Halogenated Or Oxidized Patents (Class 204/169)
  • Patent number: 10737270
    Abstract: In a polymer assay cartridge having wells containing reagents, beads and sample, where the wells are covered (e.g., with Parafilm® or films) and shipped to the point of care, the reagents and well contents can leak out. The reagent solutions are made semi-solid by adding hydrogel reagents and cooling to form a gel. Preferably, the hydrogel is heated before an assay is conducted with the cartridge, and pigmented beads in the wells indicate melting or excessive heating, or congealing of the hydrogel, based on pigment color change.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: Fannin Partners, LLC
    Inventors: Leo Linbeck, III, Michael John Heffernan, Dev Chatterjee
  • Patent number: 10195609
    Abstract: In a polymer assay cartridge having wells containing reagents, beads and sample, where the wells are covered (e.g., with Parafilm® or films) and shipped to the point of care, the reagents and well contents can leak out. The reagent solutions are made semi-solid by adding hydrogel reagents and cooling to form a gel. Preferably, the hydrogel is heated before an assay is conducted with the cartridge, and pigmented beads in the wells indicate melting or excessive heating, or congealing of the hydrogel, based on pigment color change.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2019
    Assignee: Fannin Partners, LLC
    Inventors: Dev Chatterjee, Leo Linbeck, III, Michael John Heffernan, Brad Ernest Munoz, Atul Varadhachary
  • Patent number: 9505901
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to processes, apparatuses and custom catalysts designed to depolymerize a polymer. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a de-polymerizing apparatus, catalysts and reaction schemes to obtain useful monomers including fuel products by “in situ” reactions using coupled electromagnetic induction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2016
    Inventors: Pravansu S. Mohanty, Swaminathan Ramesh
  • Patent number: 9144824
    Abstract: A method of modifying a polymeric, inorganic, or organic-functionalized substrate surface is provided. In one embodiment, an atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma stream is directed at a substrate surface, leading to the formation of surface-bound active sites that function as polymerization initiators. When contacted with a monomer or monomer solution, the active sites facilitate formation of a dense array of graft polymers covalently bound to the substrate surface. In another embodiment, an inorganic substrate is cleaned, conditioned in a humidity chamber, treated with an AP plasma, and contacted with a monomer or monomer solution to facilitate formation and growth of graft polymers on the substrate surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2015
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
    Inventors: Yoram Cohen, Gregory Todd Lewis
  • Patent number: 8864953
    Abstract: A reactor for reforming a hydrocarbon, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding arc discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. Two stages of reforming are described. In a first stage, the hydrocarbon absorbs heat from the wall of the reactor and combusts to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. In a second stage, a gliding arc discharge is use to form syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The heat generated by the combustion of the first stage transfers to the wall of the reactor and heated products of the second stage mix with incoming hydrocarbon to provide for partial recuperation of the reaction energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Anatoliy Polevich, Michael J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 8784617
    Abstract: A non-thermal, repetitively-pulsed gliding discharge reactor includes a high-voltage power source configured to provide a pulsed high-voltage potential; a gas inlet; a liquid sorbent inlet; a product outlet; a plurality of first electrodes connected to the high-voltage power source; a plurality of second electrodes that are grounded; and a trough; the plurality of first electrodes being separated from the plurality of second electrodes by a discharge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: EVOEnergy, LLC
    Inventors: Yury N. Novoselov, Alexey I. Suslov, Oleg P. Kutenkov
  • Patent number: 8545764
    Abstract: A microplasma array for the production of low-temperature plasmas at or near atmospheric pressures is described. The walls of holes made in a substrate at regular intervals with respect to one another form hollow electrodes and are coated with metal. The hollow electrodes are supplied individually or as a group from one side of the substrate with an electrical excitation in the GHz-region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Forschungsverbund Berlin E.V.
