Hydrocarbons Patents (Class 204/168)
  • Patent number: 10422370
    Abstract: A vehicle component, in particular an engine part, having at least one attachment, wherein the vehicle component and the attachment are connected to one another by means of an adhesive means and particles are introduced into the adhesive means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2019
    Assignee: MAN TRUCK & BUS AG
    Inventors: Wolfgang Burkhardt, Alexander Rosner
  • Patent number: 10392703
    Abstract: A plasma CVD apparatus is provided. The plasma CVD apparatus includes: a chamber forming a plasma space; and a power introduction terminal arranged in a terminal insertion hole that extends through a wall of the chamber. The power introduction terminal includes an insulator having a through hole and a rod-like electrical conductor inserted in the through hole. One end of the conductor is arranged in the chamber and the other end of the conductor is electrically connected to a power source that supplies power into the chamber. A gap between an inner wall of the insulator and the rod-like electrical conductor is less than 2 mm. A distance from one end of the insulator, which is arranged in the plasma space inside the chamber, to a contact point between the insulator and the conductor is greater than 10 mm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2019
    Assignee: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Hirohiko Hisano, Masafumi Koizumi
  • Patent number: 10308885
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of incorporating a gaseous hydrocarbon into a liquid hydrocarbon. The method comprises steps of exposing a gaseous hydrocarbon to non-thermal plasma generated using a reduced electric field with an E/N ratio in a range of from about 10 to about 30 Td to activate the gaseous hydrocarbon, and contacting the activated gaseous hydrocarbon with the liquid hydrocarbon to incorporate the gaseous hydrocarbon into the liquid hydrocarbon. The method provides the advantages of low energy consumption and relatively low capital expenditure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: DREXEL UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Alexander Fridman, Alexander Rabinovich, Danil Dobrynin, Ivan Chernets, Chong Liu
  • Patent number: 10060619
    Abstract: A high voltage can be applied to a combustion reaction to enhance or otherwise control the combustion reaction. The high voltage is switched on or off by a grid electrode interposed between a high voltage electrode assembly and the combustion reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Assignee: CLEARSIGN COMBUSTION CORPORATION
    Inventors: Igor A. Krichtafovitch, Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Patent number: 10012205
    Abstract: A system for detecting spark plug failures in an engine is provided. The system may include one or more sensor devices coupled to the engine and configured to measure engine data, a controller in communication with the sensor devices, and an output device. The controller may be configured to determine at least a misfire count, a secondary transformer voltage, and an exhaust port temperature based on the engine data, identify a fault condition based on one or more of the misfire count, the secondary transformer voltage, and the exhaust port temperature, and perform a corrective action responsive to the fault condition. The output device may be configured to generate a notification corresponding to the fault condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2018
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventors: Michael J. Campagna, David Krenek
  • Patent number: 9884437
    Abstract: A system and method is provided for creating a structure including a vasculature network. A film deposition device is configured to dispense droplets onto a surface of a substrate to form a curable fugitive pre-patterned liquid film on the surface of the substrate. An electrohydrodynamic film patterning (EHD-FP) device has a patterned electrode structure formed to generate an electric field and to subject the film on the surface of the substrate to the electric field. The film thereby being formed by the EHD-FP into patterned features in response to being subjected to the electric field. Then a casting system is configured to cover the patterned features in an epoxy to form patterned structures, wherein the patterned structures comprise a fugitive vasculature structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 6, 2018
    Assignee: PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER INCORPORATED
    Inventors: David Mathew Johnson, Corie Lynn Cobb, John Steven Paschkewitz
  • Patent number: 9732958
    Abstract: A burner system and a retrofit flame control system for an existing burner system are disclosed. The burner system may include burner components, electrodynamic components, and a data interface. The data interface may receive a command for controlling the burner components and prepare a command for controlling the electrodynamic components at least partially based on the command for controlling the burner components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2017
    Assignee: CLEARSIGN COMBUSTION CORPORATION
    Inventor: Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Patent number: 9377195
    Abstract: A combustion system includes a subsystem for electrically biasing or charging a flame and a virtual electrode launcher configured to launch a virtual electrode in proximity to the flame or combustion gas produced by the flame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2016
    Assignee: CLEARSIGN COMBUSTION CORPORATION
    Inventors: David B. Goodson, Tracy A. Prevo, Joseph Colannino, Robert E. Breidenthal, Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Patent number: 9011647
