8EAWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP677 584 5-FAM- 2201.07 BaLTF$r8EYAAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP678 585 5-FAM- 2125.04 BaLTARr8EYAAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP679 586 5-FAM- 2259.09 BaLTF$r8EYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP680 587 5-FAM- 2274.07 BaLTF$r8EYWAQASAAAAAa-NH2 SP681 588 5-FAM- 2159.03 BaLTF$/r8EYWAQCba$/SAA-NH2 SP682 589 5-FAM-BaLTA$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- 2054.97 NH2 SP683 590 5-FAM-BaLTF$r8EYAAQCba$SAA- 2015.96 NH2 SP684 591 5-FAM-BaLTA$r8EYAAQCba$SAA- 1939.92 NH2 SP685 592 5-FAM-BaQSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN- 2495.23 NH2 SP686 593 5-TAMRA- 2186.1 BaLTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 SP687 594 5-TAMRA- 2110.07 BaLTARr8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 SP688 595 5-TAMRA- 2071.06 BaLTF$r8EYAAQCba$SAA-NH2 SP689 596 5-TAMRA- 1995.03 BaLTA$r8E¥AAQCba$SAA-NH2 SP690 597 5-TAMRA- 2214.13 BaLTF$/r8EYWAQCba$/SAA-NH2 SP691 598 5-TAMRA- 2371.22 BaLTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP692 599 5-TAMRA- 2295.19 BaLTA$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP693 600 5-TAMRA- 2399.25 BaLTF$/r8EYWAQL$/AAAAAa-NH2 SP694 601 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QCba$SAA-OH 1947.93 SP695 602 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QCba$S-OH 1805.86 SP696 603 Ac-LTA$r8EYWCou7QCba$SAA- 1870.91 NH2 SP697 604 Ac-LTF$r8EYACou7QCba$SAA-NH2 1831.9 SP698 605 Ac-LTA$r8EYACou7QCba$SAA-NH2 1755.87 SP699 606 Ac-LTF$/r8EYWCou7QCba$/SAA- 1974.98 NH2 SP700 607 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QL$AAAAAa- 2132.06 NH2 SP701 608 Ac-LTF$/r8EYWCou7QL$/AAAAAa- 2160.09 NH2 SP702 609 Ac-LTF$8EYWCou7QL$AAAAA- 2062.01 OH SP703 610 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QL$AAAA-OH 1990.97 SP704 611 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QL$AAA-OH 1919.94 SP705 612 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QL$AA-OH 1848.9 SP706 613 Ac-LTF$r8EYWCou7QL$A-OH 1777.86 SP707 614 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAASa-NH2 iso2 974.4 973.53 SP708 615 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1814.01 908.82 1815.02 908.01 605.68 SP709 616 Biotin- 2184.14 1093.64 2185.15 1093.08 729.05 BaLTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP710 617 Ac-LTF$8HAWAQL$S-NH2 iso2 1505.84 754.43 1506.85 753.93 502.95 SP711 618 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SA-NH2 iso2 1672.89 838.05 1673.9 837.45 558.64 SP712 619 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1751.94 877.55 1752.95 876.98 584.99 SP713 620 Ac-LTF$r8SYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1701.91 852.48 1702.92 851.96 568.31 SP714 621 Ac-LTF$r8RYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1770.98 887.45 1771.99 886.5 591.33 SP715 622 Ac-LTF$r8KYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 iso2 1742.98 872.92 1743.99 872.5 582 SP716 623 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAA-NH2 iso2 1727.93 865.71 1728.94 864.97 576.98 SP717 624 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAaBaC- 2103.09 1053.12 2104.1 1052.55 702.04 NH2 SP718 625 Ac- 2279.19 1141.46 2280.2 1140.6 760.74 LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAadPeg4C- NH2 SP719 626 Ac-LTA$r8AYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 1737.98 870.43 1738.99 870 580.33 SP720 627 Ac-LTF$r8AYAAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 1698.97 851 1699.98 850.49 567.33 SP721 628 5-FAM- 2201.09 1101.87 2202.1 1101.55 734.7 BaLTF$r8AYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 SP722 629 Ac-LTA$r8AYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1795 898.92 1796.01 898.51 599.34 SP723 630 Ac-LTF$r8AYAAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1755.99 879.49 1757 879 586.34 SP724 631 Ac- 1807.97 1808.98 904.99 603.66 LTF$rda6AWAAL$da5AAAAAa- NH2 SP725 632 FITC-BaLTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa- 2347.1 1174.49 2348.11 1174.56 783.37 NH2 SP726 633 FITC-BaLTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA- 2161.99 1082.35 2163 1082 721.67 NH2 SP733 634 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$EAAAAa-NH2 1987.05 995.03 1988.06 994.53 663.36 SP734 635 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$EAAAAa-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP735 636 Ac- 2354.25 1178.47 2355.2.6 1178.13 785.76 LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAaBaKbio- NH2 SP736 637 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 1814.01 908.45 1815.02 908.01 605.68 SP737 638 Ac-LTF$r8AYAAAL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1698.97 850.91 1699.98 850.49 567.33 SP738 639 Ac-LTF$r8AYAAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1755.99 879.4 1757 879 586.34 SP739 640 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$EAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1987.05 995.21 1988.06 994.53 663.36 SP740 641 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$EAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1929.04 966.08 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP741 642 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAAAAa- 1957.04 980.04 1958.05 979.53 653.35 NH2 SP742 643 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQLStAAA$r5AA- 2023.12 1012.83 2024.13 1012.57 675.38 NH2 SP743 644 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$A$AAA$A- 2108.17 1055.44 2109.18 1055.09 703.73 NH2 SP744 645 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AA$AAA$A- 2179.21 1090.77 2180.22 1090.61 727.41 NH2 SP745 646 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA$AAA$A- 2250.25 1126.69 2251.2.6 1126.13 751.09 NH2 SP746 647 Ac-AAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA-OH 1930.02 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP747 648 Ac-AAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA-NH2 1929.04 965.85 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP748 649 Ac-AAAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA- 2000.08 1001.4 2001.09 1001.05 667 7 NH2 SP749 650 Ac-AAAAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AAA- 2071.11 1037.13 2072.12 1036.56 691.38 NH2 SP750 651 Ac- 2142.15 2143.16 1072.08 715.06 AAAAAALTHSr8EYWAQL$AAA- NH2 SP751 652 Ac-LTF$rdaEYWAQCba$da6SAA- iso2 1751.89 877.36 1752.9 876.95 584.97 NH2 SP752 653 Ac-t$r5wya$r5f4CF3ekllr-NH2 844.25 SP753 654 Ac-tawy$r5nf4CF3e$Sr5llr-NH2 837.03 SP754 655 Ac-tawya$r5f4CF3ek$r5lr-NH2 822.97 SP755 656 Ac-tawyanf4CF3e$r5llr$r5a-NH2 908.35 SP756 657 Ac-t$s8wyanf4CF3e$r5llr-NH2 858.03 SP757 658 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3ekll$r5a-NH2 879.86 SP758 659 Ac-tawya$s8f4CF3ekllr$r5a-NH2 936.38 SP759 660 Ac-tawy$s8naekll$r5a-NH2 844.25 SP760 661 5-FAM-Batawy$s8nf4CF3ekll$r5a- NH2 SP761 662 5-FAM-Batawy$s8naekll$r5a-NH2 SP762 663 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3eall$r5a-NH2 SP763 664 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3ckll$r5aaaaa-NH2 SP764 665 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3eall$r5aaaaa-NH2

Table 1a shows a selection of peptidomimetic macrocycles.

TABLE 1a SEQ Calc Calc Calc ID Exact Found (M + 1)/ (M + 2)/ (M + 3)/ SP NO: Sequence Isomer Mass Mass 1 2 3 SP244 666 Ac-LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCbarSANleA-NH2 1885 943.59 1886.01 943.51 629.34 SP331 667  Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1929.04 966.08 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP555 668  Ac-LTF$r8EY6clWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1963 983.28 1964.01 982.51 655.34 SP557 669  Ac-AAALTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 2142.15 1072.83 2143.16 1072.08 715.06 SP558 670 Ac-LTF34F2$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1965.02 984.3 1966.03 983.52 656.01 SP562 671 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAibAAAa-NH2 1943.06 973.11 1944.07 972.54 648.69 SP564 672 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAibAa-NH2 1943.06 973.48 1944.07 972.54 648.69 SP566 673 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAiba-NH2 iso2 1943.06 973.38 1944.07 972.54 648.69 SP567 674 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAAib-NH2 1943.06 973.01 1944.07 972.54 648.69 SP572 675 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAaa-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP573 676 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAA-NH2 1929.04 966.35 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP578 677 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAASar-NH2 1929.04 966.08 1930.05 965.53 644.02 SP551 678 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-OHiso2 iso2 1930.02 965.89 1931.03 966.02 644.35 SP662 679 Ac-LTF$rda6AYWAQL$da5AAAAAa-NH2 1974.06 934.44 933.49 SP367 680 5-FAM-BaLTF$r8EYWAQCba$SAA-NH2 2131 1067.09 2132.01 1066.51 711.34 SP349 681 Ac-LTF$r8EF4coohWAQCba$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1969.04 986.06 1970.05 985.53 657.35 SP347 682 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQCba$AAAAAa-NH2 iso2 1941.04 972.55 1942.05 971.53 648.02

Table 1b shows a further selection of peptidomimetic macrocycles.

TABLE 1b SEQ ID Exact Found Calc Calc Calc SP NO: Sequence Isomer Mass Mass (M + 1)/1 (M + 2)/2 (M + 3)/3 SP581 683 Ac-TF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1815.96 929.85 1816.97 908.99 606.33 SP582 584 Ac-F$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1714.91 930.92 1715.92 858.46 572.64 SP583 685 Ac-LVF$r8EYWAQL$SAAAAAa-NH2 1927.06 895.12. 1928.07 964.54 643.36 SP584 686 Ac-AAF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAAa-NH2 1856.98 859.51 1857.99 929.5 620 SP585 687 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAAa-NH2 1858 824.08 1859.01 930.01 620.34 SP586 688 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAAa-NH2 1786.97 788.56 1787.98 894.49 596.66 SP587 689 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$AAa-NH2 1715.93 1138.57 1716.94 858.97 572.98 SP588 690 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$Aa-NH2 1644.89 1144.98 1645.9 823.45 549.3 SP589 691 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$a-NH2 1573.85 1113.71 1574.86 787.93 525.62 SP590 692 Ac-LTF$rAYWAQL$A-NH2 758.97 758.93

TABLE 1d Selected peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MDM2/MDMX-binding helix of p53. Ala IC50 SJSA-1 Solubility SP# L RT* (%) MDM2 (nM) EC50 (μM)** (mg/mL) 590 12 74.2 25 140.7 6 ≤1 68 15 91.5 33 29.02 1.12 3 315 17 ≥100 47 30.77 0.18 4.5 317 18 ≥100 50 10 0.1 5 *Normalized and calculated according to Example 11 (see table and equation). **10% serum, 72 hr L = length in amino acids; RT = retention time; Ala = alanine content

TABLE 1e Peptidomimetic macrocycles that inhibit the MDM2/ MDMX and p53 interaction SEQ Calc ID (M + 2)/ Found SP# NO: Sequence 2 Mass 778 693 Ac-tawyanfekllr-NH2 776.92 777.46 779 694 Ac-tawyanf4CF3ekllr- NH2 810.91 811.41 752 695 Ac-t$r5wya$r5f4CF3ekllr-NH2 844.25 753 696 Ac-tawy$r5nf4CF3e$r5llr-NH2 837.03 754 697 Ac-tawya$r5f4CF3ek$r5lr-NH2 822.97 755 698 Ac-tawyanf4CF3e$r5llr$r5a-NH2 908.35 756 699 Ac-t$s8wyanf4CF3e$r5llr-NH2 858.03 757 700 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3ckll$r5a-NH2 878.97 879.86 758 701 Ac-tawya$s8f4CF3ekllr$r5a-NH2 936.38 763 702 Ac-tawy$s8nf4CF3ekll$r5aaaaa- NH2

TABLE 1f Selected peptidomimetic macrocycles that inhibit the MDM2/MDMX and p53 interaction. RT Ala Ki MDM2 SJSA-1 EC50 SP# Ch L VH (min)* % (nM) (μM)** 778 1 12 9.8 5.53 17 19251.34 >30 779 1 12 9.8 6.52 17 48.16 ND 757 0 13 6.3 7.99 15 2.92 1.5 763 0 17 6.7 8.74 35 10.9 0.34 *See Example 11 table **10% serum, 72 hr Ch = net charge; L = length in amino acids; VH = von Heijne; RT = retention time; Ala = alanine content

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle that comprises an amino acid sequence that has at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97%, or 100% identity to any one of the amino acid sequences in Table 1, 1a, 1b, 1c, 1e or 1f.

In the sequences shown above and elsewhere, the following abbreviations are used: “Nle” represents norleucine, “Aib” represents 2-aminoisobutyric acid, “Ac” represents acetyl, and “Pr” represents propionyl. Amino acids represented as “$” are alpha-Me S5-pentenyl-alanine olefin amino acids connected by an all-carbon crosslinker comprising one double bond. Amino acids represented as “$r5” are alpha-Me R5-pentenyl-alanine olefin amino acids connected by an all-carbon comprising one double bond. Amino acids represented as “$s8” are alpha-Me S8-octenyl-alanine olefin amino acids connected by an all-carbon crosslinker comprising one double bond. Amino acids represented as “$r8” are alpha-Me R8-octenyl-alanine olefin amino acids connected by an all-carbon crosslinker comprising one double bond. “Ahx” represents an aminocyclohexyl linker. The crosslinkers are linear all-carbon crosslinker comprising eight or eleven carbon atoms between the alpha carbons of each amino acid. Amino acids represented as “S/” are alpha-Me S5-pentenyl-alanine olefin amino acids that are not connected by any crosslinker. Amino acids represented as “$/r5” are alpha-Me R5-pentenyl-alanine olefin amino acids that are not connected by any crosslinker. Amino acids represented as “$/s8” are alpha-Me S8-octenyl-alanine olefin amino acids that are not connected by any crosslinker. Amino acids represented as “$/r8” are alpha-Me R8-octenyl-alanine olefin amino acids that are not connected by any crosslinker. Amino acids represented as “Amw” are alpha-Me tryptophan amino acids. Amino acids represented as “Aml” are alpha-Me leucine amino acids. Amino acids represented as “Amf” are alpha-Me phenylalanine amino acids. Amino acids represented as “2ff” are 2-fluoro-phenylalanine amino acids. Amino acids represented as “3ff” are 3-fluoro-phenylalanine amino acids. Amino acids represented as “St” are amino acids comprising two pentenyl-alanine olefin side chains, each of which is crosslinked to another amino acid as indicated. Amino acids represented as “St//” are amino acids comprising two pentenyl-alanine olefin side chains that are not crosslinked. Amino acids represented as “% St” are amino acids comprising two pentenyl-alanine olefin side chains, each of which is crosslinked to another amino acid as indicated via fully saturated hydrocarbon crosslinks. Amino acids represented as “Ba” are beta-alanine.

The lower-case character “e” or “z” within the designation of a crosslinked amino acid (e.g. “$er8” or “$zr8”) represents the configuration of the double bond (E or Z, respectively). In other contexts, lower-case letters such as “a” or “f” represent D amino acids (e.g. D-alanine, or D-phenylalanine, respectively). Amino acids designated as “NmW” represent N-methyltryptophan. Amino acids designated as “NmY” represent N-methyltyrosine. Amino acids designated as “NmA” represent N-methylalanine. “Kbio” represents a biotin group attached to the side chain amino group of a lysine residue. Amino acids designated as “Sar” represent sarcosine. Amino acids designated as “Cha” represent cyclohexyl alanine. Amino acids designated as “Cpg” represent cyclopentyl glycine. Amino acids designated as “Chg” represent cyclohexyl glycine. Amino acids designated as “Cba” represent cyclobutyl alanine. Amino acids designated as “F41” represent 4-iodo phenylalanine. “7L” represents N15 isotopic leucine. Amino acids designated as “F3Cl” represent 3-chloro phenylalanine. Amino acids designated as “F4cooh” represent 4-carboxy phenylalanine. Amino acids designated as “F34F2” represent 3,4-difluoro phenylalanine. Amino acids designated as “6clW” represent 6-chloro tryptophan. Amino acids designated as “$rda6” represent alpha-Me R6-hexynyl-alanine alkynyl amino acids, crosslinked via a dialkyne bond to a second alkynyl amino acid. Amino acids designated as “$da5” represent alpha-Me S5-pentynyl-alanine alkynyl amino acids, wherein the alkyne forms one half of a dialkyne bond with a second alkynyl amino acid. Amino acids designated as “$ra9” represent alpha-Me R9-nonynyl-alanine alkynyl amino acids, crosslinked via an alkyne metathesis reaction with a second alkynyl amino acid. Amino acids designated as “Sa6” represent alpha-Me S6-hexynyl-alanine alkynyl amino acids, crosslinked via an alkyne metathesis reaction with a second alkynyl amino acid. The designation “iso1” or “iso2” indicates that the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a single isomer.

Amino acids designated as “Cit” represent citrulline. Amino acids designated as “Cou4”, “Cou6”, “Cou7” and “Cou8”, respectively, represent the following structures:

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle is obtained in more than one isomer, for example due to the configuration of a double bond within the structure of the crosslink (E vs Z). Such isomers can or cannot be separable by conventional chromatographic methods. In some embodiments, one isomer has improved biological properties relative to the other isomer. In one embodiment, an E crosslink olefin isomer of a peptidomimetic macrocycle has better solubility, better target affinity, better in vivo or in vitro efficacy, higher helicity, or improved cell permeability relative to its Z counterpart. In another embodiment, a Z crosslink olefin isomer of a peptidomimetic macrocycle has better solubility, better target affinity, better in vivo or in vitro efficacy, higher helicity, or improved cell permeability relative to its E counterpart.

Table 1c shows exemplary peptidomimetic macrocycle:

TABLE 1c SEQ ID NO: Structure 162 Chemical Formula: C87H125N17O21 Exact Mass: 1743.92 Molecular Weight: 1745.02 123 Chemical Formula: C85H125N17O19 Exact Mass: 1687.93 Molecular Weight: 1689.00 122 Chemical Formula: C85H125N17O19 Exact Mass: 1687.93 Molecular Weight: 1689.00 107 Chemical Formula: C84H122ClN17O19 Exact Mass: 1707.88 Molecular Weight: 1709.42 396 Chemical Formula: C91H136N18O19 Exact Mass: 1785.02 Molecular Weight: 1786.16 339 Chemical Formula: C95H140N20O23 Exact Mass: 1929.04 Molecular Weight: 1930.25 453 Chemical Formula: C95H142N20O23 Exact Mass: 1931.06 Molecular Weight: 1932.26 359 Chemical Formula: C96H140N20O24 Exact Mass: 1957.03 Molecular Weight: 1958.26 79 Chemical Formula: C90H134N18O19 Exact Mass: 1771.01 Molecular Weight: 1772.14 77 Chemical Formula: C90H134N18O19 Exact Mass: 1771.01 Molecular Weight: 1772.14 15 Chemical Formula: C90H127N17O19 Exact Mass: 1749.95 Molecular Weight: 1751.07 168 Chemical Formula: C87H125F2N17O21 Exact Mass: 1781.92 Molecular Weight: 1783.02 323 Chemical Formula: C93H138N20O21 Exact Mass: 1871.03 Molecular Weight: 1872.21 257 Chemical Formula: C94H136N18O22 Exact Mass: 1869.01 Molecular Weight: 1870.19 445 Chemical Formula: C95H143N21O21 Exact Mass: 1914.08 Molecular Weight: 1915.28 357 Chemical Formula: C97H140N20O24 Exact Mass: 1969.03 Molecular Weight: 1970.27 463 Chemical Formula: C95H139ClN20O23 Exact Mass: 1963.00 Molecular Weight: 1964.69 465 Chemical Formula: C104H155N23O26 Exact Mass: 2142.15 Molecular Weight: 2143.48 466 Chemical Formula: C95H138F2N20O23 Exact Mass: 1965.02 Molecular Weight: 1966.23 375 470 Chemical Formula: C96H142N20O23 Exact Mass: 1943.06 Molecular Weight: 1944.27 472 Chemical Formula: C96H142N20O23 Exact Mass: 1943.06 Molecular Weight: 1944.27 474 475 Chemical Formula: C96H142N20O23 Exact Mass: 1943.06 Molecular Weight: 1944.27 480 Chemical Formula: C95H140N20O23 Exact Mass: 1929.04 Molecular Weight: 1930.25 481 Chemical Formula: C95H140N20O23 Exact Mass: 1929.04 Molecular Weight: 1930.25 486 Chemical Formula: C95H140N20O23 Exact Mass: 1929.04 Molecular Weight: 1930.25 571 Chemical Formula: C95H134N20O23 Exact Mass: 1922.99 Molecular Weight: 1924.20 569 Chemical Formula: C95H134N20O23 Exact Mass: 1922.99 Molecular Weight: 1924.20 703 Chemical Formula: C96H136N20O23 Exact Mass: 1937.01 Molecular Weight: 1938.23

In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles exclude peptidomimetic macrocycles shown in Table 2a:

TABLE 2a Number SEQ ID NO: Sequence 1 704 L$r5QETFSD$s8WKLLPEN 2 705 LSQ$r5TFSDLW$s8LLPEN 3 706 LSQE$rSFSDLWK$s8LPEN 4 707 LSQET$r5SDLWKL$s8PEN 5 708 LSQETF$r5DLWKLL$s8EN 6 709 LXQETFS$r5LWKLLP$s8N 7 710 LSQETFSD$r5WKLLPE$s8 8 711 LSQQTF$r5DLWKLL$s8EN 9 712 LSQETF$r5DLWKLL$s8QN 10 713 LSQQTF$r5DLWKLL$s8QN 11 714 LSQETF$r5NLWKLL$s8QN 12 715 LSQQTF$r5NLWKLL$s8QN 13 716 LSQQTF$r5NLWRLL$s8QN 14 717 QSQQTF$r5NLWKLL$s8QN 15 718 QSQQTF$r5NLWRLL$s8QN 16 719 QSQQTA$r5NLWRLL$s8QN 17 720 L$8QETFSD$WKLLPEN 18 721 LSQ$r8TFSDLW$LLPEN 19 722 LSQE$r8FSDLWK$LPEN 20 723 LSQET$r8SDLWKL$PEN 21 724 LSQETF$r8DLWKLL$EN 22 725 LXQETFS$r8LWKLLP$N 23 726 LSQETFSD$r8WKLLPE$ 24 727 LSQQTF$r8DLWKLLrEN 25 728 LSQETF$rSDLWKLL$QN 26 729 LSQQTF$r8DLWKLL$QN 27 730 LSQETF$rSNLWKLL$QN 28 731 LSQQTF$r8NLWKLL$QN 29 732 LSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN 30 733 QSQQTF$r8NLWKLL$QN 31 734 QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN 32 735 QSQQTA$r8NLWRLL$QN 33 736 QSQQTF$F8NLWRKK$QN 34 737 QQTF$r8DLWRLL$EN 35 738 QQTF$r8DLWRLL$ 36 739 LSQQTF$DLW$LL 37 740 QQTF$DLW$LL 38 741 QQTA$r8DLWRLL$EN 39 742 QSQQTF$r5NLWRLL$s8QN (dihydroxylated olefin) 40 743 QSQQTA$r5NLWRLL$s8QN (dihydroxylated olefin) 41 744 QSQQTF$r8DLWRLL$QN 42 745 QTF$r8NLWRLL$ 43 746 QSQQTF$NLW$LLPQN 44 747 QS$QTF$NLWRLLPQN 45 748 $TFS$LWKLL 46 749 ETF$DLWSLL 47 750 QTF$NLWSLL 48 751 $SQE$FSNLWKLL

In Table 2a, X represents S or any amino acid. Peptides shown can comprise an N-terminal capping group such as acetyl or an additional linker such as beta-alanine between the capping group and the start of the peptide sequence.

In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles do not comprise a peptidomimetic macrocycle structure as shown in Table 2a.

In other embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles exclude peptidomimetic macrocycles shown in Table 2b:

TABLE 2b Observed SEQ ID Exact mass Number NO: Sequence Mass M + 2 (m/e) 1 752 Ac-LSQETF$r8DLWKLL$EN-NH2 2068.13 1035.07 1035.36 2 753 Ac-LSQETF$r8NLWKLL$QN-NH2 2066.16 1034.08 1034.31 3 754 Ac-LSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2093.18 1047.59 1047.73 4 755 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWKLL$QN-NH2 2080.15 1041.08 1041.31 5 756 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2108.15 1055.08 1055.32 6 757 Ac-QSQQTA$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2032.12 1017.06 1017.24 7 758 Ac-QAibQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2106.17 1054.09 1054.34 8 759 Ac-QSQQTFSNLWRLLPQN-NH2 2000.02 1001.01 1001.26 9 760 Ac-QSQQTF$/r8NLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2136.18 1069.09 1069.37 10 761 Ac-QSQAibTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2065.15 1033.58 1033.71 11 762 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$AN-NH2 2051.13 1026.57 1026.70 12 763 Ac-ASQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2051.13 1026.57 1026.90 13 764 Ac-QSQQTF$r8ALWRLL$QN-NH2 2065.15 1033.58 1033.41 14 765 Ac-QSQETF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2109.14 1055.57 1055.70 15 766 Ac-RSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2136.20 1069.10 1069.17 16 767 Ac-RSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$EN-NH2 2137.18 1069.59 1069.75 17 768 Ac-LSQETFSDLWKLLPEN-NH2 1959.99 981.00 981.24 18 769 Ac-QSQ$TFS$LWRLLPQN-NH2 2008.09 1005.05 1004.97 19 770 Ac-QSQQ$FSN$WRLLPQN-NH2 2036.06 1019.03 1018.86 20 771 Ac-QSQQT$SNL$RLLPQN-NH2 1917.04 959.52 959.32 21 772 Ac-QSQQTF$NLW$LLPQN-NH2 2007.06 1004.53 1004.97 22 773 Ac-RTQATF$r8NQWAibANle$TNAibTR-NH2 2310.26 1156.13 1156.52 23 774 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$RN-NH2 2136.20 1069.10 1068.94 24 775 Ac-QSQRTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2136.20 1069.10 1068.94 25 776 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NNleWRLL$QN-NH2 2108.15 1055.08 1055.44 26 777 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRNleL$QN-NH2 2108.15 1055.08 1055.84 27 778 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLNle$QN-NH2 2108.15 1055.08 1055.12 28 779 Ac-QSQQTY$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2124.15 1063.08 1062.92 29 780 Ac-RAibQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2134.22 1068.11 1068.65 30 781 Ac-MPRFMDYWEGLN-NH2 1598.70 800.35 800.45 31 782 Ac-RSQQRF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2191.25 1096.63 1096.83 32 783 Ac-QSQQRF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2163.21 1082.61 1082.87 33 784 Ac-RAibQQRF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2189.27 1095.64 1096.37 34 785 Ac-RSQQRF$r8NFWRLL$QN-NH2 2225.23 1113.62 1114.37 35 786 Ac-RSQQRF$r8NYWRLL$QN-NH2 2241.23 1121.62 1122.37 36 787 Ac-RSQQTF$r8NLWQLL$QN-NH2 2108.15 1055.08 1055.29 37 788 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWQAmIL$QN-NH2 2094.13 1048.07 1048.32 38 789 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NAmlWRLL$QN-NH2 2122.17 1062.09 1062.35 39 790 Ac-NlePRF$r8DYWEGL$QN-NH2 1869.98 935.99 936.20 40 791 Ac-NlePRF$r8NYWRLL$QN-NH2 1952.12 977.06 977.35 41 792 Ac-RF$r8NLWRLLSQ-NH2 1577.96 789.98 790.18 42 793 Ac-QSQQTF$r8N2ffWRLL$QN-NH2 2160.13 1081.07 1081.40 43 794 Ac-QSQQTF$r8N3ffWRLL$QN-NH2 2160.13 1081.07 1081.34 44 795 Ac-QSQQTF#r8NLWRLL#QN-NH2 2080.12 1041.06 1041.34 45 796 Ac-RSQQTA$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2060.16 1031.08 1031.38 46 797 Ac-QSQQTF%r8NLWRLL%QN-NH2 2110.17 1056.09 1056.55 47 798 HepQSQ$TFSNLWRLLPQN-NH2 2051.10 1026.55 1026.82 48 799 HepQSQ$TF$r8NLWRIL$QN-NH2 2159.23 1080.62 1080.89 49 800 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NL6clWRLL$QN-NH2 2142.11 1072.06 1072.35 50 801 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLMe6clwRLL$QN-NH2 2156.13 1079.07 1079.27 51 802 Ac-LTFEHYWAQLTS-NH2 1535.74 768.87 768.91 52 803 Ac-LTF$HYW$QLTS-NH2 1585.83 793.92 794.17 53 804 Ac-LTFE$YWA$LTS-NH2 1520.79 761.40 761.67 54 805 Ac-LTF$zr8HYWAQL$zS-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.06 55 806 Ac-LTF$r8HYWRQL$S-NH2 1682.93 842.47 842.72 56 807 Ac-QS$QTFStNLWRLL$s8QN-NH2 2145.21 1073.61 1073.90 57 808 Ac-QSQQTASNLWRLLPQN-NH2 1923.99 963.00 963.26 58 809 Ac-QSQQTA$/r8NLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2060.15 1031.08 1031.24 59 810 Ac-ASQQTF$/r8NLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2079.16 1040.58 1040.89 60 811 Ac-$SQQ$FSNLWRLLAibQN-NH2 2009.09 1005.55 1005.86 61 812 Ac-QS$QTF$NLWRLLAibQN-NH2 2023.10 1012.55 1012.79 62 813 Ac-QSQQ$FSN$WRLLAibQN-NH2 2024.06 1013.03 1013.31 63 814 Ac-QSQQTF$NLWSLLAibQN-NH2 1995.06 998.53 998.87 64 815 Ac-QSQQTFS$LWRSLAibQN-NH2 2011.06 1006.53 1006.83 65 816 Ac-QSQQTFSNLW$LLA$N-NH2 1940.02 971.01 971.29 66 817 Ac-$/SQQ$/FSNLWRLLAibQN-NH2 2037.12 1019.56 1019.78 67 818 Ac-QS$/QTF$/NLWRLLAibQN-NH2 2051.13 1026.57 1026.90 68 819 Ac-QSQQ$/FSN$/WRLLAibQN-NH2 2052.09 1027.05 1027.36 69 820 Ac-QSQQTF$/NLW$/LLAibQN-NH2 2023.09 1012.55 1013.82 70 821 Ac-QSQ$TFS$LWRLLAibQN-NH2 1996.09 999.05 999.39 71 822 Ac-QSQ$/TFS$/LWRLLAibQN-NH2 2024.12 1013.06 1013.37 72 823 Ac-QS$/QTFSt//NLWRLL$/s8QN-NH2 2201.27 1101.64 1102.00 73 824 Ac-$r8SQQTFS$LWRLLAibQN-NH2 2038.14 1020.07 1020.23 74 825 Ac-QSQ$r8TFSNLW$LLAibQN-NH2 1996.08 999.04 999.32 75 826 Ac-QSQQTFS$r8LWRLLA$N-NH2 2024.12 1013.06 1013.37 76 827 Ac-QS$r5QTFStNLW$LLAibQN-NH2 2032.12 1017.06 1017.39 77 828 Ac-$/r8SQQTFS$/LWRLLAibQN-NH2 2066.17 1034.09 1034.80 78 829 Ac-QSQ$/r8TFSNLW$/LLAibQN-NH2 2024.11 1013.06 1014.34 79 830 Ac-QSQQTFS$/r8LWRLLA$/N-NH2 2052.15 1027.08 1027.16 80 831 Ac-QS$/r5QTFSt//NLW$/LLAibQN-NH2 2088.18 1045.09 1047.10 81 832 Ac-QSQQTFSNLWRLLAibQN-NH2 1988.02 995.01 995.31 82 833 Hep/QSQ$/TF$/r8NLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2215.29 1108.65 1108.93 83 834 Ac-ASQQTF$rNLRWLL$QN-NH2 2051.13 1026.57 1026.90 84 835 Ac-QSQQTF$/r8NLWRLL$/Q-NH2 2022.14 1012.07 1012.66 85 836 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$Q-NH2 1994.11 998.06 998.42 86 837 Ac-AAARAA$r8AAARAA$AA-NH2 1515.90 758.95 759.21 87 838 Ac-LTFEHYWAQLTSA-NH2 1606.78 804.39 804.59 88 839 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$$A-NH2 1668.90 835.45 835.67 89 840 Ac-ASQQTFSNLWRLLPQN-NH2 1943.00 972.50 973.27 90 841 Ac-QS$QTFStNLW$r5LLAibQN-NH2 2032.12 1017.06 1017.30 91 842 Ac-QSQQTFAibNLWRLLAibQN-NH2 1986.04 994.02 994.19 92 843 Ac-QSQQTFNleNLWRLLNleQN-NH2 2042.11 1022.06 1022.23 93 844 Ac-QSQQTF$/r8NLWRLLAibQN-NH2 2082.14 1042.07 1042.23 94 845 Ac-QSQQTF$/r8NLWRLLNleQN-NH2 2110.17 1056.09 1056.29 95 846 Ac-QSQQTFAibNLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2040.09 1021.05 1021.25 96 847 Ac-QSQQTFNleNLWRLL$/QN-NH2 2068.12 1035.06 1035.31 97 848 Ac-QSQQTF%r8NL6clWRNleL%QN-NH2 2144.13 1073.07 1073.32 98 849 Ac-QSQQTF%r8NLMe6clWRLL%QN-NH2 2158.15 1080.08 1080.31 101 850 Ac-FNle$YWE$L-NH2 1160.63 1161.70 102 851 Ac-F$r8AYWELL$A-NH2 1344.75 1345.90 103 852 Ac-F$r8AYWQLL$A-NH2 1343.76 1344.83 104 853 Ac-NlePRF$r8NYWELL$QN-NH2 1925.06 963.53 963.69 105 854 Ac-NlePRF$r8DYWRLL$QN-NH2 1953.10 977.55 977.68 106 855 Ac-NlePRF$8NYWRLL$Q-NH2 1838.07 920.04 920.18 107 856 Ac-NlePRF$r8NYWRLL$-NH2 1710.01 856.01 856.13 108 857 Ac-QSQQTF$r8DLWRLL$QN-NH2 2109.14 1055.57 1055.64 109 858 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$EN-NH2 2109.14 1055.57 1055.70 110 859 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QD-NH2 2109.14 1055.57 1055.64 111 860 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$S-NH2 1953.08 977.54 977.60 112 861 Ac-ESQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2109.14 1055.57 1055.70 113 862 Ac-LTF$r8NLWRNleL$Q-NH2 1635.99 819.00 819.10 114 863 Ac-LRF$r8NLWRNleL$Q-NH2 1691.04 846.52 846.68 115 864 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NWWRNleL$QN-NH2 2181.15 1091.58 1091.64 116 865 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWRNleL$Q-NH2 1994.11 998.06 998.07 117 866 Ac-QTF$r8NLWRNleL$QN-NH2 1765.00 883.50 883.59 118 867 Ac-NlePRF$r8NWWRLL$QN-NH 1975.13 988.57 988.75 119 868 Ac-NlePRF$r8NWWRLL$A-NH2 1804.07 903.04 903.08 120 869 Ac-TSFAEYWNLLNH2 1467.70 734.85 734.90 121 870 Ac-QTF$r8HWWSQL$S-NH2 1651.85 826.93 827.12 122 871 Ac-FM$YWE$L-NH2 1178.58 1179.64 123 872 Ac-QTFEHWWSQLLS-NH2 1601.76 801.88 801.94 124 873 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLAmwRLNle$QN-NH2 2122.17 1062.09 1062.24 125 874 Ac-FMAibY6clWEAc3cL-NH2 1130.47 1131.53 126 875 Ac-FNle$Y6clWE$L-NH2 1194.59 1195.64 127 876 Ac-F$zr8AY6clWEAc3cL$z-NH2 1277.63 639.82 1278.71 128 877 Ac-F$r8AY6clWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1348.66 1350.72 129 878 Ac-NlePRF$r8NY6clWRLL$QN-NH2 1986.08 994.04 994.64 130 879 Ac-AF$r8AAWALA$A-NH2 1223.71 1224.71 131 880 Ac-TF$rAAWRLA$Q-NH2 1395.80 698.90 399.04 132 881 Pr-TF$r8AAWRLA$Q-NH2 1409.82 705.91 706.04 133 882 Ac-QSQQTF%r8NLWRNleL%QN-NH2 2110.17 1056.09 1056.22 134 883 Ac-LTF%r8HYWAQL%$A-NH2 1670.92 836.46 836.58 135 884 Ac-NlePRF%r8NYWRLL%QN-NH2 1954.13 978.07 978.19 136 885 Ac-NlePRF%r8NY6clWRLL%QN-NH2 1988.09 995.05 995.68 137 886 Ac-LTF%r8HY6clWAQL%S-NH2 1633.84 817.92 817.93 138 887 Ac-QS%QTF%StNLWRLL%s8QN-NH2 2149.24 1075.62 1075.65 139 888 Ac-LTF%r8HY6clWRQL%S-NH2 1718.91 860.46 860.54 140 889 Ac-QSQQTF%r8NL6clWRLL%QN-NH2 2144.13 1073.07 1073.64 141 890 Ac-%r8SQQTFS%LWRLLAibQN-NH2 2040.15 1021.08 1021.13 142 891 Ac-LTF%r8HYWAQL%S-NH2 1599.88 800.94 801.09 143 892 Ac-TSF%r8QYWNLL%P-NH2 1602.88 802.44 802.58 147 893 Ac-LTFEHYWAQLTS-NH2 1535.74 768.87 769.5 152 894 Ac-F$er8AY6clWEAc3cL$e-NH2 1277.63 639.82 1278.71 153 895 Ac-AF$r8AAWALA$A-NH2 1277.63 639.82 1277.84 154 896 Ac-TF$r8AAWRLA$Q-NH2 1395.80 698.90 699.04 155 897 Pr-TF$r8AAWRLA$Q-NH2 1409.82 705.91 706.04 156 898 Ac-LTF$er8HYWAQL$eS-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.44 159 899 Ac-CCPGCCBaQSQQTF$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2745.30 1373.65 1372.99 160 900 Ac-CCPGCCBaQSQQTA$r8NLWRLL$QN-NH2 2669.27 1335.64 1336.09 161 901 Ac-CCPGCCBaNlePRF$r8NYWRLL$QN-NH2 2589.26 1295.63 1296.2 162 902 Ac-LTF$/r8HYWAQL$/S-NH2 1625.90 813.95 814.18 163 903 Ac-F%r8HY6clWRAc3cL%-NH2 1372.72 687.36 687.59 164 904 Ac-QTF%r8HWWSQL%S-NH2 1653.87 827.94 827.94 165 905 Ac-LTA$r8HYWRQL$S-NH2 1606.90 804.45 804.66 166 906 Ac-Q$r8QQTFSN$WRLLAibQN-NH2 2080.12 1041.06 1041.61 167 907 Ac-QSQQ$r8FSNLWR$LAibQN-NH2 2066.11 1034.06 1034.58 168 908 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1315.88 169 909 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$S-NH2 1330.70 666.35 1331.87 170 910 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$Q-NH2 1371.72 686.86 1372.72 171 911 Ac-F$r8AYWEAibL$S-NH2 1332.71 667.36 1334.83 172 912 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$S-NH2 1318.70 660.35 1319.73 173 913 Ac-F$f8AYWEQL$S-NH2 1375.72 688.86 1377.53 174 914 Ac-F$r8HYWEQL$S-NH2 1441.74 721.87 1443.48 175 915 Ac-F$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1383.73 692.87 1385.38 176 916 Ac-F$r8HYWAAc3cL$S-NH2 1338.71 670.36 1340.82 177 917 Ac-F$r8HYWRAc3cL$S-NH2 1423.78 712.89 713.04 178 918 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL#A-NH2 1300.69 651.35 1302.78 179 919 Ac-NlePTF%r8NYWRLL%QN-NH2 1899.08 950.54 950.56 180 920 Ac-TF$r8AAWRAL$Q-NH2 1395.80 698.90 699.13 181 921 Ac-TSF%r8HYWAQL%S-NH2 1573.83 787.92 787.98 184 922 Ac-F%r8AY6clWEAc3cL%A-NH2 1350.68 676.34 676.91 185 923 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQI$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.07 186 924 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQNle$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.07 187 925 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$A-NH2 1581.87 791.94 792.45 188 926 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$Abu-NH2 1595.89 798.95 799.03 189 927 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAbuQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807.47 190 928 Ac-LTF$er8AYWAQL$eS-NH2 1531.84 766.92 766.96 191 929 Ac-LAF$rHYWAQL$S-NH 1567.86 784.93 785.49 192 930 Ac-LAF$rAYWAQL$S-NH 1501.83 751.92 752.01 193 931 Ac-LTF$er8AYWAQL$eA-NH2 1515.85 758.93 758.97 194 932 Ac-LAF$r8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1485.84 743.92 744.05 195 933 Ac-LTF$8NLWANleL$Q-NH2 1550.92 776.46 776.61 196 934 Ac-LTF$r8NLWANleL$A-NH2 1493.90 747.95 1495.6 197 935 Ac-LTF$r8ALWANleL$Q-NH2 1507.92 754.96 755 198 936 Ac-LAF$r8NIWANicL$Q-NH2 1520.91 761.46 761.96 199 937 Ac-LAF$r8ALWANleL$A-NH2 1420.89 711.45 1421.74 200 938 Ac-A$r8AYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1238.67 620.34 1239.65 201 939 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AA-NH2 1385.74 693.87 1386.64 202 940 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AbU-NH2 1328.72 665.36 1330.17 203 941 Ac-T$r8AYWEAc3cL$Nle-NH2 1356.75 679.38 1358.22 204 942 Ac-F$r5AYWEAc3cL$s8A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1315.51 205 943 Ac-F$AYWEAc3cL$r8A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1315.66 206 944 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cI$A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1316.18 207 945 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cNie$A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1315.66 208 946 Ac-F$r8AYWEAmIL$A-NH2 1358.76 680.38 1360.21 209 947 Ac-FSrAYWENlel$A-NH2 1344.75 673.38 1345.71 210 948 Ac-F$r8AYWQAc3cL$A-NH2 1313.72 657.86 1314.7 211 949 Ac-F$r8AYWAAc3cL$A-NH2 1256.70 629.35 1257.56 212 950 Ac-F$r8AYWAbUAc3cL$A-NH2 1270.71 636.36 1272.14 213 951 Ac-F$r8AYWNleAc3cL$A-NH2 1298.74 650.37 1299.67 214 952 Ac-F$r8AbuYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1328.72 665.36 1329.65 215 953 Ac-F$r8NleYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1356.75 679.38 1358.66 216 954 5-FAM-BaLTFEHYWAQLTS-NH2 1922.82 962.41 962.87 217 955 5-FAM-BaLTF%r8HYWAQL%S-NH2 1986.96 994.48 994.97 218 956 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQhL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 219 957 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQTle$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 799.97 220 958 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQAdm$S-NH2 1675.91 838.96 839.09 221 959 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQhCha$S-NH2 1651.91 826.96 826.98 222 960 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQCha$S-NH2 1637.90 819.95 820.02 223 961 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAc6cQL$S-NH2 1651.91 826.96 826.98 224 962 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAC5cQL$S-NH2 1637.90 819.95 820.02 225 963 Ac-LThF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 226 964 Ac-LTIgl$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1625.90 813.95 812.99 227 965 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQChg$S-NH2 1623.88 812.94 812.99 228 966 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQF$S-NH2 1631.85 816.93 816.99 229 967 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQIgI$S-NH2 1659.88 830.94 829.94 230 968 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQCba$S-NH2 1609.87 805.94 805.96 231 969 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQCpg$S-NH2 1609.87 805.94 805.96 232 970 Ac-LTF$8HhYWAQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 233 971 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3chL$A-NH2 1328.72 665.36 665.43 234 972 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cTle$A-NH2 1314.70 658.35 1315.62 235 973 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cAdm$A-NH2 1392.75 697.38 697.47 236 974 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3chCha$A-NH2 1368.75 685.38 685.34 237 975 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cCha$A-NH2 1354.73 678.37 678.38 238 976 Ac-F$r8AYWEACGCL$A-NH2 1356.75 679.38 679.42 239 977 Ac-F$r8AYWEACSCL$A-NH2 1342.73 672.37 672.46 240 978 Ac-hF$r8AYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1328.72 665.36 665.43 241 970 Ac-Igl$r8AWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1342.73 672.37 671.5 243 980 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cF$A-NH2 1348.69 675.35 675.35 244 981 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cIgl$A-NH2 1376.72 689.36 688.37 245 982 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cCba$A-NH2 1326.70 664.35 664.47 246 983 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cCpg$A-NH2 1326.70 664.35 664.39 247 984 Ac-F$r8AhYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1328.72 665.36 665.43 248 985 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$Q-NH2 1371.72 686.86 1372.87 249 986 Ac-F$r8AYWEAibL$A-NH2 1316.72 659.36 1318.18 250 987 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$A-NH2 1302.70 652.35 1303.75 251 988 Ac-LAF$r8AYWAAL$A-NH2 1428.82 715.41 715.49 252 989 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAAc3cL$S-NH2 1552.84 777.42 777.5 253 990 Ac-NleTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.04 254 991 Ac-VTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1583.85 792.93 793.04 255 992 Ac-FTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1631.85 816.93 817.02 256 993 Ac-WTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1670.86 836.43 836.85 257 994 Ac-RTF$rHYWAQL$S-NH 1640.88 821.44 821.9 258 995 Ac-KTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1612.88 807.44 807.91 259 996 Ac-LNleF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1609.90 805.95 806.43 260 997 Ac-LVF$F8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1595.89 798.95 798.93 261 998 Ac-LFF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1643.89 822.95 823.38 262 999 Ac-LWF$F8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1682.90 842.45 842.55 263 1000 Ac-LRF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1652.92 827.46 827.52 264 1001 Ac-LKF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1624.91 813.46 813.51 265 1002 Ac-LTF$r8NleYWAQL$S-NH2 1573.89 787.95 788.05 266 1003 Ac-LTF$8VYWAQL$S-NH2 1559.88 780.94 780.98 267 1004 Ac-LTF$r8FYWAQL$S-NH2 1607.88 804.94 805.32 268 1005 Ac-LTF$r8WYWAQL$S-NH2 1646.89 824.45 824.86 269 1006 Ac-LTF$8RYWAQL$S-NH2 1616.91 809.46 809.51 270 1007 Ac-LTF$rKYWAQL$S-NH 1588.90 795.45 795.48 271 1008 Ac-LTF$r8HNleWAQL$S-NH2 1547.89 774.95 774.98 272 1009 Ac-LTF$r8HVWAQL$S-NH2 1533.87 767.94 767.95 273 1010 Ac-LTF$8HFWAQL$S-NH2 1581.87 791.94 792.3 274 1011 Ac-LTF$r8HWWAQL$S-NH2 1620.88 811.44 811.54 275 1012 Ac-LTF$r8HRWAQL$S-NH2 1590.90 796.45 796.52 276 1013 Ac-LTF$r8HKWAQL$S-NH2 1562.90 782.45 782.53 277 1014 Ac-LTF$r8HYWNleQL$S-NH2 1639.91 820.96 820.98 278 1015 Ac-LTF$rHYWVQL$S-NH 1625.90 813.95 814.03 279 1016 Ac-LTF$r8HYWFQL$S-NH2 1673.90 837.95 838.03 280 1017 Ac-LTF$r8HYWWQL$S-NH2 1712.91 857.46 857.5 281 1018 Ac-LTF$r8HYWKQL$S-NH2 1654.92 828.46 828.49 282 1019 Ac-LTF$r8HYWANleL$S-NH2 1582.89 792.45 792.52 283 1020 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAVL$S-NH 1568.88 785.44 785.49 284 1021 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAFL$S-NH2 1616.88 809.44 809.47 285 1022 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAWL$S-NH2 1655.89 828.95 829 286 1023 Ac-LTF$r8HYWARL$S-NH2 1625.91 813.96 813.98 287 1024 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$Nle-NH2 1623.92 812.96 813.39 288 1025 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$V-NH2 1609.90 805.95 805.99 289 1026 Ac-LTF$rHYWAQL$F-NH 1657.90 829.95 830.26 290 1027 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$W-NH2 1696.91 849.46 849.5 291 1028 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$R-NH2 1666.94 834.47 834.56 292 1029 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$K-NH2 1638.93 820.47 820.49 293 1030 Ac-Q$r8QQTFSN$WRLLAibQN-NH2 2080.12 1041.06 1041.54 294 1031 Ac-QSQQ$r8FSNLWR$LAibQN-NH2 2066.11 1034.06 1034.58 295 1032 Ac-LT2Pal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1598.86 800.43 800.49 296 1033 Ac-LT3Pal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1598.86 800.43 800.49 297 1034 Ac-LT4Pal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1598.86 800.43 800.49 298 1035 Ac-LTF2CF3$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1665.85 833.93 834.01 299 1036 Ac-LTF2CN$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1622.86 812.43 812.47 300 1037 Ac-ITF2Me$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 301 1038 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1631.83 816.92 816.99 302 1039 Ac-LTF4CF3$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1665.85 833.93 833.94 303 1040 Ac-LTF4tBu$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1653.93 827.97 828.02 304 1041 Ac-LTF5F$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1687.82 844.91 844.96 305 1042 Ac-LTF$r8HY3BthAAQL$S-NH2 1614.83 808.42 808.48 306 1043 Ac-LTF2Br$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1675.78 838.89 838.97 307 1044 Ac-LTF4Br$rSHYWAQL$S-NH2 1675.78 838.89 839.86 308 1045 Ac-LTF2Cl$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1631.83 816.92 816.99 309 1046 Ac-LTF4Cl$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1631.83 816.92 817.36 310 1047 Ac-LTF3CN$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1622.86 812.43 812.47 311 1048 Ac-LTFACN$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1622.86 812.43 812.47 312 1049 Ac-LTF34C12$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1665.79 833.90 833.94 313 1050 Ac-LTF34F2$r8HYWAQI$S-NH2 1633.85 817.93 817.95 314 1051 Ac-LTF35F2$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1633.85 817.93 817.95 315 1052 Ac-LTDip$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1673.90 837.95 838.01 316 1053 Ac-LTF2F$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1615.86 808.93 809 317 1054 Ac-LTF3F$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1615.86 808.93 809 318 1055 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1615.86 808.93 809 319 1056 Ac-LTF4I$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1723.76 862.88 862.94 320 1057 Ac-LTF3Me$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807.07 321 1058 Ac-LTF4Me$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 322 1059 Ac-LT1Nal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1647.88 824.94 824.98 323 1060 Ac-LT2Nal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1647.88 824.94 825.06 324 1061 Ac-LTF3CF3$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1665.85 833.93 834.01 325 1062 Ac-LTF4NO2$r8T-mVAQL$S-NH2 1642.85 822.43 822.46 326 1063 Ac-LTF3NO2$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1642.85 822.43 822.46 327 1064 Ac-LTF$r82ThiYWAQL$S-NH2 1613.83 807.92 807.96 328 1065 Ac-LTF$r8HBipWAQL$S-NH2 1657.90 829.95 830.01 329 1066 Ac-LTF$r8HF4tBuWAQL$S-NH2 1637.93 819.97 820.02 330 1067 Ac-LTF$r8HF4CF3WAQL$S-NH2 1649.86 825.93 826.02 331 1068 Ac-LTF$rHF4ClWAQL$S-NH2 1615.83 808.92 809.37 332 1069 Ac-LTF$8HF4MeWAQL$S-NH2 1595.89 798.95 799.01 333 1070 Ac-LTF$r8HF4BrWAQL$S-NH2 1659.78 830.89 830.98 334 1071 Ac-LTF$r8HF4CNWAQL$S-NH2 1606.87 804.44 804.56 335 1072 Ac-LTF$8HF4NO2WAQL$S-NH2 1626.86 814.43 814.55 336 1073 Ac-LTF$r8H1NalWAQL$S-NH2 1631.89 816.95 817.06 337 1074 Ac-LTF$r8H2NalWAQL$S-NH2 1631.89 816.95 816.99 338 1075 Ac-LTF$r8HWAQL$S-NH2 1434.80 718.40 718.49 339 1076 Ac-LTF$r8HYINalAQL$S-NH2 1608.87 805.44 805.52 340 1077 Ac-LTF$r8HY2NalAQL$S-NH2 1608.87 805.44 805.52 341 1078 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQI$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.07 342 1079 Ac-ITF$r8HYWAQNle$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.44 343 1080 Ac-LTF$er8HYWAQL$eA-NH2 1581.87 791.94 791.98 344 1081 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$AbU-NH2 1595.89 798.95 799.03 345 1082 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAbUQL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 804.47 346 1083 Ac-LAF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1567.86 784.93 785.49 347 1084 Ac-LTF$r8NLWANleL$Q-NH2 1550.92 776.46 777.5 348 1085 Ac-LTF$r8ALWANleL$Q-NH2 1507.92 754.96 755.52 349 1086 Ac-LAF$r8NLWANleL$Q-NH2 1520.91 761.46 762.48 350 1087 Ac-F$r8AYWAAc3cL$A-NH2 1256.70 629.35 1257.56 351 1088 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAAL$S-NH2 1474.82 738.41 738.55 352 1089 Ac-LVF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1529.87 765.94 766 353 1090 Ac-LTF$rAYWAbUQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 773.92 354 1091 Ac-LTF$8AYWNleQL$S-NH2 1573.89 787.95 788.17 355 1092 Ac-LTF$r8AbuYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 773.99 356 1093 Ac-LTF$r8AYWHQL$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 799.97 357 1094 Ac-LTF$8AYWKQL$S-NH2 1588.90 795.45 795.53 358 1095 Ac-LTF$r8AYWOQL$S-NH2 1574.89 788.45 788.5 359 1096 Ac-LTF$r8AYWRQL$S-NH2 1616.91 809.46 809.51 360 1097 Ac-LTF$rAYWSQL$S-NH2 1547.84 774.92 774.96 361 1098 Ac-LTF$AYWRAL$S-NH2 1559.89 780.95 780.95 362 1099 Ac-LTF$r8AYWRQL$A-NH2 1600.91 801.46 801.52 363 1100 Ac-LTF$r8AYWRAL$A-NH2 1543.89 772.95 773.03 364 1101 Ac-LTF$r5HYWAQL$s8S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 799.97 365 1102 Ac-LTF$HYWAQL$r8S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 799.97 366 1103 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAAL$S-NH2 1540.84 771.42 771.48 367 1104 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAAbLL$S-NH2 1554.86 778.43 778.51 368 1105 Ac-LTF$r8HYWALL$S-NH2 1582.89 792.45 792.49 369 1106 Ac-F$r8AYWHAL$A-NH2 1310.72 656.36 656.4 370 1107 Ac-F$r8AYWAAL$A-NH2 1244.70 623.35 1245.61 371 1108 Ac-F$rAYWSAL$A-NH2 1260.69 631.35 1261.6 372 1109 Ac-F$r8AYWRAL$A-NH2 1329.76 665.88 1330.72 373 1110 Ac-F$r8AYWKAL$A-NH2 1301.75 651.88 1302.67 374 1111 Ac-F$r8AYWOAL$A-NH2 1287.74 644.87 1289.13 375 1112 Ac-F$r8VYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1342.73 672.37 1343.67 376 1113 Ac-F$r8FYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1390.73 696.37 1392.14 377 1114 Ac-F$r8WYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1429.74 715.87 1431.44 378 1115 Ac-F$r8RYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1399.77 700.89 700.95 379 1116 Ac-F$r8KYWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1371.76 686.88 686.97 380 1117 Ac-F$r8ANleWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1264.72 633.36 1265.59 381 1118 Ac-F$r8AVWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1250.71 626.36 1252.2 382 1119 Ac-F$r8AFWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1298.71 650.36 1299.64 383 1120 Ac-F$r8AWWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1337.72 669.86 1338.64 384 1121 Ac-F$r8ARWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1307.74 654.87 655 385 1122 Ac-F$r8AKWEAc3cL$A-NH2 1279.73 640.87 641.01 386 1123 Ac-F$r8AYWVAc3cL$A-NH2 1284.73 643.37 643.38 387 1124 Ac-F$r8AYWFAc3cL$A-NH2 1332.73 667.37 667.43 388 1125 Ac-F$r8AYWWAc3cL$A-NH2 1371.74 686.87 686.97 389 1126 Ac-F$rAYWRAc3cL$A-NH2 1341.76 671.88 671.94 390 1127 Ac-F$AYWKAc3cL$A-NH2 1313.75 657.88 657.88 391 1128 Ac-F$r8AYWEVL$A-NH2 1330.73 666.37 666.47 392 1129 Ac-F$r8AYWEFL$A-NH2 1378.73 690.37 690.44 393 1130 Ac-F$r8AYWEWL$A-NH2 1417.74 709.87 709.91 394 1131 Ac-F$r8AYWERL$A-NH2 1387.77 694.89 1388.66 395 1132 Ac-F$r8AYWEKL$A-NH2 1359.76 680.88 1361.21 396 1133 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$V-NH2 1342.73 672.37 1343.59 397 1134 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$F-NH2 1390.73 696.37 1392.58 398 1135 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$W-NH2 1429.74 715.87 1431.29 399 1136 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$R-NH2 1399.77 700.89 700.95 400 1137 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$K-NH2 1371.76 686.88 686.97 401 1138 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AV-NH2 1413.77 707.89 707.91 402 1139 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AF-NH2 1461.77 731.89 731.96 403 1140 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AW-NH2 1500.78 751.39 751.5 404 1141 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AR-NH2 1470.80 736.40 736.47 405 1142 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AK-NH2 1442.80 722.40 722.41 406 1143 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AH-NH2 1451.76 726.88 726.93 407 1144 Ac-LTF2NO2$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1642.85 822.43 822.54 408 1145 Ac-LTA$r8HYAAQL$S-NH2 1406.79 704.10 704.5 409 1146 Ac-LTF$r8HYAAQL$S-NH2 1482.82 742.41 742.47 410 1147 Ac-QSQQTF$r8NLWALL$AN-NH2 1966.07 984.04 984.38 411 1148 Ac-QAibQQTF$r8NLWALL$AN-NH2 1964.09 983.05 983.42 412 1149 Ac-QAibQQTF$r8ALWALL$AN-NH2 1921.08 961.54 961.59 413 1150 Ac-AAAATF$r8AAWAAL$AA-NH2 1608.90 805.45 805.52 414 1151 Ac-F$r8AAWRAL$Q-NH2 1294.76 648.38 648.48 415 1152 Ac-TF$r8AAWAAL$Q-NH2 1310.74 656.37 1311.62 416 1153 Ac-TF$r8AAWRAL$A-NH2 1338.78 670.39 670.46 417 1154 Ac-VF$r8AAWRAL$Q-NH2 1393.82 697.91 697.99 418 1155 Ac-AF$r8AAWAAL$A-NH2 1223.71 612.86 1224.67 420 1156 Ac-TF$r8AAWKAL$Q-NH2 1367.80 684.90 684.97 421 1157 Ac-TF$r8AAWOAL$Q-NH2 1353.78 677.89 678.01 422 1158 Ac-TF$r8AAWSAL$Q-NH2 1326.73 664.37 664.47 423 1159 Ac-LTF$r8AAWRAL$Q-NH2 1508.89 755.45 755.49 424 1160 Ac-F$f8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1301.72 651.86 651.96 425 1161 Ac-F$r8AWWAAL$A-NH2 1267.71 634.86 634.87 426 1162 Ac-F$r8AWWAQL$A-NH2 1324.73 663.37 663.43 427 1163 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$-NH2 1231.66 616.83 1232.93 428 1164 Ac-F$r8AYWAAL$-NH2 1173.66 587.83 1175.09 429 1165 Ac-F$r8AYWKAL$-NH2 1230.72 616.36 616.44 430 1166 Ac-F$r8AYWOAL$-NH2 1216.70 609.35 609.48 431 1167 Ac-F$rAYWQAL$-NH2 1230.68 616.34 616.44 432 1168 Ac-F$r8AYWAQL$-NH2 1230.68 616.34 616.37 433 1169 Ac-F$r8HYWDQL$S-NH2 1427.72 714.86 714.86 434 1170 Ac-F$r8HFWEQL$S-NH2 1425.74 713.87 713.98 435 1171 Ac-F$r8AYWHQL$S-NH2 1383.73 692.87 692.96 436 1172 Ac-F$r8AYWKQL$S-NH2 1374.77 688.39 688.45 437 1173 Ac-F$r8AYWOQL$S-NH2 1360.75 681.38 681.49 438 1174 Ac-F$r8HYWSQL$S-NH2 1399.73 700.87 700.95 439 1175 Ac-F$r8HWWEQL$S-NH2 1464.76 733.38 733.44 440 1176 Ac-F$r8HWWAQL$S-NH2 1406.75 704.38 704.43 441 1177 Ac-F$r8AWWHQL$S-NH2 1406.75 704.38 704.43 442 1178 Ac-F$r8AWWKQL$S-NH2 1397.79 699.90 699.92 443 1179 Ac-F$r8AWWOQL$S-NH2 1383.77 692.89 692.96 444 1180 Ac-F$r8HWWSQI$S-NH2 1422.75 712.38 712.42 445 1181 Ac-LTF$r8NYWANleL$Q-NH2 1600.90 801.45 801.52 446 1182 Ac-LTF$8NLWAQL$Q-NH2 1565.90 783.95 784.06 447 1183 Ac-LTF$r8NYWANleL$A-NH2 1543.88 772.94 773.03 448 1184 Ac-LTF$r8NLWAQI$A-NH2 1508.88 755.44 755.49 449 1185 Ac-LTF$r8AYWANleL$Q-NH2 1557.90 779.95 780.06 450 1186 Ac-LTF$8ALWAQL$Q-NH2 1522.89 762.45 762.45 451 1187 Ac-LAF$r8NYWANleL$Q-NH2 1570.89 786.45 786.5 452 1188 Ac-LAF$r8NLWAQL$Q-NH2 1535.89 768.95 769.03 453 1189 Ac-LAF$r8AYWANieL$A-NH2 1470.86 736.43 736.47 454 1190 Ac-LAF$r8ALWAQL$A-NH2 1435.86 718.93 719.01 455 1191 Ac-LAF$r8AYWAAL$A-NH2 1428.82 715.41 715.41 456 1192 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AAib-NH2 1399.75 700.88 700.95 457 1193 Ac-F$r8AYWAQL$AA-NH2 1372.75 687.38 687.78 458 1194 Ac-F$r8AYWAAc3cL$AA-NH2 1327.73 664.87 664.84 459 1195 Ac-F$r8AYWSAc3cL$AA-NH2 1343.73 672.87 672.9 460 1196 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AS-NH2 1401.73 701.87 701.84 461 1197 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AT-NH2 1415.75 708.88 708.87 462 1198 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AL-NH2 1427.79 714.90 714.94 463 1199 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AQ-NH2 1442.76 722.38 722.41 464 1200 Ac-F$r8AFWEAc3cL$AA-NH2 1369.74 685.87 685.93 465 1201 Ac-F$r8AWWEAc3cL$AA-NH2 1408.75 705.38 705.39 466 1202 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$SA-NH2 1401.73 701.87 701.99 467 1203 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NH2 1373.74 687.87 687.93 468 1204 Ac-F$r8AYWENleL$AA-NH2 1415.79 708.90 708.94 469 1205 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AbuA-NH2 1399.75 700.88 700.95 470 1206 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$NleA-NH2 1427.79 714.90 714.86 471 1207 Ac-F$r8AYWEAibL$NleA-NH2 1429.80 715.90 715.97 472 1208 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$NleA-NH2 1415.79 708.90 708.94 473 1209 Ac-F$r8AYWENeL$NleA-NH2 1457.83 729.92 729.96 474 1210 Ac-F$r8AYWEAibL$AbU-NH2 1330.73 666.37 666.39 475 1211 Ac-F$r8AYWENleL$AbU-NH2 1358.76 680.38 680.39 476 1212 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AbU-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.36 477 1213 Ac-ITF$r8AFWAQL$S-NH2 1515.85 758.93 759.12 478 1214 Ac-LTF$r8AWWAQL$S-NH2 1554.86 778.43 778.51 479 1215 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQI$S-NH2 1531.84 766.92 766.96 480 1216 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQNle$S-NH2 1531.84 766.92 766.96 481 1217 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQLS$A-NH2 1602.88 802.44 802.48 482 1218 Ac-LTF$r8AWWAQL$A-NH2 1538.87 770.44 770.89 483 1219 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQI$A-NH2 1515.85 758.93 759.42 484 1220 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQNle$A-NH2 1515.85 758.93 759.42 485 1221 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$AA-NH2 1586.89 794.45 794.94 486 1222 Ac-LTF$r8HWWAQL$S-NH2 1620.88 811.44 811.47 487 1223 Ac-LTF$8HRWAQL$S-NH2 1590.90 796.45 796.52 488 1224 Ac-LTF$8HKWAQL$S-NH2 1562.90 782.45 782.53 489 1225 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQLSW-NH2 1696.91 849.46 849.5 491 1226 Ac-F$r8AYWAbUAL$A-NH2 1258.71 630.36 630.5 492 1227 Ac-F$r8AbuYWEAL$A-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.51 493 1228 Ac-NlePRF%r8NYWRLL%QN-NH2 1954.13 978.07 978.54 494 1229 Ac-TSF%r8HYWAQL%S-NH2 1573.83 787.92 787.98 495 1230 Ac-LTF%r8AYWAQL%S-NH2 1533.86 767.93 768 496 1231 Ac-HTF$r8IIYWAQL$S-NH2 1621.84 811.92 811.96 497 1232 Ac-LHF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1633.88 817.94 818.02 498 1233 Ac-LTF$r8HHWAQL$S-NH2 1571.86 786.93 786.94 499 1234 Ac-LTF$r8HYWHQL$S-NH2 1663.89 832.95 832.38 500 1235 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAHL$S-NH2 1606.87 804.44 804.48 501 1236 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$H-NH2 1647.89 824.95 824.98 502 1237 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHPr 1639.91 820.96 820.98 503 1238 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHsBu 1653.93 827.97 828.02 504 1239 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHiBu 1653.93 827.97 828.02 505 1240 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHBn 1687.91 844.96 844.44 506 1241 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHPe 1700.92 851.46 851.99 507 1242 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHChx 1679.94 840.97 841.04 508 1243 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1547.80 774.90 774.96 509 1244 Ac-STF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1505.79 753.90 753.94 510 1245 Ac-LEF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1559.84 780.92 781.25 511 1246 Ac-LSF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1517.83 759.92 759.93 512 1247 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$S-NH2 1589.85 795.93 795.97 513 1248 Ac-LTF$r8SYWAQL$S-NH2 1547.84 774.92 774.96 514 1249 Ac-LTF$r8AYWEQL$S-NH2 1589.85 795.93 795.9 515 1250 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAEL$S-NH2 1532.83 767.42 766.96 516 1251 Ac-LTF$r8AYWASL$S-NH2 1490.82 746.41 746.46 517 1252 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$E-NH2 1573.85 787.93 787.98 518 1253 Ac-LTF2CN$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1622.86 812.43 812.47 519 1254 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1631.83 816.92 816.99 520 1255 Ac-LTDip$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1673.90 837.95 838.01 521 1256 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQTle$S-NH2 1597.87 799.94 800.04 522 1257 Ac-F$r8AY6clWEAL$A-NH2 1336.66 669.33 1338.56 523 1258 Ac-F$r8AYdl6brWEAL$A-NH2 1380.61 691.31 692.2 524 1259 Ac-F$r8AYdI6fWEAL$A-NH2 1320.69 661.35 1321.61 525 1260 Ac-F$r8AYdl4mWEAL$A-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.36 526 1261 Ac-F$r8AYdl5clWEAL$A-NH2 1336.66 669.33 669.35 527 1262 Ac-F$r8AYdl7mWEAL$A-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.36 528 1263 Ac-LTF%r8HYWAQL%A-NH2 1583.89 792.95 793.01 529 1264 Ac-LTF$r8HCouWAQL$S-NH2 1679.87 840.94 841.38 530 1265 Ac-LTFEHCouWAQLTS-NH2 1617.75 809.88 809.96 531 1266 Ac-LTA$r8HCouWAQL$S-NH2 1603.84 802.92 803.36 532 1267 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AbUA-NH2 1387.75 694.88 694.88 533 1268 Ac-F$r8AYWEAI$AA-NH2 1373.74 687.87 687.93 534 1269 Ac-F$r8AYWEANle$AA-NH2 1373.74 687.87 687.93 535 1270 Ac-F$r8AYWEAmlL$AA-NH2 1429.80 715.90 715.97 536 1271 Ac-F$r8AYWQAL$AA-NH2 1372.75 687.38 687.48 537 1272 Ac-F$r8AYWAAL$AA-NH2 1315.73 658.87 658.92 538 1273 Ac-F$r8AYWAbUAL$AA-NH2 1329.75 665.88 665.95 539 1274 Ac-F$r8AYWNleAL$AA-NH2 1357.78 679.89 679.94 540 1275 Ac-F$r8AbuYWEAL$AA-NH2 1387.75 694.88 694.96 541 1276 Ac-F$r8NleYWEAL$AA-NH2 1415.79 708.90 708.94 542 1277 Ac-FSr8FYWEAL$AA-NH2 1449.77 725.89 725.97 543 1278 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQhL$S-NH2 1611.88 806.94 807 544 1279 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQAdm$S-NH2 1675.91 838.96 839.04 545 1280 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQIgl$S-NH2 1659.88 830.94 829.94 546 1281 Ac-F$r8AYWAQL$AA-NH2 1372.75 687.38 687.48 547 1282 Ac-LTF$r8ALWAQL$Q-NH2 1522.89 762.45 762.52 548 1283 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$AA-NH2 1373.74 687.87 687.93 549 1284 Ac-F$r8AYWENleL$AA-NH2 1415.79 708.90 708.94 550 1285 Ac-F$r8AYWEAibL$Abu-NH2 1330.73 666.37 666.39 551 1286 Ac-F$r8AYWENeL$AbU-NH2 1358.76 680.38 680.38 552 1287 Ac-F$r8AYWEAL$Abu-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.36 553 1288 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$AbuA-NH2 1399.75 700.88 700.95 554 1289 Ac-F$r8AYWEAc3cL$NleA-NH2 1427.79 714.90 715.01 555 1290 H-LTF$8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1489.83 745.92 745.95 556 1291 mdPEG3-LTF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1679.92 840.96 840.97 557 1292 mdPEG7-LTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1856.02 929.01 929.03 558 1293 Ac-F$r8ApmpEt6clWEAL$A-NH2 1470.71 736.36 788.17 559 1294 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1565.81 783.91 809.18 560 1295 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8HYWAQL$A-NH2 1615.83 808.92 875.24 561 1296 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8HYWWQL$S-NH2 1746.87 874.44 841.65 562 1297 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWWQL$S-NH2 1680.85 841.43 824.63 563 1298 Ac-LTF$r8AYWWQL$S-NH2 1646.89 824.45 849.98 564 1299 Ac-ITF$r8HYWWQL$A-NH2 1696.91 849.46 816.67 565 1300 Ac-LTF$8AYWWQL$A-NH2 1630.89 816.45 776.15 566 1301 Ac-ITF4F$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1549.83 775.92 776.15 567 1302 Ac-LTF2F$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1549.83 775.92 776.15 568 1303 Ac-LTF3F$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1549.83 775.92 785.12 569 1304 Ac-LTF34F2$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1567.83 784.92 785.12 570 1305 Ac-LTF35F2$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1567.83 784.92 1338.74 571 1306 Ac-F3Cl$r8AYWEAL$A-NH2 1336.66 669.33 705.28 572 1307 Ac-F3Cl$r8AYWEAL$AA-NH2 1407.70 704.85 680.11 573 1308 Ac-F$r8AY6clWEAL$AA-NH2 1407.70 704.85 736.83 574 1309 Ac-F$r8AY6clWEAL$-NH2 1265.63 633.82 784.1 575 1310 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$t/S-NH2 16.03 9.02 826.98 576 1311 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHsBu 1653.93 827.97 828.02 577 1312 Ac-STF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1505.79 753.90 753.94 578 1313 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAEL$S-NH2 1532.83 767.42 767.41 579 1314 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$E-NH2 1573.85 787.93 787.98 580 1315 mdPEG3-LTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1679.92 840.96 840.97 581 1316 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQhL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.31 583 1317 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCha$S-NH2 1571.88 786.94 787.3 584 1318 Ac-LTF$rAYWAQChg$S-NH2 1557.86 779.93 780.4 585 1319 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1543.84 772.92 780.13 586 1320 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQF$S-NH2 1565.83 783.92 784.2 587 1321 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQhL$S-NH2 1629.87 815.94 815.36 588 1322 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQCha$S-NH2 1655.89 828.95 828.39 589 1323 Ac-ITFAF$r8HYWAQChg$S-NH2 1641.87 821.94 821.35 590 1324 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQCba$S-NH2 1627.86 814.93 814.32 591 1325 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQhL$S-NH2 1563.85 782.93 782.36 592 1326 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQCha$S-NH2 1589.87 795.94 795.38 593 1327 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQChg$S-NH2 1575.85 788.93 788.35 594 1328 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1561.83 781.92 781.39 595 1329 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQhL$S-NH2 1579.82 790.91 790.35 596 1330 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQCha$S-NH2 1605.84 803.92 803.67 597 1331 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQChg$S-NH2 1591.82 796.91 796.34 598 1332 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1577.81 789.91 789.39 599 1333 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQhF$S-NH2 1579.84 790.92 791.14 600 1334 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQF3CF3$S-NH2 1633.82 817.91 818.15 601 1335 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQF3Me$S-NH2 1581.86 791.93 791.32 602 1336 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQINal$S-NH2 1615.84 808.92 809.18 603 1337 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQBip$S-NH2 1641.86 821.93 822.13 604 1338 Ac-LTF$r8FYWAQL$A-NH2 1591.88 796.94 797.33 605 1339 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHAm 1667.94 834.97 835.92 606 1340 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHiAm 1667.94 834.97 835.55 607 1341 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnPr3Ph 1715.94 858.97 859.79 608 1342 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnBu3,3Me 1681.96 841.98 842.49 610 1343 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnPr 1639.91 830.96 821.58 611 1344 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnEt2Ch 1707.98 854.99 855.35 612 1345 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHHex 1681.96 841.98 842.4 613 1346 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NHmdPeg2 1633.91 817.96 818.35 614 1347 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$A-NHmdPeg2 1617.92 809.96 810.3 615 1348 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$A-NHmdPeg4 1705.97 853.99 854.33 616 1349 Ac-F$r8AYdI4mWEAL$A-NH2 1316.72 659.36 659.44 617 1350 Ac-F$r8AYdlScIWEAL$A-NH2 1336.66 669.33 669.43 618 1351 Ac-LThF$rAYWAQI$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.11 619 1352 Ac-LT2Nal$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1581.86 791.93 792.43 620 1353 Ac-LTA$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1455.81 728.91 729.15 621 1354 Ac-LTF$rAYWVQL$S-NH2 1559.88 780.94 781.24 622 1355 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAAL$A-NH2 1524.85 763.43 763.86 623 1356 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$A-NH2 1543.88 772.94 773.37 624 1357 Ac-LTF$r8IYWAQL$S-NH2 1573.89 787.95 788.17 625 1358 Ac-FTFSrVYWSQL$S-NH2 1609.85 805.93 806.22 626 1359 Ac-ITF$r8FYWAQL$S-NH2 1607.88 804.94 805.2 627 1360 Ac-2NalTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1659.87 830.94 831.2 628 1361 Ac-ITF$r8LYWSQL$S-NH2 1589.89 795.95 796.13 629 1362 Ac-FTF$r8FYWAQL$S-NH2 1641.86 821.93 822.13 630 1363 Ac-WTF$r8VYWAQL$S-NH2 1632.87 817.44 817.69 631 1364 Ac-WTF$r8WYWAQL$S-NH2 1719.88 860.94 861.36 632 1365 Ac-VTF$r8AYWSQL$S-NH2 1533.82 767.91 768.19 633 1366 Ac-WTF$r8FYWSQL$S-NH2 1696.87 849.44 849.7 634 1367 Ac-FTF$r8IYWAQL$S-NH2 1607.88 804.94 805.2 635 1368 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1648.87 825.44 824.8 636 1369 Ac-FTF$rLYWSQL$S-NH2 1623.87 812.94 812.8 637 1370 Ac-YTF$rFYWSQL$S-NH2 1673.85 837.93 837.8 638 1371 Ac-LTF$r8AY6clWEAL$A-NH2 1550.79 776.40 776.14 639 1372 Ac-LTF$r8AY6clWSQL$S-NH2 1581.80 791.90 791.68 640 1373 Ac-F$r8AY6clWSAL$A-NH2 1294.65 648.33 647.67 641 1374 Ac-F$r8AY6clWQAL$AA-NH2 1406.72 704.36 703.84 642 1375 Ac-LHF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1567.86 784.93 785.21 643 1376 Ac-LTF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1531.84 766.92 767.17 644 1377 Ac-LTF$8AHWAQL$S-NH2 1505.84 753.92 754.13 645 1378 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAHL$S-NH2 1540.84 771.42 771.61 646 1379 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQLSH-NH2 1581.87 791.94 792.15 647 1380 H-LTF$8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1473.84 737.92 737.29 648 1381 Ac-HHF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1591.83 796.92 797.35 649 1382 Ac-aAibWTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1804.96 903.48 903.64 650 1383 Ac-AibWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1755.91 878.96 879.4 651 1384 Ac-AibAWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1826.95 914.48 914.7 652 1385 Ac-fWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1817.93 909.97 916.1 653 1386 Ac-AibWWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1941.99 972.00 972.2 654 1387 Ac-WTF$r8LYWSQL$S-NH2 1662.88 832.44 832.8 655 1388 Ac-WTF$r8NleYWSQL$S-NH2 1662.88 832.44 832.6 656 1389 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQL$a-NH2 1531.84 766.92 767.2 657 1390 Ac-LTF$r8EYWARL$A-NH2 1601.90 801.95 802.1 658 1391 Ac-LTF$8EYWAHL$A-NH2 1582.86 792.43 792.6 659 1392 Ac-aTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1489.80 745.90 746.08 660 1393 Ac-AibTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1503.81 752.91 753.11 661 1394 Ac-AmfTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1579.84 790.92 791.14 662 1395 Ac-AmwTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1618.86 810.43 810.66 663 1396 Ac-NmLTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.11 664 1397 Ac-LNmTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.11 665 1398 Ac-LSarF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1501.83 751.92 752.18 667 1399 Ac-LGF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1487.82 744.91 745.15 668 1400 Ac-ITNmF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.2 669 1401 Ac-TF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1418.76 710.38 710.64 670 1402 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1531.81 766.91 767.2 671 1403 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$A-NH2 1573.85 787.93 788.1 672 1404 Ac-LT2Nal$r8AYWSQL$S-NH2 1597.85 799.93 800.4 673 1405 Ac-LTF$rAYWAAL$S-NH2 1474.82 738.41 738.68 674 1406 Ac-LTF$rAYWAQhCha$S-NH2 1585.89 793.95 794.19 675 1407 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQChg$S-NH2 1557.86 779.93 780.97 676 1408 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1543.84 772.92 773.19 677 1409 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQF3CF3$S-NH2 1633.82 817.91 818.15 678 1410 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQINal$S-NH2 1615.84 808.92 809.18 679 1411 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQBip$S-NH2 1641.86 821.93 822.32 680 1412 Ac-LT2Nal$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1581.86 791.93 792.15 681 1413 Ac-LTF$8AYWVQL$S-NH2 1559.88 780.94 781.62 682 1414 Ac-LTF$r8AWWAQL$S-NH2 1554.86 778.43 778.65 683 1415 Ac-FTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1609.85 805.93 806.12 684 1416 Ac-ITF$r8FYWAQL$S-NH2 1607.88 804.94 805.2 685 1417 Ac-ITF$r8LYWSQL$S-NH2 1589.89 795.95 796.22 686 1418 Ac-FTF$r8FYWAQL$S-NH2 1641.86 821.93 822.41 687 1419 Ac-VTF$r8AYWSQL$S-NH2 1533.82 767.91 768.19 688 1420 Ac-LTF$rAHWAQL$S-NH2 1505.84 753.92 754.31 689 1421 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$H-NH2 1581.87 791.94 791.94 690 1422 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAHL$S-NH2 1540.84 771.42 771.61 691 1423 Ac-aAibWTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1804.96 903.48 903.9 692 1424 Ac-AibWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1755.91 878.96 879.5 693 1425 Ac-AibAWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1826.95 914.48 914.7 694 1426 Ac-fWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1817.93 909.97 910.2 695 1427 Ac-AibWWTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1941.99 972.00 972.7 696 1428 Ac-WTF$r8LYWSQL$S-NH2 1662.88 832.44 832.7 697 1429 Ac-WTF$r8NleYWSQL$S-NH2 1662.88 832.44 832.7 698 1430 Ac-LTF$r8AYWSQL$a-NH2 1531.84 766.92 767.2 699 1431 Ac-LTF$r8EYWARL$A-NH2 1601.90 801.95 802.2 700 1432 Ac-LTF$EYWAHL$A-NH2 1582.86 792.43 792.6 701 1433 Ac-aTF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1489.80 745.90 746.1 702 1434 Ac-AibTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1503.81 752.91 753.2 703 1435 Ac-AmfTF$F8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1579.84 790.92 791.2 704 1436 Ac-AmwTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1618.86 810.43 810.7 705 1437 Ac-NmLTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.1 706 1438 Ac-LNmTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1545.86 773.93 774.4 707 1439 Ac-LSarF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1501.83 751.92 752.1 708 1440 Ac-TF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1418.76 710.38 710.8 709 1441 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1531.81 766.91 767.4 710 1442 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$A-NH2 1573.85 787.93 788.2 711 1443 Ac-WTF$r8VYWSQL$S-NH2 1648.87 825.44 825.2 /13 1444 Ac-YTF$r8FYWSQL$S-NH2 1673.85 837.93 837.3 714 1445 Ac-F$r8AY6dWSAL$A-NH2 1294.65 648.33 647.74 715 1446 Ac-ETF$r8EYWVQL$S-NH2 1633.84 817.92 817.36 716 1447 Ac-ETF$r8EHWAQL$A-NH2 1563.81 782.91 782.36 717 1448 Ac-ITF$r8EYWAQL$S-NH2 1589.85 795.93 795.38 718 1449 Ac-ITF$r8EHWVQL$A-NH2 1575.88 788.94 788.42 719 1450 Ac-IT$r8EHWAQL$S-NH2 1563.85 782.93 782.43 720 1451 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1561.83 781.92 781.32 721 1452 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQhL$S-NH2 1579.82 790.91 790.64 722 1453 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQCha$S-NH2 1605.84 803.92 803.37 723 1454 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQChg$S-NH2 1591.82 796.91 796.27 724 1455 Ac-LTF3Cl$r8AYWAQCba$S-NH2 1577.81 789.91 789.83 725 1456 Ac-LTF$r8AY6clWSQL$S-NH2 1581.80 791.90 791.75 726 1457 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQhL$S-NH2 1629.87 815.94 815.36 727 1458 Ac-LTF4F$r8HYWAQCba$S-NH2 1627.86 814.93 814.32 728 1459 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQhL$S-NH2 1563.85 782.93 782.36 729 1460 Ac-LTF4F$r8AYWAQChg$S-NH2 1575.85 788.93 788.35 730 1461 Ac-ETF$r8EYWVAL$S-NH2 1576.82 789.41 788.79 731 1462 Ac-ETF$r8EHWAAL$A-NH2 1506.79 754.40 754.8 732 1463 Ac-ITF$r8EYWAAL$S-NH2 1532.83 767.42 767.75 733 1464 Ac-ITi$r8EHWVAI$A-NH2 1518.86 760.43 760.81 734 1465 Ac-ITFSrEHWAAL$S-NH2 1506.82 754.41 754.8 735 1466 Pam-ITF$r8EYWAQL$S-NH2 1786.07 894.04 894.48 736 1467 Pam-ETF$r8EYWAQL$S-NH2 1802.03 902.02 902.34 737 1468 Ac-LTF$8AYWLQL$S-NH2 1573.89 787.95 787.39 738 1469 Ac-LTF$r8EYWLQL$S-NH2 1631.90 816.95 817.33 739 1470 Ac-LTF$r8EHWLQL$S-NH2 1605.89 803.95 804.29 740 1471 Ac-LTF$r8VYWAQL$S-NH2 1559.88 780.94 781.34 741 1472 Ac-LTF$8AYWSQL$S-NH2 1547.84 774.92 775.33 742 1473 Ac-ETF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1547.80 774.90 775.7 743 1474 Ac-LTF$r8EYWAQL$S-NH2 1589.85 795.93 796.33 744 1475 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHAm 1667.94 834.97 835.37 745 1476 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHiAm 1667.94 834.97 835.27 746 1477 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnPr3Ph 1715.94 858.97 859.42 747 1478 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnBu3,3Me 1681.96 841.98 842.67 748 1479 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnBu 1653.93 827.97 828.24 749 1480 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnPr 1639.91 820.96 821.31 750 1481 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHnEt2Ch 1707.98 854.99 855.35 751 1482 Ac-LTF$r8HYWAQL$S-NHHex 1681.96 841.98 842.4 752 1483 Ac-LTF$8AYWAQL$S-NHmdPeg2 1633.91 817.96 855.35 753 1484 Ac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$A-NHmdPeg2 1617.92 809.96 810.58 754 1485 Ac-LTF$r5AYWAAL$s8S-NH2 1474.82 738.41 738.79 755 1486 Ac-LTF$r8AYWCOuQL$S-NH2 1705.88 853.94 854.61 756 1487 Ac-LTF$r8CouYWAQL$S-NH2 1705.88 853.94 854.7 757 1488 Ac-CouTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1663.83 832.92 833.33 758 1489 H-LTF$r8AYWAQL$A-NH2 1473.84 737.92 737.29 759 1490 Ac-HHF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1591.83 796.92 797.72 760 1491 Ac-LT2Nal$r8AYWSQL$S-NH2 1597.85 799.93 800.68 761 1492 Ac-LTF$r8HCouWAQL$S-NH2 1679.87 840.94 841.38 762 1493 Ac-LTF$r8AYWCOu2QL$S-NH2 1789.94 895.97 896.51 763 1494 Ac-LTF$r8COu2YWAQL$S-NH2 1789.94 895.97 896.5 764 1495 Ac-Cou2TF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1747.90 874.95 875.42 765 1496 Ac-LTF$r8ACou2WAQL$S-NH2 1697.92 849.96 850.82 766 1497 Dmaac-LTF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1574.89 788.45 788.82 767 1498 Hexac-LTF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1587.91 794.96 795.11 768 1499 Napac-ITF$r8AYWAQL$S-NH2 1657.89 829.95 830.36 769 1500 Pam-LTF$rAYWAQL$S-NH2 1728.06 865.03 865.45 770 1501 Ac-LT2NalSrHYAAQL$S-NH2 1532.84 767.42 767.61 771 1502 Ac-LT2Nal$/r8HYWAQL$/S-NH2 1675.91 838.96 839.1 772 1503 Ac-LT2Nal$r8HYFAQL$S-NH2 1608.87 805.44 805.9 773 1504 Ac-LT2Nal$r8HWAAQL$S-NH2 1555.86 778.93 779.08 774 1505 Ac-LT2NalSrHYAWQL$S-NH2 1647.88 824.94 825.04 775 1506 Ac-LT2Nal$r8HYAAQW$S-NH2 1605.83 803.92 804.05 776 1507 Ac-LTW$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1636.88 819.44 819.95 777 1508 Ac-LT1Nal$r8HYWAQL$S-NH2 1647.88 824.94 825.41

