Gaseous Patents (Class 204/170)
  • Patent number: 10716312
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an ethylene disposal apparatus comprising: a plasma discharge part having an inlet and an outlet and being filled with an adsorbent; and an electrode part for generating plasma inside the plasma discharge part, wherein the adsorbent has a catalyst supported thereon. The present invention relates to an ethylene disposal method using the ethylene disposal apparatus, the method comprising the steps of: (a) injecting ethylene-containing gas into a plasma discharge part filled with the adsorbent; (b) applying voltage to the electrode part and generating plasma in the plasma discharge part, thereby degrading the injected ethylene; and (c) cooling the plasma discharge part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: Korea Basic Science Institute
    Inventors: Young Sun Mok, Quang Hung Trinh, Suk Jae Yoo
  • Patent number: 9758444
    Abstract: Method and device for the production of acetylene using plasma technology, wherein a gas containing at least one type of hydrocarbon is fed into a non-thermal plasma of a plasma source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2017
    Inventor: Ralf Spitzl
  • Patent number: 9656863
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for supplying municipal solid waste (MSW), and/or other types of solid waste comprising both organic waste material and inorganic waste material, into a plasma gasifier reactor (PGR) in which the solid waste is to be processed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Alan Donald Anderson, Francis Peter Petrocelli, Frank Stephen Winger
  • Patent number: 9469819
    Abstract: Embodiments are directed to a gasifier that electrodynamically agitates charged chemical species in a reaction region of a reaction vessel of a gasifier and related methods. In an embodiment, a gasifier includes a reaction vessel configured to gasify at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material to synthesis gas. The reaction vessel includes an inlet(s) for receiving a gasification medium that reacts with the at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material and an outlet for allowing the synthesis gas to exit from the reaction vessel, and a reaction region. The gasifier includes at least one electrode positioned to be in electrical communication with the reaction region, and a voltage source operatively coupled to the at least one electrode. The voltage source and the at least one electrode are cooperatively configured to generate a time varying electric field in the reaction region to effect electrodynamic mixing of charged chemical species therein during gasification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2016
    Assignee: CLEARSIGN COMBUSTION CORPORATION
    Inventor: Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Patent number: 8784617
    Abstract: A non-thermal, repetitively-pulsed gliding discharge reactor includes a high-voltage power source configured to provide a pulsed high-voltage potential; a gas inlet; a liquid sorbent inlet; a product outlet; a plurality of first electrodes connected to the high-voltage power source; a plurality of second electrodes that are grounded; and a trough; the plurality of first electrodes being separated from the plurality of second electrodes by a discharge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: EVOEnergy, LLC
    Inventors: Yury N. Novoselov, Alexey I. Suslov, Oleg P. Kutenkov
  • Patent number: 8771480
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8747624
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Publication number: 20140021035
    Abstract: Methods of increasing the total power of non-thermal plasma power systems are described. Various embodiments of the present invention provide non-thermal plasma reactor assemblies and methods of operating said assemblies, each assembly comprising: (a) at least two non-thermal plasma reactors, each reactor comprising at least one inlet circumferential gas flow inlet apparatus, an electrode, and a flow restricted exit portal, said reactor configured to eject a jet of non-thermal plasma external to said reactor; (b) said at least two non-thermal plasma reactors configured to work in tandem with one another such that a first reactor electrode can be maintained at a high voltage electric potential relative to a second reactor electrode, said first and second reactor electrodes forming an electrode pair able to maintain a non-thermal plasma discharge between the first and second reactor electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 2, 2013
    Publication date: January 23, 2014
    Inventors: ALEXANDER RABINOVICH, GARY NIRENBERG, IVAN CHERNETS, ALEXANDER FRIDMAN
  • Patent number: 8221689
    Abstract: A cold arc discharge is used to decompose natural gas or methane into its gaseous constituents and carbon in the form of solid particles. The gaseous constituents obtained are mainly hydrogen and acetylene and they are produced in admixture with unreacted natural gas or methane. The cold arc discharge is generated by a pulsating high voltage discharge imparted through a capacitor to a high voltage electrode or a plurality of high voltage electrodes or through a high voltage electrode to a plurality of capacitor-connected electrodes placed in a reaction zone. The apparatus for performing this process may have a tubular reactor with a cylindrical ground electrode in the middle and a cylindrical outer wall through which the high voltage electrode or electrodes extend into the reaction zone. The apparatus may also have a cylindrical shaft in the middle made of dielectric material in which a plurality of electrodes are embedded, this shaft being surrounded by a high voltage tubular electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2012
    Assignee: Atlantic Hydrogen Inc.