    Abstract: A process for the plasma-assisted treatment of coal in which coal is directly converted to heavy hydrocarbons. The first step in the process is direct conversion of coal to aliphatic hydrocarbons under plasma conditions in the presence of light hydrocarbons, such as natural gas. In the second process step, the aliphatic hydrocarbons are upgraded to a liquid fuel. The energy for the process can be provided by radio frequency energy, such as microwave energy, that is powered by a renewable energy source. The process has flexibility to adjust aromatic content in the fuel to match fuel specification requirements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Vitali Victor Lissianski, Anthony Mark Thompson, Daniel Lawrence Derr, Gregg Anthony Deluga, Ramanathan Subramanian, Surinder Prabhjot Singh
  • Patent number: 8999018
    Abstract: Provided are an apparatus and a method for rapidly producing a synthetic gas from a bio-diesel byproduct using microwave plasma, in which, while a plasma flame is generated by a plasma generator and waste glycerin, a bio-diesel byproduct, as fuel, is gasified by being supplied to the generated plasma flame of high temperature, the fuel is supplied in various types to increase the contact time or the contact area with the plasma flame and thus promote gasification thereof and the contents of steam and oxygen supplied and the plasma power are controlled to increase the collection amount of combustible gas and thus allow rapid production of the synthetic gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Energy Research
    Inventors: Sang Jun Yoon, Jae Goo Lee, Yong Ku Kim
  • Patent number: 8974645
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for plasma reformation of fuel, in particular kerosene, which method comprises the steps of: feeding fuel through a line to the inlet of an expansion nozzle; supplying energy from an energy source by way of a hollow waveguide to generate a plasma state in the expansion nozzle; injecting further fuel through nozzles into the arising plasma flame in order to decompose the fuel in the heat into components such as CO, C and H; and expanding the plasma flame at high speed into the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Bayer, Jürgen Steinwandel
  • Publication number: 20150053545
    Abstract: A device and method are provided for manipulating petroleum, non-conventional oil and other viscous complex fluids made of hydrocarbons that comprise enforcement of fluid in a multi-stage flow-through hydrodynamic cavitational reactor, subjecting said fluids to a controlled cavitation and continuing the application of such cavitation for a period of time sufficient for obtaining desired changes in physical properties and/or chemical composition and generating the upgraded products. The method includes alteration of chemical bonds, induction of interactions of components, changes in composition, heterogeneity and rheological characteristics in order to facilitate handling, improve yields of distillate fuels and optimize other properties.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 3, 2014
    Publication date: February 26, 2015
    Inventors: Roman Gordon, Igor Gorodnitsky, Maxim A. Promtov
  • Patent number: 8932435
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon resource processing device may include a radio frequency (RF) source and an RF applicator coupled to the RF source. The RF applicator may include a base member being electrically conductive, and first and second elongate members being electrically conductive and having proximal ends coupled to the base member and extending outwardly therefrom in a generally parallel spaced apart relation. The first and second elongate members may have distal ends configured to receive the hydrocarbon resource therebetween. In another embodiment, the RF applicator may include an enclosure being electrically conductive and having a passageway therethrough to accommodate a flow of the hydrocarbon resource and a divider being electrically conductive and positioned within the enclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Harris Corporation
    Inventor: Francis Eugene Parsche
  • Patent number: 8911596
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process and an apparatus for generating hydrogen and synthetic carbon-free gas by plasma reforming-decomposing of Methane and other hydrocarbons for producing hydrogen and synthetic carbon-free gas through plasma discharge in hydrogen medium. The process involves applying an electrical potential between the electrodes while immersed in hydrogen medium. The plasma ionizes the medium, thereby generating hydrogen and synthetic gas by decomposing of hydrogen medium. The process further involves controlling the process by relocating the generated plasma between two or more further electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Hope Cell Technologies Pty Ltd
    Inventor: Robert Vancina
  • Publication number: 20140318946
    Abstract: An apparatus for reducing viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid containing paraffin molecules or asphaltene molecules in suspension. The apparatus includes a conduit having an inner cavity dimensioned to accommodate a flow of the hydrocarbon liquid along a flow direction, and a series of electrically charged plates housed within the inner cavity with a longitudinal axis of each plate extending along the flow direction. A method of reducing viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid containing paraffin molecules or asphaltene molecules in suspension, the method including flowing the hydrocarbon liquid through the inner cavity of a conduit and applying an electric field to the hydrocarbon liquid flowing through the inner cavity such that a plurality of paraffin molecules or a plurality of asphaltene molecules undergo a conformational change in microstructure to form a cluster of paraffin molecules or a cluster of asphaltene molecules, thereby reducing the viscosity of the hydrocarbon liquid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Applicant: Save The World Air, Inc.