    Inventor: Roland Gesche
  • Patent number: 8361404
    Abstract: A reactor for reforming a hydrocarbon, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding are discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. Two stages of reforming are described. In a first stage, the hydrocarbon absorbs heat from the wall of the reactor and combusts to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. In a second stage, a gliding are discharge is use to form syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The heat generated by the combustion of the first stage transfers to the wall of the reactor and heated products of the second stage mix with incoming hydrocarbon to provide for partial recuperation of the reaction energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2013
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Anatoly Polevich, Michael J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 8129869
    Abstract: To provide an electret having high stability with time and thermal stability of retained electric charge and having excellent charge retention performance, and an electrostatic induction conversion device comprising such an electret. This has been done by providing an electret obtained from a composition comprising a compound (A) having a molecular weight of from 50 to 2000 and having at least two polar functional groups, and a polymer (B) having a number average molecular weight of more than 2000 and having reactive functional groups reactive with the above polar functional groups and an electrostatic induction conversion device comprising such an electret.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: Asahi Glass Company, Limited
    Inventor: Kimiaki Kashiwagi
  • Publication number: 20100320142
    Abstract: Versions of the invention include compositions and methods for making them that include a polymeric porous membrane with one or more atmospheric pressure microwave plasma modified surfaces. The modified porous membrane is stable, non-dewetting, and retains its mechanical strength.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2007
    Publication date: December 23, 2010
    Inventors: Jijun Ge, Alketa Gjoka, Jieh-Hwa Shyu
  • Patent number: 7608196
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching a dielectric material employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 sccm and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 sccm and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Publication number: 20090166180
    Abstract: An isocyanate is produced by: (a) reacting chlorine with carbon monoxide to form phosgene, (b) reacting the phosgene with an organic amine to form an isocyanate and hydrogen chloride, (c) separating the isocyanate and hydrogen chloride, (d) optionally, purifying the hydrogen chloride, (e) preparing an aqueous solution of the hydrogen chloride, (f) optionally, purifying the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, (g) subjecting the aqueous hydrogen chloride solution to electrochemical oxidation to form chlorine, and (h) returning at least a portion of the chlorine produced in (g) to (a).
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 30, 2008
    Publication date: July 2, 2009
    Applicant: Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Rainer Weber, Wolfgang Lorenz, Gerhard Moormann, Friedhelm Kamper, Berthold Keggenhoff
  • Patent number: 7541010
    Abstract: A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2009
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventors: Paul Worn Park, Virgil Raymond Hester, Christie Susan Ragle, Carrie L. Boyer
  • Patent number: 7252744
    Abstract: A method of treating a fluorocarbon feedstock includes generating, in a high temperature zone, an electrical arc between at least one cathode and at least one anode, generating in the high temperature zone and by means of the electrical arc and a plasma gas, an upwardly burning thermal plasma having a tail flame, allowing a solid particulate fluorocarbon feedstock comprising at least on fluorocarbon compound to form a reactive thermal mixture with the thermal plasma tail flame, with the fluorocarbon compound dissociating into at least one fluorocarbon precursor or reactive species, and cooling the reactive thermal mixture to form, from the fluorocarbon precursor of reactive species, at least one more desirable fluorocarbon compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2007
    Assignees: South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Limited, 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Izak Jacobus Van Der Walt, Klaus Hintzer, Gernot Löhr
  • Patent number: 7163641
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching BPSG employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber, which includes a fluorine scavenger in the form of silicon. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2007
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Patent number: 7087147
    Abstract: The application of an electric current to catalysts useful for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons allows for processes for obtaining enhanced catalytic processing of a given feed material with a given catalyst, processes allowing the ready change-over from one product of a given feed stream to another product of that feed stream without the need to change catalyst, and processes allowing the ready change over from one feed stream to another feed stream with the concomitant change over from one product to another product without the need to change catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2006
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Company
    Inventors: Daniel Arthur Bors, Anne Mae Gaffney, Stephen Gerard Maroldo
  • Patent number: 7001500