    Inventors: Tobie Jean Boutot, Zhuomin Liu, Kenneth Ricky Buckle, Francis Xavier Collins, Charles Andrew Estey, Donald MacFarlane Fraser, Stanley Jaye Claus, Thomas Keith Whidden
  • Patent number: 8216433
    Abstract: A plasma generator in which the variation of the impedance in the cavity before and after plasma is ignited is less and hardly affected by the shape of the cavity, and the ignitability of the plasma is improved and a method of generating plasma using the plasma generator are provided. The plasma generator comprises a nonconductive gas flow pipe (1) for introducing a gas (9) for generating plasma and discharging it into the atmosphere and a conductive antenna pipe (2) surrounding the gas flow pipe. A microwave (7) is applied to the antenna pipe to change the gas in the gas flow pipe into plasma. The plasma generator is characterized in that a slit (3) with a predetermined length is formed in the antenna pipe (2) along the axial direction of the gas flow pipe. Preferably, the plasma generator is characterized in that the length of the slit is an integral multiple of the half-wave length of the applied microwave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2012
    Assignee: University of the Ryukyus
    Inventor: Akira Yonesu
  • Publication number: 20120090985
    Abstract: A reactor for dissociating carbon dioxide, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding arc discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. A diaphragm may be used at the output of the reactor to control the vortex flow pattern. In some examples, the reactor may be configured to have varying upper and lower chamber sizes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Publication date: April 19, 2012
    Applicant: DREXEL UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: ALEXANDER RABINOVICH, Thomas Nunnally, Alexander Fridman, Alexander F. Gutsol
  • Patent number: 7790009
    Abstract: The present invention concerns an electrochemical pattern replication method, ECPR, and a construction of a conductive electrode for production of applications involving micro and nano structures. An etching or plating pattern, which is defined by a conductive electrode, a master electrode, is replicated on an electrically conductive material, a substrate. The master electrode is put in close contact with the substrate and the etching/plating pattern is directly transferred onto the substrate by using a contact etching/plating process. The contact etching/plating process is performed in local etching/plating cells, that are formed in closed or open cavities between the master electrode and the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: Replisaurus Technologies AB
    Inventors: Patrik Möller, Mikael Fredenberg, Peter Wiwen-Nilsson
  • Patent number: 7758663
    Abstract: A method and system for producing synthesis gas in which a carbonaceous material and at least one oxygen carrier are introduced into a non-thermal plasma reactor at a temperature in the range of about 300° C. to about 700° C. and a pressure in a range of about atmospheric to about 70 atmospheres and a non-thermal plasma discharge is generated within the non-thermal plasma reactor. The carbonaceous material and the oxygen carrier are exposed to the non-thermal plasma discharge, resulting in the formation of a synthesis gas in the non-thermal plasma reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2010
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Iosif K. Rabovitser, Serguei Nester, Bruce Bryan
  • Patent number: 7736400
    Abstract: A method and system for producing product gases in which a carbonaceous material and at least one oxygen carrier are introduced into a non-thermal plasma reactor at a temperature in the range of about 300° C. to about 700° C. and a pressure in a range of about atmospheric to about 70 atmospheres and a non-thermal plasma discharge is generated within the non-thermal plasma reactor. The carbonaceous material and the oxygen carrier are exposed to the non-thermal plasma discharge, resulting in the formation of a product gas in the non-thermal plasma reactor, which product gas comprises substantial amounts of hydrocarbons, such as methane, hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Iosif K. Rabovitser, Serguei Nester, Bruce Bryan
  • Patent number: 7608196
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching a dielectric material employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 sccm and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 sccm and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Publication number: 20090084707
    Abstract: The invention is directed to separating a hydrocarbon feed-stock such as bitumen or heavy oil, into a de-asphalted oil component and a residue component comprising primarily asphaltenes. The asphaltenes with some added bitumen are converted by a plasma arc reactor into a controllable mixture of primarily paraffins and impurities. Natural gas liquids are separated out by refrigeration. The lighter paraffins may be used to operate a steam or gas turbine to produce electrical energy which, in turn, may be used to provide power for generating steam, for powering the plasma arc reactor and other apparatuses of an on-site processing plant or excess power may be sold to the grid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2008
    Publication date: April 2, 2009
    Applicant: OSUM OIL SANDS CORP.