    Inventors: Bjorn D. H. Simundson, Carl D. Meinhart
  • Patent number: 8864953
    Abstract: A reactor for reforming a hydrocarbon, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding arc discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. Two stages of reforming are described. In a first stage, the hydrocarbon absorbs heat from the wall of the reactor and combusts to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. In a second stage, a gliding arc discharge is use to form syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The heat generated by the combustion of the first stage transfers to the wall of the reactor and heated products of the second stage mix with incoming hydrocarbon to provide for partial recuperation of the reaction energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Anatoliy Polevich, Michael J. Gallagher
  • Publication number: 20140284206
    Abstract: The invention belongs to the field of plasma chemistry technology, and it involves a method of methanol conversion. Some electric discharge methods, such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), corona discharge, pulse corona discharge, glow discharge, etc. were used to selectively excite methanol molecule. The reactant residence time, temperature, pressure and carrier gas/methanol mole proportion were regulated to convert methanol to the objective products. The present invention mainly used methanol as raw material to synthesis ethylene glycol (EG). This method is a one-step synthesis technology, non-catalyst, environmental pollution-free and high selectivity to the EG. Moreover, methanol was a sustainable resource which can be obtained by many approaches. In this invention, ethanol, n-propanol were also obtained together with EG by the optimizing of reaction conditions, so this technology has great industrial prospects.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 29, 2011
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Inventors: Hongchen Guo, Jing Zhang, Qichao Yuan
  • Patent number: 8834684
    Abstract: A method is described to excite molecules at their natural resonance frequencies with sufficient energy to break or form chemical bonds using electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency (RF) and microwave frequency range. Liquid, solid, or gaseous materials are prepared and injected into a resonant structure where they are bombarded with electromagnetic energy in the RF or microwave range at resonant frequencies of the molecules of the materials. Alternatively, electromagnetic energy tuned to dielectric particles prepared from the materials may also be supplied to further enhance the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: RF Thummin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Vassilli P. Proudkii, Kirk McNeil, Joe Michael Yarborough
  • Patent number: 8784617
    Abstract: A non-thermal, repetitively-pulsed gliding discharge reactor includes a high-voltage power source configured to provide a pulsed high-voltage potential; a gas inlet; a liquid sorbent inlet; a product outlet; a plurality of first electrodes connected to the high-voltage power source; a plurality of second electrodes that are grounded; and a trough; the plurality of first electrodes being separated from the plurality of second electrodes by a discharge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: EVOEnergy, LLC
    Inventors: Yury N. Novoselov, Alexey I. Suslov, Oleg P. Kutenkov
  • Patent number: 8771481
    Abstract: A device for processing a hydrocarbon resource may include a hydrocarbon processing container configured to receive the hydrocarbon resource therein and having a pair of opposing ends with an enlarged width medial portion therebetween. The device may also a spirally wound electrical conductor surrounding the hydrocarbon processing container, and a radio frequency (RF) circuit coupled to the spirally wound electrical conductor and configured to supply RF power to the hydrocarbon resource while tracking a load resonance of the RF circuit. The RF circuit may be configured to generate magnetic fields within the hydrocarbon processing container parallel with an axis thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Harris Corporation
    Inventor: Francis Eugene Parsche
  • Patent number: 8771480
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8747624
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8685121
    Abstract: An optimized gasification/vitrification processing system having a gasification unit which converts organic materials to a hydrogen rich gas and ash in communication with a joule heated vitrification unit which converts the ash formed in the gasification unit into glass, and a plasma which converts elemental carbon and products of incomplete combustion formed in the gasification unit into a hydrogen rich gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Assignee: Inentec Inc.