    Abstract: The application of an electric current to catalysts useful for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons allows for processes for obtaining enhanced catalytic processing of a given feed material with a given catalyst, processes allowing the ready change-over from one product of a given feed stream to another product of that feed stream without the need to change catalyst, and processes allowing the ready change over from one feed stream to another feed stream with the concomitant change over from one product to another product without the need to change catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Company
    Inventors: Daniel Arthur Bors, Anne Mae Gaffney, Stephen Gerard Maroldo
  • Patent number: 6924401
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for converting methane to methanol by partial oxidation comprises a source of methane, a source of oxygen, and a capillary tube having an outflow end and an inflow end communicating with the sources of methane and oxygen. An anode is positioned proximate to but spaced from the capillary tube. A voltage source negatively biases the capillary tube relative to the anode. A plasma jet flows from the outflow end of the capillary tube. The methane partially oxidizes into methanol in a reaction zone in the plasma jet. A collector receives the methanol in the plasma jet for subsequent condensation, separation and purification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2005
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Konstantinos P. Giapis, R. Mohan Sankaran, Sean McHugh
  • Patent number: 6797913
    Abstract: A method of treating a fluorocarbon feedstock includes radio frequency induction heating of a zone of a reaction chamber to a temperature not exceeding 950° C. The feedstock heats up in the heating zone, and the reaction chamber pressure and heating zone temperature are chosen so that a fluorocarbon compound present in the feedstock dissociates or depolymerizes into a more desired fluorocarbon compound. A hot product gas, which includes the more desired fluorocarbon compound, is formed and then quenched to stabilize the more desired fluorocarbon compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Assignee: South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Limited
    Inventor: Izak Jacobus Van Der Walt
  • Patent number: 6787002
    Abstract: A device for purifying an exhaust gas contains at least one first and one second component with a respective shell and core through which the exhaust flows, as well as with two front faces each. At least one of the front faces of the first component and at least one front face of the second component has a predetermined profile with elevations and depressions. The elevations of the front face of the first component extend into the depressions of the front face of the second component and vice versa, thereby configuring a penetration section. The first component is disposed electrically insulated from the second component. The components have a potential difference between them and plasma is generated in the penetration section. The compact plasma reactor reduces the pollutant concentration in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine operated in the lean mode, especially when combined with an oxidation catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignee: Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH
    Inventors: Rolf Brück, Jörg-Roman Konieczny
  • Patent number: 6649217
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing parts from an antiadhesive organic powder includes the step of plasma-treating the antiadhesive organic powder and processing the antiadhesive organic powder for forming the parts. The device for performing the method has a housing with a receiving chamber that has at least one inlet for introducing a process gas. A rotary drum is rotatably mounted in the receiving chamber for supporting the antiadhesive organic powder. At least one electrode is mounted in the receiving chamber and at least one energy source is connected to the electrode for energizing the electrode. The process gas can be exposed to high frequency radiation or microwave radiation in order to produce a plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: KACO GmbH & Co.
    Inventor: Herbert Gust
  • Patent number: 6610212
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching BPSG employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber, which includes a fluorine scavenger in the form of silicon. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2003
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Patent number: 6605750
    Abstract: A product gas generated through the decomposition reaction of organohalogen compounds and steam is neutralized with an alkali solution and is left to stand for a predetermined period of time, while a neutralization product generated in this neutralization reaction is caused to precipitate in the alkali solution and is then removed. In order to remove the neutralization product completely, a takeout tube 71 is disposed to plunge into a waste gas processing tank 41 and a disk-shaped plate 71a is fastened at the distal end of the takeout tube 71 in parallel to the bottom surface of the waste gas processing tank 41, while the takeout tube 71 opens in the lower surface of the plate 71a at the center thereof. Thus the solid-liquid separation efficiency of the neutralization product and the alkali solution is improved and the quantity of alkali solution remaining in the neutralization product that is disposed of as waste is decreased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2003
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Bessho, Toshio Hattori, Yasuhiro Tsubaki, Takayoshi Hamada
  • Publication number: 20030136661
    Abstract: A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 23, 2002
    Publication date: July 24, 2003
    Applicant: Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC
    Inventors: Peter C. Kong, Paul A. Lessing
  • Patent number: 6118040
