Fluidized Bed Patents (Class 201/31)
  • Patent number: 10611971
    Abstract: A method of operating a refinery including at least one coke drum coupled to a coker fractionator. A pump characteristics curve is provided for a fractionator bottom pump coupled to the coker fractionator comprising a net positive suction head required (NPSHr) curve as a function of a pump flow rate. Fog computing utilizes the pump characteristics curve along with at least one sensed input parameter including a real-time value for the pump flow rate to control the fractionator bottom pump to dynamically control a column pressure (Pc) in the coker fractionator. A reduction in Pc is obtained that reduces an available NPSH (NPSHa) which lessens a difference between the NPSHa and the NPSHr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2020
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: Soumendra Mohan Banerjee
  • Patent number: 10392572
    Abstract: A system for gasification of a carbonaceous material and recycling char or solids from a gasifier is disclosed. The recycling system may include a standpipe that receives a solids stream from a separator, the standpipe generating a pressure differential across a bed of accumulated char, thereby producing a bottoms stream having a greater pressure than the inlet solids stream. The recycling system may also include a holding vessel that receives the bottoms stream and a fluidized-bed distribution vessel that receives char from the holding vessel and is configured to provide a continuous and precise flow of recycled char to the gasification reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2019
    Assignee: Lummus Technology Inc.
    Inventor: Albert C. Tsang
  • Patent number: 9845992
    Abstract: A feed charging device comprises a holding vessel having an interior chamber for holding a reserve of a solid particulate feed material in a fluidized state, wherein the feed material is held in said fluidized state in a lower zone of the interior chamber. The feed material is supplied to the interior chamber through at least one outlet opening, and is discharged from the interior chamber through at least one outlet opening. The at least one outlet opening is in flow communication with the lower zone of the interior chamber. A gas supply means supplies a fluidizing gas to the lower zone of the interior chamber, and an outlet conduit in flow communication with the at least one outlet opening receives said feed material discharged from the interior chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2017
    Assignee: HATCH, LTD.
    Inventors: Alex Kokourine, Maciej Jastrzebski, Kamal Adham
  • Patent number: 9605221
    Abstract: Energy-efficient gasification-based multi-generation apparatus, facilities, or systems, and methods of modifying existing gasification-based multi-generation apparatus and the various conventional thermal coupling arrangements, are provided. An exemplary gasification-based multi-generation apparatus includes a gasification system configured to generate the raw syngas feed from a carbon-based feedstock. The gasification system includes a gasification plant or facility, a sour water stripping plant or facility comprising a sour water stripper, a gasification reactor, and a gasification system energy management system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventor: Mahmoud Bahy Noureldin
  • Patent number: 9598646
    Abstract: A method for treating coal includes drying coal in an initial drying step. The dried coal is pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis step to form coal char and evolved gases. The coal char is eventually cooled and blended. The evolved gases are condensed in at least two, preferably three or more, distinct zones at different temperatures to condense coal-derived liquids (CDLs) from the evolved coal gas. Noncondensable gases may be returned to the pyrolysis chamber as a heat-laden sweep gas, or further processed as a fuel stream. The CDLs may optionally be centrifuged and/or filtered or otherwise separated from remaining particulate coal sludge. The sludge may be combined with coal char, optionally for briquetting; while the CDLs are stored. Precise control of the condensing zone temperatures allows control of the amount and consistency of the condensate fractions collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: C20 Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Franklin G. Rinker, Timothy J. Kuhn
  • Patent number: 9534180
    Abstract: A gasification apparatus can produce hydrogen-containing gas from biomass with high thermal efficiency at low costs without severe trouble caused by tar generated by pyrolyzing the biomass, while maximizing the gasification rate of the tar. The gasification apparatus includes a biomass pyrolyzing zone for heating biomass in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, and a gas reforming zone for heating the resulting pyrolyzed gas in the presence of steam. A plurality of preheated granules and/or lumps is moved from the gas reforming zone to the biomass pyrolyzing zone, the apparatus reforms the gas generated by pyrolyzing the biomass and pyrolyzes the biomass, using the heat of the granules and/or lumps. The biomass pyrolyzing zone and the gas reforming zone is provided in a single vessel, and at least one partitioning plate is provided between the biomass pyrolyzing zone and the gas reforming zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2017
    Assignee: JAPAN BLUE ENERGY CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Naoki Dowaki, Kiyoshi Dowaki, Yasuie Takeda, Hiroshi Ikeda, Kousuke Suda, Fumie Kagaya, Hisashi Kamiuchi, Mitsuo Kameyama
  • Patent number: 9511935
    Abstract: A cascading processor is described which includes a processor body having an upper inlet and a lower outlet, such that materials pass by force of gravity from inlet to the outlet. The processor body has a plurality of processing levels which are sequentially vertically spaced progressively downwardly from the inlet to the outlet, such that materials cascade by force of gravity from one processing level to another processing level as the materials pass through the processor body front the inlet to the outlet. This cascading processor was developed for recovery of bitumen front oil sands, but can be used to process oil shales or to process biomasses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignees: 1304345 Alberta Ltd., 1304338 Alberta Ltd.