    Inventor: Henry Gil
  • Publication number: 20090038933
    Abstract: A cold arc discharge is used to decompose natural gas or methane into its gaseous constituents and carbon in the form of solid particles. The gaseous constituents obtained are mainly hydrogen and acetylene and they are produced in admixture with unreacted natural gas or methane. The cold arc discharge is generated by a pulsating high voltage discharge imparted through a capacitor to a high voltage electrode or a plurality of high voltage electrodes or through a high voltage electrode to a plurality of capacitor—connected electrodes placed in a reaction zone. The apparatus for performing this process may have a tubular reactor with a cylindrical ground electrode in the middle and a cylindrical outer wall through which the high voltage electrode or electrodes extend into the reaction zone. The apparatus may also have a cylindrical shaft in the middle made of dielectric material in which a plurality of electrodes are embedded, this shaft being surrounded by a high voltage tubular electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2006
    Publication date: February 12, 2009
    Inventors: Tobie Jean Boutot, Zhuomin Liu, Kenneth Ricky Buckle, Francis Xavier Collins, Charles Andrew Estey, Donald MacFarlane Fraser, Stanley Jaye Claus, Thomas Keith Whidden
  • Publication number: 20080314734
    Abstract: A system for producing a fuel gas from a carbon-containing material is provided that includes a non-thermal plasma generator, an electric power source, a process stream inlet, and a product stream outlet. The non-thermal plasma generator includes a high voltage electrode separated from a grounded electrode by a modification passage. Moreover, a dielectric layer exists between the high voltage electrode and the grounded electrode. The electric power source is energizable to create non-thermal electrical microdischarges within the modification passage. As the process gas flows through the system, the carbon-containing material is converted to fuel gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2007
    Publication date: December 25, 2008
    Inventors: Yong Ho Kim, Louis A. Rosocha, Graydon K. Anderson, Hans-Joachim Ziock, Sara Abbate, Rodrigo Sanchez-Gonzalez
  • Publication number: 20080193344
    Abstract: An energy conversion system includes a water-containing vessel with a transparent sidewall. Energized carbon rods are fed into the vessel such that the carbon rods are immersed in the water. The carbon rods are juxtaposed sufficiently that electrical arcing occurs between them, causing decomposition of some water molecules into constituent hydrogen and oxygen gas. Photon emissions resulting from the arcing are collected by photovoltaic cells placed around the sidewall of the vessel. The hydrogen gas is cooled by passing it through a water reservoir which also provides a source for water in the vessel. The cooled hydrogen gas may be used to fuel an internal combustion engine. Byproduct heat from the arcing reaction may be utilized in a Stirling engine or radiated from the system. As the carbon rods become depleted during arcing, additional rods are fed through conductive sleeves into the vessel by linear actuators.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 6, 2008
    Publication date: August 14, 2008
    Inventor: James D. Hunt
  • Patent number: 7163641
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching BPSG employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber, which includes a fluorine scavenger in the form of silicon. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2007
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Patent number: 7033551
    Abstract: A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2006
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Peter C. Kong, Paul A. Lessing
  • Patent number: 6787002
    Abstract: A device for purifying an exhaust gas contains at least one first and one second component with a respective shell and core through which the exhaust flows, as well as with two front faces each. At least one of the front faces of the first component and at least one front face of the second component has a predetermined profile with elevations and depressions. The elevations of the front face of the first component extend into the depressions of the front face of the second component and vice versa, thereby configuring a penetration section. The first component is disposed electrically insulated from the second component. The components have a potential difference between them and plasma is generated in the penetration section. The compact plasma reactor reduces the pollutant concentration in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine operated in the lean mode, especially when combined with an oxidation catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignee: Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH
    Inventors: Rolf Brück, Jörg-Roman Konieczny
  • Publication number: 20040104109
    Abstract: The application of an electric current to catalysts useful for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons allows for processes for obtaining enhanced catalytic processing of a given feed material with a given catalyst, processes allowing the ready change-over from one product of a given feed stream to another product of that feed stream without the need to change catalyst, and processes allowing the ready change over from one feed stream to another feed stream with the concomitant change over from one product to another product without the need to change catalyst.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 25, 2003