    Abstract: The method includes a step of creating a flow of the mixture, a step of generating an electron discharge at a velocity such as to create a zone in which the mixture is ionised and a step of directing a series of electron beams so as to intercept the flow of the mixture whereby the peripheral electron bonds of the polluting molecules and/or cells are broken by collision with the ions formed in the mixture. The apparatus includes an ionisation cell (10) having an anode (12) and an emitting cathode (13) excited at a negative voltage of the order of 50,000 volts. The cathode (13) has a series of pointed elements for emitting electron beams (30) which intersect in a zone (11) of interception of the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Coral S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nevio Coral, Luciano Coral, Claudio Coral
  • Patent number: 5906715
    Abstract: A corona discharge pollutant destruction system has two or more corona discharge reactors in series, with each stage optimized for either oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) or reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x). The reactors may be arranged with initial oxidation stages followed by reduction stages. Alternatively, the oxidation and reduction reactors may be arranged in alternate stages, with each oxidation reactor followed by a reduction reactor. The treatment of different pollutants by different reactors is achieved by supplying the different reactors with different power levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Weldon S. Williamson, Franklin A. Dolezal, David B. Cohn, John H. S. Wang
  • Patent number: 5843626
    Abstract: In a method for manufacturing a master disc for optical discs, patterns to be displayed on the disc are classified into a main object and a background. The background is commonly assigned as the background pattern for glittering rainbow colors by diffracted light reflected from dummy pits of diffraction gratings or a hologram. The main object is individually assigned as the main object pattern of a diffused reflection portion or mirror surface. The manufacturing method comprises one group of steps for forming the common background pattern and the other group of steps for forming the individual main object pattern in the common background pattern. A development substrate for the master disc is formed by using a mask disc in a first light-exposure of a photoresist layer thereof and by using a displaying-pattern mask in a first light-exposure of the photoresist layer. The individual main object pattern is drawn in the common background pattern of the master disc by using a laser-marking or an etching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignees: Pioneer Video Corporation, Pioneer Electronic Corporation
    Inventors: Minemasa Ohta, Hiroyuki Ohira, Nobuki Yamaoka, Yutaka Murakami
  • Patent number: 5637198
    Abstract: This invention is drawn to a Volatile Organic Compound environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a reactor-efficient coronal discharge zone, and at least one pair of high-dielectric coated electrodes. In particular embodiments Halogenated volatile organic compounds are reduced and the reaction chamber is chlorine and fluorine resistant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Thermo Power Corporation
    Inventor: Ronald W. Breault
  • Patent number: 5611896
    Abstract: The invention provides a method and installation for the production of a desired fluorocarbon compound, which includes the steps of providing a high temperature zone; and feeding at least one input material into the high temperature zone to generate a body of hot gas including fluorine-containing species and carbon-containing species. The molar C:F ratio in the body of hot gas is controlled at a selected value between about 0.4 and 2; and the specific enthalpy of the body of hot gas is controlled between about 1 kWh/kg and about 10 kWh/kg for a time interval, so that a reactive thermal gaseous mixture forms, containing reactive species including reactive fluorine-containing precursors and reactive carbon-containing precursors. Thereafter the reactive thermal mixture is cooled at a cooling rate and to a cooling temperature selected to produce an end product including the desired fluorocarbon compound. The input material is typically a C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 perfluorinated carbon compound of the general formula C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 18, 1997
    Assignee: Atomic Energy Corporation of S. Africa Limited
    Inventors: Jacobus Swanepoel, Ruan Lombaard
  • Patent number: 5549795
    Abstract: A corona source suitable for use in vehicle ignition systems uses a conductive coil that receives an RF input at one end and has a corona discharge site at the other end, with a reference electrode capacitively coupled to the coil. The pitch and the length of the coil are selected to produce a corona discharge in response to an RF input signal at a predetermined frequency and voltage, through quarter wavelength resonation. Either the new resonant coil or other corona discharge devices can be used to remediate fluid-borne wastes by initiating and sustaining RF corona discharges within the fluid. The pulses used to initiate the corona discharge preferably have alternating positive and negative components, with high initial voltages on the positive components to initiate the discharge, followed by lower positive voltage levels to sustain the discharge. Unipolar pulses, preferably with progressively decreasing voltage levels, can also be used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1996
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Daniel J. Gregoire, Robin J. Harvey, Franklin A. Dolezal, Weldon S. Williamson
  • Patent number: 5543017