    Inventors: Jose Lourenco, MacKenzie Millar
  • Patent number: 9017521
    Abstract: A process for heat treatment of a solid, with a coolant solid, in which a stage for mixing the solid with the pre-heated coolant solid is carried out, with the coolant solid being a solid hydrocarbon. The solid hydrocarbon is ground, before the mixing stage with the solid, to obtain a solid hydrocarbon powder with a grain size of between 20 ?m and 300 ?m. The solid is ground, before the mixing stage with the coolant solid, to obtain solid pellets with a thickness of between 1 mm and 30 mm, a width of between 1 mm and 40 mm, and a length of between 1 mm and 100 mm. The mixing is carried out at a temperature of between 80° C. and 700° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Elena Garcia Sanz, Matthieu Rolland
  • Patent number: 8900415
    Abstract: A process and a unit for fluidized bed torrefaction and grinding of particles of a biomass with a largest dimension of 2 cm to 5 cm, and which unit contains an envelope having a general shape of a sector having a) two substantially vertical walls delimiting that sector; and b) at least one inclined wall defining three zones, from bottom to top: a lower zone provided with a fluidization means, and provided with a grinder placed at the bottom of that zone; an intermediate zone (2) provided with a fluidization means; and an upper zone (3) provided with a fluidization means; and a pipe (11) for introducing the particles reaching into the unit to the level of the intermediate zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Matthieu Rolland, Sylvain Louret
  • Patent number: 8859831
    Abstract: A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H2, CH4, CO, CO2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Terry L. Marker, Larry G. Felix, Martin B. Linck, Michael J. Roberts
  • Patent number: 8841495
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Terry L. Marker, Larry G. Felix, Martin B. Linck, Michael J. Roberts
  • Publication number: 20140209446
    Abstract: A method of gasification using a downdraft gasifier having a plurality of vertically positioned tubes to create a pyrolysis zone, an oxidation zone beneath the pyrolysis zone and a reduction zone beneath the oxidation zone. The shape of the tubes eliminates the need for a restriction (hearth) in the gasifier, which limits the maximum achievable throughput. A rotating and vertically adjustable grate is located beneath, but not attached to, the reduction zone of the gasifier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 5, 2013
    Publication date: July 31, 2014
    Applicant: PHG Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Deon John Potgieter, Billy Freeman Hopper, Jeffrey Scott Brown, Mark Oliver Loftin
  • Publication number: 20140202845
    Abstract: A reaction apparatus for the gasification of wet biomass comprises a feeding system for feeding wet biomass at a pressure of at least 22.1 MPa (absolute), a reactor comprising a reaction tube and a heating device, and a recovery system. The reaction tube is configured to comprise a bed of solid particles suspended in a fluid, and to receive wet biomass from the feeding system at a temperature below the critical temperature of water. The bed of solid particles suspended in a fluid is a bubbling fluidised bed having a length of at least 0.5 m and a cross sectional area of at most 20 dm2. The heating device is configured to heat the feed in the presence of the bed of suspended solid particles to a temperature above the critical temperature of water by heat exchange with a heating fluid, forming supercritical water and fluid gasification product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2012
    Publication date: July 24, 2014
    Applicant: GENSOS HOLDING B.V.