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles disclosed herein do not comprise a peptidomimetic macrocycle structure as shown in Table 2b.

Table 2c shows examples of non-crosslinked polypeptides comprising D-amino acids.

TABLE 2c SEQ ID Exact Found Calc Cak Cak SP NO: Sequence Isomer Mass Mass (M + 1)/1 (M + 2)/2 (M + 3)/3 SP778 1509 Ac-tawyanfekllr-NH2 777.46 SP779 1510 Ac-tawyanf4CF3ekllr- 811.41 NH2

Peptidomimetic macrocycles can also be prepared that target or interact with proteins that a virus needs for infection or replication within a host cell. Such viruses can be, for example, influenza viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. This family also includes Thogoto viruses and Dhoriviruses. There are several types and subtypes of influenza viruses known, which infect humans and other species. Influenza type A viruses infect people, birds, pigs, horses, seals and other animals, but wild birds are the natural hosts for these viruses. Influenza type A viruses are divided into subtypes and named on the basis of two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For example, an “H7N2 virus” designates an influenza A subtype that has an HA7 protein and an NA2 protein. Similarly an “H5N1” virus has an HA 5 protein and an NA1 protein. There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Only some influenza A subtypes (i.e., H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are currently in general circulation among people. Other subtypes are found most commonly in other animal species. For example, H7N7 and H3N8 viruses cause illness in horses, and H3N8 also has recently been shown to cause illness in dogs.

Antiviral agents according to the invention can be used to protect high-risk groups (hospital units, institutes caring for elderly, immuno-suppressed individuals), and on a case by case basis. A potential use for antiviral agents is to limit the spread and severity of the future pandemics whether caused by avian H5N1 or other strains of influenza virus. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with high pathogenicity, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with low pathogenicity viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of low pathogenicity viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.

Influenza B viruses are usually found in humans but can also infect seals. Unlike influenza A viruses, these viruses are not classified according to subtype. Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality among humans, but in general are associated with less severe epidemics than influenza A viruses. Although influenza type B viruses can cause human epidemics, they have not caused pandemics.

Influenza type C viruses cause mild illness in humans and do not cause epidemics or pandemics. These viruses can also infect dogs and pigs. These viruses are not classified according to subtype.

Influenza viruses differ from each other in respect to cell surface receptor specificity and cell tropism, however they use common entry pathways. Charting these pathways and identification of host cell proteins involved in virus influenza transmission, entry, replication, biosynthesis, assembly, or exit allows the development of general agents against existing and emerging strains of influenza. The agents can also prove useful against unrelated viruses that use similar pathways. For example, the agents can protect airway epithelial cells against a number of different viruses in addition to influenza viruses.

In one embodiment the targeted virus is an adenovirus. Adenoviruses most commonly cause respiratory illness; symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Patients with compromised immune systems are especially susceptible to severe complications of adenovirus infection. Acute respiratory disease (ARD), first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can be caused by adenovirus infections during conditions of crowding and stress. Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90-100 nm), nonenveloped icosohedral viruses containing double-stranded DNA. There are 49 immunologically distinct types (6 subgenera: A through F) that can cause human infections. Adenoviruses are unusually stable to chemical or physical agents and adverse pH conditions, allowing for prolonged survival outside of the body. Some adenoviruses, such as AD2 and Ad5 (species C) use clathrin mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis for infectious entry. Other adenoviruses, such as Ad3 (species B) use dynamin dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis for infectious entry.

In one embodiment the targeted virus is a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants and children under 1 year of age. Illness begins most frequently with fever, runny nose, cough, and sometimes wheezing. During their first RSV infection, between 25% and 40% of infants and young children have signs or symptoms of bronchiolitis or pneumonia, and 0.5% to 2% require hospitalization. Most children recover from illness in 8 to 15 days. The majority of children hospitalized for RSV infection are under 6 months of age. RSV also causes repeated infections throughout life, usually associated with moderate-to-severe cold-like symptoms: however, severe lower respiratory tract disease can occur at any age, especially among the elderly or among those with compromised cardiac, pulmonary, or immune systems. RSV is a negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus. The virion is variable in shape and size (average diameter of between 120 and 300 nm), is unstable in the environment (surviving only a few hours on environmental surfaces), and is readily inactivated with soap and water and disinfectants.

In one embodiment the targeted virus is a human parainfluenza virus (HPIV). HPIVs are second to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. Similar to RSV, HPIVs can cause repeated infections throughout life, usually manifested by an upper respiratory tract illness (e.g., a cold and/or sore throat). HPIVs can also cause serious lower respiratory tract disease with repeat infection (e.g., pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis), especially among the elderly, and among patients with compromised immune systems. Each of the four HPIVs has different clinical and epidemiologic features. The most distinctive clinical feature of HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 is croup (i.e., laryngotracheobronchitis): HPIV-1 is the leading cause of croup in children, whereas HPIV-2 is less frequently detected. Both HPIV-1 and -2 can cause other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses. HPIV-3 is more often associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HPIV-4 is infrequently detected, possibly because it is less likely to cause severe disease. The incubation period for HPIVs is generally from 1 to 7 days. HPIVs are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that possess fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein “spikes” on their surface. There are four serotypes types of HPIV (1 through 4) and two subtypes (4a and 4b). The virion varies in size (average diameter between 150 and 300 nm) and shape, is unstable in the environment (surviving a few hours on environmental surfaces), and is readily inactivated with soap and water.

In one embodiment the targeted virus is a coronavirus. Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 16 to 31 kilobases, extraordinarily large for an RNA virus. The name “coronavirus” is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown, as the virus envelope appears under electron microscopy to be crowned by a characteristic ring of small bulbous structures. This morphology is actually formed by the viral spike peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism. Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus, meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3′ co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNAs during infection. Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid. In the specific case of SARS a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.

In one embodiment the targeted virus is a rhinovirus. Rhinovirus is a genus of the Picomaviridae family of viruses. Rhinoviruses are the most common viral infective agents in humans, and a causative agent of the common cold. There are over 105 serologic virus types that cause cold symptoms, and rhinoviruses are responsible for approximately 50% of all cases. Rhinoviruses have single-stranded positive sense RNA genomes of between 7.2 and 8.5 kb in length. At the 5′ end of the genome is a virus-encoded protein, and like mammalian mRNA, there is a 3′ poly-A tail. Structural proteins are encoded in the 5′ region of the genome and nonstructural at the end. This is the same for all picornaviruses. The viral particles themselves are not enveloped and are icosahedral in structure.

Any secondary structure of a viral protein (or of a host cell protein involved in viral infectivity) can form the basis of the methods. For example, a viral protein comprising a secondary structure which is a helix can be used to design peptidomimetic macrocycles based on the helix.

In one embodiment, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is designed based on the PB1 or PB2 sequence of an influenza virus. The PB1 sequence is highly conserved across all known strains of influenza A virus, which can result in less drug resistance should than that observed with the current standard of care. An alignment of the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of PB1 from the NCBI data bank's 2,485 influenza A virus strains (Ghanem, 2007) demonstrates the remarkable sequence conservation in the PA interaction domain of PB1. Therefore, antiviral therapies based on the PB1 sequence can block most, if not all, influenza A virus strains. Additionally, sequence modification of a peptidomimetic macrocycle based on these few variations in PB1 can enable an antiviral cocktail of PB1 inhibitors to eliminate resistance due to escape mutants.

Table 3a shows a list of peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the PA-binding helix of PB1 that were prepared.

Table 3b shows a list of selected peptidomimetic macrocycles from Table 3a. SP-791 and SP-794 were prepared by increasing the length and alanine content (%) of the SP-786 sequence. These modifications led to a five-fold increase in antiviral activity compared to that of SP-786. SP-798 was prepared by incorporating an i, i+7 crosslink instead of the i, i+4 crosslink of SP-786. SP-192 exhibited improved anti-viral activity (EC50=4.5 mM) compared to that of SP-786.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle that comprises an amino acid sequence that has at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97%, or 100% identity to any one of the amino acid sequences in Table 3a or 3b.

TABLE 3a Prepared peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the PA-binding helix of pB1. SEQ ID SP# NO: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 780 1511 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L K V Aib A Q —NH2 781 1512 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L K A Aib A Q —NH2 782 1513 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L K V Aib A A —NH2 783 1514 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L K V P Aib Q —NH2 784 1515 Ac— F D V N $ T L L $ L K V Aib A Q —NH2 785 1516 5-FAM— Ba Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Aib A Q —NH2 786 1517 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Aib A Q —NH2 787 1518 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Aib A Q A A —NH2 788 1519 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V A A Q A A —NH2 789 1520 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V A A A A A —NH2 790 1521 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V S A Q A A —NH2 791 1522 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q A Q A A —NH2 792 1523 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V E A Q A A —NH2 793 1524 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V S A A A A —NH2 794 1525 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q A A A A —NH2 795 1526 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V E A A A A —NH2 796 1527 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Aib A Q A a —NH2 797 1528 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Aib A Q A a —OH 798 1529 Ac— Nle D V N $r8 T L L F L A $ A A Q —NH2 799 1530 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q Aib Q A A —NH2 800 1531 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q A Q Aib A —NH2 801 1532 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q Aib A A A —NH2 802 1533 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q A A Aib A —NH2 803 1534 Ac— Nle D V N $ T L L $ L A V Q A Aib A A —NH2 804 1535 Ac— Nle D V N $r8 T L L F L A $ A A Q A A —NH2 805 1536 Ac— Nle D V N $r8 T L L F L A $ A A A A A —NH2 806 1537 Ac— Nle D V N $r8 T L L F L A $ Q A Q A A —NH2 807 1538 Ac— Nle D V N $r8 T L L F L A $ Q A A A A —NH2

TABLE 3b Selected peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the PA-binding helix of pB1. RT Ala CPE, EC50 SP# Crosslink Ch L VH (min)* (%) (μM)** 786 i, i + 4 −1 15 4.7 10.68 13 23 791 i, i + 4 −1 17 7.2 8.02 24 4.1 794 i, i + 4 −1 17 5.1 9.54 29 6.1 799 i, i + 4 −1 17 7 18 <6.1*** 800 i, i + 4 −1 17 7 8.47 18 <6.1*** 801 i, i + 4 −1 17 4.9 10.01 24 <6.1*** 802 i, i + 4 −1 17 4.9 10.18 24 <6.1*** 803 i, i + 4 −1 17 4.9 10.26 24 <6.1*** 798 i, i + 7 −1 15 4.9 10.18 20 4.5 804 i, i + 7 −1 17 5.1 10.92 29 <4.5*** 805 i, i + 7 −1 17 3 13.03 35 <4.5*** 806 i, i + 7 −1 17 7.2 8.86 24 <4.5*** 807 i, i + 7 −1 17 5.1 10.83 29 <4.5*** *See Example 11 table **By Neutral Red assay (Influenza A Virus H1N1 California/07/2009) ***Predicted Ch = net charge; L = length in amino acids; VH = von Heijne; RT = retention time; Ala = alanine content

In some embodiments of the invention, the peptide sequence is derived from the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is defined by the presence of up to four conserved BCL-2 homology (BH) domains designated BH1, BH2, BH3, and BH4, all of which include α-helical segments (Chittenden et al. (1995), EMBO 14:5589; Wang et al. (1996), Genes Dev. 10:2859). Anti-apoptotic proteins, such as BCL-2 and BCL-XL, display sequence conservation in all BH domains. Pro-apoptotic proteins are divided into “multidomain” family members (e.g., BAK, BAX), which possess homology in the BH1, BH2, and BH3 domains, and “BH3-domain only” family members (e.g., BID, BAD, BIM, BIK, NOXA, PUMA), that contain sequence homology exclusively in the BH3 amphipathic α-helical segment. BCL-2 family members have the capacity to form homo- and heterodimers, suggesting that competitive binding and the ratio between pro- and anti-apoptotic protein levels dictates susceptibility to death stimuli. Anti-apoptotic proteins function to protect cells from pro-apoptotic excess, i.e., excessive programmed cell death. Additional “security” measures include regulating transcription of pro-apoptotic proteins and maintaining them as inactive conformers, requiring either proteolytic activation, dephosphorylation, or ligand-induced conformational change to activate pro-death functions. In certain cell types, death signals received at the plasma membrane trigger apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway. The mitochondria can serve as a gatekeeper of cell death by sequestering cytochrome c, a critical component of a cytosolic complex which activates caspase 9, leading to fatal downstream proteolytic events. Multidomain proteins such as BCL-2/BCL-XL and BAK/BAX play dueling roles of guardian and executioner at the mitochondrial membrane, with their activities further regulated by upstream BH3-only members of the BCL-2 family. For example, BID is a member of the BH3-domain only family of pro-apoptotic proteins, and transmits death signals received at the plasma membrane to effector pro-apoptotic proteins at the mitochondrial membrane. BID has the capability of interacting with both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and upon activation by caspase 8, triggers cytochrome c release and mitochondrial apoptosis. Deletion and mutagenesis studies determined that the amphipathic α-helical BH3 segment of pro-apoptotic family members can function as a death domain and thus can represent a critical structural motif for interacting with multidomain apoptotic proteins. Structural studies have shown that the BH3 helix can interact with anti-apoptotic proteins by inserting into a hydrophobic groove formed by the interface of BH1, 2 and 3 domains. Activated BID can be bound and sequestered by anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2 and BCL-XL) and can trigger activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAK, leading to cytochrome c release and a mitochondrial apoptosis program. BAD is also a BH3-domain only pro-apoptotic family member whose expression triggers the activation of BAX/BAK. In contrast to BID, however, BAD displays preferential binding to anti-apoptotic family members, BCL-2 and BCL-XL. Whereas the BAD BH3 domain exhibits high affinity binding to BCL-2, BAD BH3 peptide is unable to activate cytochrome c release from mitochondria in vitro, suggesting that BAD is not a direct activator of BAX/BAK. Mitochondria that over-express BCL-2 are resistant to BID-induced cytochrome c release, but co-treatment with BAD can restore BID sensitivity. Induction of mitochondrial apoptosis by BAD appears to result from either: (1) displacement of BAX/BAK activators, such as BID and BID-like proteins, from the BCL-2/BCL-XL binding pocket, or (2) selective occupation of the BCL-2/BCL-XL binding pocket by BAD to prevent sequestration of BID-like proteins by anti-apoptotic proteins. Thus, two classes of BH3-domain only proteins have emerged, BID-like proteins that directly activate mitochondrial apoptosis, and BAD-like proteins, that have the capacity to sensitize mitochondria to BID-like pro-apoptotics by occupying the binding pockets of multidomain anti-apoptotic proteins. Various α-helical domains of BCL-2 family member proteins amenable to the methodology disclosed herein have been disclosed (Walensky et al. (2004), Science 305:1466: and Walensky et al., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2005/0250680, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference).

Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is a protein that inhibits cell death through the binding and inhibition of pro-death factors such as BCL-2 interacting mediator (BIM). When MCL-1 is over-expressed, the rate of cell death in a cell or tissue is reduced. In some embodiments, the peptide sequences are derived from BIM. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptide derived from a human BIM peptide can be a peptide comprising 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22 amino acids from a BIM peptide sequence.

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptide derived from a human BIM peptide sequence can be a peptide comprising 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22 amino acids that are different from the selected sequences from which the peptide is derived. In some embodiments. a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptide derived from a human BIM peptide sequence can be a peptide comprising a mutation at amino acid position 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22. In some embodiments, mutations are mutations of non-essential amino acids. In some embodiments, mutations are mutations of essential amino acids. In some embodiments, mutations are mutations of hydrophobic amino acids. In some embodiments, mutations are mutations of naturally occurring amino acids. In some embodiments, mutations are mutations to a conservative amino acid. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptide derived from a human BIM peptide sequence can be a peptide comprising 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22 amino acid analogues. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle peptide derived from a human BIM peptide sequence can be a peptide comprising 1 or 2 capping groups.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises a C-terminal truncation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30 amino acids from an amino acid sequence of BIM In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle comprises a N-terminal truncation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22 amino acids from the sequence of BIM.

A non-limiting list of suitable BIM macrocycles for use in the present disclosure are given in Tables 4a and 4b. In Tables 4a and 4b, at the C-terminus, some peptides possess a carboxamide terminus (shown as —NH2): some peptides possess a hydroxyl terminus (shown as —OH); some peptides possess a 5-carboxyfluorescein terminus (shown as -5-FAM); some peptides possess a isobutylamide terminus (shown as —NHiBu); some peptides possess a cyclohexylamide terminus (shown as —NHChx); some peptides possess a cyclohexylmethylamide terminus (shown as —NHMeChx); some peptides possess a phenethylamide terminus (shown as —NHPe); some peptides possess a n-butylamide terminus (shown as —NHBu); some peptides possess a sec-butylamide terminus (shown as —NHsBu); and some peptides possess an uncapped terminus (shown as no terminal modification).