    Abstract: An atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma treatment method, in which a gaseous mixture comprising argon, argon and helium, or argon and hydrogen, mixed with water vapor or water vapor and ketones at room temperature or a specified temperature, is introduced into a plasma reactor having a dielectric-coated electrode comprising a solid dielectric disposed on the surface of at least one of opposing electrodes, and a high-frequency voltage is applied under atmospheric pressure to generate atmospheric pressure glow discharge and excite a plasma, thereby making surface treatment of plastics or fibers disposed between the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1996
    Assignees: E.C. Chemical Co., Ltd., Satiko Okazaki, Masuhiro Kogoma
    Inventors: Hiroshi Uchiyama, Masuhiro Kogoma, Satiko Okazaki
  • Patent number: 5498826
    Abstract: The present invention refers to a plasmatron as well as to a process for stable operation of plasmatrons with steam as the plasma gas, in the case of which the operational fluctuations which are typical of steam plasmas as well as the increased degree of electrode erosion are to be avoided. In accordance with the present invention, this is achieved on the basis of a limitation of electrode cooling by using hot water as a coolant having a temperature of at least 80.degree. C. If necessary, it is possible to use, on the one hand, hot water cooling and to exclude, on the other hand, a condensation of the steam on the electrodes by admixing a gas which will lower the condensation temperature of the steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: Maschinen- und Anlagenbau Grimma GmbH (MAG)
    Inventors: Hans-Ulrich Dummersdorf, Dietrich Hebecker, Dirk von Lengerken, Carsten Winter, deceased, Walter Winter, heir, Renate Winter, heir
  • Patent number: 5409766
    Abstract: The improved nonwoven fabric in an electret state is composed of monofilaments with an average fiber diameter of 0.5-100 .mu.m that are formed of a polymer composition containing no more than 1 mol % of polar groups; the fabric has a weight of 5-100 g/m.sup.2, a bulk density of 0.05-0.40 g/cm.sup.3 and an average surface charge density of at least 0.1.times.10.sup.-9 C/cm.sup.2. This nonwoven fabric is capable of efficient dust collection and its trapping ability is retained for a prolonged time even in a hot and humid condition. Also disclosed are a process for producing this nonwoven fabric, as well as a filtering and an air masking material which are composed of that nonwoven fabric.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Haruo Yuasa, Masayuki Mito, Yukihiro Takata, Satoshi Matsuura
  • Patent number: 5340451
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for producing a metal-organic polymer combination by contacting the polymer with a plasma followed by an aqueous solution of a metal salt. In one embodiment a water or nitrous oxide plasma is used to treat a polyimide or a fluorinated polymer. The polymer is combined with a metal cation, the metal being a catalyst for a conventional electroless coating after which it is contacted with an electroless metal plating bath for the formation of electrical circuits and especially for plating high aspect ratio vias in microcircuits. Unlike the conventional electroless process, the cationic catalytic metal is not reduced to a zero valent metal catalyst prior to the application of the electroless metal coating solution.The process also improves the wettability of the polymer, especially the fluorinated polymer and is especially useful in improving the wettability of high aspect ratio vias.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Leena P. Buchwalter, Stephen L. Buchwalter, Charles R. Davis, Ronald D. Goldblatt, John E. Heidenreich, III, Sharon L. Nunes, Jae M. Park, Richard R. Thomas, Domenico Tortorella, Luis M. Ferreiro, deceased
  • Patent number: 5310461
    Abstract: A vapour and gaseous effluent purification process wherein the gaseous flow is made to proceed between metal plates (1) subjected to oscillating electrical high voltages and then over a porous siliceous mass (2) having adsorbed therein an oxidation catalyst active at room temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1994
    Assignee: H.R.S. Engineering S.r.l.
    Inventors: Ernesto Bardelli, Eraldo Cassinerio
  • Patent number: 5186974
    Abstract: A self-supporting sheet-like structure comprises a coating, which reduces sliding friction, on at least one surface of the substrate. The slip-improving coating is produced by treating this substrate surface by means of an electric corona discharge between a high voltage electrode and a grounded counter-electrode while simultaneously spraying an aerosol into the corona discharge zone. The aerosol contains a film-forming agent as a slip agent, for example aqueous solutions or emulsions of monoesters of glycerol and long-chain fatty acids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: John D. Gribbin, Lothar Bothe, Peter Dinter, Hermann Dallmann
  • Patent number: 5156919
    Abstract: A magnesium alloy structural member for supporting at least one actuator arm in a hard disk drive and a method for making a shaped magnesium part having a fluorocarbon coating is disclosed. The coating is applied by exposing the member to a reactive gas in the presence of a glow discharge plasma to prevent corrosion. The glow discharge is generated by providing a vacuum environment at a pressure of between 250 and 300 millitorr in a reaction chamber and applying power to a pair of electrodes contained within the reaction chamber. Power is supplied at between about 100 and about 200 watts at about 13.6 megahertz, forming a low temperature glow discharge plasma. A reactive gas comprising a fluorinated alkane is introduced to the reaction chamber, and a pressure of between about 100 and about 300 millitorr is maintained. The structural member is exposed to the reactive gas and the plasma for an amount of time sufficient to form a thin and uniform polymeric fluorocarbon coating on the surface of the part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1992