    Inventors: John Harinck, Klaas Gerrit Smit
  • Publication number: 20140008205
    Abstract: A carbonaceous feed pyrolysis apparatus is provided including two or more hot particle fluidised beds, and one or more positive displacement apparatus for the transfer of hot particles between two or more of the beds, wherein one or more of the fluidised beds contains a combustion zone. A bio-oil production process is also provided, including pyrolysis of a carbonaceous bio-mass using two or more fluidized beds, including a first combustion zone carried out in one or more combustion fluidized beds in which a particulate material is fluidized and heated, and a second pyrolysis zone carried out in one or more pyrolysis fluidized beds in which the hot particles heated in the combustion zone are used for pyrolysis of the bio-mass.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Applicant: UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA
    Inventors: Michael David Heydenrych, Stephen David Swart, Akwasi Acheampong Boateng
  • Publication number: 20130228444
    Abstract: A biomass torrefaction system is provided which enables a continuous torrefaction process that involves the introduction of biomass particles into a rotating reactor drum having a low oxygen environment. The particles are conveyed through the drum by a heated gas stream and simultaneously torrefied thereby. Gas exiting the drum is recirculated back to a heat source for reheating the gas prior to reentering the drum. A method of biomass torrefaction is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2013
    Publication date: September 5, 2013
    Applicant: Teal Sales Incorporated
    Inventors: William B. Teal, Richard J. Gobel, Andrew Johnson
  • Patent number: 8524959
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for small-scale operation of biomass catalytic cracking. The process is suitable for lab scale and pilot plant operation, as well as for small-scale commercial operation. The process is suitable for simulating a continuous biomass catalytic cracking (BCC) process. The process comprises a biomass conversion cycle and a catalyst regeneration cycle. A fluid bed reactor and a reaction feed fluidizer suitable for use in the process are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul O'Connor, Henrique Soares Cerqueira, Robert Bartek, Steve Yanik
  • Patent number: 8500959
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus comprises a substantially closed pyrolyzer (4), a supply inlet for supplying pyrolyzable fuel to the pyrolyzer (4), an outlet for taking hot bed material in particle form out of the pyrolyzer, one or more exit outlets (6) for taking condensible gaseous substances separated from the fuel to be pyrolyzed out of the pyrolyzer, a condenser (8) for condensing the condensible gaseous substances into pyrolysis oil, and a line (7) for transferring the condensible gaseous substances from the exit outlet of the pyrolyzer (4) to the condenser (8). The means for maintaining pyrolysis conditions in the pyrolyzer (4) comprise an inlet for taking hot bed material in particle form into the pyrolyzer and means (5) for supplying fluidizing gas to the pyrolyzer. The pyrolyzer (4) is a chamber bounded directly by a furnace (1) of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler, through which chamber fluidized bed material is arranged to be circulated between the inlet and the outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventor: Jani Lehto
  • Publication number: 20130153395
    Abstract: A pyrolysis and gasification system produce a synthesis gas and bio-char from a biomass feedstock. The system includes a feed hopper that has a flow measurement device. The system also includes a reactor that is operable in a gasification mode or a pyrolysis mode. The reactor is configured to receive the biomass feedstock from the feed hopper. The reactor is operable to provide heat to the biomass feedstock from the feed hopper to produce the synthesis gas and bio-char. The system also includes a cyclone assembly. The produced synthesis gas including the bio-char is fed to the cyclone assembly. The cyclone assembly removes a portion of the bio-char from the synthesis gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2011
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Applicant: THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
    Inventors: David B. Carney, Sergio C. Capareda, Calvin B. Parnell, JR.