In Tables 4a and 4b, at the N-terminus, some peptides possess an acetyl terminus (shown as Ac-); some peptides possess a fluorescein isothiocyanate terminus (shown as FITC-); some peptides possess a single-unit polyethylene glycol terminus (shown as dPEG1-); some peptides possess a five-unit polyethylene glycol terminus (shown as dPEG5-); some peptides possess an eleven-unit polyethylene glycol terminus (shown as dPEG11-); some peptides possess a propyl terminus (shown as Pr-); some peptides possess a biotin terminus (shown as Biotin-): some peptides possess a KLH terminus (shown as KLH-); some peptides possess an ovalbumin terminus (shown as OVA-); some peptides possess an uncapped terminus (shown as H-); some peptides possess a isobutyl terminus (shown as iBu-); some peptides possess a decanoyl terminus (shown as Decac-); some peptides possess a benzyl terminus (shown as Bz-); some peptides possess a cyclohexyl terminus (shown as Chx-); some peptides possess a benzyl terminus (shown as Bz-); some peptides possess a Vrl terminus (shown as Vrl-); some peptides possess a HBS terminus (shown as HBS-): some peptides possess a Melm terminus (shown as MeImC-); some peptides possess a tert-butyl terminus (shown as t-Bu-U-); some peptides possess a nonanoyl terminus (shown as non-U-); some peptides possess a ethyl terminus (shown as Et-U-); some peptides possess a cyclohexyl terminus (shown as Chx-U-): some peptides possess a isopropyl terminus (shown as iPr-U-): some peptides possess a phenyl terminus (shown as Ph-U-): some peptides possess a uric terminus (shown as NH2CO-); some peptides possess a palmitoyl terminus (shown as Pam-): some peptides possess a heptenoic terminus (shown as Hep-); and some peptides possess a 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine terminus (shown as 5-TAMRA-).

Table 4a shows a list of peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MCL-1/BCL-XL/BCL-2-binding helix of BIM that were prepared. Table 4b shows a list of selected peptidomimetic macrocycles from Table 4a. SP-809 was prepared by incorporating an i, i+7 crosslink into the sequence of the linear peptide LP-2. SP-815 was prepared by removal of the two terminal arginine residues and an alanine substitution at position 13 of SP-809. SP-962 was prepared by a homoleucine substitution at position 9 and a F4F at position 17 of SP-815.

In some embodiments, the invention provides a peptidomimetic macrocycle that comprises an amino acid sequence that has at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97%, or 100% identity to any one of the amino acid sequences in Table 4a or 4b.

TABLE 4a Prepared peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MCL-1/ BCL-X1/BCL-2-binding helix of BIM SEQ ID SP# NO: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 LP2 1539 Ac— I W I A Q E L R R I G D E F N 808 1540 Ac— I W I A Q E L R $r8 I G D E F N 809 1541 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D E F N 810 1542 Ac— I W I A Q E L R $r8 I G D E F N 812 1543 Ac— W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 813 1544 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F A 814 1545 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 815 1546 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 816 1547 Ac— W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 817 1548 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 818 1549 Ac— I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 819 1550 Ac— I A Q A L A $r8 I G D A F N 820 1551 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I A D A F N 821 1552 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A A N 822 1553 Ac— I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 823 1554 Ac— I $ I A Q $ L R $r8 I G D E F N 824 1555 Ac— I W I A Q A L R %r8 I G D A F N 825 1556 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D E F A 826 1557 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q A N 827 1558 FITC— Ba I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 828 1559 5-FAM— Ba I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 829 1560 5-FAM— Ba I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D E F N 830 1561 Ac— I A I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 831 1562 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D E F N 832 1563 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q F N 833 1564 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D E F N 834 1565 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D Q F N 835 1566 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 836 1567 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F A 837 1568 Ac— I W I A Q A L Cit $r8 I G D A F N 838 1569 Ac— I W I A Q A L Cit $r8 I G D Q F N 839 1570 Ac— I W I A Q A L H $r8 I G D A F N 840 1571 Ac— I W I A Q A L H $r8 I G D Q F N 841 1572 Ac— I W I A Q A L Q $r8 I G D A F N 842 1573 Ac— I W I A Q A L Q $r8 I G D Q F N 843 1574 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A A N 844 1575 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A I N 845 1576 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q I N 846 1577 Ac— I W I A Q A A R $r8 I G D A A N 847 1578 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I A D A F N 848 1579 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I A D Q F N 849 1580 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 A G D A F N 850 1581 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 A G D Q F N 851 1582 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 852 1583 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q F N 853 1584 Ac— I W F A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 854 1585 Ac— I W F A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q F N 855 1586 Ac— I W I A Q A L A $r8 I G D A F N 856 1587 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G N A F N 857 1588 Ac— I W I A Q A A R $r8 I G D A F N 858 1589 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D Q F A 859 1590 Ac— I W Cha A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 860 1591 Ac— I W hhL A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 861 1592 Ac— I W Adm A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 862 1593 Ac— I W hCha A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 863 1594 Ac— I W hF A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 864 1595 Ac— I W Igl A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 865 1596 Ac— I W F4CF3 A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 866 1597 Ac— I W F4tBu A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 867 1598 Ac— I W 2Nal A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 868 1599 Ac— I W Bip A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 869 1600 Ac— I W I A Q A Cha R $r8 I G D A F N 870 1601 Ac— I W I A Q A hhL R $r8 I G D A F N 871 1602 Ac— I W I A Q A Adm R $r8 I G D A F N 872 1603 Ac— I W I A Q A hCha R $r8 I G D A F N 873 1604 Ac— I W I A Q A hAdm R $r8 I G D A F N 874 1605 Ac— I W I A Q A hF R $r8 I G D A F N 875 1606 Ac— I W I A Q A Igl R $r8 I G D A F N 876 1607 Ac— I W I A Q A F4CF3 R $r8 I G D A F N 877 1608 Ac— I W I A Q A F4tBu R $r8 I G D A F N 878 1609 Ac— I W I A Q A 2Nal R $r8 I G D A F N 879 1610 Ac— I W I A Q A Bip R $r8 I G D A F N 880 1611 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 Cba G D A F N 881 1612 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 882 1613 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 Cha G D A F N 883 1614 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 Tba G D A F N 884 1615 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 hhL G D A F N 885 1616 Ac— I AmW I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 886 1617 Ac— I Aib I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 887 1618 Ac— AmL W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 888 1619 Ac— I W AmL A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 889 1620 Ac— I W I Aib Q A L R $r8 I G AmD A F N 890 1621 Ac— I W I A Aib A L R $r8 I G D A F N 891 1622 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G AmD A F N 892 1623 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 896 1624 Ac— I W Tba A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 897 1625 Ac— I W hL A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 898 1626 Ac— I W Chg A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 899 1627 Ac— I W Ac6c A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 900 1628 Ac— I W Ac5c A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 901 1629 Ac— E W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 902 1630 Ac— R W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 903 1631 Ac— K W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 904 1632 Ac— H W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 905 1633 Ac— S W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 906 1634 Ac— Q W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 907 1635 Ac— A W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 908 1636 Ac— Aib W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 909 1637 Ac— F W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 910 1638 Ac— I D I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 911 1639 Ac— I R I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 912 1640 Ac— I H I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 913 1641 Ac— I S I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 914 1642 Ac— I N I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 915 1643 Ac— I L I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 916 1644 Ac— I F I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 917 1645 Ac— I 2Nal I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 918 1646 Ac— I W I S A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 919 1647 Ac— I W I L A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 920 1648 Ac— I W I F A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 921 1649 Ac— I W I A L A L R $r8 I G D A F N 922 1650 Ac— I W I A A A L K $r8 I G D A F N 923 1651 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I Abu D A F N 924 1652 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I V D A F N 925 1653 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G E A F N 926 1654 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A G N 927 1655 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A W N 928 1656 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A hF N 929 1657 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F4CF3 N 930 1658 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F4tBu N 931 1659 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A 2Nal N 932 1660 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A Bip N 933 1661 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F D 934 1662 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F E 935 1663 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F Q 936 1664 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F S 937 1665 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F H 938 1666 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 939 1667 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 940 1668 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 941 1669 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 942 1670 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 943 1671 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 944 1672 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 945 1673 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 946 1674 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 947 1675 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 948 1676 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 949 1677 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 950 1678 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 951 1679 Ac— I W I A A A L R $r8 I G D A F N 952 1680 Ac— I W I A Q A AmL R $r8 I G D A F N 953 1681 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G AmD A F N 954 1682 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 955 1683 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 956 1684 Ac— I W I A Q A A Cit $r8 I G D A F N 957 1685 Ac— I W I A Q A L Cit $r8 I G N A F N 958 1686 Ac— I W I A Q A L Cit $r8 I G D A A N 959 1687 Ac— I W I A Q A L Cit $r8 I G D A V N 960 1688 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D A F N 961 1689 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 962 1690 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 963 1691 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 964 1692 Ac— A W I A A A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 965 1693 Ac— A W I A A A L R $r8 hL G D A F N 966 1694 Ac— I W I A Q A A R $r8 hL G D A F N 893 1695 Ac— I $r8 I A Q A L R St I G D E F N 894 1696 Ac— I W I A $ A L R St I G D E F N 895 1697 Ac— I W I A Q A L R $r8 I G D E F N SP# 16 17 18 19 20 21 Calc (M + 2)/2 Found Mass LP2 Ac— A Y Y A R R —NH2 808 Ac— $ Y Y A R R —NH2 809 Ac— $ Y Y A R R —NH2 1344.74 1345.7 810 Ac— $ Y Y A R R —NH2 1373.75 1373.56 812 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1103.1 1103.12 813 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 988.55 988.45 814 Ac— $ Y A A —NH2 964.04 963.94 815 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1159.64 1159.87 816 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1103.1 1102.94 817 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1010.06 1009.9 818 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 981.55 981.86 819 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 967.53 967.45 820 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1017.07 1016.93 821 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 972.04 971.89 822 Ac— $ A Y A —NH2 964.04 963.94 823 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1185.17 1185.61 824 Ac— % Y Y A —NH2 1160.14 1161.28 825 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1167.14 1168.2 826 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1150.13 1151.09 827 FITC— Ba $ Y Y A —NH2 1368.67 1369.79 828 5-FAM— Ba $ Y Y A —NH2 1353.18 1354.13 829 5-FAM— Ba $ Y Y A —NH2 1382.18 1382.99 830 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1102.12 1103.17 831 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1188.64 1189.57 832 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1188.15 1189.1 833 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1160.13 1161.17 834 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1159.64 1160.34 835 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1131.13 1132.12 836 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.14 1139.15 837 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1160.13 1160.98 838 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1188.64 1189.66 839 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1150.12 1151.09 840 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1178.63 1179.67 841 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1145.62 1146.55 842 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1174.13 1175.14 843 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1121.62 1122.5 844 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1142.65 1143.59 845 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1171.16 1171.9 846 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1100.6 1101.5 847 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.83 848 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1195.16 1196.23 849 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.62 1139.61 850 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1167.13 1168.11 851 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1176.63 1177.63 852 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1205.14 1205.94 853 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1176.63 1177.63 854 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1205.14 1206.13 855 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1117.11 1118.15 856 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1159.15 1159.63 857 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.62 1139.2 858 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.3 859 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1179.65 1180.15 860 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1173.65 1174.39 861 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1198.66 1199.28 862 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1186.66 1186.98 863 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1183.64 1184.48 864 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1190.65 1190.41 865 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1210.62 1211.31 866 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1204.66 1205.39 867 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1201.64 1202.2 868 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1214.65 1215.43 869 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1179.65 1180.22 870 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1173.65 1174.4 871 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1198.66 1199.05 872 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1186.66 1187.25 873 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1205.67 1206.4 874 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1183.64 1184.29 875 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1190.65 1190.4 876 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1210.62 1210.94 877 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1204.66 1205.29 878 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1201.64 1202.15 879 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1214.65 1214.91 880 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1165.64 1166.07 881 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.37 882 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1179.65 1180.22 883 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.18 884 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1173.65 1173.93 885 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.18 886 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1109.13 1109.46 887 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.27 888 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1137.37 889 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1173.65 1173.93 890 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.14 1138.32 891 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.37 892 Ac— $ Y F4F A —NH2 1160.64 1161.45 896 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.37 897 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.37 898 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1172.65 1173.47 899 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1165.64 1166.44 900 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1158.63 1159.32 901 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1139.11 1139.52 902 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1152.64 1153.49 903 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.63 1138.97 904 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1143.12 1143.87 905 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1118.1 1118.8 906 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.62 1139.24 907 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1110.1 1110.75 908 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1117.11 1117.78 909 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1148.12 1148.96 910 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1095.6 1096.32 911 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1116.14 1116.95 912 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1106.62 1107.24 913 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1081.6 1181.98 914 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1095.11 1095.58 915 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1094.63 1095.3 916 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1111.62 1112.33 917 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1136.63 1137.3 918 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1139.13 1139.89 919 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1152.15 1152.94 920 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1169.14 1169.86 921 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1152.15 1152.84 922 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1117.13 1117.97 923 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1145.14 1145.9 924 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1152.15 1152.94 925 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.14 1138.87 926 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1086.1 1086.89 927 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1179.14 1180.04 928 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.46 929 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1193.63 1194.38 930 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1187.67 1188.36 931 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1184.65 1185.5 932 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1197.65 1198.54 933 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1131.62 1132.4 934 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.63 1139.02 935 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1138.14 1138.84 936 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1117.62 1118.5 937 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1142.64 1143.25 938 Ac— $ L Y A —NH2 1106.14 1107.05 939 Ac— $ Y A A —NH2 1113.63 1114.27 940 Ac— $ Y L A —NH2 1134.65 1135.33 941 Ac— $ Y Cha A —NH2 1154.66 1155.31 942 Ac— $ Y hF A —NH2 1158.65 1159.5 943 Ac— $ Y W A —NH2 1171.15 1171.78 944 Ac— $ Y 2Nal A —NH2 1176.65 1177 945 Ac— $ Y Y D —NH2 1153.12 1153.77 946 Ac— $ Y Y E —NH2 1160.13 1160.8 947 Ac— $ Y Y Q —NH2 1159.64 1160.26 948 Ac— $ Y Y S —NH2 1139.13 1139.47 949 Ac— $ Y Y H —NH2 1164.14 1165.05 950 Ac— $ Y Y R —NH2 1173.66 1174.4 951 Ac— $ Y Y K —NH2 1159.66 1160.26 952 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.18 953 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1166.65 1167.46 954 Ac— $ F4F Y A —NH2 1160.64 1161.26 955 Ac— $ Y Y Aib —NH2 1166.65 1167.46 956 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1139.11 1139.71 957 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1159.64 1160.4 958 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1122.12 1122.87 959 Ac— $ Y Y A —NH2 1136.13 1136.47 960 Ac— $ A Y A —NH2 1113.63 1113.9 961 Ac— $ F4F Y A —NH2 1167.64 1168.57 962 Ac— $ Y F4F A —NH2 1167.64 1168.2 963 Ac— $ F4F F4F A —NH2 1168.64 1169.59 964 Ac— $ Y F4F A —NH2 1118.11 1118.89 965 Ac— $ A F4F A —NH2 1072.1 1072.92 966 Ac— $ F4F F4F A —NH2 1147.62 1148.59 893 Ac— $s8 Y Y A —NH2 1199.18 1199.74 894 Ac— $s8 Y Y A —NH2 1207.17 1207.7 895 Ac— St Y Y A $r5 A —NH2 1306.72 1307.42

TABLE 4b Selected peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the MCL-1/ BCL-XL/BCL-2-binding helix of BIM. Raji Cell RT Ala IC50 (nM) Viability EC50 SP# Ch L VH (min)* (%) MCL-1 BCL-XL (μM)** 810 0 21 18.9 9.07 9.5 ND 9.2 >30 809 1 21 16.5 10.56 14.3 10.6 3.9 >30 815 0 19 9.1 15.07 21 8.4 22.4 6.6 962 0 19 8.3 17.69 21 27.0 13.0 0.7 *See Example 11 table **5% serum, 48 hr Ch = net charge; L = length in amino acids; VH = von Heijne; RT = retention time; Ala = alanine content

Preparation of Peptidomimetic Macrocycles

Peptidomimetic macrocycles can be prepared by any of a variety of methods known in the art. For example, any of the residues indicated by “$” or “$r8” in Table 1, Table 1a, Table 1b, or Table 1c can be substituted with a residue capable of forming a crosslinker with a second residue in the same molecule or a precursor of such a residue.

Various methods to effect formation of peptidomimetic macrocycles are known in the art. For example, the preparation of peptidomimetic macrocycles of Formula I is described in Schafineister et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:5891-5892 (2000); Schafmeister & Verdine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:5891 (2005); Walensky et al., Science 305:1466-1470 (2004); U.S. Pat. No. 7,192,713 and PCT application WO 2008/121767. The α,α-disubstituted amino acids and amino acid precursors disclosed in the cited references can be employed in synthesis of the peptidomimetic macrocycle precursor polypeptides. For example, the “S5-olefin amino acid” is (S)-α-(2′-pentenyl) alanine and the “R8 olefin amino acid” is (R)-α-(2′-octenyl) alanine. Following incorporation of such amino acids into precursor polypeptides, the terminal olefins are reacted with a metathesis catalyst, leading to the formation of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. In various embodiments, the following amino acids can be employed in the synthesis of the peptidomimetic macrocycle:

In other embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles are of Formula IV or IVa. Methods for the preparation of such macrocycles are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,202,332.

Additional methods of forming peptidomimetic macrocycles which are envisioned as suitable include those disclosed by Mustapa, M. Firouz Mohd et al., J. Org. Chem (2003), 68, pp. 8193-8198: Yang, Bin et al. Bioorg Med. Chem. Lett. (2004), 14, pp. 1403-1406: U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,364,851; 5,446,128; 5,824,483; 6,713,280; and 7,202,332. In such embodiments, amino acid precursors are used containing an additional substituent R- at the alpha position. Such amino acids are incorporated into the macrocycle precursor at the desired positions, which can be at the positions where the crosslinker is substituted or, alternatively, elsewhere in the sequence of the macrocycle precursor. Cyclization of the precursor is then effected according to the indicated method.

Assays

The properties of peptidomimetic macrocycles are assayed, for example, by using the methods described below. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle has improved biological properties relative to a corresponding polypeptide lacking the substituents described herein.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on one or more properties of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a length of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a von Heijne value of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a net charge carried by the polypeptide.

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on an alanine content in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on an amphipathicity of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a solubility of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a reverse-phase HPLC retention time of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on a length of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide, a von Heijne value of the polypeptide, a net charge carried by the polypeptide, an alanine content in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide, an amphipathicity of the polypeptide, a solubility of the polypeptide, a reverse-phase HPLC retention time of the polypeptide, or any combination thereof.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 10-24 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 10 amino acids, 11 amino acids, 12 amino acids, 13 amino acids, 14 amino acids, 15 amino acids, 16 amino acids, 17 amino acids, 18 amino acids, 19 amino acids, 20 amino acids, 21 amino acids, 22 amino acids, 23 amino acids, or 24 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 10-23, 10-22, 10-21, 10-20, 10-19, 10-18, 10-17, 10-16, 10-15, 10-14, 10-13, or 10-12 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 1-24, 12-24, 13-24, 14-24, 15-24, 16-24, 17-24, 18-24, 19-24, 20-24, 21-24, or 22-24 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 11 amino acids to 23 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 11-22, 11-21, 11-20, 11-19, 11-18, 11-17, 11-16, 11-15, 11-14, or 11-13 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 12-23, 13-23, 14-23, 15-23, 16-23, 17-23, 18-23, 19-23, 20-23, or 21-23 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 12 amino acids to 22 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 12-21, 12-20, 12-19, 12-18, 12-17, 12-16, 12-15, or 12-14 amino acids.

For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 13-22, 14-22, 15-22, 16-22, 17-22, 18-22, 19-22, or 20-22 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 13 amino acids to 21 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 13-20, 13-19, 13-18, 13-17, 13-16, or 13-15 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 14-21, 15-21, 16-21, 17-21, 18-21, or 19-21 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −19, 14-18, 14-17, or 14-16 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15-20, 16-20, 17-20, or 18-20 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15 amino acids to 19 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15-18 or 15-17 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 16-19 or 17-19 amino acids. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 16 amino acids to 18 amino acids. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 17. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 14. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 15. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 16. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 17. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 18. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 19. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 20. In some embodiments, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 21.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the von Heijne value of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 2 to 9. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, along with all values in between. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 2-8, 2-7, 2-6, 2-5, 2-4, or 2-3. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 3-9, 4-9, 5-9, 6-9, 7-9, or 8-9. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 3 to 8. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 3-7, 3-6, 3-5, or 3-4. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4-8, 5-8, 6-8, or 7-9.

In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4 to 7. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4-6 or 4-5. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 5-7 or 5-6. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4-6. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4-5. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5-5.5, including 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 along with all values in between. In some embodiments, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5-9.5. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5-8.5, 4.5-7.5, 4.5-6.5, 5.5-9.5, 5.5-8.5, 5.5-7.5, 5.5-6.5, 6.5-9.5, 6.5-8.5, 6.5-7.5, 7.5-9.5, or 7.5-8.5.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the net charge carried by a peptide. For example, peptidomimetic macrocycles carrying a high number of negative charges can have poor cell permeability. A peptidomimetic macrocycle carrying a high number of positive charges can have good cell permeability, but can cause undesired cell damage (e.g., cell lysis). A prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle can carry a net charge such that the polypeptide is cell permeable, but not damaging to cells (e.g., does not cause cell lysis). In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −4 to +2, including −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, and +2. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −3 to +1, including −3, −2, −1, 0 and +1.

In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −2 to 0, including −2, −1, and 0. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is zero or negative. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is not positive. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is zero or is not positive. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is −2. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is −1. In some embodiments, the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 0.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the alanine content of the polypeptide. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 50%. For example, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle can be 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, and 50%, along with all values in between. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 45%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 40%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 35%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 50%. In some embodiments. the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 45%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 40%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 35%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 30%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 20% to 25%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 50%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 45%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 40%. For example, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle can be 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, and 40% along with all values in between. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 35%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 30%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 30% to 50%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 30% to 45%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 30% to 40%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 30% to 35%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 35% to 50%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 35% to 45%. In some embodiments, the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 35% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length and the von Heijne value of the polypeptide. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 10 amino acids to 24 amino acids, from 11 amino acids to 23 amino acids, from 12 amino acids to 22 amino acids, from 13 amino acids to 21 amino acids, from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, from 15 amino acids to 19 amino acids, or from 16 amino acids to 18 amino acids, and the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 2 to 9, from 3 to 8, from 4 to 7, from 4 to 6, or from 4 to 5. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 10 amino acids, 11 amino acids, 12 amino acids, 13 amino acids, 14 amino acids, 15 amino acids, 16 amino acids, 17 amino acids, 18 amino acids, 19 amino acids, 20 amino acids, or 21 amino acids, and the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5 to 5.5. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, and a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length and the alanine content of the polypeptide. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 10 amino acids to 24 amino acids, from 11 amino acids to 23 amino acids, from 12 amino acids to 22 amino acids, from 13 amino acids to 21 amino acids, from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, from 15 amino acids to 19 amino acids, or from 16 amino acids to 18 amino acids, and the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 50%, including 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, and 50% along with all values in between. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 10 amino acids, 11 amino acids, 12 amino acids, 13 amino acids, 14 amino acids, 15 amino acids, 16 amino acids, 17 amino acids, 18 amino acids, 19 amino acids, 20 amino acids, or 21 amino acids, and the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 40%, including 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, and 40% along with all values in between. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length and the net charge of the polypeptide. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 10 amino acids to 24 amino acids, from 11 amino acids to 23 amino acids, from 12 amino acids to 22 amino acids, from 13 amino acids to 21 amino acids, from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, from 15 amino acids to 19 amino acids, or from 16 amino acids to 18 amino acids, and the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −3 to 1, including −3, −2, −1, 0 and 1. For example, the length of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is 10 amino acids, 11 amino acids, 12 amino acids, 13 amino acids, 14 amino acids, 15 amino acids, 16 amino acids, 17 amino acids, 18 amino acids, 19 amino acids, 20 amino acids, or 21 amino acids, and the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −3 to 1, including −3, −2, −1, 0 and 1. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, and a net charge ranging from −2 to 0.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the von Heijne value and the net charge of the polypeptide. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 2 to 9, from 3 to 8, from 4 to 7, from 4 to 6, or from 4 to 5, and the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −3 to 1, including -3, −2, −1, 0 and 1. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5 to 5.5, including 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 along with all values in between, and the net charge of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from −3 to 1, including -3, −2, −1, 0 and 1. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7, and a net charge ranging from −2 to 0.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the von Heijne value and the alanine content of the polypeptide. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 2 to 9, from 3 to 8, from 4 to 7, from 4 to 6, or from 4 to 5, and the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 15% to 50%, including 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, and 50% along with all values in between. For example, the von Heijne value of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 4.5 to 5.5, including 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 along with all values in between, and the alanine content of the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle ranges from 25% to 40%, including 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, and 40% along with all values in between. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on length, von Heijne value and alanine content of the polypeptide. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the von Heijne value and the net charge of the polypeptide. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7, and a net charge ranging from −2 to 0.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the von Heijne value, the net charge, and the alanine content of the polypeptide. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7. a net charge ranging from −2 to 0, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length, the net charge, and the alanine content of the polypeptide. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, a net charge ranging from −2 to 0, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

A peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the length of its amino acid sequence, its von Heijne value, its net charge, and the alanine content of its amino acid sequence. For example, the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle has a length ranging from 14 amino acids to 20 amino acids, a von Heijne value ranging from 4 and 7, a net charge ranging from −2 to 0, and an alanine content ranging from 25% to 40%.

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on the reverse-phase HPLC retention time of the polypeptide.

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on amphipathicity of the polypeptide.

In some embodiments, a peptidomimetic macrocycle with enhanced cell penetrability can be prepared based on solubility of the polypeptide, for example if the prepared peptidomimetic macrocycle is determined to be soluble based on visual examination of the turbidity of a solution of the polypeptide.

Assay to Determine α-Helicity

In solution, the secondary structure of polypeptides with α-helical domains will reach a dynamic equilibrium between random coil structures and α-helical structures, often expressed as a “percent helicity”. Thus, for example, alpha-helical domains are predominantly random coils in solution, with α-helical content usually under 25%. Peptidomimetic macrocycles with optimized linkers, on the other hand, possess, for example, an alpha-helicity that is at least two-fold greater than that of a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide. In some embodiments, macrocycles will possess an alpha-helicity of greater than 50%. To assay the helicity of peptidomimetic macrocycles, the compounds are dissolved in an aqueous solution (e.g. 50 mM potassium phosphate solution at pH 7, or distilled H2O, to concentrations of 25-50 μM). Circular dichroism (CD) spectra are obtained on a spectropolarimeter (e.g., Jasco J-710) using standard measurement parameters (e.g. temperature, 20° C.; wavelength, 190-260 nm; step resolution, 0.5 nm; speed, 20 nm/sec; accumulations, 10; response, 1 sec; bandwidth, 1 nm; path length, 0.1 cm). The α-helical content of each peptide is calculated by dividing the mean residue ellipticity (e.g. [Φ]222obs) by the reported value for a model helical decapeptide (Yang et al. (1986), Methods Enzymol. 130:208)).

Assay to Determine Melting Temperature (Tm)

A peptidomimetic macrocycle comprising a secondary structure such as an α-helix exhibits, for example, a higher melting temperature than a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide. Typically peptidomimetic macrocycles exhibit Tm of >60° C. representing a highly stable structure in aqueous solutions. To assay the effect of macrocycle formation on melting temperature, peptidomimetic macrocycles or unmodified peptides are dissolved in distilled H2O (e.g. at a final concentration of 50 μM) and the Tm is determined by measuring the change in ellipticity over a temperature range (e.g. 4 to 95° C.) on a spectropolarimeter (e.g., Jasco J-710) using standard parameters (e.g. wavelength 222 nm; step resolution, 0.5 nm; speed, 20 nm/sec; accumulations, 10; response, 1 sec; bandwidth, 1 nm; temperature increase rate: 1° C./min; path length, 0.1 cm).

Protease Resistance Assay

The amide bond of the peptide backbone is susceptible to hydrolysis by proteases, thereby rendering peptidic compounds vulnerable to rapid degradation in vivo. Peptide helix formation, however, typically buries the amide backbone and therefore can shield it from proteolytic cleavage. The peptidomimetic macrocycles can be subjected to in vitro trypsin proteolysis to assess for any change in degradation rate compared to a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide. For example, the peptidomimetic macrocycle and a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide are incubated with trypsin agarose and the reactions quenched at various time points by centrifugation and subsequent HPLC injection to quantitate the residual substrate by ultraviolet absorption at 280 nm. Briefly, the peptidomimetic macrocycle and peptidomimetic precursor (5 mcg) are incubated with trypsin agarose (Pierce) (S/E ˜125) for 0, 10, 20, 90, and 180 minutes. Reactions are quenched by tabletop centrifugation at high speed; remaining substrate in the isolated supernatant is quantified by HPLC-based peak detection at 280 nm. The proteolytic reaction displays first order kinetics and the rate constant, k, is determined from a plot of ln[S] versus time (k=−1Xslope).

Ex Vivo Stability Assay

Peptidomimetic macrocycles with optimized linkers possess, for example, an ex vivo half-life that is at least two-fold greater than that of a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide, and possess an ex vivo half-life of 12 hours or more. For ex vivo serum stability studies, a variety of assays can be used. For example, a peptidomimetic macrocycle and a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide (2 mcg) are incubated with fresh mouse, rat and/or human serum (2 mL) at 37° C. for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours. To determine the level of intact compound, the following procedure can be used: The samples are extracted by transferring 100 μl of sera to 2 ml centrifuge tubes followed by the addition of 10 μL of 50% formic acid and 500 μL acetonitrile and centrifugation at 14,000 RPM for 10 min at 4+2° C. The supernatants are then transferred to fresh 2 ml tubes and evaporated on Turbovap under N2<10 psi, 37° C. The samples are reconstituted in 100 μL of 50:50 acetonitrile:water and submitted to LC-MS/MS analysis.

In Vitro Binding Assays

To assess the binding and affinity of peptidomimetic macrocycles and peptidomimetic precursors to acceptor proteins, a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) is used, for example. The FPA technique measures the molecular orientation and mobility using polarized light and fluorescent tracer. When excited with polarized light, fluorescent tracers (e.g., FITC) attached to molecules with high apparent molecular weights (e.g. FITC-labeled peptides bound to a large protein) emit higher levels of polarized fluorescence due to their slower rates of rotation as compared to fluorescent tracers attached to smaller molecules (e.g. FITC- labeled peptides that are free in solution).

For example, fluoresceinated peptidomimetic macrocycles (25 nM) are incubated with the acceptor protein (25-1000 nM) in binding buffer (140 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCL, pH 7.4) for 30 minutes at room temperature. Binding activity is measured, for example, by fluorescence polarization on a luminescence spectrophotometer (e.g. Perkin-Elmer LS50B). Kd values can be determined by nonlinear regression analysis using, for example, Graphpad Prism software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, Calif.). A peptidomimetic macrocycle shows. In some embodiments, similar or lower Kd than a corresponding uncrosslinked polypeptide.

In Vitro Displacement Assays to Characterize Antagonists of Peptide-Protein Interactions

To assess the binding and affinity of compounds that antagonize the interaction between a peptide and an acceptor protein, a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) utilizing a fluoresceinated peptidomimetic macrocycle derived from a peptidomimetic precursor sequence is used, for example. The FPA technique measures the molecular orientation and mobility using polarized light and fluorescent tracer. When excited with polarized light, fluorescent tracers (e.g., FITC) attached to molecules with high apparent molecular weights (e.g. FITC-labeled peptides bound to a large protein) emit higher levels of polarized fluorescence due to their slower rates of rotation as compared to fluorescent tracers attached to smaller molecules (e.g. FITC-labeled peptides that are free in solution). A compound that antagonizes the interaction between the fluoresceinated peptidomimetic macrocycle and an acceptor protein will be detected in a competitive binding FPA experiment.

For example, putative antagonist compounds (1 nM to 1 mM) and a fluoresceinated peptidomimetic macrocycle (25 nM) are incubated with the acceptor protein (50 nM) in binding buffer (140 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCL, pH 7.4) for 30 minutes at room temperature. Antagonist binding activity is measured, for example, by fluorescence polarization on a luminescence spectrophotometer (e.g. Perkin-Elmer LS50B). Kd values can be determined by nonlinear regression analysis using, for example, Graphpad Prism software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, Calif.).

Any class of molecule, such as small organic molecules, peptides, oligonucleotides or proteins can be examined as putative antagonists in this assay.

Assay for Protein-Ligand Binding by Affinity Selection-Mass Spectrometry

To assess the binding and affinity of test compounds for proteins, an affinity-selection mass spectrometry assay is used, for example. Protein-ligand binding experiments are conducted according to the following representative procedure outlined for a system-wide control experiment using 1 μM peptidomimetic macrocycle plus 5 μM hMDM2. A 1 μL DMSO aliquot of a 40 μM stock solution of peptidomimetic macrocycle is dissolved in 19 μL of PBS (Phosphate-buffered saline: 50 mM, pH 7.5 Phosphate buffer containing 150 mM NaCl). The resulting solution is mixed by repeated pipetting and clarified by centrifugation at 10 000 g for 10 min. To a 4 μL aliquot of the resulting supernatant is added 4 μL of 10 μM hMDM2 in PBS. Each 8.0 μL experimental sample thus contains 40 pmol (1.5 μg) of protein at 5.0 μM concentration in PBS plus 1 μM peptidomimetic macrocycle and 2.5% DMSO. Duplicate samples thus prepared for each concentration point are incubated for 60 min at room temperature, and then chilled to 4° C. prior to size-exclusion chromatography-LC-MS analysis of 5.0 μL injections. Samples containing a target protein, protein-ligand complexes, and unbound compounds are injected onto an SEC column, where the complexes are separated from non-binding component by a rapid SEC step. The SEC column eluate is monitored using UV detectors to confirm that the early-eluting protein fraction, which elutes in the void volume of the SEC column, is well resolved from unbound components that are retained on the column. After the peak containing the protein and protein-ligand complexes elutes from the primary UV detector, it enters a sample loop where it is excised from the flow stream of the SEC stage and transferred directly to the LC-MS via a valving mechanism. The (M+3H)3+ ion of the peptidomimetic macrocycle is observed by ESI-MS at the expected m/z, confirming the detection of the protein-ligand complex.

Assay for Protein-Ligand Kd Titration Experiments

To assess the binding and affinity of test compounds for proteins, a protein-ligand Kd titration experiment is performed, for example. Protein-ligand Ke titrations experiments are conducted as follows: 2 μL DMSO aliquots of a serially diluted stock solution of titrant peptidomimetic macrocycle (5, 2.5, . . . , 0.098 mM) are prepared then dissolved in 38 μL of PBS. The resulting solutions are mixed by repeated pipetting and clarified by centrifugation at 10 000 g for 10 min. To 4.0 μL aliquots of the resulting supernatants is added 4.0 μL of 10 μM hMDM2 in PBS. Each 8.0 μL experimental sample thus contains 40 pmol (1.5 μg) of protein at 5.0 μM concentration in PBS, varying concentrations (125, 62.5 . . . , 0.24 μM) of the titrant peptide, and 2.5% DMSO.