    Assignee: Segate Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Amarjit S. Brar, Prativadi B. Narayan
  • Patent number: 5122245
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the synthesis of "oxo" products or their derivatives consisting of hydrocarbon compounds containing carbonyl and/or hydroxyl groups, characterized in that a hydrocarbon substrate containing an unsaturation, such as an alkene, is reacted with reactants consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the reaction taking place after bringing the substrate into contact with the neutral activated species of the mixture of reactants activated to the plasma state.In particular, the present invention relates to a process characterized in that an alkene is reacted to obtain a mixture containing the aldehyde and the alcohol resulting from the fixation on the double bond of the alkene of, respectively, a group ##STR1## or its group ##STR2## obtained by reduction, or only one of these two components by separating it from the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1992
    Assignee: Electricite De France
    Inventors: Avaly Doubla, Jacques Amouroux, Jean-Louis Brisset
  • Patent number: 5108718
    Abstract: Toxic wastes are destroyed by contact thereof with a steam plasma jet and immediately thereafter with an oxidizing medium followed by washing of the resultant gaseous product with an alkaline medium. An apparatus for carrying out this method is in the form of a tubular assembly adapted to be received on a plasmatron in axial alignment therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1992
    Assignee: VEB Chemieanlagenbaukombinat Leipzig/Grimma
    Inventors: Hans-Ulrich Dummersdorf, Robert Kunze, Gert Wohllebe, Dietrich Hebecker, Werner Noack, Heinz Dummersdorf, Wolfgang Jahn, Hartmut Merten
  • Patent number: 5034108
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for increasing the molecular weight of hydrocarbons and/or derivatives thereof by contacting them with an active hydrogen-containing system which comprises generating a hydrogen-containing plasma at a pressure of at least 5 mm and allowing contact of said hydrocarbons and/or derivatives thereof in liquid form with the plasma-generated system and recovering therefrom a product having an increased average molecular weight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Jacques J. Dufour, Yves P. R. Jean
  • Patent number: 5026463
    Abstract: Moldings having a thickness of 1 to 60 mm and made of flexible webs or rigid sheet of plastic are passed through a corona discharge treatment system consisting of high-voltage electrodes and a counter-electrode and a high-frequency alternating current voltage of 20 to 25 kHz and 20 to 70 kV is applied to the high-voltage electrodes by a generator. A corona discharge forms in the gap between the high-voltage electrodes and the counter-electrode. An aerosol formed by atomizing a liquid is blown into the corona discharge zone by means of an air or gas stream. The aerosol modifies the surface of the sheet-like molding in the desired manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1991
    Assignee: Hoechst Atkiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Dinter, Lothar Bothe, John D. Gribbin
  • Patent number: 4978436
    Abstract: Polyolefin coatings and films having release characteristics, also known as release sheets, are disclosed. The release sheets are formed by treating a sheet formed from polyolefin and dimethyl polysiloxane having functional end groups with a corona discharge. In a preferred embodiment, the release sheet is formed from polyolefin, the dimethyl polysiloxane, vinyl silane, an agent to graft the vinyl silane onto the polyolefin and a moisture curing agent by extrusion in the form of sheet, treating the sheet with a corona discharge and then subjecting the sheet to moisture. The release sheets may be used, for instance, as the backing sheet for labels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1990
    Assignee: Du Pont Canada Inc.
    Inventor: Peter Y. Kelly
  • Patent number: 4966666
    Abstract: The energizer of the instant invention includes an electric discharge apparatus for creating an electric discharge and a focusing mechanism for focusing the electric discharge on a fluid to be energized. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the focusing mechanism takes the form of a dielectric core which is constructed and arranged to focus the electric discharge into a passage formed about the periphery of the core thereby enabling the use of energy levels substantially higher than would be possible without the focusing means.A method of energizing a fluid is taught which includes introducing the fluid into a confined region, providing an electric discharge for energizing the fluid and focusing the discharge into the confined region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 30, 1990
    Assignee: Waltonen Laboratories
    Inventor: James R. Waltonen
  • Patent number: 4948485
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an arrangement of cascade arc plasma torches in a process for plasma polymerization. The arrangement is utilized in low temperature plasma polymerization coating and utilizes a plasma reactor with concentric electroconductive rings separated by insulator rings. The rings are positioned between electrode connectors and form a central passage through the plasma reactor. A voltage supply source provides a voltage across the plasma reactor so as to initiate and continue the polymerization coating process. Downstream of the plasma reactor, an arrangement is provided by which monomeric gas is fed into a passage at a downstream end of the reactor so as to enable plasma polymerization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: Plasmacarb Inc.