  • Patent number: 8414743
    Abstract: A method and a device for the thermal decomposition of an initial material, in particular, for the decomposition of meat and bone meal, oil sludges, for example, from cleaning tankers, autofluff (also called autofluffy), basic glycerin, for example, from biodiesel production, paint sludges from paint shops, contaminated soils, coated wood, and plastics such as plexiglass. According to the present method, organic initial materials are thermally decomposed very completely in nearly all cases. The very complete decomposition is achieved by adding foreign particles such as metal spheres to the initial material which is being thermally decomposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Gebr. Lodige Maschinebau GmbH
    Inventors: Alfons Schmidt, Hans-Jürgen Sickelmann, Armin Grob
  • Patent number: 8394240
    Abstract: A process for treating bituminous coal includes providing dried, pulverized coal, and treating the pulverized coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form oxides on surface of coal particles. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. Some of the oxides are converted into paramagnetic mineral components, which are removed from coal to form a coal char having reduced ash and sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8377155
    Abstract: The auger gasifier described includes, in its preferred embodiments, a vertically elongated (“oblong”) primary gasifier chamber with an auger that can move up and down, allowing for large amounts of fuel input when necessary. This improvement, in turn, requires and/or is facilitated by provision for simultaneous elevation adjustments of the auger and bed dam to assure that fuel material is processed in degrees from the top downward without sweeping massive amounts of the fluidized bed materials towards the output end of the chamber. Another improvement involves provision for pressurization of the primary gasifier chamber, allowing substantial improvements in the speed of processing materials through the gasifier. Due to issues arising from thermal expansion of the refractory material lining the chamber, provision is made for nozzle and refractory imbedded pipe hole thermal expansion capability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Inventor: Robert C. Tyer
  • Patent number: 8366882
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes providing dried, pulverized, agglomerating coal, and treating the coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form at least some oxides on surface of coal particles, wherein the oxides are sufficient to convert coal into substantially non-agglomerating coal. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The sweep gas is removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2013
    Assignee: C20 Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8287697
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus comprises a furnace (1) operating by fluidized bed combustion, a pyrolyzer (4) and flow paths, which connect the furnace (1) and the pyrolyzer (4) for arranging the circulation (C) of carrier material of the fluidized bed combustion between the furnace and the pyrolyzer .The apparatus also comprises a supply inlet (14) for supplying fuel to be pyrolyzed to the pyrolyzer (4), fluidizing gas supply means (5) arranged in the pyrolyzer for fluidizing the mixture of carrier material and fuel, and an outlet (6) for taking condensible gaseous substances separated from the fuel to be pyrolyzed out of the pyrolyzer (4), and a condenser for condensing the condensible gaseous substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2012
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventors: Timo Honkola, Pasi Salonen, Jani Lehto
  • Publication number: 20110209977
    Abstract: The invention describes a process and a device for fluidized bed torrefaction and grinding of a feed containing mainly biomass with a view to supplying a unit for gasification or combustion of said feed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2008
    Publication date: September 1, 2011
    Applicant: IFP
    Inventors: Matthieu Rolland, Sylvain Louret
  • Publication number: 20100263487
    Abstract: A method for producing char and fuel gas includes degasifying a carbonaceous material with oxygen-containing gases in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature of more than about 1000° C. and at a pressure of from about 1 bar to about 40 bar. A supply of oxygen within the fluidized bed reactor is adjusted so as to recover more than 60% of fixed carbon in the carbonaceous material in a char product, and an oxygen availability in a lower or bottom region of the fluidized bed reactor is less than 80% of an oxygen availability in an upper region of the fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Publication date: October 21, 2010
    Applicant: OUTOTEC OYJ
    Inventor: Andreas Orth
  • Publication number: 20100078305
    Abstract: Fouling in the scrubber section of a fluid coker unit is reduced by providing baffles to improve the uniformity of the gas flow profile in the scrubber by reducing the gas velocity of the cyclone outlet gases in the scrubber section of the unit. These baffles are located with the objective of reducing the rotational component of the gas flow in the scrubber created by the alignment of the gas outlets of the cyclones. The baffles are preferably located in the shed section of the scrubber and comprise upstanding perforated plates located at the periphery of the scrubber section to disrupt high velocity gas jets in the region of the interior wall of the scrubber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2008