    Inventors: Jeffrey E. Surma, James A Batdorf
  • Publication number: 20140014496
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods and systems of producing plasma from a polar liquid under relatively benign conditions of temperature and pressure, by providing at least one dielectric medium in contact with the polar liquid, such that an interface forms between the liquid and the medium; and creating an electric potential across the interface to produce plasma from the polar liquid inside the dielectric medium. The plasma may be used to convert hydrocarbons into useful products or intermediates.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2012
    Publication date: January 16, 2014
    Applicant: QUANTUM INGENUITY INC.
    Inventors: Mehmet Derya Yinanc, Paul Daniel Harris
  • Patent number: 8617477
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed includes a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments, wherein one compartment is communicated with a hydrogen source and the other compartment is communicated with the hydrocarbon feed to be treated, wherein the membrane comprises a palladium membrane which is modified to have an additional amount of a mix of palladium and other metals (Ni, Ag, Co and Au) between about 4.62*10?3 and 1.62*10?2 g/cm2; and a power source connected across the hydrogen source compartment to generate a current across same, whereby atomic hydrogen is formed from the hydrogen source at a surface of the membrane and diffuses across the membrane to react with the hydrocarbon feed. A process using this apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Intevap, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez, Luiz Felipe D'Elia, Gaudy Rodriguez, Yolimar Gandica
  • Patent number: 8568662
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a plasma reaction apparatus and a plasma reaction method using the same. More particularly, the present invention relates to a plasma reaction apparatus which is applied to the reforming of fuel by generating rotating arc plasma and using the rotating arc being generated, the chemical treatment of a persistent gas, and the apparatus for decreasing NOx by an occlusion catalyst, and a plasma reaction method using the same. For this purpose, a raw material for a reaction is allowed to flow through an inflow hole in a swirl structure so that the raw material forms a rotating flow to progress. Accordingly, the raw material is sufficiently reacted in a plasma reaction space of a restrictive volume, and a high temperature plasma reaction is more promptly performed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
    Inventors: Dae Hoon Lee, Kwan Tae Kim, Young Hoon Song, Min Suk Cha, Jae Ok Lee, Seock Joon Kim
  • Patent number: 8557101
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for electrochemical conversion of dibenzothiophene type molecules of petroleum feedstreams selectively to mercaptan compounds that can then be more easily removed from the electrochemically treated product stream by either caustic extraction or thermal decomposition of the thiol functionality to hydrogen sulfide. The conversion of dibenzothiophenes to mercaptans is performed by electrochemical means in the substantial absence of hydrogen and in the substantial absence of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 15, 2013
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Kun Wang, Frank C. Wang
  • Publication number: 20130264187
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of conversion of carbon dioxide into organic products using plasma technology comprising the steps of (a) providing a reaction chamber; (b) introducing a counterpart molecule and carbon dioxide into the reaction chamber; (c) initiating a plasma in the reaction chamber; and (d) converting the carbon dioxide into organic products, wherein the organic products do not contain formic acid and formaldehyde, and wherein the counterpart molecule consists of water molecule.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2013
    Publication date: October 10, 2013
    Inventors: Arnold Chang-Mou Yang, Yi-Hsin Chang, Chun-Chih Chang
  • Patent number: 8524162
    Abstract: A plasma reaction apparatus and method applied to reformation of fuel by generating and using rotating arc plasma in a furnace, the chemical treatment of a persistent gas, and the apparatus for decreasing NOx by an occlusion catalyst. A raw material for a reaction is allowed to flow into the furnace through a hole, causing it to flow within the furnace in a continuous swirl. Furthermore, an expanded plasma reaction zone is provided by a wide area chamber which is formed on an upper part of the furnace and has a greater width than that of a lower part of the furnace, and thus a plasma being generated can be expanded by the expanded plasma zone and delayed from flowing out of the furnace by corners of the wide area chamber that is spaced from a plasma inducing electrode therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
    Inventors: Dae Hoon Lee, Kwan Tae Kim, Young Hoon Song, Min Suk Cha, Jae Ok Lee, Seock Joon Kim
  • Patent number: 8361404
    Abstract: A reactor for reforming a hydrocarbon, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding are discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. Two stages of reforming are described. In a first stage, the hydrocarbon absorbs heat from the wall of the reactor and combusts to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. In a second stage, a gliding are discharge is use to form syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The heat generated by the combustion of the first stage transfers to the wall of the reactor and heated products of the second stage mix with incoming hydrocarbon to provide for partial recuperation of the reaction energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2013
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Anatoly Polevich, Michael J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 8211276