Duplicate samples thus prepared for each concentration point are incubated at room temperature for 30 min, then chilled to 4° C. prior to SEC-LC-MS analysis of 2.0 μL injections. The (M+H)1+, (M+2H)2+, (M+3H)3+, and/or (M+Na)1+ ion is observed by ESI-MS: extracted ion chromatograms are quantified. then fit to equations to derive the binding affinity Kd as described in “A General Technique to Rank Protein-Ligand Binding Affinities and Determine Allosteric vs. Direct Binding Site Competition in Compound Mixtures.” Annis, D. A.; Nazef, N.; Chuang, C. C.; Scott, M. P.; Nash, H. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004,126, 15495-15503; also in “ALIS: An Affnity Selection-Mass Spectrometry System for the Discovery and Characterization of Protein-ligand Interactions” D. A. Annis, C.-C. Chuang, and N. Nazef. In Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Chemistry. Edited by Wanner K, Hbfner G: Wiley-VCH; 2007:121-184. Mannhold R, Kubinyi H, Folkers G (Series Editors): Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry.

Assay for Competitive Binding Experiments by Affinity Selection-Mass Spectrometry

To determine the ability of test compounds to bind competitively to proteins, an affinity selection mass spectrometry assay is performed, for example. A mixture of ligands at 40 μM per component is prepared by combining 2 μL aliquots of 400 μM stocks of each of the three compounds with 14 μL of DMSO. Then, 1 μL aliquots of this 40 μM per component mixture are combined with 1 μL DMSO aliquots of a serially diluted stock solution of titrant peptidomimetic macrocycle (10, 5, 2.5, . . . , 0.078 mM). These 2 μL samples are dissolved in 38 μL of PBS. The resulting solutions were mixed by repeated pipetting and clarified by centrifugation at 10 000 g for 10 min. To 4.0 μL aliquots of the resulting supernatants is added 4.0 μL of 10 μM hMDM2 protein in PBS.

Each 8.0 μL experimental sample thus contains 40 pmol (1.5 μg) of protein at 5.0 μM concentration in PBS plus 0.5 μM ligand, 2.5% DMSO, and varying concentrations (125, 62.5 . . . , 0.98 μM) of the titrant peptidomimetic macrocycle. Duplicate samples thus prepared for each concentration point are incubated at room temperature for 60 min, then chilled to 4° C. prior to SEC-LC-MS analysis of 2.0 μL injections. Additional details on these and other methods are provided in “A General Technique to Rank Protein-Ligand Binding Affinities and Determine Allosteric vs. Direct Binding Site Competition in Compound Mixtures.” Annis, D. A.; Nazef, N.; Chuang, C. C.; Scott, M. P.; Nash, H. M. J Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 15495-15503; also in “ALIS: An Affinity Selection-Mass Spectrometry System for the Discovery and Characterization of Protein-Ligand Interactions” D. A. Annis, C.-C. Chuang, and N. Nazef. In Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Chemistry. Edited by Wanner K, Höfner G: Wiley-VCH: 2007:121-184. Mannhold R, Kubinyi H. Folkers G (Series Editors): Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry.

Binding Assays in Intact Cells

It is possible to measure binding of peptides or peptidomimetic macrocycles to their natural acceptors in intact cells by immunoprecipitation experiments. For example, intact cells are incubated with fluoresceinated (FITC-labeled) compounds for 4 hrs in the absence of serum, followed by serum replacement and further incubation that ranges from 4-18 hrs. Cells are then pelleted and incubated in lysis buffer (50 mM Tris [pH 7.6], 150 mM NaCl, 1% CHAPS and protease inhibitor cocktail) for 10 minutes at 4° C. Extracts are centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 15 minutes and supernatants collected and incubated with 10 μl goat anti-FITC antibody for 2 hrs, rotating at 4° C. followed by further 2 hrs incubation at 4° C. with protein A/G Sepharose (50 μl of 50% bead slurry). After quick centrifugation, the pellets are washed in lysis buffer containing increasing salt concentration (e.g., 150, 300, 500 mM). The beads are then re-equilibrated at 150 mM NaCl before addition of SDS-containing sample buffer and boiling. After centrifugation, the supernatants are optionally electrophoresed using 4%-12% gradient Bis-Tris gels followed by transfer into Immobilon-P membranes. After blocking, blots are optionally incubated with an antibody that detects FITC and also with one or more antibodies that detect proteins that bind to the peptidomimetic macrocycle.

Cellular Penetrability Assays

A peptidomimetic macrocycle is, for example, more cell penetrable compared to a corresponding uncrosslinked macrocycle. Peptidomimetic macrocycles with optimized linkers possess, for example, cell penetrability that is at least two-fold greater than a corresponding uncrosslinked macrocycle, and often 20% or more of the applied peptidomimetic macrocycle will be observed to have penetrated the cell after 4 hours. To measure the cell penetrability of peptidomimetic macrocycles and corresponding uncrosslinked macrocycle, intact cells are incubated with fluorescently-labeled (e.g. fluoresceinated) peptidomimetic macrocycles or corresponding uncrosslinked macrocycle (10 μM) for 4 hrs in serum free media at 37° C., washed twice with media and incubated with trypsin (0.25%) for 10 min at 37° C. The cells are washed again and resuspended in PBS. Cellular fluorescence is analyzed, for example, by using either a FACSCalibur flow cytometer or Cellomics' KineticScan @ HCS Reader.

Cellular Efficacy Assays

The efficacy of certain peptidomimetic macrocycles is determined, for example, in cell-based killing assays using a variety of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell lines and primary cells derived from human or mouse cell populations. Cell viability is monitored, for example, over 24-96 hrs of incubation with peptidomimetic macrocycles (0.5 to 50 μM) to identify those that kill at EC5<10 μM. Several standard assays that measure cell viability are commercially available and are optionally used to assess the efficacy of the peptidomimetic macrocycles. In addition, assays that measure Annexin V and caspase activation are optionally used to assess whether the peptidomimetic macrocycles kill cells by activating the apoptotic machinery. For example, the Cell Titer-glo assay is used which determines cell viability as a function of intracellular ATP concentration.

In Vivo Stability Assay

To investigate the in vivo stability of the peptidomimetic macrocycles, the compounds are, for example, administered to mice and/or rats by IV, IP, PO or inhalation routes at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/kg and blood specimens withdrawn at 0′, 5′, 15′, 30′, 1 hr, 4 hrs, 8 hrs and 24 hours post-injection. Levels of intact compound in 25 μL of fresh serum are then measured by LC-MS/MS as above.

In Vivo Efficacy in Animal Models

To determine the anti-oncogenic activity of peptidomimetic macrocycles in vivo, the compounds are, for example, given alone (IP, IV, PO, by inhalation or nasal routes) or in combination with sub-optimal doses of relevant chemotherapy (e.g., cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide). In one example, 5×106 RS4; 11 cells (established from the bone marrow of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia) that stably express luciferase are injected by tail vein in NOD-SCID mice 3 hrs after they have been subjected to total body irradiation. If left untreated, this form of leukemia is fatal in 3 weeks in this model. The leukemia is readily monitored, for example, by injecting the mice with D-luciferin (60 mg/kg) and imaging the anesthetized animals (e.g., Xenogen In Vivo Imaging System, Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, Mass.). Total body bioluminescence is quantified by integration of photonic flux (photons/sec) by Living Image Software (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, Mass.). Peptidomimetic macrocycles alone or in combination with sub-optimal doses of relevant chemotherapeutics agents are, for example, administered to leukemic mice (10 days after injection/day 1 of experiment, in bioluminescence range of 14-16) by tail vein or IP routes at doses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg for 7 to 21 days. Optionally, the mice are imaged throughout the experiment every other day and survival monitored daily for the duration of the experiment. Expired mice are optionally subjected to necropsy at the end of the experiment. Another animal model is implantation into NOD-SCID mice of DoHH2, a cell line derived from human follicular lymphoma, that stably expresses luciferase. These in vivo tests optionally generate preliminary pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicology data.

Clinical Trials

To determine the suitability of the peptidomimetic macrocycles for treatment of humans, clinical trials are performed. For example, patients diagnosed with solid tumor and in need of treatment can be selected and separated in treatment and one or more control groups, wherein the treatment group is administered a peptidomimetic macrocycle, while the control groups receive a placebo or a known anti-cancer drug. The treatment safety and efficacy of the peptidomimetic macrocycles can thus be evaluated by performing comparisons of the patient groups with respect to factors such as survival and quality-of-life. In this example, the patient group treated with a peptidomimetic macrocycle can show improved long-term survival compared to a patient control group treated with a placebo.

Chemical Stability

To assay the chemical stability of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein, I mL of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is filled in 2-mL vials with 13-mm ç stoppers. The smaller vial size can help provide a greater surface-to-volume ratio which would amplify any container/closure effects on product stability. To assure that all surfaces of the vials were challenged, the vials can be stored in an inverted position. The vials are stored at the desired assay temperature, for example −20° C. 5° C., 20° C., and 40° C. for the desired assay time. For example for 1, 2, 3 or 6 months. The samples are analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Tables 8-12 and 14-17 depict the results of this study. The samples can also be analyzed for particulate matter.

In Vitro Testing for Inhibition of Influenza Replication

This influenza antiviral evaluation assay examines the effects of compounds at designated dose-response concentrations. See also Noah, J. W., W. Severson, D. L. Noah, L. Rasmussen, E. L. White, and C. B. Jonsson, Antiviral Res, 2007, 73(1): p. 50-9. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are used in the assay to test the efficacy of the compounds in preventing the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by influenza infection. Either Ribavirin or Tamiflu is included in each run as a positive control compound. Subconfluent cultures of MDCK cells are plated into 96-well plates for the analysis of cell viability (cytotoxicity) and antiviral activity (CPE). Drugs are added to the cells 24 hr later. At a designated time, the CPE wells also receive 100 tissue culture infectious doses (100 TCID50s) of titered influenza virus, 72 hr later the cell viability is determined. The effective compound concentrations which reduce viral-induced CPE by 25% (IC25), 50% (IC50), and 90% (IC90) are calculated by regression analysis with semi-log curve fitting. Cell viability is assessed using CellTiter-Glo (Promega). The toxic concentration of drug that reduces cell numbers by 50% and 90% (TC50 and TC90, respectively) are calculated as well. Selectivity (therapeutic) indices (SI=TC/IC) are also calculated.

In Vivo Testing for Inhibition of Influenza Replication

In vivo testing of compounds can be performed, including testing on mammals such as rats or ferrets. Because ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza A and B viruses and their disease resembles that of human influenza, these animals have been widely used as a model for influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity studies. See Sidwell, R. W. and D. F. Smee, Antiviral Res, 2000, 48(1): p. 1-16: and Colacino, J. M., D.C. DeLong, J. R. Nelson, W. A. Spitzer, J. Tang, F. Victor, and C. Y. Wu, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1990, 34(11): p. 2156-63. Ferrets are also the model of choice for the study of avian influenza virus H5N1 pathogenesis in mammals. See also Zitzow, L. A., T. Rowe, T. Morken, W.-J. Shieh, S. Zaki, and J. M. Katz, Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses in Ferrets, 2002. p, 4420-4429. The activities of the PB1 Stapled Peptides can be compared to Ribavirin or Oseltamivir as a positive control.

Briefly, young adult male or female ferrets (five ferrets for each treatment group) that are serologically negative by hemagglutination inhibition assay for currently circulating human influenza A or B viruses are quarantined at least 4 days prior to infection in a BSL-3+ animal holding area, where they are housed in cages contained in bioclean portable laminar flow clean room enclosures (Lab Products, Seaford, Del.). Prior to infection, baseline temperatures are measured twice daily for at least 3 days. Ferrets are anesthetized with ketamine (25 mg/kg), xylazine (2 mg/kg), and atropine (0.05 mg/kg) by the intramuscular route and infected intranasally (i.n.) with virus/mL in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) delivered to the nostrils. Control animals are mock-infected with an equivalent dilution (1:30) of noninfectious allantoic fluid. Stapled Peptides are administered i.v, or i.p. one hour after virus infection. Temperatures are measured twice daily using either a rectal thermometer or a subcutaneous implantable temperature transponder (BioMedic Data Systems, Inc. Seaford, Del.) with pre-infection values averaged to obtain a baseline temperature for each ferret. The change in temperature (in degrees Celsius) is calculated at each time point for each animal. Clinical signs of sneezing (before anesthesia), inappetence, dyspnea, and level of activity are assessed. A scoring system is also used to assess the activity level, and based on the daily scores for each animal in a group a relative inactivity index will be calculated. Rectal temperature and activity scores are used to assess the severity of influenza infection and the ability of Stapled Peptides to prevent flu symptoms

Assaying Inhibition of Viral Polymerase Complex Assembly and Activity

The technique of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (“BiFC”) can be used to assay the compounds. In this technique. N- and C-terminal fragments of fluorescent proteins (e.g. GFP or its derivatives) are fused to interacting proteins. The two non-functional halves of the fluorophore, following the expression in cells, are brought into close proximity as a result of the specific protein interactions, which initiates folding of the fragments into an active protein and results in a detectable fluorescent signal at the site of the protein-protein complex. Thus, through BiFC, the specific interaction between PB1 and PA subunits can be visualized, quantified and localized within live cells. By disrupting PB1-PA interaction with a compound, the BiFC signal will be reduced, indicative of the presence of potential inhibitors targeting the assembly of PB1-PA complex. See Hemerka et. al., J. Virol. 2009, 3944-3955.

Manufacturing of the Aqueous Pharmaceutical Formulation

In another aspect of the disclosure relates to a method of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein. The method comprising the steps of dissolving at least one peptidomimetic macrocycle, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in an aqueous solution. The method can further comprise of stirring the peptide mixture for some additional time. For example, the peptide mixture can be allowed to be stirred for an additional period of 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, 5 min, 6 min, 7 min, 8 min, 9 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h or more.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added to the aqueous solution at once. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly to the aqueous solution, for example over a period of at least about 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, 5 min, 6 min, 7 min, 8 min, 9 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, I h, 1.5 h, 2 h or more. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly over a period of at most about 2 h, 1.5 h, 1 h, 45 min, 30 min, 15 min, 10 min, 9 min, 8 min, 7 min, 6 min, 5 min, 4 min, 3 min, 2 min, 1 min or less.

The aqueous solution comprises an aqueous diluent. The amount of the aqueous diluent can be in the range of about 10-99% w/v of formulation. In some embodiments, the amount of aqueous diluent in the formulation is about 50-99% w/v. For example, the amount of aqueous diluent is in the range of about 50-95% w-/v, about 50-90% w/v, about 50-85% w/v, about 50-80% w/v, about 50-75% w/v, about 50-70% w/v, about 50-65% w/v, about 50-60% w/v, about 50-55% w/v, about 55-95% w/v, about 55-90% w/v, about 55-85% w/v, about 55-80% w/v, about 55-75% w/v, about 55-70% w/v, about 55-65% w/v, about 55-60% w/v, about 60-95% w/v, about 60-90% w/v, about 60-85% w/v, about 60-80% w/v, about 60-75% w/v, about 60-70% w/v, about 60-65% w/v, about 65-95% w/v, about 65-90% w/v, about 65-85% w/v, about 65-80% w/v, about 65-75% w/v, about 65-70% w/v, about 70-95% w/v, about 70-90% w/v, about 70-85% w/v, 70-80% w/v, about 70-75% w/v, about 75-95% w/v, about 75-90% w/v, about 75-85% w/v, about 75-80% w/v, about 70-95% w/v, about 70-90% w/v, about 70-85% w/v, about 70-80% w/v, about 70-75% w/v, about 75-95% w/v, about 75-90% w/v, about 75-85% w/v, about 75-80% w/v, about 80-95% w/v, about 80-90% w/v, about 80-85% w/v, about 85-95% w/v, about 85-90% w/v, or about 90-95% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of aqueous diluent in a formulation is about 85-99% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the aqueous diluent in a formulation is about 85% w/v, about 86% w/v, about 87% w/v, about 88% w/v, about 89% w/v, about 90% w/v, about 91% w/v, about 92% w/v, about 93% w/v, about 94% w/v, about 95% w/v, about 96% w/v, about 97% w/v, about 98% w/v, or about 99% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the aqueous diluent in the formulation is about 90% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the diluent in the formulation is about 10% w/v, about 20% w/v, about 30% w/v, about 40% w/v, about 50% w/v, about 60% w/v, about 70% w/v, about 80% w/v, or about 90% w/v. In some embodiments the diluent is water (for example, water for injection) and it comprises about 90% w/v of the formulation.

The amount of a peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can range from about 0.0001-50.0% w/v. For example, the amount of the a peptidomimetic macrocycle can be about 0.0001-10.0 w/v %, about 0.005-10.0% w/v, about 0.01-10.0% w/v, about 0.05-10.0% w/v, about 0.1-10.0% w/v, about 0.5-10.0% w/v, about 1.0-10.0% w/v, about 2.0-10.0% w/v, about 3.0-10.0% w/v, about 4.0-10.0% w/v, about 5.0-10.0% w/v, 6.0-10.0% w/v, about 7.0-10.0% w/v, about 8.0-10.0% w/v, about 9.0-10.0% w/v, about 0.0001-5.0 w/v %, about 0.005-5.0% w/v, about 0.01-5.0% w/v, about 0.05-5.0% w/v, about 0.1-5.0% w/v, about 0.5-5.0% w/v, about 1.0-5.0% w/v, about 2.0-5.0% w/v, about 3.0-5.0% w/v, about 4.0-5.0% w/v, about 0.0001-2.0 w/v %, about 0.005-2.0% w/v, about 0.01-2.0% w/v, about 0.05-2.0% w/v, about 0.1-2.0% w/v, about 0.5-2.0% w/v, or about 1.0-2.0% w/v. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycle and the amount is about 0.1-5.0% w/v, for example about 1.0% w/v, about 1.5% w/v, or about 2.0% w/v.

In some embodiments, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycle is in the range of about 1-20.0% w/v, 5-20.0% w/v, about 7-20.0% w/v, about 10-20.0% w/v, about 12-20.0% w/v, 15-20.0% w/v, 17-20.0% w/v, about 5-25.0% w/v, 7-25.0% w/v, 10-25.0% w/v, 12-25.0% w/v, 15-25.0% w/v, 17-25.0% w/v, 20-25.0% w/v, or 22-25.0% w/v; 5-35.0% w/v, 7-35.0% w/v, 10-35.0% w/v, 12-35.0% w/v, 15-35.0% w/v, 17-35.0% w/v, 20-35.0% w/v, 22-35.0% w/v, 25-35.0% w/v, 27-35.0% w/v, 30-35.0% w/v, or 32-35.0% w/v; 5-40.0% w/v, 7-40.0% w/v, about 10-40.0% w/v, about 12-40.0% w/v, about 1540.0% w/v, about 17-40.0% w/v, about 20-40.0% w/v, 2240.0% w/v, 25-40.0% w/v, 2740.0% w/v, 30-40.0% w/v, 33-40.0% w/v, 35-40.0% w/v, or 37-40.0% w/v; 5-50.0% w/v, 10-50.0% w/v, 12-50.0% w/v, 15-50.0% w/v, 20-50.0% w/v, 22-50.0% w/v, 25-50.0% w/v, 27-50.0% w/v, 30-50.0% w/v, 32-50.0% w/v, 35-50.0% w/v, 37-50.0% w/v, 40-50.0% w/v, 42-50.0% w/v, 45-50.0% w/v, or 47-50.0% w/v.

In some embodiments, the amount of peptidomimetic macrocycle is about 0.5%, about 1.0%, about 1.5%, about 2.0%, about 2.5%, about 3.0%, about 3.5%, about 4.0%, about 4.5%, about 5.0%, about 5.5%, about 6.0%, about 6.5%, about 7.0%, about 7.5%, about 8.0%, about 8.5%, about 9.0%, about 9.5, about 10%, about 15%, about 20%, about 25%, about 30%, about 35%, about 40%, about 45%, or about 50% w/v.

The concentration of a peptidomimetic macrocycle in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can be in the range of about 1-100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of a peptidomimetic macrocycle in the formulation is about 1-5 mg/mL, about 1-10 mg/mL, about 1-15 mg/mL, about 1-20 mg/mL, about 1-25 mg/mL, about 1-30 mg/mL, about 1-35 mg/mL, about 140 mg/mL, about 145 mg/mL, about 1-50 mg/mL, about 1-60 mg/mL, about 1-70 mg/mL, about 1-80 mg/mL, about 1-90 mg/mL, about 5-10 mg/mL, about 5-15 mg/mL, about 5-20 mg/mL, about 5-25 mg/mL, about 5-30 mg/mL, about 5-35 mg/mL, about 540 mg/mL, about 545 mg/mL, about 5-50 mg/mL. about 5-60 mg/mL, about 5-70 mg/mL, about 5-80 mg/mL, about 5-90 mg/mL, about 5-100 mg/mL, about 10-15 mg/mL, about 10-20 mg/mL, about 10-25 mg/mL. about 10-30 mg/mL, about 10-35 mg/mL, about 10-40 mg/mL, about 10-45 mg/mL, about 10-50 mg/mL, about 10-60 mg/mL, about 10-70 mg/mL, about 10-80 mg/mL, about 10-90 mg/mL, about 10-100 mg/mL, about 15-20 mg/mL, about 15-25 mg/mL, about 15-30 mg/mL, about 15-35 mg/mL, about 15-40 mg/mL, about 1545 mg/mL, about 15-50 mg/mL, about 15-60 mg/mL, about 15-70 mg/mL, about 15-80 mg/mL, about 15-90 mg/mL, about 15-100 mg/mL, about 20-25 mg/mL, about 20-30 mg/mL, about 20-35 mg/mL, about 20-40 mg/mL, about 2045 mg/mL, about 20-50 mg/mL, about 20-60 mg/mL, about 20-70 mg/mL, about 20-80 mg/mL, about 20-90 mg/mL, about 20-100 mg/mL, about 25-30 mg/mL, about 25-35 mg/mL, about 25-40 mg/mL, about 25-45 mg/mL, about 25-50 mg/mL, about 25-60 mg/mL. about 25-70 mg/mL, about 25-80 mg/mL, about 25-90 mg/mL. about 25-100 mg/mL, about 30-35 mg/mL, about 30-40 mg/mL, about 3045 mg/mL, about 30-50 mg/mL, about 30-60 mg/mL, about 30-70 mg/mL, about 30-80 mg/mL, about 30-90 mg/mL, about 30-100 mg/mL, about 3540 mg/mL, about 35-45 mg/mL, about 35-50 mg/mL, about 35-60 mg/mL, about 35-70 mg/mL, about 35-80 mg/mL, about 35-90 mg/mL, about 35-100 mg/mL, about 40-45 mg/mL, about 40-50 mg/mL, about 40-60 mg/mL, about 40-70 mg/mL, about 40-80 mg/mL, about 40-90 mg/mL, about 45-50 mg/mL, about 45-60 mg/mL, about 45-70 mg/mL, about 45-80 mg/mL, about 45-90 mg/mL, about 40-100 mg/mL, about 50-60 mg/mL, about 50-70 mg/mL, about 50-80 mg/mL, about 50-90 mg/mL, about 50-100 mg/mL, about 60-70 mg/mL, about 60-80 mg/mL, about 60-90 mg/mL, about 60-100 mg/mL, about 70-80 mg/mL, about 70-90 mg/mL, about 70-100 mg/mL, about 80-90 mg/mL, about 80-100 mg/mL or about 90-100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in the formulations of the disclosure can be about 1 mg/mL, about 2 mg/mL, about 3 mg/mL, about 4 mg/mL, about 5 mg/mL, about 6 mg/mL, about 7 mg/mL, about 8 mg/mL, about 9 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL, about 11 mg/mL, about 12 mg/mL, about 13 mg/mL, about 14 mg/mL, about 15 mg/mL, about 16 mg/mL, about 17 mg/mL, about 18 mg/mL, about 19 mg/mL, or about 20 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the peptidomimetic macrocycles is about 5 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL, about 15 mg/mL or about 20 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is a p53-based peptidomimetic macrocycle and the amount is about 1-20 mg/mL, for example about 1.0 mg/mL, about 5 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL, about 15 mg/mL or about 20 mg/mL.

In some embodiments, the aqueous solution further comprises a buffering agent. In such embodiments, the method of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprises dissolving at least one buffering agent in the aqueous diluent, and adding at least one peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added at once. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly over a period of time as described above. As described above, the method can further comprise of stirring the peptide mixture for some additional time.

The concentration of the buffering solution can be about 0.01-100 mM. In some embodiments the concentration of the buffering solution is at least 0.1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM, 40 mM, 50 mM, 60 mM, 70 mM, 80 mM, 90 mM, 100 mM. In some embodiments the concentration of the buffering solution is at most 0.1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM, 40 mM, 50 mM, 60 mM, 70 mM, 80 mM, 90 mM, 100 mM. In some embodiments, the concentration of the buffering agent is about 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, 4 mM, 5 mM, 6 mM, 7 mM, 8 mM, 9 mM, 10 mM, 11 mM, 12 mM, 13 mM, 14 mM, 15 mM, 16 mM, 17 mM, 18 mM, 19 mM, 20 mM, 21 mM, 22 mM, 23 mM, 24 mM, 25 mM, 26 mM, 27 mM, 28 mM, 29 mM, 30 mM, 31 mM, 32 mM, 33 mM, 34 mM, 35 mM, 36 mM, 37 mM, 38 mM, 39 mM, 40 mM, 41 mM, 42 mM, 43 mM, 44 mM, 45 mM, 46 mM, 47 mM, 48 mM, 49 mM, 50 mM, 60 mM, 70 mM, 80 mM, 90 mM, or 100 mM.

The method can further involve maintaining the pH of the formulation. For example, maintaining the pH of the reaction medium while the peptidomimetic macrocycle is being added and/or dissolved therein. The pH can be maintained by the addition of a pH adjusting agent. Any suitable pH adjusting agents as described above and throughout the disclosure can be used.

Non-limiting examples of suitable pH adjusting agents which can be included in the methods disclosed herein are hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, citric acid, phosphoric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is hydrochloric acid. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is sodium hydroxide. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is phosphoric acid. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is lactic acid. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is tartaric acid. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is tartaric acid. In one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is succinic acid. In one embodiment, the buffering agent is a phosphate buffer and the pH adjusting agent in sodium hydroxide. For example, the buffering agent can be NaH2PO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide, or the buffering agent can be Na2HPO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide, other buffering agent can be a mixture of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide, or buffering agent can be KH2PO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide, or the buffering agent can be K2HPO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide, or the buffering agent can be a mixture of KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 and the pH adjusting agent can be sodium hydroxide.

In some embodiments the amount of the pH adjusting agent added to the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is in the range of about 0.001-1% w/v. For example, in some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present is in the range of 0.01-0.1% w/v, 0.1-1% w/v, 0.005-1% w/v, 0.05-1% w/v, 0.5-1% w/v, 0.001-0.5% w/v, 0.01-0.5% w/v, 0.1-0.5% w/v, 0.001-0.1% w/v, or 0.01-0.1 vv. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is in the range of about 0.01-0.1% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is at least 0.01% w/v, 0.02% w/v, 0.03% w/v, 0.04% w/v, 0.05% w/v, 0.06% w/v, 0.07% w/v, 0.08% w/v, 0.09% w/v, or 0.1% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is at most 0.1% w/v, 0.09% w/v, 0.08% w/v, 0.07% w/v, 0.06% w/v, 0.05% w/v, 0.04% w/v, 0.03% w/v, 0.02% w/v, 0.01% w/v.

In some embodiments the amount of the pH adjusting agent added to the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is in the range of about 0.01-100 mg/mL. For example, in some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present is in the range of 0.01-50 mg/mL, 0.01-10 mg/mL, 0.1-100 mg/mL, 0.1-50 mg/mL, 0.1-10 mg/mL, 1-100 mg/mL, 1-50 mg/mL, or 1-10 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is in the range of about 1-10 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is at least I mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, 3 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 7 mg/mL, 8 mg/mL, 9 mg/mL, or 10 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is at most 10 mg/mL, 9 mg/mL, 8 mg/mL, 7 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, 3 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is about 1 mg/mL, about 1.5 mg/mL, about 2 mg/mL, about 2.5 mg/mL, about 3 mg/mL, about 3.5 mg/mL, about 4 mg/mL, about 4.5 mg/mL, about 5 mg/mL, about 6 mg/mL, about 7 mg/mL, about 8 mg/mL, about 9 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL, about 12 mg/mL, about 14 mg/mL, about 16 mg/mL, about 18 mg/mL, or about 20 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the pH adjusting agent present in the formulation is of the pH adjusting agent is present in about 5 mg/mL of the formulation.

In some embodiments, the aqueous solution comprises a stabilizing agent. In such embodiments, the method of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprises dissolving at least one stabilizing agent in at least an aqueous diluent, and adding at least one peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added at once. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly over a period of time as described above. As described above, the method can further comprise of stirring the peptide mixture for some additional time.

In amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulations can be in the range of about 0.001-1% w/v. For example, in the range of about 0.001-0.01%, about 0.001-0.1% w/v, about 0.001-0.5% w/v, about 0.01-0.1% w/v, about 0.01-0.5% w/v, about 0.01-0.1% w/v, about 0.1-0.5% w/v or about 0.5-1% v/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.01-0.1% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is at least about 0.01% w/v, about 0.02% w/v, about 0.03% w/v, about 0.04% w/v, about 0.05% w/v, about 0.06% w/v, about 0.07% w/v, about 0.08% w/v, about 0.09% w/v, or about 0.1% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is at most about 0.1% w/v, about 0.09% w/v, about 0.08% w/v, about 0.07% w/v, about 0.06% w/v, about 0.05% w/v, about 0.04% w/v, about 0.03% w/v, about 0.02% w/v, about 0.01% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.01% w/v, about 0.02% w/v, about 0.03% w/v, about 0.04% w/v, about 0.05% w/v, about 0.06% w/v, about 0.07% w/v, about 0.08% w/v, about 0.09% w/v, or about 0.1% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.01% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.02% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.03% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.04% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.05% w/v.

In some embodiments the amount of the stabilizing agent is about 0.01-10 mg/mL. For example, in some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is about 0.01-5 mg/mL, about 0.01-1 mg/mL, about 0.01-0.5 mg/mL, about 0.01-0.1 mg/mL, about 0.1-10 mg/mL, about 0.1-5 mg/mL, about 0.1-1 mg/mL, about 0.1-0.5 mg/mL, about 1-10 mg/mL, or about 1-5 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is in the range of about 0.01-1.0 mg/mL.

In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is at least about 0.1 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL, about 0.3 mg/mL, about 0.4 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL, about 0.6 mg/mL, about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0.8% mg/mL, about 0.9 mg/mL, or about 1 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is at most about 1 mg/mL, about 0.9 mg/mL, about 0.8 mg/mL, about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0, 6 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL, about 0.4 mg/mL, about 0.3 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL, or about 0.1 mg/mL.

In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent is about 0.1 mg/mL, about 0, 2 mg/mL, about 0.3 mg/mL, about 0.4 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL, about 0.6 mg/mL, about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0.8 mg/mL, about 0.9 mg/mL, or about 1 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.1 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.2 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.3 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.4 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the amount of the stabilizing agent in the formulation is about 0.5 mg/mL.

In some embodiments, the aqueous solution comprises both a buffering agent and stabilizing agent. In such embodiments, the method of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprises dissolving at least one stabilizing agent and at least one buffering agent in an aqueous diluent, and adding at least one peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added at once. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly over a period of time as described above. As described above, the method can further comprise of stirring the peptide mixture for some additional time.

In some examples, the method of making the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein comprises dissolving at least one buffering agent, at least one tonicity adjusting agent and at least one stabilizing agent in at least one aqueous diluent, and adding at least one peptidomimetic macrocycle or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the buffering agent, the tonicity adjusting agent and the stabilizing agents are dissolved in the aqueous diluent in this order. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added at once. In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycle is added slowly over a period of time as described above.

The amount of the tonicity adjusting agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can be in the range of about 0.001-50% w/v, for example about 0.001-0.1% w/v, about 0.001-1.0% w/v, about 0.001-10% w/v, about 1-10% w/v, about 1-20% w/v, about 1-30% w/v, about 1-40% w/v, about 1-50% w/v, about 5-10% w/v, about 5-20% w/v, about 5-30% w/v, about 5-40% w/v, about 5-50% w/v, about 10-20% w/v, about 10-30% w/v, about 10-40% w/v, about 10-50% w/v, about 15-20% w/v, about 15-30% w/v, about 15-40% w/v, about 15-50% w/v, about 20-30% w/v, about 20-40% w/v, about 20-50% w/v, about 25-30% w/v, about 25-40% w/v, about 25-50% w/v, about 30-40% w/v, about 30-50,% w/v, about 35-40% w/v, about 35-50% w/v, about 40-50% w/v, or about 45-50% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 1% w/v, about 2% w/v, about 3% w/v, about 4% w/v, about 5% w/v, about 6% w/v, about 7% w/v, about 8% w/v, about 9% w/v, or about 10% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 7% w/v. In some embodiments. the amount of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 8% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 9% w/v. In some embodiments, the amount of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 10% w/v.

The concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent can vary in the range of about 1-500 mg/mL. For example, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can be in the range of about 1-400 mg/mL, 1-300 mg/mL, 1-200 mg/mL, 1-100 mg/mL, 10-500 mg/mL, 10-400 mg/mL, 10-300 mg/mL, 10-200 mg/mL, 10-100 mg/mL, 20-500 mg/mL, 20-400 mg/mL, 20-300 mg/mL, 20-200 mg/mL, 20-100 mg/mL, 30-500 mg/mL, 30-400 mg/mL, 30-300 mg/mL, 30-200 mg/mL, 30-100 mg/mL, 40-500 mg/mL, 40-400 mg/mL, 40-300 mg/mL, 40-200 mg/mL, 40-100, mg, 50-500 mg/mL, 50-400 mg/mL, 50-300 mg/mL, 50-200 mg/mL, 50-100 mg/mL, 60-500 mg/mL, 60-400 mg/mL, 60-30 mg/mL, 60-200 mg/mL, 60-100 mg/mL, 70-500 mg/mL, 70400 mg/mL, 70-300 mg/mL, 70-200 mg/mL, 70-100 mg/mL, 80-500 mg/mL, 80400 mg/mL, 80-300 mg/mL, 80-200 mg/mL, 80-200 mg/mL, 90-500 mg/mL, 90-400 mg/mL, 90-300 mg/mL, 90-200 mg/mL, 90-100 mg/mL, 100-500 mg/mL, 100400 mg/mL, 100-300 mg/mL, 100-200 mg/mL, 200-500 mg/mL, 200-400 mg/mL, 200-300 mg/mL, 300-500 mg/mL, 300400 mg/mL or 400-500 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 10 mg/mL, about 20 mg/mL, about 30 mg/mL, about 40 mg/mL, about 50 mg/mL, about 60 mg/mL, about 70 mg/mL, about 80 mg/mL, about 90 mg/mL, or about 100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 50 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 80 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is about 100 mg/mL. In some embodiments, the tonicity adjusting agent is trehalose (for example, D- trehalose) and the concentration is about 80 mg/mL.