    Publication date: April 1, 2010
    Applicant: ExxonMobile Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Craig A. McKnight, Larry P. Hackman, Brian A. Knapper, Daniel Bulbuc, George B. Jones, Jonathan Tyler, Darwin Kiel
  • Publication number: 20090242376
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus comprises a substantially closed pyrolyzer (4), a supply inlet for supplying pyrolyzable fuel to the pyrolyzer (4), an outlet for taking hot bed material in particle form out of the pyrolyzer, one or more exit outlets (6) for taking condensible gaseous substances separated from the fuel to be pyrolyzed out of the pyrolyzer, a condenser (8) for condensing the condensible gaseous substances into pyrolysis oil, and a line (7) for transferring the condensible gaseous substances from the exit outlet of the pyrolyzer (4) to the condenser (8). The means for maintaining pyrolysis conditions in the pyrolyzer (4) comprise an inlet for taking hot bed material in particle form into the pyrolyzer and means (5) for supplying fluidizing gas to the pyrolyzer. The pyrolyzer (4) is a chamber bounded directly by a furnace (1) of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler, through which chamber fluidized bed material is arranged to be circulated between the inlet and the outlet.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 30, 2009
    Publication date: October 1, 2009
    Applicant: Metso Power Oy
    Inventor: Jani Lehto
  • Publication number: 20090127090
    Abstract: A delayed coking process and apparatus which greatly shorten the required duration of the alternating drum fill and decoking cycles and eliminate the need to perform drum quenching, draining, unheading, hydraulic decoking, reheading, pressure testing, and warming procedures in the decoking cycle. In the inventive system, the decoking cycle preferably comprises simply a steamout stage and a coke product draining procedure. The coke product produced in the coking drums is a hot, solid, flowable material from which heat can be recovered for preheating the coker feed and/or producing steam.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 19, 2007
    Publication date: May 21, 2009
    Inventor: Kazem Ganji
  • Publication number: 20090020405
    Abstract: A method of and a plant for combusting carbonaceous fuel, the method including the steps of introducing particulate oxygen selective sorbent, such as a perovskite type material, into an adsorption reactor of the combustion plant to form a first particle bed in the adsorption reactor, fluidizing the first particle bed by an oxygen-containing first fluidizing gas to adsorb oxygen from the fluidizing gas to the sorbent, conveying oxygen-rich sorbent from the adsorption reactor to a combustion reactor of the combustion plant to form a second particle bed in the combustion reactor, fluidizing the second particle bed by an oxygen-deficient second fluidizing gas to desorb oxygen from the sorbent, so as to produce free oxygen gas, and introducing carbonaceous fuel into the combustion reactor to oxidize the fuel with the free oxygen gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2007
    Publication date: January 22, 2009
    Applicant: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Zhen FAN, Horst Hack, Andrew SELTZER, Archibald Robertson
  • Publication number: 20080260629
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method for energy conversion of solid fuels in particular containing carbon comprising a first step which consists in reacting said fuels in a first energy conversion reactor (2, 20). The invention is characterized in that it comprises a second step which consists in injecting oxygen brought to the output of said reactor (2, 20), the reaction of the first step being carried out in at least a circulating fluidized bed (30, 31, 40) and in that the metal oxides circulate between two interconnected circulating fluidized beds (30, 31, 40) converting the fuel and oxidizing the oxides.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 9, 2005
    Publication date: October 23, 2008
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corinne Beal
  • Publication number: 20080197012
    Abstract: An integrated combustion chamber and fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor. In one embodiment, the combustion chamber is cylindrical and the pyrolysis reactor is provided annularly about the combustion chamber with an annular wall that provides a common surface for heat transfer. A lift tube in fluid communication with the pyrolysis reactor is provided within the combustion chamber for circulating biomass and an inert fluidizable media upwardly through the lift tube; this advantageously increases heat transfer and leads to more rapid pyrolysis. The media and biomass exit the lift tube into either a freeboard area of the pyrolysis reactor or into a low density region of the fluidized bed. A condensable gaseous product is produced during pyrolysis that has economic value. The apparatus and process are especially well suited to the pyrolysis of low density agricultural biomass. The apparatus is compact and particularly well suited to mobile operation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2006