    Abstract: Systems and methods for production of fuel for an internal combustion engine are described herein. Systems may include a plasma reformer and an internal combustion engine. The plasma reformer may produce a plasma at pressures between about 0.3 atmospheres and about 5 atmospheres. The plasma reformer may produce a gas stream from the liquid feed. The gas stream may include molecular hydrogen and carbon oxides. At least a portion of the gas stream may be provided to an internal combustion engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2012
    Assignee: Tetros Innovations, LLC
    Inventor: Charles Terrel Adams
  • Publication number: 20120043640
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method for producing a highly cross-linked polypropylene material by plasma polymerisation of a carbon containing gas, not specifically propylene, exhibiting low relative permittivity, high thermal stability and enhanced mechanical properties, said method and material being suitable for application not limited to interlayer dielectric deposition in microchip fabrication.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2010
    Publication date: February 23, 2012
    Inventors: Sembukuttiarachilage Ravi Pradip Silva, José Virgilio Anguita Rodriguez Estefania
  • Patent number: 8075762
    Abstract: The electrodesulfurization of heavy oils wherein a feedstream comprised of bitumen or heavy oil is conducted, along with an effective amount of hydrogen, to an electrochemical cell. A current is applied to the cell wherein sulfur from the feedstream combines with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide which is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2011
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Reseach and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Chris A. Wright, Jonathan M. McConnachie, Howard Freund, Kun Wang
  • Publication number: 20110209981
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a process for purification of biodiesel obtained from castor seed oil for the purpose of promoting the efficient separation of the glycerine fraction formed during the transesterification reaction of a mixture of long-chain triglycerides derived from the oil in the presence of ethanol and an alkaline catalyst. The invention concerns the application of the method of electrostatic separation to biodiesel from castor oil in order to separate the glycerine from the stable emulsion then formed, in relatively short spaces of time.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 3, 2009
    Publication date: September 1, 2011
    Applicant: PETROLEO BRASILEIRO S.A-PETROBRAS
    Inventors: Carlos Nagib Khalil, Rodolfo de Vico, Andre Manoel Goja Ferreira, Bianca Machado da Silva Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Dias Da Silva
  • Patent number: 8002969
    Abstract: A method for upgrading a petroleum oil by a hydroprocessing reaction in which the oil is hydrogenated, includes the steps of: a. forming a liquid reaction mixture of the oil with water and an amphiphilic liquid in predetermined proportions to thereby render the oil and water miscible; b. introducing the liquid reaction mixture into an electrolytic reactor having one or more cathodic elements formed from a porous high surface area, conductive material; c. operating the reactor to form reactive hydrogen atoms whereby the oil is hydrogenated by the hydrogen atoms; d. removing the liquid mixture from the reactor; and e. separating the hydrogenated upgraded oil from the amphiphilic liquid and any remaining water, e.g., by distillation, recovering and recycling the amphiphilic liquid for use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2011
    Assignee: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventor: Esam Zaki Hamad
  • Patent number: 7871585
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for treating fumes generated during the production, conversion and/or handling of oil-based products and a device for carrying out said method. The invention further relates to the use of the method or device in which the trapping device comprises at least one fluidized bed of granular material in the preparation of a granular material for use in production of road materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2011
    Assignee: Eurovia
    Inventors: Michel Maze, Jean-Pierre Marchand, Jacques Amouroux, Sergey Dresvin, Pascal Rousseau
  • Publication number: 20100294647
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for plasma reformation of fuel, in particular kerosene, which method comprises the steps of: feeding fuel through a line to the inlet of an expansion nozzle; supplying energy from an energy source by way of a hollow waveguide to generate a plasma state in the expansion nozzle; injecting further fuel through nozzles into the arising plasma flame in order to decompose the fuel in the heat into components such as CO, C and H; and expanding the plasma flame at high speed into the combustion chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 12, 2008
    Publication date: November 25, 2010
    Applicant: EADS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
    Inventors: Erwin Bayer, Jürgen Steinwandel
  • Publication number: 20100108492
    Abstract: A method for cracking a heavy hydrocarbon is described including exposing a heterogeneous medium of the heavy hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-containing gas in a chamber to both an electronic beam and an electric discharge field at the same time so as to create a thermal non-equilibrium as well as a spatially non-uniform state for this medium. Such dual exposure allows the cracking method to proceed without high temperature and high pressure typically required therefore and thus reduces the energy consumption and impurities generated along with desirable output product. Refining of hydrocarbons is achieved by removing sulfur therefrom during cracking in the form of hydrogen sulphide. A reverse use of this method is also described, namely a unification method for light fractions to be transformed into a heavy hydrocarbon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2008