In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is between about 100-500 mM. For example the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent in the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations disclosed herein can be 100-400 mM, 100-300 mM, 100-200 mM, 200-500 mM, 200400 mM, 200-300 mM, 300-500 mM, 300-400 mM or 400-500 mM. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is between about 200-300 mM, for example 210-300 mM, 220-300 mM, 230-300 mM, 240-300 mM, 250-300 mM, 260-300 mM, 270-300 mM, 280-300 mM, 290-300 mM, 200-290 mM, 210-290 mM, 220-290 mM, 230-290 mM, 240-290 mM, 250-290 mM, 260-290 mM, 270-290 mM, 280-290 mM, 200-280 mM, 210-280 mM, 220-280 mM, 230-280 mM, 240-280 mM, 250-280 mM, 260-280 mM, 270-280 mM, 200-270 mM, 210-270 mM, 220-270 mM, 230-270 mM, 240-270 mM, 250-270 mM, 260-270 mM, 200-260 mM, 210-260 mM, 220-260 mM, 230-260 mM, 240-260 mM, 250-260 mM, 200-250 mM, 210-250 mM, 220-250 mM, 230-250 mM, 240-250 mM, 200-240 mM, 210-240 mM, 220-240 mM, 230-240 mM, 200-230 mM, 210-230 mM, 220-230 mM, 200-220 mM, 210-220 mM, or 210-220 mM. In some embodiments, the concentration of the tonicity adjusting agent is between about 220-260 mM. For example, about 220 mM, 230 mM, 240 mM, 250 mM, or 260 mM.

The methods described herein can additionally comprise addition of one or more optional excipients and/or ingredients. For example addition of one or more antioxidants, antimicrobial agent, surfactants, lubricants, thickening agents. preservatives, chelating agents.

In some embodiments the amount of antioxidants used is in the range of about 0.001-5% w/v, for example about 0.001-4.5%, 0.0014%, 0.001-3%, 0.001-2%, 0.002-1%, 0.001-0.5%, or 0.001-0.05% w/v. In some embodiments the amount of antioxidants used is in the range of about 0.001-about 0.5%, about 0.1-about 0.5%, about 0.2-about 0.5%, about 0.3-about 0.5%, about 0.4-about 0.5%, about 0.01-about 0.4%, about 0.1-about 0.4%, about 0.2-about 0.4%, about 0.3-about 0.4%, about 0.01-about 0.3%, about 0.1-about 0.3%, about 0.2-about 0.3%, about 0.01-about 0.2%, about 0.1-about 0.2%, or about 0.01-about 0.1% w/v.

Such antimicrobial agents can be employed at a level of from about 0.005-0.5% w/v, for example about 0.001-0.01% w/v, about 0.01-0.1% w/v, about 0.1-0.5% w/v or about 0.01-0.05% w/v.

The methods described herein can additionally comprise prefiltering and/or clarifying the peptidomimetic formulation by a suitable process, for example by centrifugation or by filtration. Filtration can be by any suitable means, for example by depth filter media or by membrane filters. In some embodiments, filtration can be by means of a 0.22 micrometer filters.

The method can optionally involve sterilization of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. Sterilization can be performed by any suitable technique. For example, a suitable sterilization method can include one or more of sterile filtration, chemical, irradiation heat filtration, and addition of a chemical disinfectant to the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by moist heat sterilization. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by dry heat sterilization. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by chemical cold sterilization. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by radiation sterilization. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by filtration. In some examples, the formulations are sterilized by filtration using an appropriate micron sterilizing grade filters. The filtration can be carried out by any suitable means, e.g. cellulose-based filters, cellulosic esters (MCE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. In some embodiments PVDF filters are used. Filters of any appropriate micron size can be used. In some embodiments, the filter size can be 0.001-0.5 micrometer, for example 0.001-0.01 micrometer, 0.01-0.1 micrometer, 0.1-0.2 micrometer, 0.2-0.3 micrometer, 0.3-0.4 3 micrometer or 0.4-0.5 micrometer. In some embodiments 0.22 micrometer filters are used. In some embodiments 0.22 micrometer PVDF filters are used.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations can be in a form that is suitable for direct administration or can be in a concentrated form that requires dilution relative to what is administered to the patient. For example, aqueous pharmaceutical formulations, described in this disclosure, can be in a form that is suitable for direct administration without any further dilution or reconstitution. The formulations can be diluted or reconstituted prior to administration with a suitable aqueous diluent(s) to obtain a finished concentration. The diluent can be an injection or infusion fluid. Examples of injection or infusion fluid include, but are not limited to, WFI (Bacteriostatic Water For Injection), SWFI (Sterile Water For Injection), D5W (Dextrose 5% in Water), DlOW (Dextrose 10% in Water), D5LR (Dextrose in Lactate Ringer's Solution), D5 ¼ S (Dextrose 5% in ¼ Strength Saline (5% Dextrose and 0.22% Sodium Chloride Injection)), D5 ½ S (Dextrose 5% in ½ Strength Saline (5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection)), D5NS (Dextrose 5% in Normal Saline (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection)), D5R (Dextrose 5% in Ringer's Injection), DIONS (Dextrose 10% in Normal Saline (10% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection)), ISIOW (Invert Sugar 10% in Saline (10% Invert Sugar in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection)), LR (Lactated Ringer's Injection), Pr (Protein Hydrolysate Injection), R (Ringer's Injection), NS Sodium Chloride 0.9% (Normal Saline), SOD CL 5 (Sodium Chloride 5% (5% Sodium Chloride Injection), and Sod Lac (Sodium Lactate, ⅙ Molar (M/6 Sodium Lactate Injection)). In some examples, the formulations can be diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% dextrose in water (D5W), 5% dextrose in normal saline (D5NS), 5 dextrose in half amount of normal saline (D5 ½NS), lactated ringer's injection or a mixture thereof. Dilution/reconstitution can be performed immediately prior to the administration. In some cases, dilution/reconstitution can be performed shortly before the administration. In some cases, the dilution is performed at most 1 min, 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, 11 h, 12 h, 13 h, 14 h, 15 h, 16 h, 17 h, 18 h, 19 h, 20 h, 21 h, 22 h, 23 h, or 24 h before the administration to the subject. In some examples the reconstituted and diluted solutions is used within 1-10 hours, 2-8 hours, 3-7 hours, 4-6 hours reconstitution and/or dilution. In some examples, the formulations are diluted/reconstituted more than 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 1 week before administration.

FIG. 1 depicts the manufacturing process of an exemplary aqueous formulation according to the disclosure.

Purity, Stability and Degradation

The formulations of the disclosure can be characterized by low endotoxin concentration. In some embodiments, the formulations can have a concentration of endotoxin of less than about 100 EU/mL, for example, less than about 90 EU/mL, 80 EU/mL, 70 EU/mL, 60 EU/mL, 50 EU/mL, 40 EU/mL, 30 EU/mL, 20 EU/mL, 10 EU/mL, 5 EU/mL, 1 EU/mL, 0.5 EU/mL, 0.2 EU/mL, 0.1 EU/mL, 0.05 EU/mL, 0.01 EU/mL, 0.005 EU/mL, or 0.001 EU/mL. In some embodiments the concentration of the endotoxin is 0.1-10 EU/mL, for example about 0.1-1 EU/mL, 0.1-2 EU/mL, 0.1-3 EU/mL, 0.1-4 EU/mL, 0.1-5 EU/mL, 0.1-6 EU/mL, 0.1-7 EU/mL, 0.1-8 EU/mL, 0.1-9 EU/mL, 1-2 EU/mL, 1-3 EU/mL, 1-4 EU/mL, 1-5 EU/mL, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, 2-3 EU/mL, 2-4 EU/mL, 2-5 EU/mL, 2-6, 2-7, 2-8, 2-9, 2-10, 3-4 EU/mL, 3-5 EU/mL, 3-6 EU/mL, 3-7 EU/mL, 3-8 EU/mL, 3-9 EU/mL, 3-10 EU/mL, 4-5 EU/mL, 4-6 EU/mL, 4-7 EU/mL, 4-8 EU/mL, 4-9 EU/mL, 4-10 EU/mL, 5-6 EU/mL, 5-7 EU/mL, 5-8 EU/mL, 5-9 EU/mL, 5-10 EU/mL, 6-7 EU/mL, 6-8 EU/mL, 6-9 EU/mL, 6-10 EU/mL, 7-8 EU/mL, 7-9 EU/mL, 7-10 EU/mL, 8-9 EU/mL, 8-10 EU/mL, or 9-10 EU/mL.

In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure are essentially particulate-free solutions. In some embodiments, the formulation is essentially free of particles of size greater than about 1 μm, 2 μm, 3 μm, 4 μm, 5 μm, 6 μm, 7 μm, 8 μm, 9 μm, 10 μm, 11 μm, 12 μm, 13 μm, 14 μm, 15 μm, 16 μm, 17 μm, 18 μm, 19 μm, 20 μm, 21 μm, 22 μm, 23 μm, 24 μm, 25 μm, 26 μm, 27 μm, 28 μm, 29 μm, 30 μm, 35 μm, 40 μm, 45 μm, 50 μm, or more.

In some embodiments, the formulation comprise at most about 1, about 2, about 3, about 4, about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, about 24, about 25, about 26. about 27, about 28, about 29, about 30, about 50, about 100, about 200, about 300, about 400, about 500, about 600, about 700, about 800, about 900, about 1,000, about 1,100, about 1,200, about 1,300, about 1,400, about 1,500, about 1,600, about 1,700, about 1,800, about 1,900, about 2,000, about 2,200, about 2,400, about 2,600, about 2,800, about 3,000, about 3,500, about 4,000, about 4,500, about 5,000, about 5,500, about 6,000, about 6,500, about 7,000, about 8,000, about 8,500, about 9,000, about 9,500, or about 10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure are essentially free of particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure less than 500 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm in per I mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure less than 1000 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm in per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure less than 1200 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm in per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure less than 1,000-1,200 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm in per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation.

In some embodiments. the formulation comprise at most about 1, about 2, about 3, about 4. about 5. about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, about 24, about 25, about 26, about 27, about 28, about 29, about 30, about 50, about 60, about 70, about 80, about 90, about 100, about 110, about 120, about 130, about 140, about 150, about 200, about 300, about 400, about 500, about 600, about 700, about 800, about 900, about 1,000, about 1,100, about 1,200, about 1,300, about 1,400, about 1,500, about 1,600, about 1,700, about 1,800, about 1,900, about 2,000, about 2,500, about 3,000, about 3,500, about 4,000, about 4,500, about 5,000, about 5,500, or about 6,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per I mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure are essentially free of particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 50 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 100 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 120 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm in per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise about 100-120 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation.

In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure are essentially free of particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most I particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 2 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 3 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm in per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations comprise about 1-5 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per 1 mL or 5 mL of formulation. In some embodiments the formulations of the disclosure are essentially free of particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 1 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per container. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 2 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per container. In some embodiments the formulations comprise at most 3 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm in per container. In some embodiments the formulations comprise about 1-5 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm container.

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1,000-10,000, 1,500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2,500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10,000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10.000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm per mL of formulation.

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1.000-10,000, 1,500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2,500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10,000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10,000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 10 μm per 5 mL of formulation.

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1,000-10,000, 1.500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2,500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10,000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10,000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per mL of formulation.

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1.000-10,000, 1,500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2,500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10,000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10,000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 25 μm per 5 mL of formulation.

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1,000-10,000, 1.500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2,500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10,000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10,000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per 1 mL of formulation

In some embodiments, the formulations comprise 0-10000, 100-10,000, 500-10,000, 1.000-10,000, 1,500-10,000, 2,000-10,000, 2.500-10,000, 3,000-10,000, 3,500-10,000, 4,000-10.000, 4,500-10,000, 5,000-10,000, 5,500-10,000, 6,000-10,000, 6,500-10,000, 7,000-10,000, 7,500-10,000, 8,000-10,000, 8,500-10,000, 9,000-10,000, or 9,500-10,000 particles of size greater than or equal to 50 μm per 5 mL of formulation.

In some embodiments, the formulations of the present disclosure can remain stable after exposure to a single or multiple freeze-thaw events. Formulations of the present disclosure can also remain stable after exposure to physical agitation, such as one would expect to encounter upon shipping product from one location to another. Stability can be measured by any one of a number of different ways, including visual inspection for precipitate formation, analysis of percent peptidomimetic macrocycle remaining in solution after exposure to stress conditions (e.g., by size-exclusion HPLC), or analysis of the formation of chemical variants and/or decomposition products of the peptidomimetic macrocycle (e.g., by anion exchange or reverse phase HPLC analysis). In some embodiments of the present disclosure, no precipitate visible to the naked eye is formed in the formulation after at least one freeze thaw event. In some embodiments the formulation remains stable after at least three freeze thaw events. In some embodiments the formulation remains stable after at least six freeze thaw events. In some embodiments, at least 80, 85, 90%, 95%, 96%, 975, 98%, or 99% of the peptidomimetic macrocycle remains in the formulation after at least one freeze thaw event.

In some embodiments, the total peptidomimetic degradation products formed in the formulations of the present disclosure is less than 1.0% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of one month. In some further embodiments, the total degradation products of the compound of Formula 1 formed is less than about 0.9%, about 0.8%, about 0.7%, about 0.6%, about 0.5%, about 0.4%, about 0.3%, about 0.2%, or about 0.1% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of one month.

In some embodiments, the total peptidomimetic degradation products formed in the formulations of the present disclosure is less than 1.0% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of about two months, about three months, about four months, about five months about six months.

In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0%, 4.5% 0.0%, 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.5%, 7.0%, 7.5%, 8.0%, 8.5%, 9.0%, 9,5%, or 10%. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1.0%. In some further embodiments. the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.0%. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 3.0%.

In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 4.0%. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 5.0%.

In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 0.5% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments. the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1.5% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.0% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.5% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 3.0% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 5.0% when stored at a temperature of −20° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months.

In some further embodiments. the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 0.5% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1.5% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.0% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.5% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 3.0% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 5.0% when stored at a temperature of 5° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months.

In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 0.5% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1.5% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.0% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.5% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 3.0% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 5.0% when stored at a temperature of 25° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months.

In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 0.5% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 1.5% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.0% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 2.5% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 3.0% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months. In some further embodiments, the amount of any single impurity in the formulation at any storage temperature is less than 5.0% when stored at a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 0 months, 0.5 months, 1.0 months, 1.5 months, 2.0 months, 2.5 months, 3.0 months, 3.5 months, 4.0 months, 4.5 months, 5.0 months, 5.5 months, 6.0 months, 8 months, 10 months, 12 months, or more months.

In some cases the pharmaceutically acceptable formulation expires in about 1-5 years. In some cases the formulation expires in about 1, 2, 3 or 4 years. In some cases the formulation expires in more than 5 years. In some cases the formulation expires in less than a year. In some cases the formulation expires in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11 months.

In some cases the total amount of peptidomimetic degradation products at the time of product expiration are in the range of above 0.1-10%. In some cases the total degradation product at the time of expiration is in the range of about 0.01-1, about 0.01-2, about 0.01-3, about 0.01-4, about 0.01-5, about 0.01-6, about 0.01-7, about 0.01-8, or about 0.01-9. about 1-2, about 1-3, about 1-4, about 1-5, about 1-6, about 1-7. about 1-8, about 1-9, about 2-3, about 3-4, about 2-5, about 2-6, about 2-7, about 2-8, about 2-9, about 3-4, about 3-5, about 3-6, about 3-7, about 3-8, about 3-9, about 3-10, about 4-5, about 4-6, about 4-7, about 4-8, about 4-9, about 4-10, about 5-6, about 5-7, about 5-8, about 5-9, about 5-10, about 6-7, about 6-8, about 6-9, about 6-10, about 7-8, about 7-9, about 7-10, about 8-9, about 8-10 or about 9-10%. In some embodiments the amount of total degradation product at the time of expiration is about 1%, about 2%, about 3%, about 4%, about 5%, about 6%, about 7%, about 8%. about 9%, about 10%. In some embodiments the amount of total degradation product at the time of expiration is about 0.01%, about 0.05%, about 0.1%, about 0.15%, about 0.2%, about 0.25%, about 0.3%, about 0.35%, about 0.40%, about 0.45%, about 0.50%, about 0.55%, about 0.60%, about 0.65%, about 0.70%, about 0.75%, about 0.80%, about 0.85%, about 0.90%, about 0.95%, or about 1.0%.

In some cases aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the instant disclosure are stored at −40 to 65° C., for example from −5 to 40° C. In some cases the formulations can be stored at about −40° C., about −30° C., −20° C., −10° C., −5° C., 0° C., about 5° C., about 10° C., about 15° C., about 20° C., about 25° C., about 30° C., about 35° C., about 40° C., about 45° C., about 50° C., about 55° C., about 60° C., or about 65° C. In some embodiments, the formulations are stored at or below ambient temperature. In some embodiments, the formulations are stored above ambient temperature.

Sparging

In some embodiments the stability of the peptidomimetic macrocycles in the formulations of the disclosure can be improved by sparging the formulation with an inert gas. A variety of inert gases can be used as a sparging material including but not limited to nitrogen, argon, helium, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments the inert gas is nitrogen. The sparging is generally carried out till the oxygen is reduced or completely removed from the formulations peptidomimetic macrocycles. The time period for sparging depends in several factors including the amount of formulation, the effectiveness of agitation and the flow rate of the inert gas. In some embodiments, sparging is done by bubbling the inert gas through the formulations for a period of about 1 min-12 h. In some embodiments the formulations are sparged for a period of about 1 min-about 11 h, about 1 min-about 10 h, about 1 min-9 h, about 1 min-8 h, about 1 min-7 h, about 1 min-6 h, about 1 min-5 h, about 1 min-4 h, about 1 min-3 h, about 1 min-2 h, about 1 min-1 h, about 1 min-45 min, about 1 min-about 30 min, about 1 min-15 min, about 1 min-10 min, about 1 min-about 9 min, about 1 min-8 min, about 1 min-about 7 min, about 1 min-6 min, about 1 min-about 5 min, about 1 min-about 4 min, about 1 min-about 3 min, about 1 min-about 2 min. In some embodiments, sparging is performed for less than about 1 minute.

Methods of Use Methods

In one aspect, provided herein are aqueous pharmaceutical formulations that are useful in competitive binding assays to identify agents which bind to the natural ligand(s) of the proteins or peptides upon which the peptidomimetic macrocycles are modeled. For example, in the p53/MDMX system, labeled peptidomimetic macrocycles based on p53 can be used in a MDMX binding assay along with small molecules that competitively bind to MDMX. Competitive binding studies allow for rapid in vitro evaluation and determination of drug candidates specific for the p53/MDMX system. Such binding studies can be performed with any of the peptidomimetic macrocycles disclosed herein and their binding partners.

Further provided are methods for the generation of antibodies against the peptidomimetic macrocycles. In some embodiments, these antibodies specifically bind both the peptidomimetic macrocycle and the precursor peptides, such as p53, to which the peptidomimetic macrocycles are related. Such antibodies, for example, disrupt the native protein-protein interaction, for example, binding between p53 and MDMX.

In other aspects, provided herein are both prophylactic and therapeutic methods of treating a subject at risk of (or susceptible to) a disorder or having a disorder associated with aberrant (e.g., insufficient or excessive) expression or activity of the molecules including p53, MDM2 or MDMX.

In another embodiment, a disorder is caused, at least in part, by an abnormal level of p53 or MDM2 or MDMX, (e.g., over or under expression), or by the presence of p53 or MDM2 or MDMX exhibiting abnormal activity. As such, the reduction in the level and/or activity of p53 or MDM2 or MDMX, or the enhancement of the level and/or activity of p53 or MDM2 or MDMX, by peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from p53, is used, for example, to ameliorate or reduce the adverse symptoms of the disorder.

In another aspect, provided herein are methods for treating or preventing a disease including hyperproliferative disease and inflammatory disorder by interfering with the interaction or binding between binding partners, for example, between p53 and MDM2 or p53 and MDMX. These methods comprise administering an effective amount of a compound to a warm blooded animal, including a human. In some embodiments, the administration of one or more compounds disclosed herein induces cell growth arrest or apoptosis.
As used herein, the term “treatment” is defined as the application or administration of a therapeutic agent to a patient, or application or administration of a therapeutic agent to an isolated tissue or cell line from a patient, who has a disease, a symptom of disease or a predisposition toward a disease, with the purpose to cure, heal, alleviate, relieve, alter, remedy, ameliorate, improve or affect the disease, the symptoms of disease or the predisposition toward disease.

Disease and Disorders

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose cancers and neoplastic conditions. As used herein, the terms “cancer”. “hyperproliferative” and “neoplastic” refer to cells having the capacity for autonomous growth, i.e., an abnormal state or condition characterized by rapidly proliferating cell growth. Hyperproliferative and neoplastic disease states can be categorized as pathologic, i.e., characterizing or constituting a disease state, or can be categorized as non-pathologic, i.e., a deviation from normal but not associated with a disease state. The term is meant to include all types of cancerous growths or oncogenic processes, metastatic tissues or malignantly transformed cells, tissues, or organs, irrespective of histopathology type or stage of invasiveness. A metastatic tumor can arise from a multitude of primary tumor types, including but not limited to those of breast, lung, liver, colon and ovarian origin. “Pathologic hyperproliferative” cells occur in disease states characterized by malignant tumor growth. Examples of non-pathologic hyperproliferative cells include proliferation of cells associated with wound repair. Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders include cancer, e.g., carcinoma, sarcoma, or metastatic disorders. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations can be used for controlling/treating breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, metastasis of such cancers and the like.

Examples of cancers or neoplastic conditions include, but are not limited to, a fibrosarcoma, myosarcoma. liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, rectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, uterine cancer, cancer of the head and neck, skin cancer, brain cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma. hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, cervical cancer, testicular cancer, small cell lung carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, leukemia, lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, or glioblastoma multiforme.

In some embodiments, the cancer is head and neck cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, or glioma.

In some examples, the cancer is pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer (colon cancer or rectal cancer), breast cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma. neuroendocrine cancers, CNS cancers, brain tumors, bone cancer, skin cancer, ocular tumor, choriocarcinoma (tumor of the placenta), sarcoma or soft tissue cancer.

In some examples, cancer is bladder cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, CNS cancer, colon cancer, ocular tumor, renal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma (tumor of the placenta), prostate cancer, sarcoma, skin cancer, soft tissue cancer or gastric cancer.

In some examples, the cancer is breast cancer. Non limiting examples of breast cancer that can be treated by the instant pharmaceutical formulations include ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS or intraductal carcinoma), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), invasive (or infiltrating) ductal carcinoma, invasive (or infiltrating) lobular carcinoma. inflammatory breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, paget disease of the nipple, phyllodes tumor (phylloides tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes), angiosarcoma, adenoid cystic (or adenocystic) carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, micropapillary carcinoma, and mixed carcinoma.

In some examples, the cancer is bone cancer. Non limiting examples of bone cancer that can be treated by the instant pharmaceutical formulations include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFTs).

In some examples, the cancer is skin cancer. Non limiting examples of skin cancer that can be treated by the instant pharmaceutical formulations include melanoma, basal cell skin cancer, and squamous cell skin cancer.

In some examples, the cancer is ocular tumor. Non limiting examples of ocular tumor that can be treated by the pharmaceutical formulations of the instant disclosure include ocular tumor is choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma, choroidal metastasis, choroidal hemangioma, choroidal osteoma, iris melanoma, uveal melanoma, melanocytoma, metastasis retinal capillary hemangiomas, congenital hypertrophy of the RPE, RPE adenoma or retinoblastoma.

Examples of proliferative disorders include hematopoietic neoplastic disorders. As used herein, the term “hematopoietic neoplastic disorders” includes diseases involving hyperplastic/neoplastic cells of hematopoietic origin, e.g., arising from myeloid, lymphoid or erythroid lineages, or precursor cells thereof. The diseases can arise from poorly differentiated acute leukemias, e.g., crythroblastic leukemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Additional exemplary myeloid disorders include, but are not limited to, acute promyeloid leukemia (APML), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (reviewed in Vaickus (1991), Crit Rev. Oncol. Hemotol. 11:267-97); lymphoid malignancies include, but are not limited to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) which includes B-lineage ALL and T-lineage ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), hairy cell leukemia (HLL) and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM). Additional forms of malignant lymphomas include, but are not limited to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and variants thereof, peripheral T cell lymphomas, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGF), Hodgkin's disease and Reed-Stemberg disease.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the breast include, but are not limited to, proliferative breast disease including, e.g., epithelial hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis, and small duct papillomas; tumors, e.g., stromal tumors such as fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, and sarcomas, and epithelial tumors such as large duct papilloma: carcinoma of the breast including in situ (noninvasive) carcinoma that includes ductal carcinoma in situ (including Paget's disease) and lobular carcinoma in situ, and invasive (infiltrating) carcinoma including, but not limited to, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, colloid (mucinous) carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and invasive papillary carcinoma, and miscellaneous malignant neoplasms. Disorders in the male breast include, but are not limited to, gynecomastia and carcinoma.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the skin include, but are not limited to proliferative skin disease such as melanomas. including mucosal melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo (e.g. lentigo maligna, lentigo maligna melanoma, or acral lentiginous melanoma), amelanotic melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus, melanoma with small nevus-like cells, polypoid melanoma, and soft-tissue melanoma: basal cell carcinomas including micronodular basal cell carcinoma, superficial basal cell carcinoma, nodular basal cell carcinoma (rodent ulcer), cystic basal cell carcinoma, cicatricial basal cell carcinoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, aberrant basal cell carcinoma, infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, polypoid basal cell carcinoma, pore-like basal cell carcinoma, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: squamus cell carcinomas including acanthoma (large cell acanthoma), adenoid squamous cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell squamous cell carcinoma, signet-ring cell squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma, Marjolin's ulcer, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and Bowen's disease; or other skin or subcutaneous tumors.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the lung include, but are not limited to, bronchogenic carcinoma, including paraneoplastic syndromes, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, such as bronchial carcinoid, miscellaneous tumors, and metastatic tumors; pathologies of the pleura, including inflammatory pleural effusions, noninflammatory pleural effusions, pneumothorax, and pleural tumors, including solitary fibrous tumors (pleural fibroma) and malignant mesothelioma.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the colon include, but are not limited to, non-neoplastic polyps, adenomas, familial syndromes, colorectal carcinogenesis, colorectal carcinoma, and carcinoid tumors.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the liver include, but are not limited to, nodular hyperplasias, adenomas, and malignant tumors, including primary carcinoma of the liver and metastatic tumors. Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the ovary include, but are not limited to, ovarian tumors such as, tumors of coelomic epithelium, serous tumors, mucinous tumors, endometrioid tumors, clear cell adenocarcinoma, cystadenofibroma, Brenner tumor, surface epithelial tumors; germ cell tumors such as mature (benign) teratomas, monodermal teratomas, immature malignant teratomas, dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, choriocarcinoma: sex cord-stomal tumors such as, granulosa-theca cell tumors, thecomafibromas, androblastomas, hill cell tumors, and gonadoblastoma; and metastatic tumors such as Krukenberg tumors.

In one aspect, the present invention provides novel peptidomimetic macrocycles that are useful in competitive binding assays to identify agents which bind to the natural ligand(s) of the proteins or peptides upon which the peptidomimetic macrocycles are modeled. For example, in the BH3/BCL-XL anti-apoptotic system labeled peptidomimetic macrocycles based on BH3 can be used in a BCL-XL binding assay along with small molecules that competitively bind to BCL-XL. Competitive binding studies allow for rapid in vitro evaluation and determination of drug candidates specific for the BH3/BCL-XL system. The invention further provides for the generation of antibodies against the peptidomimetic macrocycles. In some embodiments, these antibodies specifically bind both the peptidomimetic macrocycle and the BH3 peptidomimetic precursors upon which the peptidomimetic macrocycles are derived. Such antibodies, for example, disrupt the BH3/BCL-XL systems, respectively.

In other aspects, the present invention provides for both prophylactic and therapeutic methods of treating a subject at risk of (or susceptible to) a disorder or having a disorder associated with aberrant (e.g., insufficient or excessive) BCL-2 family member expression or activity (e.g., extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathway abnormalities). It is believed that some BCL-2 type disorders are caused, at least in part, by an abnormal level of one or more BCL-2 family members (e.g., over or under expression), or by the presence of one or more BCL-2 family members exhibiting abnormal activity. As such, the reduction in the level and/or activity of the BCL-2 family member or the enhancement of the level and/or activity of the BCL-2 family member, is used, for example, to ameliorate or reduce the adverse symptoms of the disorder.

In one embodiment, the compounds of the invention are used to treat disorders associated with expression or overexpression of Mcl-1. Mcl-1 has been shown to be expressed in many tissues and neoplastic cell lines and is thought to participate in the development of malignancies (hallinger et al. (2004) Clin. Cancer Res. 10:4185-4191). The peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used for the treatment of such malignancies.

In one embodiment, the disorder being treated (e.g. cancer) is differentially responsive to the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention. In some embodiments, the cancer is treated with a BIM peptidomimetic macrocycle and is at least 2-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BID polypeptide (such as a BID peptidomimetic macrocycle or uncrosslinked polypeptide) as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay. In other embodiments, the cancer is at least 5-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BID polypeptide as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay. In yet other embodiments, the cancer is at least 8-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BID polypeptide as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay. In other embodiments, the cancer is treated with a BID peptidomimetic macrocycle and is at least 2-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BIM polypeptide (such as a BIM peptidomimetic macrocycle or uncrosslinked polypeptide) as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay. In other embodiments, the cancer is at least 5-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BIM polypeptide as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay. In yet other embodiments, the cancer is at least 8-fold less sensitive to treatment using a BIM polypeptide as measured in an in vitro cell viability assay.

In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of a BCL-family protein and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of the BCL-family protein is detected. BCL-family proteins include, for example, BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL-1, Bf11/A1, BOO/DIVA, NRH/NR13, BAX, BAD, BAK, BOK, BIK, PUMA, BIM, BMF, BLK, BNIP3, HRK, NIX, SPIKE, and Noxa. In one embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BCL-2 in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BCL-2 is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BCL-XL in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BCL-XL is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of MCL-1 in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of MCL-1 is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BAX in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BAX is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BAD in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BAD is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BAK in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BAK is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of PUMA in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of PUMA is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of Noxa in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of Noxa is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of Noxa in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of Noxa is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of Bf11/A1 in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of Bf11/A 1 is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BOO/DIVA in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BOO/DIVA is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of NRH/NR 13 in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of NRH/NR13 is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BOK in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BOK is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BIK in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BIK is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BMF in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BMF is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BLK in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BLK is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of BNIP3 in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of BNIP3 is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of HRK in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of HRK is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of Nix in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of Nix is detected. In another embodiment, a method of treating a human patient is provided comprising performing an assay to evaluate the levels of SPIKE in the patient and administering to the patient a peptidomimetic macrocycle if an aberrant or irregular level of expression of SPIKE is detected.

In one aspect, the invention provides methods of treating breast cancer by administering the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention. Breast cancer includes invasive breast carcinomas, such as invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, invasive cribriform carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and other tumours with abundant mucin, cystadenocarcinoma, columnar cell mucinous carcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumours (including solid neuroendocrine carcinoma. atypical carcinoid tumour, small cell/oat cell carcinoma, or large cell neuroendocrine carcioma). invasive papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, metaplastic carcinomas. pure epithelial metaplastic carciomas, mixed epithelial/mesenchymal metaplastic carcinomas, lipid-rich carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, inflammatory carcinoma or bilateral breast carcinoma; mesenchymal tumors such as haemangioma, angiomatosis, haemangiopericytoma, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, myofibroblastoma, fibromatosis (aggressive), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, lipoma. angiolipoma, granular cell tumour, neurofibroma, schwannoma, angiosarcoma, liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma. osteosarcoma, leiomyoma, or leiomysarcoma; myoepithelial lesions such as myoepitheliosis, adenomyoepithelial adenosis, adenomyoepithelioma, or malignant myoepithelioma; fibroepithelial tumours such as fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumour, low grade periductal stromal sarcoma, or mammary hamartoma; and tumours of the nipple such as nipple adenoma, syringomatous adenoma, or Paget's disease of the nipple.

Treatment of breast cancer can be effected in conjunction with any additional therapy, such as a therapy that is part of the standard of care. A surgical technique such as lumpectomy or mastectomy can be performed prior to, during, or following treatment with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention. Alternatively, radiation therapy can be used for the treatment of breast cancer in conjunction with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention. In other cases, the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention are administered in combination with a second therapeutic agent. Such an agent can be a chemotherapeutic agent such as an individual drug or combination of drugs and therapies. For example, the chemotherapeutic agent can be an adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment such as CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil); FAC or CAF (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide); AC or CA (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide); AC-Taxol (AC followed by paclitaxel); TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide): FEC (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide); FECD (FEC followed by docetaxel); TC (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide). In addition to chemotherapy, trastuzumab can also be added to the regimen depending on the tumor characteristics (i.e. HER2/neu status) and risk of relapse. Hormonal therapy can also be appropriate before, during or following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, tamoxifen can be administered or a compound in the category of aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to aminogluthetimide. anastrozole. exemestane, formestane. letrozole, or vorozole. In other embodiments, an antiangiogenic agent can be used in combination therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. The antiangiogenic agent can be an anti-VEGF agent including, but not limited to bevacizumab.

In another aspect, the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used to treat ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancers include ovarian tumors such as, tumors of coelomic epithelium, serous tumors, mucinous tumors, endomctrioid tumors, clear cell adenocarcinoma, cystadenofibroma. Brenner tumor, surface epithelial tumors; germ cell tumors such as mature (benign) teratomas, monodermal teratomas, immature malignant teratomas, dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, choriocarcinoma: sex cord-stomal tumors such as, granulosa-theca cell tumors, thecomafibromas, androblastomas, hill cell tumors, and gonadoblastoma; and metastatic tumors such as Krukenbcrg tumors.

The peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be administered in conjunction with a second therapy such as a therapy that is part of the standard of care. Surgery, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination thereof, are some possible treatments available for ovarian cancer. Some possible surgical procedures include debulking, and a unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy and/or a unilateral or bilateral salpigectomy.

Anti-cancer drugs that can be used include cyclophosphamide, etoposide, altretamine, and ifosfamide. Hormone therapy with the drug tamoxifen can be used to shrink ovarian tumors. Radiation therapy can be external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy.