    Inventors: Hans I. Wallsten, Hirotsugu K. Yasuda
  • Patent number: 4940521
    Abstract: Pretreating the surface of electrically conducting molded materials, such as metal foil or plastic films in whose polymer matrix electrically conducting particles have been incorporated, by means of electrical corona discharge is provided. A generator subjects the high voltage discharge electrodes of the corona discharge to a high-frequency alternating current of high voltage. The metal core of a roller, over whose metallic circumference a film web or foil is transported, serves as the grounded metallic counter-electrodes. A housing encloses the high voltage electrodes of the corona discharge and is connected via a line to an atomizer apparatus, in which a liquid is atomized to give a suspendible aerosol by means of a piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrator system or by two-material atomizer nozzles operating at the speed of sound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1990
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Dinter, Hermann Dallmann, Lothar Bothe, John D. Gribbin
  • Patent number: 4929319
    Abstract: For surface pre-treatment of a plastic article, such as a film sheet or the interior of a plastic molded article, by means of electrical corona-discharge, a device is provided having a generator 5 and a corona discharge device 11. The generator applied a high-frequency, high-voltage alternating current to the discharge electrodes 4 of the corona-discharge device 11. The grounded counterelectrode used is the metal core 2 of a roller 10 over whose peripheral coating 3 a film sheet 1 is transported. A housing 6 encompasses the electrodes 4 of the corona-discharge device 11 and is connected via a line 7 to an atomizer 8 in which a liquid is atomized to form an aerosol by means of a piezoelectrically operating ultrasonic vibration system or by two-component atomizer nozzles which operate at ultrasonic speed. A fan 9, the throughput rate of which can be regulated, is connected to the atomizer 8 and pushes the carrier gas, for example, air, for the aerosol through the atomizer into the corona-discharge device 11.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1990
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Dinter, Lothar Bothe, John D. Gribbin
  • Patent number: 4908094
    Abstract: A silicon-modified organic surface is roughened by treatment with an oxygen containing plasma. If necessary the organic surface may be silicon-modified by treatment with a silicon containing material prior to plasma treatment. The roughened organic surface provides improved adhesion to other organic surfaces and to deposited metals. Improvements in methods for laminating organic surfaces and for depositing metals on organic surfaces which achieve improved adhesion are disclosed. Structures comprising laminated organic layers or metal deposited on organic surfaces which provide improved adhesion between the organic layers or between the metal and the organic surface are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1990
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Carol R. Jones, Robin A. Susko
  • Patent number: 4898638
    Abstract: In order to manufacture sealing gaskets for receptacles containing aggressive chemical substances, one known technique consists in coating a film of PTFE or other plastic material onto rubber. However, in the past, it has been possible to ensure that the film adheres adequately to the rubber only by making use of an intermediate glue. The present method causes a film of PTFE to adhere directly on a sheet of rubber by treating one of the faces of the PTFE film by the corona effect and then rolling the treated film against the rubber while still raw and vulcanizing the resulting laminated structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Assignee: Valois S.A.
    Inventor: Pierre Lugez
  • Patent number: 4874659
    Abstract: An electret fiber sheet has polarized charges on its surface and preferably has charges in ordered orientation across it. The polarized charges are present in an amount of at least 7.times.10.sup.-11 C/cm.sup.2. Such sheets are formed to have a dust collecting efficiency. Sheets having an amount of polarized charge even as high as this are nevertheless stable when they have a maximum orientation energy of depolarization of at least 0.2 eV.Such an electret sheet can be obtained by a process comprising placing a fiber sheet between a non-contact type voltage-application electrode and an earth electrode confronting each other and supplying electricity (voltage>3 kV; current density>1.times.10.sup.-6 mA/cm.sup.2) between the electrodes, provided that the fiber sheet has a weight less than 80 g/m.sup.2 and a covering factor at least 60%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: Toray Industries
    Inventors: Katsutoshi Ando, Yo Ogawa
  • Patent number: 4810524
    Abstract: Inorganic powders are coated with a thin film of an organic polymer formed on the individual particles by plasma polymerization. The film thickness may be not more than 100 .ANG., and the inorganic powders include magnetic ones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1989
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Masatoshi Nakayama, Haruyuki Morita, Yuichi Kubota