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Inventors: Azamat Zaynullovich Ishmukhametov, Valentin Panteleymonovich Smirnov, Vitaliy Mikhaylovich Nistratov, Sergey Leonidovich Nedoseev
  • Patent number: 7703445
    Abstract: A fuel supply system of the present invention is characterized by including: a fuel reformer (4) for producing a reformed gas-containing fuel by causing discharge in a raw liquid fuel; and a fuel supply device (8) for supplying the reformed gas-containing fuel or a mixture of the reformed gas-containing fuel and the raw fuel into a combustion chamber of an engine (5).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Fumihiro Haga
  • Publication number: 20100015447
    Abstract: The disclosure provides methods for preparation of multiphasic micro-components, such as core-shell or anisotropic (e.g., Janus) multiphasic particles with well-defined structures using electrohydrodynamic co-jetting of two polymer solutions containing polyelectrolytes. Suitable polyelectrolytes include polyacrylic acid (PAA), poly(acrylamide acrylic acid (PAAm), and/or poly(acryl amide-co-acrylic acid) (PAAm-AA), sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), polyethylene imine (PEI), polypeptides, copolymers, and combinations of these. Control of certain variables, such as relative conductivities of the two jetting solutions, controls the particle morphologies formed, leading to a predetermined phase orientation for the same polymer system. In certain aspects, after cross-linking, core-shell particles are stable in aqueous solutions and exhibit reproducible swelling behavior, while maintaining the original core-shell geometry.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 21, 2009
    Publication date: January 21, 2010
    Inventors: Joerg Lahann, Abbass Kazemi
  • Publication number: 20090308731
    Abstract: The present invention generally relates to gasification processes using high-temperature steam. In one aspect, steam at relatively high temperatures (e.g., at a temperature of at least about 1500° F.) is reacted with a carbon-containing fuel. The carbon-containing fuel may be reacted to produce a carbonaceous intermediate, which may then be reacted to produce a hydrocarbon. The hydrocarbon may then be purified, further reacted, or the like. In some cases, the carbonaceous intermediate may be reacted in a different reactor than the reactor involving reaction of the carbon-containing fuel with the steam. In addition, in some embodiments, H2 may be produced in reaction systems of the invention, which may be separated and purified, used to produce heat, reacted to produce a hydrocarbon, or the like. In some embodiments, the steam used in this reaction system may be heated to relatively high temperatures using a ceramic heat exchanger, such as those described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,029,465.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2007
    Publication date: December 17, 2009
    Inventors: Ernest R. Zabolotny, Carl E. Tauber, Francis J. Yopak, James L. Barker, Paul G. Lahaye
  • Publication number: 20090242384
    Abstract: A method and system for reducing the salt content of a crude oil stream includes using a quill to disperse a water stream into the crude oil and then routing the mixed oil/water stream through a plurality of mixing stages. The water stream may include a wash water that has been preconditioned with recycled effluent water. Each mixing stage increases the homogeneity of the mixed oil/water stream. The first and third mixing stages are preferably lower pressure stages relative to the second mixing stage, which provides pressure effective for flowing the mixed oil/water stream through the third and fourth mixing stages. Upon exiting the fourth mixing stage, the mixed oil/water stream is electrostatically treated in a dual frequency separator vessel or a dual polarity separator vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 25, 2009
    Publication date: October 1, 2009
    Inventors: Robert A. Curcio, Ronald D. Hypes, Davis L. Taggart, Michael R. Brown, S. Pavankumar B. Mandewalkar, Gary W. Sams
  • Publication number: 20090189123
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of a manufacturing facility fitted and equipped onboard a marine vessel, the vessel first taking in seawater to fill the vessel ballast tanks using the vessel's sea chests, ensuring a reasonable stability factor to allow for continuous and safe operation of the manufacturing facility.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 8, 2006
    Publication date: July 30, 2009
    Inventor: How Kiap Gueh
  • Patent number: 7541010
    Abstract: A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2009
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventors: Paul Worn Park, Virgil Raymond Hester, Christie Susan Ragle, Carrie L. Boyer
  • Publication number: 20090084707
    Abstract: The invention is directed to separating a hydrocarbon feed-stock such as bitumen or heavy oil, into a de-asphalted oil component and a residue component comprising primarily asphaltenes. The asphaltenes with some added bitumen are converted by a plasma arc reactor into a controllable mixture of primarily paraffins and impurities. Natural gas liquids are separated out by refrigeration. The lighter paraffins may be used to operate a steam or gas turbine to produce electrical energy which, in turn, may be used to provide power for generating steam, for powering the plasma arc reactor and other apparatuses of an on-site processing plant or excess power may be sold to the grid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2008
    Publication date: April 2, 2009
    Applicant: OSUM OIL SANDS CORP.