In another aspect, the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used to treat prostate cancer. Prostate cancers include adenocarcinomas and metastasized adenocarcinomas. The peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be administered in conjunction with a second therapy such as a therapy that is part of the standard of care. Treatment for prostate cancer can involve surgery, radiation therapy, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), chemotherapy, cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or any combination thereof. Surgery can involve prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate or orchiectomy. Radiation therapy can include external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy. Hormonal therapy can include orchiectomy; administration of antiandrogens such as flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, or cyproterone acetate: medications which inhibit the production of adrenal androgens such as DHEA, such as ketoconazole and aminoglutethimide; and GnRH antagonists or agonists such as Abarelix (Plenaxis@), Cetrorelix (Cetrotide@), Ganirelix (Antagont), leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, or buserelin. Treatment with an anti-androgen agent, which blocks androgen activity in the body, is another available therapy. Such agents include flutamide, bicalutamide, and nilutamide. This therapy is typically combined with LHRH analog administration or an orchiectomy, which is termed a combined androgen blockade (CAB). Chemotherapy includes, but is not limited to, administration of docetaxel, for example with a corticosteroid such as prednisone. Anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin, estramustine, etoposide, mitoxantrone, vinblastine, paclitaxel, carboplatin can also be administered to slow the growth of prostate cancer, reduce symptoms and improve the quality of life. Additional compounds such as bisphosphonate drugs can also be administered.

In another aspect, the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used to treat renal cancer. Renal cancers include, but are not limited to, renal cell carcinomas, metastases from extra-renal primary neoplasms, renal lymphomas, squamous cell carcinomas, juxtaglomerular tumors (reninomas), transitional cell carcinomas, angiomyolipomas, oncocytomas and Wilm's tumors. The peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be administered in conjunction with a second therapy such as a therapy that is part of the standard of care. Treatment for renal cancer can involve surgery, percutaneous therapies, radiation therapies, chemotherapy, vaccines, or other medication. Surgical techniques useful for treatment of renal cancer in combination with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention include nephrectomy, which can include removal of the adrenal gland, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and any other surrounding tissues affected by the invasion of the tumor. Percutaneous therapies include, for example, image-guided therapies which can involve imaging of a tumor followed by its targeted destruction by radiofrequency ablation or cryotherapy. In some cases, other chemotherapeutic or other medications useful in treating renal cancer can be a-interferon, interleukin-2, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitib, temsirolimus or other kinase inhibitors.

In other aspects, the invention provides methods of treating pancreatic cancer by administering peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention, such as a pancreatic cancer selected from the following: an epitheliod carcinoma in the pancreatic duct tissue and an adenocarcinoma in a pancreatic duct. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is an adenocarcinoma, which occurs in the lining of the pancreatic duct. Possible treatments available for pancreatic cancer include surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Possible surgical treatment options include a distal or total pancreatectomy and a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Radiation therapy can be an option for pancreatic cancer patients, specifically extemal beam radiation where radiation is focused on the tumor by a machine outside the body. Another option is intraoperative electron beam radiation administered during an operation. Chemotherapy can also be used to treat pancreatic cancer patients. Suitable anti-cancer drugs include, but are not limited to, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), mitomycin, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, streptozocin, chlorozotocin, and combinations thereof. The methods provided by the invention can provide a beneficial effect for pancreatic cancer patients, by administration of a polypeptide of the invention or a combination of administration of a peptidomimetic macrocycle and surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

In one aspect, peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used for the treatment of colon cancer, including but not limited to non-neoplastic polyps, adenomas, familial syndromes. colorectal carcinogenesis, colorectal carcinoma, and carcinoid tumors. Possible treatments available for colon cancer that can be used in conjunction with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or targeted drug therapy.

Radiation therapy can include external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy. Chemotherapy can be used to reduce the likelihood of metastasis developing, shrink tumor size, or slow tumor growth. Chemotherapy is often applied after surgery (adjuvant), before surgery (neo-adjuvant), or as the primary therapy if surgery is not indicated (palliative). For example, exemplary regimens for adjuvant chemotherapy involve the combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). First line chemotherapy regimens can involve the combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) with a targeted drug such as bevacizumab, cetuximab or panitumumab or infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with targeted drug such as bevacizumab, cetuximab or panitumumab. Other chemotherapeutic agents that can be useful in the treatment or prevention of colon cancer in combination with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention are Bortezomib (Velcade®), Oblimersen (Genasense®, G3139), Gefitinib and Erlotinib (Tarceva®) and Topotecan (Hycamtin®).

Some embodiments provide methods for the treatment of lung cancer using the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention. Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the lung include, but are not limited to, bronchogenic carcinoma, including paraneoplastic syndromes, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, such as bronchial carcinoid, miscellaneous tumors, and metastatic tumors: pathologies of the pleura, including inflammatory pleural effusions, noninflammatory pleural effusions. pneumothorax, and pleural tumors, including solitary fibrous tumors (pleural fibroma) and malignant mesothelioma.

The most common type of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for approximately 80-85% of lung cancers and is divided into squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell undifferentiated carcinomas. Small cell lung cancer, e.g. small cell lung carcinomas, accounts for 15-20% of lung cancers. Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or a combination thereof. Some possible surgical options for treatment of lung cancer are a segmental or wedge resection. a lobectomy, or a pneumonectomy. Radiation therapy can be external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy. Some anti-cancer drugs that can be used in chemotherapy to treat lung cancer in combination with the peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention include cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, irinotecan, etoposide, vinblastine, gefitinib, ifosfamide, methotrexate, or a combination thereof. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be used to treat lung cancer patients. The methods described herein can provide a beneficial effect for lung cancer patients, by administration of a peptidomimetic macrocycle or a combination of administration of a peptidomimetic macrocycle and surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or a combination thereof.

Examples of cellular proliferative and/or differentiative disorders of the liver include, but are not limited to, nodular hyperplasias, adenomas, and malignant tumors, including primary carcinoma of the liver and metastatic tumors.

Immunoproliferative disorders (also known as “immunoproliferative diseases” or “immunoproliferative neoplasms”) are disorders of the immune system that are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the primary cells of the immune system, which includes B cells, T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells, or by the excessive production of immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies). Such disorders include the general categories of lymphoproliferative disorders, hypergammaglobulinemias, and paraproteinemias. Examples of such disorders include, but are not limited to, X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder, autosomal lymphoproliferative disorder, Hyper-IgM syndrome, heavy chain disease, and cryoglobulinemia. Other immunoproliferative disorders can be graft versus host disease (GVHD); psoriasis; immune disorders associated with graft transplantation rejection; T cell lymphoma; T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; testicular angiocentric T cell lymphoma; benign lymphocytic angiitis; and autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, primary myxedema, Graves' disease, pernicious anemia, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, Addison's disease, insulin dependent diabetes mellitis, good pasture's syndrome. myasthenia gravis, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, sympathetic ophthalmia, autoimmune uveitis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic action hepatitis, ulceratis colitis, Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease.

Combination Treatments

In one embodiment. peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used for the treatment of cancer in conjunction with alkylating and alkylating-like agents. Such agents include, for example, nitrogen mustards such as chlorambucil, chlormethine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and melphalan; nitrosoureas such as carmustine, fotemustine, lomustine, and streptozocin; platinum therapeutic agents such as carboplatin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, BBR3464, and satraplatin; or other agents, including but not limited to busulfan, dacarbazine, procarbazine, temozolomide, thiotepa, treosulfan, or uramustine.

In another embodiment, peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used in conjunction with an antineoplastic agent which is an antimetabolite. For example, such an antineoplastic agent can be a folic acid such as aminopterin, methotrexate, pemetrexed, or raltitrexed. Alternatively, the antineoplastic agent can be a purine, including but not limited to cladribine, clofarabine, fludarabine, mercaptopurine, pentostatin, thioguanine. In further embodiments, the antineoplastic agent can be a pyrimidine such as capecitabine, cytarabine, fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine.

In still other embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used in conjunction with an antineoplastic agent which is an spindle poison/mitotic inhibitor. Agents in this category include taxanes, for example docetaxel and paclitaxel; and vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. In yet other embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles of the invention can be used in combination with an antineoplastic agent which is a cytotoxic/antitumor antibiotic from the anthracycline family such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone. pixantrone, or valrubicin; an antibiotic from the streptomyces family such as actinomycin, bleomycin, mitomycin, or plicamycin; or hydroxyurea. Alternatively, agents used for combination therapy can be topoisomerase inhibitors including, but not limited to camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide, or teniposide.

Alternatively, the antineoplastic agent can be an antibody or antibody-derived agent. For example, a receptor tyrosine kinase-targeted antibody such as cetuximab, panitumumab, or trastuzumab can be used. Alternatively, the antibody can be an anti-CD20 antibody such as rituximab or tositumomab, or any other suitable antibody including but not limited to alemtuzumab, bevacizumab, and gemtuzumab. In other embodiments, the antineoplastic agent is a photosensitizer such as aminolevulinic acid, methyl aminolevulinate, porfimer sodium, or verteporfin. In still other embodiments, the antineoplastic agent is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor such as dediranib, dasatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, or vandetanib. Other neoplastic agents suitable in the use of the invention include, for example, alitretinoin, tretinoin, altretamine, amsacrine, anagrelide, arsenic trioxide, asparaginase (pegaspargase), bexarotene, bortezomib, denileukin diftitox, estramustine, ixabepilone, masoprocol, or mitotane.

In other or further embodiments, the peptidomimetics macrocycles described herein are used to treat, prevent or diagnose conditions characterized by overactive cell death or cellular death due to physiologic insult, etc. Some examples of conditions characterized by premature or unwanted cell death are or alternatively unwanted or excessive cellular proliferation include, but are not limited to hypocellular/hypoplastic, acellular/aplastic, or hypercellular/hyperplastic conditions. Some examples include hematologic disorders including but not limited to fanconi anemia, aplastic anemia, thalaessemia, congenital neutropenia, myclodysplasia

In other or further embodiments, the peptidomimetics macrocycles of the invention that act to decrease apoptosis are used to treat disorders associated with an undesirable level of cell death. Thus, in some embodiments, the anti-apoptotic peptidomimetics macrocycles of the invention are used to treat disorders such as those that lead to cell death associated with viral infection, e.g., infection associated with infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A wide variety of neurological diseases are characterized by the gradual loss of specific sets of neurons, and the anti-apoptotic peptidomimetics macrocycles of the invention are used, in some embodiments, in the treatment of these disorders. Such disorders include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, and various forms of cerebellar degeneration. The cell loss in these diseases does not induce an inflammatory response, and apoptosis appears to be the mechanism of cell death. In addition, a number of hematologic diseases are associated with a decreased production of blood cells. These disorders include anemia associated with chronic disease, aplastic anemia, chronic neutropenia, and the myclodysplastic syndromes. Disorders of blood cell production, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and some forms of aplastic anemia, are associated with increased apoptotic cell death within the bone marrow. These disorders could result from the activation of genes that promote apoptosis, acquired deficiencies in stromal cells or hematopoietic survival factors, or the direct effects of toxins and mediators of immune responses. Two common disorders associated with cell death are myocardial infarctions and stroke. In both disorders, cells within the central area of ischemia, which is produced in the event of acute loss of blood flow, appear to die rapidly as a result of necrosis. However, outside the central ischemic zone, cells die over a more protracted time period and morphologically appear to die by apoptosis.

In other or further embodiments, the anti-apoptotic peptidomimetics macrocycles of the invention are used to treat all such disorders associated with undesirable cell death.

Some examples of immunologic disorders that are treated with the peptidomimetics macrocycles described herein include but are not limited to organ transplant rejection, arthritis, lupus, IBD, Crohn's disease, asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, etc.

Some examples of neurologic disorders that are treated with the peptidomimetics macrocycles described herein include but are not limited to Alzheimer's Disease, Down's Syndrome, Dutch Type Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage Amyloidosis, Reactive Amyloidosis, Familial Amyloid Nephropathy with Urticaria and Deafness, Muckle-Wells Syndrome, Idiopathic Myeloma; Macroglobulinemia-Associated Myeloma, Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy, Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy, Isolated Cardiac Amyloid, Systemic Senile Amyloidosis, Adult Onset Diabetes, Insulinoma, Isolated Atrial Amyloid, Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Familial Amyloidosis, Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis, Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy, Scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease, Gerstmann Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, a prion-mediated disease, and Huntington's Disease.

Some examples of endocrinologic disorders that are treated with the peptidomimetics macrocycles described herein include but are not limited to diabetes, hypothyroidism, hypopituitarism, hypoparathyroidism, hypogonadism, etc.

Examples of cardiovascular disorders (e.g., inflammatory disorders) that are treated or prevented with the peptidomimetics macrocycles of the invention include, but are not limited to, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, thrombosis, aneurism, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, sudden cardiac death, hypertensive heart disease; non-coronary vessel disease, such as arteriolosclerosis, small vessel disease, nephropathy, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, xanthomatosis, asthma, hypertension, emphysema and chronic pulmonary disease; or a cardiovascular condition associated with interventional procedures (“procedural vascular trauma”), such as restenosis following angioplasty, placement of a shunt, stent, synthetic or natural excision grafts, indwelling catheter, valve or other implantable devices. Preferred cardiovascular disorders include atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, aneurism, and stroke.

In some embodiments, the peptidomimetic macrocycles are useful in the treatment of viral disorders. For example, in the PB1/PA system, labeled peptidomimetic macrocycles based on PB1 can be used in a PA binding assay along with small molecules that competitively bind to PA. Competitive binding studies allow for rapid in vitro evaluation and determination of drug candidates specific for the PB1/PA system. Such binding studies can be performed with any of the peptidomimetic macrocycles disclosed herein and their binding partners. Antibodies can also be developed which disrupt the binding between PA and PD1.

For example, peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the PB1 helix sequence, or peptidomimetic macrocycles that bind selectively to the PB1 peptide binding site of the PA protein, can selectively inhibit influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Peptidomimetic macrocycles derived from the PB2 helix sequence, or peptidomimetic macrocycles that bind selectively to the PB2 peptide binding site of the PB1 protein, can selectively inhibit influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. When administered within a therapeutic window after infection, such peptidomimetic macrocycles can reduce the severity or duration of an influenza infection. When administered prophylactically, such peptidomimetic macrocycles can prevent infection by influenza viruses and thereby decrease the spread of influenza and reduce large-scale epidemics.

In one aspect, the present invention provides novel peptidomimetic macrocycles that are useful in competitive binding assays to identify agents which bind to the natural ligand(s) of the proteins or peptides upon which the peptidomimetic macrocycles are modeled. For example, in the PB1/PA system, labeled peptidomimetic macrocycles based on PB1 can be used in a PA binding assay along with small molecules that competitively bind to PA. Competitive binding studies allow for rapid in vitro evaluation and determination of drug candidates specific for the PB1/PA system. Such binding studies can be performed with any of the peptidomimetic macrocycles disclosed herein and their binding partners.

In other aspects, the present invention provides for both prophylactic and therapeutic methods of treating a subject infected with, at risk of, or susceptible to an influenza virus. These methods comprise administering an effective amount of a compound to a warm blooded animal, including a human. In some embodiments, the administration of the compounds of the present invention prevents the proliferation or transmission of an influenza virus.

In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles are used to treat diseases induced by influenza viruses. Like other viruses, the replication of influenza virus involves six phases: transmission, entry, replication, biosynthesis, assembly, and exit. Entry occurs by endocytosis, replication and vRNP assembly takes place in the nucleus, and the virus buds from the plasma membrane. In the infected patient, the virus targets airway epithelial cells.

The methods described herein are also useful for development and/or identification of agents for the treatment of infections caused by viruses such as Abelson leukemia virus. Abelson murine leukemia virus, Abelson's virus, Acute laryngotracheobronchitis virus, Adelaide River virus, Adeno associated virus group, Adenovirus. African horse sickness virus, African swine fever virus, AIDS virus, Aleutian mink disease parvovirus, Alpharetrovirus, Alphavirus, ALV related virus, Amapari virus, Aphthovirus, Aquareovirus, Arbovirus, Arbovirus C, arbovirus group A, arbovirus group B, Arenavirus group, Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus, Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus, Arterivirus, Astrovirus, Ateline herpesvirus group, Aujezky's disease virus, Aura virus, Ausduk disease virus. Australian bat lyssavirus, Aviadenovirus, avian erythroblastosis virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, avian leukemia virus, avian leukosis virus, avian lymphomatosis virus, avian mycloblastosis virus, avian paramyxovirus, avian pneumoencephalitis virus, avian reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian sarcoma virus, avian type C retrovirus group, Avihepadnavirus, Avipoxvirus, B virus, B19 virus, Babanki virus, baboon herpesvirus, baculovirus, Barmah Forest virus, Bebaru virus, Berrimah virus, Betaretrovirus, Bimavirus, Bittner virus, BK virus, Black Creek Canal virus, bluetongue virus, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever virus, Boma disease virus, border disease of sheep virus, boma virus, bovine alphaherpesvirus 1, bovine alphaherpesvirus 2, bovine coronavirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, bovine leukemia virus, bovine leukosis virus, bovine mammillitis virus, bovine papillomavirus, bovine papular stomatitis virus, bovine parvovirus, bovine syncytial virus, bovine type C oncovirus. bovine viral diarrhea virus, Buggy Creek virus, bullet shaped virus group. Bunyamwera virus supergroup, Bunyavirus, Burkitt's lymphoma virus, Bwamba Fever, CA virus, Calicivirus, California encephalitis virus, camelpox virus, canarypox virus, canid herpesvirus, canine coronavirus, canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus, canine minute virus, canine parvovirus, Cano Delgadito virus, caprine arthritis virus, caprine encephalitis virus, Caprine Herpes Virus, Capripox virus, Cardiovirus, caviid herpesvirus 1, Cereopithecid herpesvirus 1, cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2. Chandipura virus, Changuinola virus, channel catfish virus, Charleville virus, chickenpox virus, Chikungunya virus, chimpanzee herpesvirus, chub reovirus, chum salmon virus, Cocal virus, Coho salmon reovirus, coital exanthema virus. Colorado tick fever virus, Coltivirus, Columbia SK virus, common cold virus, contagious ecthyma virus, contagious pustular dermatitis virus, Coronavirus, Corriparta virus, coryza virus, cowpox virus, coxsackie virus, CPV (cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus), cricket paralysis virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, croup associated virus, Cryptovirus, Cypovirus, Cytomegalovirus, cytomegalovirus group, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, deer papillomavirus, deltaretrovirus, dengue virus, Densovirus, Dependovirus, Dhori virus, diploma virus, Drosophila C virus, duck hepatitis B virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck hepatitis virus 2, duovirus, Duvenhage virus, Deformed wing virus DWV, eastern equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, EB virus, Ebola virus, Ebola-like virus, echo virus, echovirus, echovirus 10, echovirus 28, echovirus 9, ectromelia virus, EEE virus, EIA virus, EIA virus, encephalitis virus, encephalomyocarditis group virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, Enterovirus, enzyme elevating virus, enzyme elevating virus (LDH), epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, Epstein-Barr virus, equid alphaherpesvirus 1, equid alphaberpesvirus 4, equid herpesvirus 2, equine abortion virus, equine arteritis virus, equine encephalosis virus, equine infectious anemia virus, equine morbillivirus, equine rhinopneumonitis virus, equine rhinovirus, Eubenangu virus, European elk papillomavirus, European swine fever virus, Everglades virus, Eyach virus, felid herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline fibrosarcoma virus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, feline leukemia/sarcoma virus, feline leukemia virus, feline panleukopenia virus, feline parvovirus, feline sarcoma virus, feline syncytial virus, Filovirus, Flanders virus, Flavivirus, foot and mouth disease virus, Fort Morgan virus. Four Corners hantavirus, fowl adenovirus 1, fowlpox virus, Friend virus, Gammaretrovirus, GB hepatitis virus, GB virus. German measles virus, Getah virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, glandular fever virus, goatpox virus, golden shinner virus, Gonometa virus, goose parvovirus, granulosis virus. Gross' virus, ground squirrel hepatitis B virus, group A arbovirus, Guanarito virus, guinea pig cytomegalovirus, guinea pig type C virus, Hantaan virus, Hantavirus, hard clam reovirus, hare fibroma virus, HCMV (human cytomegalovirus), hemadsorption virus 2, hemagglutinating virus of Japan, hemorrhagic fever virus, hendra virus, Henipaviruses, Hepadnavirus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus group, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, hepatitis delta virus, hepatitis E virus, hepatitis F virus, hepatitis G virus, hepatitis nonA nonB virus, hepatitis virus, hepatitis virus (nonhuman), hepatoencephalomyelitis reovirus 3, Hepatovirus, heron hepatitis B virus, herpes B virus, herpes simplex virus, herpes simplex virus 1, herpes simplex virus 2, herpesvirus, herpesvirus 7. Herpesvirus ateles, Herpesvirus hominis, Herpesvirus infection, Herpesvirus saimiri, Herpesvirus suis, Herpesvirus varicellae, Highlands J virus, Hirame rhabdovirus, hog cholera virus, human adenovirus 2, human alphaherpesvirus 1, human alphaherpesvirus 2, human alphaherpesvirus 3, human B lymphotropic virus, human betaherpesvirus 5, human coronavirus, human cytomegalovirus group, human foamy virus, human gammaherpesvirus 4. human gammaherpesvirus 6, human hepatitis A virus, human herpesvirus 1 group, human herpesvirus 2 group, human herpesvirus 3 group, human herpesvirus 4 group, human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 8, human immunodeficiency virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, human immunodeficiency virus 2, human papillomavirus, human T cell leukemia virus, human T cell leukemia virus I, human T cell leukemia virus II, human T cell leukemia virus III. human T cell lymphoma virus I, human T cell lymphoma virus II, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2, human T lymphotropic virus I, human T lymphotropic virus II, human T lymphotropic virus III, Ichnovirus, infantile gastroenteritis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, influenza virus A, influenza virus B. influenza virus C. influenza virus D, influenza virus pr8, insect iridescent virus, insect virus, iridovirus, Japanese B virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, JC virus, Junin virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Kemerovo virus, Kilham's rat virus, Klamath virus, Kolongo virus, Korean hemorrhagic fever virus, kumba virus, Kysanur forest disease virus, Kyzylagach virus, La Crosse virus, lactic dehydrogenase elevating virus, lactic dehydrogenase virus, Lagos bat virus, Langur virus, lapine parvovirus, Lassa fever virus, Lassa virus, latent rat virus, LCM virus, Leaky virus, Lentivirus, Leporipoxvirus, leukemia virus, leukovirus, lumpy skin disease virus, lymphadenopathy associated virus, Lymphocryptovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, lymphoproliferative virus group, Machupo virus, mad itch virus, mammalian type B oncovirus group, mammalian type B retroviruses, mammalian type C retrovirus group, mammalian type D retroviruses, mammary tumor virus, Mapuera virus, Marburg virus, Marburg-like virus, Mason Pfizer monkey virus, Mastadenovirus, Canaro virus, ME virus, measles virus. Menangle virus, Mengo virus, Mengovirus, Middelburg virus, milkers nodule virus, mink enteritis virus, minute virus of mice, MLV related virus, MM virus, Mokola virus, Molluscipoxvirus, Molluscum contagiosum virus, monkey B virus, monkeypox virus, Mononegavirales, Morbillivirus, Mount Elgon bat virus, mouse cytomegalovirus, mouse encephalomyelitis virus, mouse hepatitis virus, mouse K virus, mouse leukemia virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, mouse minute virus, mouse pneumonia virus, mouse poliomyelitis virus, mouse polyomavirus, mouse sarcoma virus, mousepox virus, Mozambique virus, Mucambo virus, mucosal disease virus, mumps virus, murid betaherpesvirus 1, murid cytomegalovirus 2, murine cytomegalovirus group, murine encephalomyelitis virus, murine hepatitis virus, murine leukemia virus, murine nodule inducing virus, murine polyomavirus, murine sarcoma virus, Muromegalovirus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, myxoma virus, Myxovirus, Myxovirus multiforme, Myxovirus parotitidis, Nairobi sheep disease virus, Nairovirus, Nanimavirus, Nariva virus, Ndumo virus, Neethling virus, Nelson Bay virus, neurotropic virus, New World Arenavirus, newborn pneumonitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, Nipah virus, noncytopathogenic virus, Norwalk virus, nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), nipple neck virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Ockelbo virus, oncogenic virus, oncogenic viruslike particle, oncomavirus, Orbivirus, Orf virus, Oropouche virus, Orthohepadnavirus, Orthomyxovirus, Orthopoxvirus, Orthoreovirus, Orungo, ovine papillomavirus, ovine catarrhal fever virus, owl monkey herpesvirus, Palyam virus, Papillomavirus. Papillomavirus sylvilagi, Papovavirus, parainfluenza virus, parainfluenza virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, parainfluenza virus type 4, Paramyxovirus, Parapoxvirus, paravaccinia virus, Parvovirus, Parvovirus B19, parvovirus group, Pestivirus, Phlebovirus, phocine distemper virus, Picodnavirus, Picomavirus, pig cytomegalovirus, pigeonpox virus, Piry virus, Pixuna virus, pneumonia virus of mice, Pneumovirus, poliomyelitis virus, poliovirus, Polydnavirus, polyhedral virus, polyoma virus, Polyomavirus, Polyomavirus bovis, Polyomavirus cercopitheci, Polyomavirus hominis 2, Polyomavirus maccacae 1. Polyomavirus muris 1, Polyomavirus muris 2, Polyomavirus papionis 1. Polyomavirus papionis 2, Polyomavirus sylvilagi, Pongine herpesvirus 1, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine type C virus, pox virus, poxvirus, poxvirus variolae, Prospect Hill virus, Provirus, pseudocowpox virus, pseudorabies virus, psittacinepox virus, quailpox virus, rabbit fibroma virus, rabbit kidney vaculolating virus, rabbit papillomavirus, rabies virus, raccoon parvovirus, raccoonpox virus, Ranikhet virus, rat cytomegalovirus, rat parvovirus, rat virus, Rauscher's virus, recombinant vaccinia virus, recombinant virus, rovirus, reovirus 1, reovirus 2, reovirus 3, reptilian type C virus, respiratory infection virus, respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, Rhabdovirus. Rhabdovirus carpia, Rhadinovirus, Rhinovirus, Rhizidiovirus, Rift Valley fever virus, Riley's virus, rinderpest virus, RNA tumor virus, Ross River virus, Rotavirus, rougeole virus, Rous sarcoma virus, rubella virus, rubeola virus, Rubivirus, Russian autumn encephalitis virus, SA 1 I simian virus, SA2 virus, Sabia virus, Sagiyama virus, Saimirine herpesvirus 1, salivary gland virus, sandfly fever virus group, Sandjimba virus, SARS virus, SDAV (sialodacryoadenitis virus), sealpox virus, Semliki Forest Virus. Seoul virus, sheeppox virus, Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, simian foamy virus, simian hepatitis A virus, simian human immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian parainfluenza virus, simian T cell lymphotrophic virus, simian virus, simian virus 40, Simplexvirus, Sin Nombre virus, Sindbis virus, smallpox virus. South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, sparrowpox virus, Spumavirus, squirrel fibroma virus, squirrel monkey retrovirus, SSV 1 virus group, STLV (simian T lymphotropic virus) type I, STLV (simian T lymphotropic virus) type II, STLV (simian T lymphotropic virus) type III, stomatitis papulosa virus, submaxillary virus, suid alphaherpesvirus 1, suid herpesvirus 2, Suipoxvirus, swamp fever virus, swinepox virus, Swiss mouse leukemia virus, TAC virus, Tacaribe complex virus, Tacaribe virus, Tanapox virus, Taterapox virus, Tench reovirus, Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus, Theiler's virus, Thogoto virus, Thottapalayam virus. Tick bome encephalitis virus, Tioman virus, Togavirus, Torovirus, tumor virus, Tupaia virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, turkeypox virus, type C retroviruses, type D oncovirus, type D retrovirus group, ulcerative disease rhabdovirus, Una virus, Uukuniemi virus group, vaccinia virus, vacuolating virus, varicella zoster virus, Varicellovirus, Varicola virus, variola major virus, variola virus, Vasin Gishu disease virus, VEE virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Vesiculovirus, Vilyuisk virus, viper retrovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus, Visna Maedi virus, Visna virus, volepox virus, VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus), Wallal virus, Warrego virus, wart virus, WEE virus, West Nile virus, western equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Whataroa virus, Winter Vomiting Virus, woodchuck hepatitis B virus, woolly monkey sarcoma virus, wound tumor virus, WRSV virus, Yaba monkey tumor virus, Yaba virus, Yatapoxvirus, yellow fever virus, and the Yug Bogdanovac virus. In one embodiment an infectome will be produced for each virus that includes an inventory of the host cellular genes involved in virus infection during a specific phase of viral infection, such cellular entry or the replication cycle.

For some viruses a great deal of progress has been made in the elucidation of the steps involved during infection of host cells, and any of these steps can be targeted using peptidomimetic macrocycles. For example, experiments initiated in the early 1980s showed that influenza virus follows a stepwise, endocytic entry program with elements shared with other viruses such as alpha- and rhabdoviruses (Marsh and Helenius 1989; Whittaker 2006). The steps include: 1) Initial attachment to sialic acid containing glycoconjugates receptors on the cell surface; 2) signaling induced by the virus particle; 3) endocytosis by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent cellular mechanism; 4) acid-induced, hemaglutinin (HA)-mediated penetration from late endosomes; 5) acid-activated, M2 and matrix protein (M1) dependent uncoating of the capsid; and, 6) intra-cytosolic transport and nuclear import of vRNPs. These steps depend on assistance from the host cell in the form of sorting receptors, vesicle formation machinery, kinase-mediated regulation, organelle acidification, and, most likely, activities of the cytoskeleton.

Influenza attachment to the cells surface occurs via binding of the HA 1 subunit to cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids that carry oligosaccharide moieties with terminal sialic acid residues (Skehel and Wiley 2000). The linkage by which the sialic acid is connected to the next saccharide contributes to species specificity. Avian strains including H5N 1 prefer an a-(2,3)-link and human strains a-(2,6)-link (Matrosovich 2006). In epithelial cells, binding occurs preferentially to microvilli on the apical surface, and endocytosis occurs at base of these extensions (Matlin 1982). Whether receptor binding induces signals that prepare the cell for the invasion is not yet known, but it is likely because activation of protein kinase C and synthesis of phopshatidylinositol-3-phosphate (P13P) are required for efficient entry (Sieczkarski et al. 2003: Whittaker 2006).

Endocytic internalization occurs within a few minutes after binding (Matlin 1982; Yoshimura and Ohnishi 1984). In tissue culture cells influenza virus makes use of three different types of cellular processes; 1) preexisting clathrin coated pits, 2) virus-induced clathrin coated pits, and 3) endocytosis in vesicles without visible coat (Matlin 1982; Sieczkarski and Whittaker 2002; Rust et al. 2004). Video microscopy using fluorescent viruses showed the virus particles undergoing actin-mediated rapid motion in the cell periphery followed by minus end-directed, microtubule-mediated transport to the perinuclear area of the cell. Live cell imaging indicated that the virus particles first entered a subpopulation of mobile, peripheral early endosomes that carry them deeper into the cytoplasm before penetration takes place (Lakadamyali et al. 2003: Rust et al. 2004). The endocytotic process is regulated by protein and lipid kinases, the proteasome, as well as by Rabs and ubiquitin-dependent sorting factors (Khor et al. 2003; Whittaker 2006).

The membrane penetration step is mediated by low pH-mediated activation of the trimeric, metastable HA, and the conversion of this Type I viral fusion protein to a membrane fusion competent conformation (Maeda et al. 1981; White et al. 1982). This occurs about 16 min after intemalization, and the pH threshold varies between strains in the 5.0-5.6 range. The target membrane is the limiting membrane of intermediate or late endosomes. The mechanism of fusion has been extensively studied (Kielian and Rey 2006). Further it was observed that fusion itself does not seem to require any host cell components except a lipid bilayer membrane and a functional acidification system (Maeda et al. 1981; White et al. 1982). The penetration step is inhibited by agents such as lysosomotropic weak bases, carboxylic ionophores, and proton pump inhibitors (Matlin 1982: Whittaker 2006).

To allow nuclear import of the incoming vRNPs, the capsid has to be disassembled. This step involves acidification of the viral interior through the amantadine-sensitive M2-channels causes dissociation of M1 from the vRNPs (Bukrinskaya et al. 1982; Martin and Helenius 1991: Pinto et al. 1992). Transport of the individual vRNPs to the nuclear pore complexes and transfer into the nucleus depends on cellular nuclear transport receptors (O'Neill et al. 1995; Cros et al. 2005). Replication of the viral RNAs (synthesis of positive and negative strands), and transcription occurs in complexes tightly associated with the chromatin in the nucleus. It is evident that, although many of the steps are catalyzed by the viral polymerase, cellular factors are involved including RNA polymerase activating factors, a chaperone HSP90, hCLE, and a human splicing factor UAP56. Viral gene expression is subject to complex cellular control at the transcriptional level, a control system dependent on cellular kinases (Whittaker 2006).

The final assembly of an influenza particle occurs during a budding process at the plasma membrane. In epithelial cells, budding occurs at the apical membrane domain only (Rodriguez-Boulan 1983). First, the progeny vRNPs are transported within the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope, then from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and finally they accumulate in the cell periphery. Exit from the nucleus is dependent on viral protein NEP and M1, and a variety of cellular proteins including CRM1 (a nuclear export receptor), caspases, and possibly some nuclear protein chaperones. Phosphorylation plays a role in nuclear export by regulating MI and NEP synthesis, and also through the MAPK/ERK system (Bui et al. 1996; Ludwig 2006). G protein and protein kinase signaling is involved in influenza virus budding from infected host cells (Hui E. and Nayak D, 2002).

The three membrane proteins of the virus are synthesized, folded and assembled into oligomers in the ER (Doms et al. 1993). They pass through the Golgi complex; undergo maturation through modification of their carbohydrate moieties and proteolytic cleavage. After reaching the plasma membrane they associate with M1 and the vRNPs in a budding process that result in the inclusion of all eight vRNPs and exclusion of most host cell components except lipids.

Influenza infection is associated with activation of several signaling cascades including the MAPK pathway (ERK, JNK, p38 and BMK-1/ERK5), the cB/NF-rcB signaling module, the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, and programmed cell death (Ludwig 2006). These result in a variety of effects that limit the progress of infection such as transcriptional activation of IFN-P, apoptotic cell death, and a block in virus escape of from late endosomes (Ludwig 2006).

Administration

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the present disclosure can draw upon many suitable parenteral modes of administration route. The formulations can be, for example, administered intravenously, intraarterially, intrathecally, or subcutaneously. If combinations of agents are administered as separate formulations, they can be administered by the same route or by different routes.

In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is administered in a single dose. A single dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation can also be used when it is co-administered with another substance (e.g., an analgesic) for treatment of an acute condition.

In some embodiments, the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation (by itself or in combination with other drugs) is administered in multiple doses. Dosing can be about once, twice, three times, four times, five times, six times, seven times, eight times, nine times, ten times or more than ten times per day. Dosing can be about once a year, twice a year, every six months, every 4 months, every 3 months, every 60 days, once a month, once every two weeks, once a week, or once every other day. In another embodiment the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation alone or in combination with another therapeutic substance is administered together about once per day to about 10 times per day. In another embodiment the administration of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation alone or in combination with another therapeutic substance continues for less than about 7 days. In yet another embodiment the administration continues for more than about 6, 10, 14, 28 days, two months, six months, or one year.