    Publication date: August 21, 2008
    Inventors: Franco Berruti, Cedric Briens, Ronald Golden
  • Publication number: 20080149573
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method and system for removing contaminants from seawater by an evaporation/condensation process. The method and system utilize alternative energy sources, such as geothermal, solar, and wind energy. The system may include a water separation unit powered by a geothermal system to sufficiently vaporize source water. The system may further include a first input line configured to receive the source water for distillation by the water separation unit. A first heat exchanger coupled to the first input line is powered by a plurality of energy harnessing devices. The first heat exchanger is configured to preheat the source water. At least one second heat exchanger powered by the plurality of energy harnessing devices is configured to condense the vaporized source water into a distilled water product. The plurality of energy harnessing devices are electrically connected to a roadway system electricity grid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 27, 2007
    Publication date: June 26, 2008
    Applicant: Genedics LLC
    Inventors: Gene S. Fein, Edward Merritt
  • Patent number: 6989082
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing a bottom cover on a coke drum. A support structure supports at least the coke drum. A vertical actuator has a cover end attached to the bottom cover and a support end attached to the support structure, and is arranged to move the bottom cover vertically in a removal operation of the bottom cover. A rotating actuator has a cover end attached to the bottom cover and a support end attached to the support structure, and is arranged to rotate the bottom cover in a removal operation. A frame assembly having opposing ends is provided, a pivoting end being attached to the bottom cover and a sliding end being slidably mounted. The frame assembly, the vertical actuator and the rotating actuator cooperate to remove the bottom cover in a removal operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2006
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler USA Corporation
    Inventors: Allen S. Malsbury, Ronald T. Myszka, Mark Y. Chen, Scott P. Slingerland
  • Patent number: 6808602
    Abstract: A coke drum bottom head removal system and method for deheading the bottom head cover of a coke drum comprises a carriage that is positionable beneath the bottom head cover, and a cart mounted to the carriage. Several clamps vertically mounted to the cart are positionable in a closed position, in which the clamps apply a compressive force that maintains substantially fluid tight engagement between the bottom head cover and bottom head flange, and an opened position, in which the clamps allow a limited spacing between the bottom head cover and the bottom head flange. A plurality of supports mounted to the cart support the bottom head cover once the fasteners coupling the bottom head cover to the bottom head flange are removed and the clamps are in the opened position. The system can be remotely operated to enhance operator safety when the bottom head cover is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2004
    Assignee: ConocoPhillips Company
    Inventors: Sergio Gustavo Schonfeld, Kenneth Allan Larson, Rodney Karl Hogan
  • Patent number: 6613111
    Abstract: A process and method is provided for operating a small-scale high-throughput gasifier. As is known in the art, the exothermic combustion reactions can be separated from the endothermic gasification reactions. The exothermic combustion reactions can take place in or near the combustor while the endothermic gasification reactions take place in the gasifier. Heat from the exothermic zone is transferred to the endothermic reaction zone by circulation of an inert particulate solid such as sand. In order to increase efficiency by reducing heat loss from the gasifier, the gasifier is concentrically-disposed within the endothermic reaction zone of the combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Future Energy Resources Corporation
    Inventor: Mark A. Paisley
  • Patent number: 6187272
    Abstract: A system is disclosed for recycling a powdery solid material used as a catalyst or a heat medium. The system simple in structure compared with a conventional system does not need to use a gas for transporting the solid and can readily maintain the pressure balance to recycle the solids smoothly in a stable manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2001
    Assignee: Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation
    Inventor: Yoneichi Ikeda
  • Patent number: 6149773