    Inventor: Henry Gil
  • Patent number: 7510632
    Abstract: A dielectric liquid having entrained bubbles of gas or vapor is subjected to an electric field applied between spaced electrodes (112, 116) which generates microdischarges (and thus plasma) within the bubbles, allowing modification of the properties of the dielectric liquid. The invention is particularly useful for treating hydrocarbon liquids such as gasolines and other liquid hydrocarbon fuels, which have extremely low dielectric constants. Generating microdischarges within bubbles in such fuels can create compounds useful for higher combustion efficiency and/or lower emissions in internal combustion engines. The invention may be directly implemented in an engine's fuel line upstream from the combustion chamber (e.g., immediately prior to a fuel injector), thereby allowing the invention to be usefully implemented for fuel treatment prior to combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2009
    Assignee: Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Inventors: Ferencz S. Denes, Sorin O. Manolache
  • Patent number: 7507317
    Abstract: This invention relates to the enhancement of chemical reactions by applying a high frequency electric field to a material. The frequency and amplitude of the electric field are selected in accordance with the properties of the reacting components in the bulk of chemical reactor. In general, the high frequency range is determined by the dielectric properties of reactant(s), that is, at any given temperature, when, for example, the specific conductivity starts to grow from its low frequency value. Typically, frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 200 MHz or greater are suitable for the enhancement of the reactions. An electric field of any shape having Fourier components that when applied to a chemical process exhibits growth in the real part of conductivity relative to the low frequency value is of particular importance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2009
    Assignee: Alberta Research Council Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander Joseph Babchin, Jian-Yang Yuan, Ezra Eddy Isaacs, Haibo Huang, Ross Sam Chow, Richard Anthony McFarlane, Dmytro Vassily Prudkyy
  • Publication number: 20080128267
    Abstract: Systems and methods for production of fuel for an internal combustion engine are described herein. Systems may include a plasma reformer and an internal combustion engine. The plasma reformer may produce a plasma at pressures between about 0.3 atmospheres and about 5 atmospheres. The plasma reformer may produce a gas stream from the liquid feed. The gas stream may include molecular hydrogen and carbon oxides. At least a portion of the gas stream may be provided to an internal combustion engine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 18, 2007
    Publication date: June 5, 2008
    Inventor: Charles Terrel Adams
  • Patent number: 7244351
    Abstract: A process for removing sulfur from hydrocarbon feeds, including the steps of providing a hydrocarbon feed containing sulfur; providing a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments; flowing a hydrogen source through one compartment; flowing the hydrocarbon feed through the other compartment; applying a current across the hydrogen source compartment whereby hydrogen diffuses through the membrane from the hydrogen source to the hydrocarbon feed, whereby the hydrogen reacts with sulfur to form H2S and produce a treated hydrocarbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2007
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez Báez, Diego Sánchez M.
  • Patent number: 7147821
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for treating a gaseous medium containing contaminating particles, such as microorganisms, bacteria, or viruses. The inventive method consists of generating an accelerated electron flux; the electron flux interacting with the gaseous medium, whereby the particles are broken or destroyed by ionization as a result of the interaction and the gaseous medium is sterilized. The invention can be used to treat the atmospheres of refrigerated vessels in refrigerators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2006
    Assignee: Rasar Holding N.V.
    Inventor: Henri Louis Drean