Administration of the formulations of the disclosure can continue as long as necessary. In some embodiments, a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, 119, 126, 133, or 140 days. In some embodiments, a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for less than 140, 133, 126, 119, 112, 105, 98, 91, 84, 77, 70, 63, 56, 49, 42, 35, 28, 14, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 day. In some embodiments, an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 days. In some embodiments, a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for less than 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 months. In some embodiments, an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 years. In some embodiments, a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered for less than 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 years. In some embodiments, a aqueous pharmaceutical formulation of the disclosure is administered chronically on an ongoing basis.

Dosing for the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation formulations of the disclosure can be found by routine experimentation. The daily dose can range from about Ix 104 g to 5000 mg. Daily dose range can depend on the form of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation e.g., the peptidomimetic macrocycle used, and/or route of administration, as described herein. For example, daily dose can be in the range of about 0.1-5000 mg, about 0.1-3000 mg, about 0.1-2000 mg, about 0.1-1000 mg, about 0.1-500 mg, about 0.1-100 mg, 1-5000 mg, about 1-3000 mg, about 1-2000 mg, about 1-1000 mg, about 1-500 mg, or about 1-100 mg, about 10-5000 mg, about 10-3000 mg, about 10-2000 mg, about 10-1000 mg, about 10-500 mg, about 10-200 mg, about 10-100 mg, about 20-2000 mg, about 20-1500 mg, about 20-1000 mg, about 20-500 mg, about 20-100 mg, about 50-5000 mg, about 50-4000 mg, about 50-3000 mg, about 50-2000 mg, about 50-1000 mg, about 50-500 mg, about 50-100 mg, about 100-5000 mg, about 100-4000 mg, about 100-3000 mg, about 100-2000 mg, about 100-1000 mg, about 100-500 mg.

In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is about 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is 0.01 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is 0.1 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is 1 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is up to 10 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is up to 20 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is 50 mg. In some embodiments, the daily dose of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulation is 100 mg.

III. Kits

For use in the therapeutic methods of use described herein, the formulations of the disclosure can be available as a kit. Such kits can include a carrier, package, or container that is optionally compartmentalized to receive one or more doses of the aqueous pharmaceutical formulations for use in a method described herein. The kits provided herein can contain packaging materials. Packaging materials for use in packaging pharmaceutical products include, but are not limited to those described in e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,323,907. Examples of pharmaceutical packaging materials include, but are not limited to, blister packs, bottles, tubes, bags, containers, bottles, and any packaging material suitable for a selected formulation and intended mode of administration and treatment.

The aqueous pharmaceutical formulations of the disclosure can be packaged in multidose form or in single dose form. In some cases, the formulations are packaged in multidose forms. In some embodiments the formulations are packaged as single dose units. In some embodiments of the disclosure single dose packaging of the formulations can offer several advantages over multi dose packaging including dosage control, increased patient compliance, improved product labeling, and reduced counterfeiting. In various embodiments single dosage packaging of the formulations of the disclosure can be in form of vials, ampoules, tubes, bottles, pouches, packets, syringes or blister packs. In some embodiments the single dose containers can be grouped together and placed into additional containers. In some embodiments the secondary container is a pouch.

In some examples, the formulations of the disclosure can be packed in a bottle or a vial. In some examples, the formulations can be packed in glass serum vial. In some examples, the formulations can be packed in serum vials composed of borosilicate glass. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a I mL, a 2 mL, a 3 mL, a 4 mL, a 5 mL, a 10 mL, a 20 mL, a 30 mL, or a 50 mL glass vial. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a 5 mL glass vial. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a 10 mL glass vial. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a 15 mL glass vial. In some examples, the formulations are packed in a 20 mL glass vial. In some embodiments, the vials comprise a 5 mm, a 10 mm, a 15 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, or 50 mm orifice. In some embodiments, the formulations are packed in a 5 mL borosilicate glass vial with a 20 mm orifice. In some embodiments, the formulations are packed in a 10 mL borosilicate glass vial with a 20 mm orifice. The containers, bottles and/or vials can be equipped with suitable caps or stoppers. In some embodiments, the vials are equipped with a vinyl stopper. In some embodiments the formulations are packed in a 10 mL glass vial, with a 20 mm orifice, equipped with vinyl stoppers. The stoppers can be coated with FluroTek®. The containers, bottles and/or can also be equipped with a seal, for example, crimped-on flip-off caps. The seal can be aluminum and/or plastic. The container can be a glass ampoule.

In some embodiments, the containers, including the vials and the bottles, can be inspected for visible particulates. glass defects, and/or stopper/cap integrity before packaging the formulations therein. In some embodiments, the containers, including the vials and the bottles, can be inspected for visible particulates, glass defects, and/or stopper/cap integrity after packaging the formulations therein. In some embodiments, the containers, including the vials and the bottles, can be inspected for visible particulates, glass defects, and/or stopper/cap integrity before and/or after packaging the formulations therein. The containers, including the vials and the bottles, can also be additionally inspected for fill height after packaging the formulations therein. The inspection can be visual inspections and can be carried out under any convenient condition, for example in front of a black and white background.

A kit can also include labels listing contents and/or instructions for use, and package inserts with instructions for use. A set of instructions will also typically be included. In one embodiment, a label is on or associated with the container. In one embodiment, a label is on a container when letters, numbers or other characters forming the label are attached, molded or etched into the container itself; a label is associated with a container when it is present within a receptacle or carrier that also holds the container, e.g., as a package insert. In one embodiment, a label is used to indicate that the contents are to be used for a specific therapeutic application. The label also indicates directions for use of the contents, such as in the methods described herein. The labels can optionally indicate one or more items selected from a group comprising the date of manufacturing of the formulation, the recommended storage conditions, intended mode of administration for the formulation, the amount of formulation enclosed and/or the concentration of the peptidomimetic macrocycle. The labels can further include any applicable warnings and/or possible side effects.

In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations are presented in a pack or dispenser device which contains one or more unit dosage forms containing a formulation provided herein. The pack, for example, contains metal or plastic foil, such as a blister pack. In one embodiment, the pack or dispenser device is accompanied by instructions for administration. In one embodiment, the pack or dispenser is also accompanied with a notice associated with the container in form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use, or sale of pharmaceuticals, which notice is reflective of approval by the agency of the form of the drug for human or veterinary administration. Such notice, for example, is the labeling approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for prescription drugs, or the approved product insert. In one embodiment, formulations containing a compound provided herein formulated in a compatible pharmaceutical carrier are also prepared, placed in an appropriate container, and labeled for treatment of an indicated condition.

EXAMPLES Example 1: Peptidomimetic Macrocycles

Peptidomimetic macrocycles were synthesized, purified and analyzed as previously described and as described below (Schafmeister et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:5891-5892 (2000); Schafmeister & Verdine, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:5891 (2005); Walensky et al., Science 305:1466-1470 (2004); and U.S. Pat. No. 7,192,713). Peptidomimetic macrocycles were designed by replacing two or more naturally occurring amino acids with the corresponding synthetic amino acids. Substitutions were made at i and i+4, and i and i+7 positions. Peptide synthesis was performed either manually or on an automated peptide synthesizer (Applied Biosystems, model 433A), using solid phase conditions, rink amide AM resin (Novabiochem), and Fmoc main-chain protecting group chemistry. For the coupling of natural Fmoc-protected amino acids (Novabiochem), 10 equivalents of amino acid and a 1:1:2 molar ratio of coupling reagents HBTU/HOBt (Novabiochem)/DIEA were employed. Non-natural amino acids (4 equiv) were coupled with a 1:1:2 molar ratio of HATU (Applied Biosystems)/HOBt/DIEA. The N-termini of the synthetic peptides were acetylated, while the C-termini were amidated.

Purification of cross-linked compounds was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Varian ProStar) on a reverse phase C18 column (Varian) to yield the pure compounds. Chemical composition of the pure products was confirmed by LC/MS mass spectrometry (Micromass LCT interfaced with Agilent 1100 HPLC system) and amino acid analysis (Applied Biosystems, model 420A).

The following protocol was used in the synthesis of dialkyne-crosslinked peptidomimetic macrocycles, including SP662, SP663 and SP664. Fully protected resin-bound peptides were synthesized on a PEG-PS resin (loading 0.45 mmol/g) on a 0.2 mmol scale. Deprotection of the temporary Fmoc group was achieved by 3×10 min treatments of the resin bound peptide with 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF. After washing with NMP (3×), dichloromethane (3×) and NMP (3×), coupling of each successive amino acid was achieved with 1×60 min incubation with the appropriate preactivated Fmoc-amino acid derivative. All protected amino acids (0.4 mmol) were dissolved in NMP and activated with HCTU (0.4 mmol) and DIEA (0.8 mmol) prior to transfer of the coupling solution to the deprotected resin-bound peptide. After coupling was completed, the resin was washed in preparation for the next deprotection/coupling cycle. Acetylation of the amino terminus was carried out in the presence of acetic anhydride/DIEA in NMP. The LC-MS analysis of a cleaved and deprotected sample obtained from an aliquot of the fully assembled resin-bound peptide was accomplished in order to verifying the completion of each coupling. In a typical example, tetrahydrofuran (4 ml) and triethylamine (2 ml) were added to the peptide resin (0.2 mmol) in a 40 ml glass vial and shaken for 10 minutes. Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (0.014 g, 0.02 mmol) and copper iodide (0.008 g, 0.04 mmol) were then added and the resulting reaction mixture was mechanically shaken 16 hours while open to atmosphere. The diyne-cyclized resin-bound peptides were deprotected and cleaved from the solid support by treatment with TFA/H2O/TIS (95/5/5 v/v) for 2.5 h at room temperature. After filtration of the resin the TFA solution was precipitated in cold diethyl ether and centrifuged to yield the desired product as a solid. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC.

The following protocol was used in the synthesis of single alkyne-crosslinked peptidomimetic macrocycles, including SP665. Fully protected resin-bound peptides were synthesized on a Rink amide MBHA resin (loading 0.62 mmol/g) on a 0.1 mmol scale. Deprotection of the temporary Fmoc group was achieved by 2×20 min treatments of the resin bound peptide with 25% (v/v) piperidine in NMP. After extensive flow washing with NMP and dichloromethane, coupling of each successive amino acid was achieved with 1×60 min incubation with the appropriate preactivated Fmoc-amino acid derivative. All protected amino acids (1 mmol) were dissolved in NMP and activated with HCTU (1 mmol) and DIEA (1 mmol) prior to transfer of the coupling solution to the deprotected resin-bound peptide. After coupling was completed, the resin was extensively flow washed in preparation for the next deprotection/coupling cycle. Acetylation of the amino terminus was carried out in the presence of acetic anhydride/DIEA in NMP/NMM. The LC-MS analysis of a cleaved and deprotected sample obtained from an aliquot of the fully assembled resin-bound peptide was accomplished in order to verifying the completion of each coupling. In a typical example, the peptide resin (0.1 mmol) was washed with DCM. Resin was loaded into a microwave vial. The vessel was evacuated and purged with nitrogen. Molybdenumhexacarbonyl (0.01 eq, Sigma Aldrich 199959) was added. Anhydrous chlorobenzene was added to the reaction vessel. Then 2-fluorophenol (Ieq, Sigma Aldrich F12804) was added. The reaction was then loaded into the microwave and held at 130° C. for 10 minutes. Reaction can need to be pushed a subsequent time for completion. The alkyne metathesized resin-bound peptides were deprotected and cleaved from the solid support by treatment with TFA/H2OMIS (94/3/3 v/v) for 3 h at room temperature. After filtration of the resin the TFA solution was precipitated in cold diethyl ether and centrifuged to yield the desired product as a solid. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC.

Table 1 shows a list of peptidomimetic macrocycles that were prepared. Table 1a, Table 1b, Table 1c and Table 1d shows a selection of peptidomimetic macrocycles. In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles exclude peptidomimetic macrocycles shown in Table 2a. In some embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles do not comprise a peptidomimetic macrocycle structure as shown in Table 2a. In other embodiments, peptidomimetic macrocycles exclude peptidomimetic macrocycles shown in Table 2b. In some embodiments. the peptidomimetic macrocycles disclosed herein do not comprise a peptidomimetic macrocycle structure as shown in Table 2b.

Example 2: Preparation of a Pharmaceutical Formulation 1-Liter Peptidomimetic Formulation Batch

Aileron peptide 1 is formulated as a pharmaceutical formulation. Aileron peptide 1 is an alpha helical hydrocarbon cross-linked polypeptide macrocycle, with an amino acid sequence less than 20 amino acids long that is derived from the transactivation domain of wild type human P53 protein and that contains a phenylalanine , a tryptophan and a leucine amino acid in the same positions relative to each other as in the transactivation domain of wild type human P53 protein. Aileron peptide I has a single cross link spanning amino acids in the i to the i+7 position of the amino acid sequence and has more than three amino acids between the i+7 position and the carboxyl terminus. Aileron peptide 1 binds to human MDM2 and MDM4 and has an observed mass of 950-975 m/c as measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

For each liter of formulated Aileron peptide 1 the peptides is sequentially dissolve in 900 mL of water for injection 182 mg monosodium phosphate, monohydrate, 2,968 mg disodium phosphate, anhydrous, and 82.2 g of D-trehalose. Add 3.0 mL of a 10% (w/w) aqueous solution of Polysorbate 20. Slowly add 15,000 mg Aileron peptide I divided by peptide content divided by peptide purity to the solution under stirring. E.g., if the peptide content is 94.3% and the peptide purity is 98.2%, 15,000/94.3*100/98./100 or 16,215 mg of bulk- Aileron peptide 1 would have to be added. While the peptide is dissolving the pH of the solution is kept between 7.5 and 7.7 by the addition of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide.

After all peptide is dissolved, adjust pH of the solution to 7.5 f 0.1 with sodium hydroxide and subsequently q.s. with WFI to 1,000 mL. Stir solution for 5 minutes and then clarify solution by passing it through a 0.22-μm PVDF-membrane filter.

Example 3: Sterile Filtration and Fill

The formulated product is filtered through two serial sterilization 0.22 μm PVDF membrane filters into a sterile container that is equipped with the fill needle. The filling process starts after both filters have passed the post filtration filter integrity test. If one or both filters do not pass the post filtration integrity test, the tandem sterile filtration process is repeated until both filters pass the test.

All vials are inspected for visible particulates, glass faults, fill high and stopper/cap integrity in front of a white and black background. Approximately 180 vial containers are then filled per 1-liter batch to a level of 5.2 mL to 5.7 mL each, with a fill target of 5.5 mL (the label claim is 5.0 mL). Fill volume accuracy is verified throughout the fill process. The filling machine loaded with vials and stoppers immediately stoppers each vial after it is filled. Capping occurs in line with filling and stopping or can occur separately under ISO Class 5 supply air. Weight check of the contents of the filled vials is performed throughout the filling process to assure that the vials receive the specified fill volume. Any rejected vials are discarded.

Example 4: Stability Analysis

To render the stability study more challenging 2 mL vials with 13 mm 0 stoppers and a fill volume of 1.0 mL were selected. The smaller vial size provided a greater surface to volume ratio which would amplify any container/closure effects on product stability. To assure that all surfaces of vial were challenged, the vials were stored in an inverted position. The tested storage conditions on inverted vials are: −20° C., +5° C., +25° C. and +40° C. RH.

The results of this study are depicted in Table 5. There is no appreciable purity loss at storage temperatures between −20° C. and +25° C. over the 6-month test period and only about a 1.8% purity loss of the sample that is stored at 40° C. over the same period. The observed small but continuous increase of RRT values between 0.22 and 0.81 in the 40° C. samples attests to both, the excellent detecting power and stability-indicating capability of the RP-HPLC (TFA) method. The peptidomimetic macrocycle concentration stayed within an acceptable±4% range over the 6-month period for all samples independent of the storage temperature.

TABLE 5 Product stability results of Aileron peptide1 formulated at 15 mg/mL in 20 mM sodium phosphate, 240 mM trehalose, 300 ppm Polysorbate 20 buffer in a 5-fold scaled-down, inverted container/closure configuration to amplify any potential product degrading effects by the container/closure surface. Time Points Intial 1 month 2 Months Storage −20° C. −20° C. 5° C. 25° C. 40° C. −20° C. 5° C. 25° C. 40° C. Assay [%]  100%    97%    96%    99%  103%  104%  101%  102% Purity [%] 95.5% 95.9% 95.8% 96.1% 96.0% 95.8% 96.2% 96.1% 95.6% Individual Impurities > 0.1% ~RRT 0.22 0.08% ~RRT 0.32 0.09% ~RRT 0.47 0.08% ~RRT 0.81 0.08% ~RRT 0.84 0.11% 0.06% 0.13% ~RRT 0.88 0.17% 0.12% 0.12% 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% ~RRT 0.90 0.22% 0.16% 0.19% 0.18% 0.18% 0.16% 0.15% 0.20% 0.20% ~RRT 0.93 0.54% 0.47% 0.50% 0.51% 0.44% ~RRT 1.03 2.24% 2.21% 2.22% 2.20% 2.20% 2.18% 2.13% 2.27% 2.27% ~RRT 1.04 0.17% 0.11% 0.12% 0.17% 0.17% 0.15% 0.13% ND ND ~RRT 1.06 0.10% 0.10% 0.14% 0.14% ~RRT 1.07 0.12% 0.13% 0.15% 0.16% 0.16% 0.11% 0.07% 0.14% 0.14% ~RRT 1.10 0.95% 0.95% 0.93% 0.93% 0.99% 0.98% 0.89% 1.00% 1.06% Particulate Matter [Number of particles per container) <10 μm <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 >10 μm 140 38 23 28 >25 μm 33 7 6 5 >50 μm 4 2 3 2 Time Points 3 months 6 months Storage −20° C. 5° C. 25° C. 40° C. −20° C. 5° C. 25° C. 40° C. Assay [%]    99%    99%    99%    97%  100%    99%    99%    96% Purity [%] 95.9% 95.8% 96.0% 95.2% 95.7% 95.5% 95.7% 93.9% Individual Impurities > 0.1% ~RRT 0.22 0.08% 0.16% ~RRT 0.32 0.14% 0.33% ~RRT 0.47 0.14% 0.25% ~RRT 0.81 0.12% 0.25% ~RRT 0.84 0.14% 0.25% ~RRT 0.88 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.17% 0.09% 0.18% ~RRT 0.90 0.18% 0.17% 0.21% 0.21% 0.19% 0.21% 0.20% 0.23% ~RRT 0.93 0.50% 0.51% 0.55% 0.54% 0.49% 0.52% ~RRT 1.03 2.23% 2.24% 2.40% 2.40% 2.15% 2.24% 2.21% 2.30% ~RRT 1.04 0.14% 0.14% 0.19% 0.15% 0.12% 0.16% ~RRT 1.06 0.00% 0.00% 0.16% 0.16% 0.09% 0.09% 0.13% 0.13% ~RRT 1.07 0.15% 0.15% 0.17% 0.17% 0.12% 0.18% 0.12% 0.16% ~RRT 1.10 0.95% 0.96% 0.99% 1.08% 0.92% 0.97% 0.99% 1.20% Particulate Matter [Number of particles per container) <10 μm <2 <1 <1 ~8 >10 μm 31 >25 μm 3 >50 μm 0 RRT = relative retention time.

Example 5: Comparative Data for TRIS and Phosphate Buffers

Composition of Formulations

Two formulations, F1 and F2 were formulated. Table 6 shows the compositions of the two formulations. Formulations were filled into 6 mL, 0 20 mm, colorless vials. The vials were equipped with teflon serum-stoppers D777-1, ø20 mm and aluminum caps without PP-cap, 0 20 mm, 6 vials of each formulation were prepared. The vials were stored at 2-8° C. Exposure to direct sunlight was avoided.

TABLE 6 Composition of formulations F1 and F2: Formu- Peptidomimetric lation Buffer Surfactant Peptide Macrocycle Code system Excipient % (mg/ml) Aileron peptide F1 20 mM 240 mM 0.03 15 1 Na-Phosphate Trehalose pH 7.5 F2 20 mM Tris 0.03 pH 7.5

Two placebo formulations P1 (with 20 mM Na-phosphate buffer) and P2 (with 20 mM Tris buffer), without the peptidomimetic macrocycle, were also prepared.

Every filled 6 ml vial was visually inspected using Seidenader. The results of this observation are summarized in Table 7. The observation images are shown in FIG. 2.

TABLE 7 Comparative visual inspection of F1, F2, P1, and P2 indicate that the resulting formulations were comparable and yielded minimal visible particles. Form. total filled/ no. of vials with particles Code inspected 0 1-5 6-10 >10 notes F1 6 4 2 1x faster 1x particle F2 6 6 P1 6 5 1 1x faster P2 6 6

Example 6: Shelf Life of the Peptidomimetic Macrocycles of the Invention

A pharmaceutical formulation of Aileron peptide C, was formulated as described above and stored at varying temperatures (−20° C., 2-8° C., 25° C. 60% humidity and 40° C. 75% humidity. The purity of the samples was analyzed at regular time intervals. The results of these experiments for Aileron peptide 1 are summarized in FIG. 4. These experiments support a greater than 2 year shelf life at −20° C. and 2-8° C.

Example 7: Stability Testing of Aileron Peptide 1 was Performed on a Pharmaceutical Formulation formulated as described above and stored at varying temperatures (−20° C., 2-8° C., 25° C. 60% humidity and 40° C. 75% humidity. The purity of the samples was analyzed at regular time intervals. The results of these experiments for Aileron peptide I are summarized in Tables 8, 9, 10, and 11.

TABLE 8 Storage: −20° C. Initial 1 Month 2 Months 3 Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months Appearance1 Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms pH2 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6* 7.6 Assay 15.6 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.4 15.5 15.6 [mg/mL] Purity [%]3 99.0 99.0 98.9 98.9 98.9 99.0 99.0 Impurities 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ [%]4 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.5% @ 0.5% @ 0.5% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 Particulate 184 18 557 Matter5 CCIT6 63 0 8 Endotoxin7 conforms conforms <1.8 <1.6 EU/mL EU/mL

TABLE 9 Storage: +5° C. Initial 1 Month 2 Months 3 Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months Appearance1 Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms pH2 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.6 Assay 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.8 15.5 15.6 15.6 [mg/mL] Purity [%]3 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 98.9 99.0 99.0 Impurities 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ [%]4 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.5% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 Particulate 184 1 37 171 Matters5 CCIT6 63 4 11 Endotoxin7 conforms conforms <1.8 <1.6 EU/mL EU/mL

TABLE 10 Storage: +25° C./60% RH Initial 1 Month 2 Months 3 Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months Appearance1 Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms Conforms pH2 7.6 7.65 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.6 Assay 15.6 15.6 15.8 15.4 15.2 15.1 15.0 [mg/mL] Purity [%]3 99.0 99.0 98.9 98.7 98.4 98.4 97.9 Impurities [%]4 0.2% @ 0.3% @ 0.4% @ 0.5% @ 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.2% @ 0.32 0.1% @ 0.4 @ 0.82 0.82 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 Particulate 184 5 185 Matter5 CCIT6 63 1 8 Endotoxin7 conforms conforms <1.8 <1.6 EU/mL EU/mL 1Visual appearance Specification: Upon thawing, clear, colorless, particulate-free solution 2pH Specification: 7.3 to 7.7 3Purity by RP-HPLC(TFA) Specification: ≥95%; no single impurity >3% 4>0.1% Impurities listed by RRT 5USP <788> (light obstruction) Specification: ≤6,000 particles ≥10 μm and ≤600 particles ≥25 μm per vial (upper cell: ≥10 μm particles; lower cells: ≥25 μm particles 6CCIT Specification: No dye intrusion 7Endotoxin: ≤4.4 EU/mL (based upon maximum patient dose of 17 mg ALRN-6924 per Kg of patient weight)

TABLE 11 Storage: +40° C./75% RH Initial 1 Month 2 Months 3 Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months Appearance1 conforms conforms conforms OOS* OOS** OOS** OOS** pH2 7.6 7.64 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.5 Assay 15.6 15.6 15.4 15.1 14.6 14.4 14.1 [mg/mL] Purity [%]3 99.0 98.8 98.6 98.1 97.2 96.2 95.9 Impurities: 0.3 @ 01.9 0.3 @ 01.9 0.3 @ 01.9 [%]4 0.2 @ 020 0.2 @ 020 n.d. 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.4% @ 0.3% @ 0.3% @ 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.3% @ 0.3% @ 0.24 024 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.29 0.29 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.3% @ 0.3% @ 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.2% @ 0.36 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.74 0.74 0.2% @ 0.3% @ 0.3% @ 0.4% @ 0.83 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.2% @ 0.3% @ 0.4% @ 0.5% @ 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.02 0.2% @ 0.4% @ 0.4% @ 0.5% @ 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11 OOS*: Solution turned yellow OOS**: Solution turned yellow (nonconformance confirmed)

Example 8: Stability Testing of Aileron Peptide 1

Aileron peptide 1 was performed on a pharmaceutical formulation formulated at a concentration of 15 mg/ml, (20 mM sodium phosphate, 240 mM D-Trehalose, 330 ppm polysorbate 20. pH 7.5), 5 mL of this formulation was stored in a 10 ml, clear serum vial (20 mm FluroTectK-coated stopper; 20 mm Flip-Off™ seal). The formulation was stored at −15° C. and was tested at regular intervals. The results of this analysis are summarized in Table 12.

TABLE 12 Attribute Test Specification Results Appearance Upon thawing: Clear, Conforms colorless, particulate- free solution Identity PH 7.5 ± 0.2 7.6 Osmolality 220 to 400 mOsmol/Kg 327 RP-HPLC (TFA) Co-elutes with ALRN-6924 Conforms reference standard Potency qRP-HPLC (TFA) 15 ± 1.5 mg/mL 15.6 Purity RP-HPLC(TFA) Purity ≥95% by 99.0% area integration no single impurity >3%1 RRT 0.88: 0.4% RRT 0.91: 0.4% RRT 1.02: 0.2% Safety Particulate matter ≥10 μm: ≤6,000 ≥10 μm: USP <788> particulates/vial 557 ≥25 μm: ≤600 ≥25 μm: particulates/vial 8 Endotoxin, ≤4.4 EU/mL2 <1.6 EU/mL USP <85> Container/Closure No dye intrusion Conforms Integrity Sterility; No growth No growth USP <71> (Membrane Filtration) 1Impurities >0.1% are listed based on their relative retention time (RRT) with respect to the Aileron peptide 1peptide peak. 2Based on a maximum patient dose of 17 mg Aileron peptide 1 per Kg of patient weight.

Example 9: Stability Testing of Multiple Batches of Aileron Peptide 1 Under Varying Storage Conditions

Samples 1-7 of Aileron peptide 1 were formulated at a concentration of 15 mg/mL (20 mM sodium phosphate, 240 mM D-Trehalose, 330 ppm polysorbate 20, pH 7.5). These samples were stored under different storage conditions as described in Table 13. The formulations were tested for appearances and purity. The results are summarized in Tables 14-16 below.

TABLE 13 Sample Number Sample Description Sample 1 Aileron peptide 1 Drug product configuration Upright 15 mg/mL 12 month −20° C. (/−5° C.) Sample 2 Aileron peptide 1 Drug product configuration Upright Storage Only/Return 15 mg/mL 12 month −20° C. (+/−5° C.) Sample 3 Aileron peptide 1 Drug product configuration Inverted Storage Only/Return 15 mg/mL 12 month 25° C./60% RH (+/−2° C./+/−5% RH) Sample 4 Aileron peptide 1Drug product configuration Inverted 15 mg/mL 12 month 25° C./60% RH (+/−2° C./+/−5% RH) Sample 5 Aileron peptide 1Drug product configuration Inverted Storage Only/Return 15 mg/mL 12 month 5° C. (+/−3° C.) Sample 6 Aileron peptide 1Drug product configuration Inverted 15 mg/mL 12 month 5° C. (+/−3° C.) Sample 7 Aileron peptide 1Drug product configuration Inverted 15 mg/mL 12 month 40° C./75%RH (+/−2° C./+/−5% RH)

TABLE 14 Results of analysis of sample 1. Test Acceptance Criteria Test Result(s) Appearance Upon thawing: Clear, colorless, Clear, colorless, particulate-free particulate-free solution solution. Meets acceptance criteria. pH 7.3 to 7.7 7.63 Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) for Aileron ≥13.5 mg/mL; ≤16.5 mg/mL Injection #1 = 15.58 mg/mL peptide-1Concentration Injection #2 = 15.54 mg/mL Mean = 15.6 mg/mL Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area ≥95% for ALRN-6924 peak Injection #1 = 98.6% Integration Injection #2 = 98.6% Mean = 98.6% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area No single impurity >3% Injection #1 = 0.41% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.42% (RRT 0.91) Mean = 0.41% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.07% 0.87) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.39% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.39% 0.88) Mean = 0.39% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.11% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.10% 0.94) Mean = 0.11% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.16% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.14% 1.02) Mean = 0.15% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.09% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.09% 1.04) Mean = 0.09% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.07% 1.10) Mean = 0.07% Total Impurities Information 1.3%

TABLE 15 Results of analysis of sample 4. Test Acceptance Criteria Test Result(s) Appearance Upon thawing: Clear, colorless, Clear, colorless, particulate-free particulate-free solution solution. Meets acceptance criteria. pH 7.3 to 7.7 7.64 Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) for: Aileron ≥13.5 mg/mL; ≤16.5 mg/mL Injection #1 = 14.98 mg/mL peptide-1TEConcentration Injection #2 = 15.00 mg/mL Mean = 15.0 mg/mL Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area ≥95% for Aileron peptide-1 peak Injection #1 = 96.3% Integration Injection #2 = 96.3% Mean = 96.3% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area No single impurity >3% Injection #1 = 0.47% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.47% (RRT 0.23) Mean = 0.47% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.11% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.11% 0.16) Mean = 0.11% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.13% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.13% 0.19) Mean = 0.13% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.07% 0.22) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.10% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.10% 0.24) Mean = 0.10% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.06% 0.25A) Mean = 0.06% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.06% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.05% 0.25B) Mean = 0.06% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.15% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.11% 0.28) Mean = 0.13% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.11% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.09% 0.29) Mean = 0.10% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.06% 0.31) Mean = 0.06% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.21% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.20% 0.32) Mean = 0.20% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.14% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.13% 0.36) Mean = 0.13% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.08% 0.39) Mean = 0.08% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.13% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.14% 0.41) Mean = 0.14% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.12% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.14% 0.47) Mean = 0.13% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.35% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.37% 0.82) Mean = 0.36% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 =0.07% 0.87) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.37% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.35% 0.88) Mean = 0.36% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.36% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.35% 0.91) Mean = 0.36% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.21% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.22% 1.02) Mean = 0.22% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.10% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.10% 1.04) Mean = 0.10% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.08% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.09% 1.10) Mean = 0.09% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Impurity (RRT Injection #2 = 0.08% 1.11) Mean = 0.07% Total Impurities Information 3.6%

TABLE 16 Results of analysis of sample 6. Test Acceptance Criteria Test Result(s) Appearance Upon thawing: Clear, colorless, Clear, colorless, particulate-free particulate-free solution solution. Meets acceptance criteria. pH 7.3 to 7.7 7.64 Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) for Aileron ≥13.5 mg/mL; ≤16.5 mg/mL Injection #1 = 15.61 mg/mL peptide-1 Concentration Injection #2 = 15.62 mg/mL Mean = 15.6 mg/mL Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area ≥95% for Aileron peptide-1 peak Injection #1 = 98.6% Integration Injection #2 = 98.6% Mean = 98.6% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area No single impurity >3% Injection #1 = 0.43% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.41% (RRT 0.91) Mean = 0.42% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.10% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.10% (RRT 0.82) Mean = 0.10% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.08% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.06% (RRT 0.87) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.39% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.40% (RRT 0.88) Mean = 0.40% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.08% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.11% (RRT 0.94) Mean = 0.10% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.15% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.14% (RRT 1.02) Mean = 0.14% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.06% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.09% (RRT 1.04) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.08% (RRT 1.10) Mean = 0.08% Total Impurities Information 1.4%

TABLE 17 Results of analysis of sample 7. Test Acceptance Criteria Test Result(s) Appearance Upon thawing: Clear, colorless, Clear, yellow, particulate-free particulate-free solution solution. Does not meet acceptance criteria. pH 7.3 to 7.7 7.45 Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) for Aileron ≥13.5 mg/mL; ≤16.5 mg/mL Injection #1 = 14.09 mg/mL peptide-1 Concentration Injection #2 = 14.05 mg/mL Mean = 14.1 mg/mL Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area ≥95% for Aileron peptide-1 peak Injection #1 = 94.3% Integration Injection #2 = 94.3% Mean = 94.3% Does not meet acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area No single impurity >3% Injection #1 = 0.58% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.59% (RRT 1.02) Mean = 0.59% Meets acceptance criteria. RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.07% (RRT 0.11) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.07% (RRT 0.12) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.08% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.08% (RRT 0.16) Mean = 0.08% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.39% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.39% (RRT 0.19A) Mean = 0.39% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.12% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.12% (RRT 0.19B) Mean = 0.12% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.15% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.15% (RRT 0.20) Mean = 0.15% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.26% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.26% (RRT 0.23) Mean = 0.26% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.27% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.27% (RRT 0.24) Mean = 0.27% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.15% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.14% (RRT 0.25) Mean = 0.14% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.10% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.09% (RRT 0.28) Mean = 0.09% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.17% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.18% (RRT 0.29) Mean = 0.17% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.30% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.30% (RRT 0.32) Mean = 0.30% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.16% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.15% (RRT 0.36) Mean = 0.16% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.14% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.14% (RRT 0.41) Mean = 0.14% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.06% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.06% (RRT 0.43) Mean = 0.06% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.19% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.18% (RRT 0.47) Mean = 0.18% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.23% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.23% (RRT 0.74) Mean = 0.23% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.35% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.36% (RRT 0.82) Mean = 0.35% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.09% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.09% (RRT 0.83) Mean = 0.09% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.06% (RRT 0.87) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.41% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.41% (RRT 0.88) Mean = 0.41% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.43% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.43% (RRT 0.91) Mean = 0.43% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.06% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.06% (RRT 0.96) Mean = 0.06% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.07% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.08% (RRT 1.04) Mean = 0.07% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.12% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.12% (RRT 0.96) Mean = 0.12% RP_HPLC (TFA) Purity by Area Report Result ≥0.1% Injection #1 = 0.49% Integration for: Largest Impurity Injection #2 = 0.49% (RRT 1.11) Mean = 0.49% Total Impurities Information 5.6%

Example 10: Von Heijne (VH) Value Calculation

von Heijne values were calculated using a method adapted from Hessa et al., Recognition of transmembrane helices by the endoplasmic reticulumn translocon, Nature: 433, 377-381 (2005). Briefly, each amino acid is assigned a fixed value, regardless of location along the polypeptide chain, according to the Table 18 below:

TABLE 18 von Heijne Score of various amino acids Amino Acid von Heijne Score I −0.6 L −0.5 Nle −0.5 $ −0.5 St −0.5 $e −0.5 $r8 −0.5 $r5 −0.5 $s8 −0.5 </