    Abstract: Apparatus (1) for producing gaseous energy which may be used as fuel for driving electricity generating means comprises an oven (2), a ram (11) for feeding gas-producing waste material to the oven (2), gas burners (5) for heating the waste material while in the oven (2), and a collection vessel (25) for collecting gaseous fuel liberated by heating the waste material. The oven (2) and waste material feeder duct (7) connected thereto are of airtight construction, so that combustion of the waste material is not allowed to take place. The airtight oven (2) has a central gasifier section (15) having an inlet end (15a) and an outlet end (15b). The feeder duct (7) is connected to the inlet end (15a) and an outlet duct (16) is connected to the outlet end (15b). The outlet duct (16) extends into the collection vessel (25), which has an upper end housing a gas filter (26) and a lower end connected to an ash receptacle (27).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: Waste Gas Technology Limited
    Inventors: Anthony John Grimshaw, Maurice Edward George Maton
  • Patent number: 5853548
    Abstract: A thermolysis process for the production of volatiles for an external combustor or liquefaction of biomass solids in which specific and previously unrecognized conditions are employed. The thermolysis is carried out in a single fluidized bed of inert material operating at near atmospheric pressure, relatively low temperature, long solids and gas residence times and moderate heating rates. The distribution of the thermolysis products among, solid (char) and gases under these conditions is unique. The product effluent can be either quenched to produce a high liquid yield in addition to a low char yield or the volatile effluent can be used in either the same combustor or a second combustor to produce heat energy a particularly high efficiency system. In using a quencher, the quenched liquid is of similar composition to those obtained by so called fast pyrolysis processes of the prior art. The specified conditions are such as to allow production of liquids in high yields in an energy efficient manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: RTI Resource Transforms International Ltd.
    Inventors: Jan Piskorz, Piotr Majerski, Desmond Radlein
  • Patent number: 5728271
    Abstract: A thermolysis process for liquefaction of biomass solids in which specific and previously unrecognized conditions are employed. The thermolysis is carried out in a single fluidized bed of inert material operating at near atmospheric pressure, relatively low temperature, long solids and gas residence times and moderate heating rates. The distribution of the thermolysis products among liquid (bio-oil), solid (char) and gases under these conditions is unique. In particular, contrary to the prior art, both high liquid and low char yields are obtained. Furthermore the liquid is of similar composition to those obtained by so called fast pyrolysis processes of the prior art. The specified conditions are such as to allow production of liquids in high yields in an energy efficient manner. The low severity of the conditions in comparison with previous approaches allows simplified process design and scaleup leading to lower capital and operating costs as well as easier control.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1998
    Assignee: RTI Resource Transforms International Ltd.
    Inventors: Jan Piskorz, Piotr Majerski, Desmond Radlein
  • Patent number: 5512070
    Abstract: A two stage carbonizer places as much heat as possible into the gas streams entering the carbonizer to drive off volatile matter and reduce tars and oils by thermal cracking which is enhanced by the addition of sorbent. The carbonizer operates as a fluidized bed with a combustor providing flue gas as one fluidizing medium and preheated air as the other. This allows the coal to be devolatilized and the tars and oils to be thermally cracked due to the direct contact with the coal and hot flue gas. The device is designed to operate at high pressures from about 12-20 atmospheres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1996
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: David A. Stats
  • Patent number: 5449438
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for reprocessing crushed organic waste products, such as rubber waste from worn car tires, by pyrolysis, the method including pyrolytically decomposing the crushed waste products in a pyrolysis bath which is one of a bed or a bath, and which has a temperature ranging from 450.degree. to 550.degree. C., into a mixture including volatilized constituents, liquid constituents, and solid constituents; collecting at least a part of the volatilized constituents from a gas space above the pyrolysis bath and transporting the collected volatilized constituents away from the pyrolysis bath for further utilization; and introducing a gas intermittently or continuously into the gas space above the pyrolysis bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Assignee: FORMEX Trading GmbH
    Inventors: Hermann H. W. Jagau, Richard Schimko
  • Patent number: 5296102
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for recovering oil from solid hydrocarbonaceous terial, such as oil shale, in particulate form using a combustion chamber and a reaction chamber arranged side-by-side and connected by a first passageway extending between the upper regions of the chambers and a return passageway. The particulate material is fluidized in the chambers and induced to circulate therebetween by the configuration of the chambers and passageways and/or the nature of the fluidization. Residual carbon on the spent hydrocarbonaceous material introduced into the combustion chamber through the return passageway is burnt, heating the material which then circulates through the first passageway to mix with and heat fresh feed material introduced into the reaction chamber giving off effluent vapours which are collected and processed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: Southern Pacific Petroleum NL and Central Pacific Minerals NL