    Publication date: June 3, 2004
    Inventors: Daniel Arthur Bors, Anne Mae Gaffney, Stephen Gerard Maroldo
  • Publication number: 20030205458
    Abstract: A process for the production of hydrogen from anaerobically decomposed organic materials by applying an electric potential to the anaerobically decomposed organic materials, including landfill materials and sewage, to form hydrogen, and for decreasing the time required to treat these anaerobically decomposed organic materials. The organic materials decompose to volatile acids such as acetic acid, which may be hydrolyzed by electric current to form hydrogen. The process may be continuously run in sewage digestion tanks with the continuous feed of sewage, at landfill sites, or at any site having a supply of anaerobically decomposed or decomposable organic materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2001
    Publication date: November 6, 2003
    Inventor: Sukomal Roychowdhury
  • Patent number: 6610212
    Abstract: A plasma etch process for etching BPSG employing two primary etchants at low flows and pressures, and a relatively low temperature environment within the etch chamber, which includes a fluorine scavenger in the form of silicon. The two primary etchant gases are CHF3 and CH2F2, delivered at flow rates on the order of between about 10 and 40 sccm for CHF3 and between about 10 and 40 sccm for CH2F2. Small quantities, on the order of 10 sccm or less, of other gases such as C2HF5 and CF4 may be added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2003
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin G. Donohoe, David S. Becker
  • Publication number: 20030141182
    Abstract: A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2002
    Publication date: July 31, 2003
    Applicant: Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC
    Inventors: Peter C. Kong, Lee O. Nelson, Brent A. Detering
  • Patent number: 6565716
    Abstract: A dielectric barrier discharge system includes first and second non-thermal plasma reactors which are coupled together in series. The first reactor includes a first surface discharge electrode which defines a first discharge path along the first surface discharge electrode. The second reactor includes second and third electrodes which are separated by a gap and define a second discharge path which extends across the gap. The system can be used to decompose hazardous compounds in a liquid or a gas, such as in power plant flue gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2003
    Assignees: Regents of The University of Minnesota, R.D. Offutt Company
    Inventors: R. Roger Ruan, Paul L. Chen, Anrong Ning, Richard L. Bogaard, Donald G. Robinson, Shaobo Deng, Hongbin Ma, Chuanshuang Bie
  • Publication number: 20020074221
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2001
    Publication date: June 20, 2002
    Inventors: Richard G. Mallinson, Lance Lobban, Chang-Jun Liu
  • Patent number: 6375832
    Abstract: A method of transforming a normally gaseous composition containing at least one hydrogen source, at least one oxygen source and at least one carbon source into a normally liquid fuel, wherein said gaseous composition consists at least in part of carbon dioxide as said carbon source and said oxygen source, and of methane as said hydrogen source and as a second carbon source; the method comprising the steps of feeding the composition into a reactor including a first electrode means, a second electrode means and at least one layer of a normally solid dielectric material positioned between the first and the second electrode means; submitting the composition within the reactor in the presence of a normally solid catalyst to a dielectric barrier discharge, wherein said normally solid catalyst is a member selected from the group of zeolites, aluminophosphates, silicoaluminophosphates, metalloaluminophosphates and metal oxides containing OH groups; and controlling the dielectric barrier discharge to convert the gaseo
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2002
    Assignee: ABB Research Ltd.
    Inventors: Baldur Eliasson, Eric Killer, Chang-Jun Liu
  • Patent number: 6299738
    Abstract: Fuel gas production by underwater arcing bubbles up from the vicinity of the arc and is collected by an overlying hood and used or stored for use as a fuel, as in operation of a cutting or welding torch, or in operation of an internal-combustion engine. A reactor or production unit for such fuel gas contains a body of water, which may be open to the ambient atmosphere and be at ambient temperature. The arc is established in a spark gap between carbon electrodes and is facilitated by introduction of successive carbon rods end-on into the spark gap, as by dispensing them successively from a magazine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Inventor: William H. Richardson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6284105
    Abstract: A method of cracking a hydrocarbon composition having a normal boiling range beginning at a temperature of at least about 200° C., includes the steps of providing the hydrocarbon composition in a reactor including a first electrode mechanism, a second electrode mechanism and at least one layer of a normally solid dielectric material positioned between the first and the second electrode mechanisms. The hydrocarbon composition within the reactor is exposed to a dielectric barrier discharge, and the dielectric barrier discharge is controlled to convert the hydrocarbon composition into products having normal boiling points of below about 200° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Assignee: ABB Research Ltd.