    Inventor: Donald J. Nicklin
  • Patent number: 5171406
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1992
    Assignee: Western Research Institute
    Inventors: Jer Y. Shang, Chang Y. Cha, Norman W. Merriam
  • Patent number: 5092984
    Abstract: A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1992
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventors: Suresh P. Babu, Wilford G. Bair
  • Patent number: 5084140
    Abstract: The macromolecular waste (which is not itself susceptible to microwave heating and may be, for example, plastics or polychlorinated biphenyl) is mixed (B) with pulverulent carbonaceous material, which comprises elemental carbon or is degradable by microwave irradiation to elemental carbon (such as waste tire material). The mix is subjected to microwave irradiation (C) in an inert atmosphere to cause pyrolysis of the plastics. Preferably part of the resulting solids is recycled to the microwave zone (C).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1992
    Inventor: Kenneth M. Holland
  • Patent number: 5073251
    Abstract: A method for the recovery of oil from solid hydrocarbonaceous material and particularly from oil shale by retorting fresh feed shale and heat medium particles using a fluidized bed. The invention uses a self supporting dense phase fluidized bed in a retort without the need to use an external fluid for fluidization.Also described is a control system for the method whereby feed stock input rate is controlled as a function of flow rate of oil vapour products given off, and whereby heat medium particle input rate is controlled as a function of the temperature of either the retort bed or of the oil vapor product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1991
    Inventor: Ludlow S. Daniels
  • Patent number: 4994174
    Abstract: A process and system for low-temperature carbonization of oil shale, oil sands and similar oil-bearing solids includes low-temperature carbonization of oil-bearing solids in a high-pressure fluidized bed reactor in the presence of a substance selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and steam at temperatures substantially between 400.degree.and 600.degree. C. for producing low-temperature carbonization gas. The low-temperature carbonization gas is condensed in at least two stages for producing relatively higher boiling and relatively lower boiling oil fractions. The oil-bearing solids are peripherally mashed with the higher boiling oil fraction of the low-temperature carbonization gas, before introducing the oil-bearing solids into the high-pressure fluidized bed reactor. The oil-bearing solids mashed with the higher boiling oil fraction are returned to the high-pressure fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1991
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Konrad Kunstle, Gerd Brunner, Jurgen Hoffmann, Till Dehrmann
  • Patent number: 4973386
    Abstract: A process for the detection and measurement of wall coke at a specific location in a fluid bed coker through the measurement of the vibrations of the external shell of the coker at the location.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1990
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Andrew J. Callegari, Eugene R. Elzinga, Jr., George D. Cody, Roger W. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4960440
    Abstract: Process water is formed when pyrolysis gas obtained in the pyrolytic decomposition of a starting material is cooled. Due to its content of chemical compounds, it is very costly to dispose of or eliminate the process water. A process for reducing the quantity of by-products in the generation of pyrolysis gas recycles the process water to a pyrolysis reactor operating with a fluidized bed. As a result, the process water is reduced in quantity and purified in a simple manner, and the yield of pyrolysis gas is increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1990
    Assignee: Asea Brown Boveri Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Monika Betz
  • Patent number: 4894122
    Abstract: A process for the desulphurization of residuals of petroleum distillation in the form of coke particles having an initial sulphur content greater than about 5% by weight. Desulphurization is effected by means of a continuous electrothermal process based on a plurality of sequentially connected fluidized beds into which the coke particles are successively introduced. The necessary heat generation to desulphurize the coke particles is obtained by using the coke particles as an electrical resistance in each fluidized bed by providing a pair of electrodes that extend into the fluidized coke particles and passing an electrical current through the electrodes and through the fluidized coke particles. A last fluidized bed without electrodes is provided for cooling the desulphurized coke particles after the sulphur level has been reduced to less than about 1% by weight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1990
    Assignee: Instituto Mexicano de Investigaciones Siderurgicas
    Inventors: Arturo Lazcano-Navarro, Andres Geronimo-Torres