    Inventors: Baldur Eliasson, Chang-Jun Liu
  • Patent number: 6118040
    Abstract: The method includes a step of creating a flow of the mixture, a step of generating an electron discharge at a velocity such as to create a zone in which the mixture is ionised and a step of directing a series of electron beams so as to intercept the flow of the mixture whereby the peripheral electron bonds of the polluting molecules and/or cells are broken by collision with the ions formed in the mixture. The apparatus includes an ionisation cell (10) having an anode (12) and an emitting cathode (13) excited at a negative voltage of the order of 50,000 volts. The cathode (13) has a series of pointed elements for emitting electron beams (30) which intersect in a zone (11) of interception of the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Coral S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nevio Coral, Luciano Coral, Claudio Coral
  • Patent number: 6113748
    Abstract: Non-fossil fuel without harmful combustion effluents, the only effluents being water and carbon dioxide. The compositions of which the fuel is made are carbon and water only, which are converted in an underwater electric arc into hydrogen and carbon monoxide as the major and predominant minor gaseous molecular constituents. The fuel also contains pseudo-molecular aggregates, as yet unidentified, of higher weight which are seemingly electromagnetically bound, instead of chemically bound, tentatively called magnecules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Inventor: William H. Richardson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6027617
    Abstract: A gas reactor includes a dielectric casing made of a dielectric material and forming a first conduit for directing first gas in one direction, a first electrode positioned inside the dielectric casing along a general center thereof and extending in the direction, at least one catalyst layer formed on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode surrounding an outer wall of the dielectric casing. The gas reactor further includes a power-supply unit applying AC power between the first electrode and the second electrode to generate glow discharge inside the dielectric casing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2000
    Assignees: Fujitsu Limited, Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Hokushin Corporation, The University of Connecticut
    Inventors: Yuji Hayashi, Steven L. Suib, Hiroshige Matsumoto, Masao Hiyane, Shuji Tanabe
  • Patent number: 5993761
    Abstract: Method for conversion of hydrocarbons assisted by gliding electric arcs in the presence of water vapor and/or carbon dioxide.The objective of the process and the plasma assistance device to steam reforming, to the reforming with CO2 or to simultaneous reforming with an H2O/CO2 mixture of hydrocarbons is the production of gases rich in CO and H2, containing also high ratios of C2H2, C2H4 and C3H6, without formation of soot or coke. The process makes it also possible to upgrade the CO2 by converting it into CO in the presence of hydrocarbons.This mixture of valuable products is obtained in a reactor /1/ with electric gliding arcs /4/ which strike directly into an endothermic reaction medium consisting of hydrocarbons mixed with H2O and/or CO2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: Laxarco Holding, Ltd.
    Inventors: Piotr Czernichowski, Albin Czernichowski
  • Patent number: 5695619
    Abstract: A pollutant destruction system connects a capacitive corona discharge chamber in a self-resonant circuit with an inductive element. Intermittent energizing signals are furnished from a power supply to induce corona discharges within the chamber, with the resonant circuit responding to the energizing signals by initiating additional corona discharges between energizing signals in a highly energy efficient operation. One or more discharge chambers can be provided in the resonant circuit, with each discharge chamber comprising a dielectric enclosure with a distributed electrode outside and an elongate electrode inside the enclosure. The inner electrode can extend either along the chamber axis, or along the inner chamber wall for better support and heat dissipation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1997
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft
    Inventors: Weldon S. Williamson, Eun-Hee Cirlin, Franklin A. Dolezal, Robin J. Harvey
  • Patent number: 5645919
    Abstract: A self-supporting sheet-like structure is described, which contains a substrate layer and a structured coating on at least one surface of the substrate layer. The structured coating is produced by treating at least one surface of the substrate layer by means of an electric corona discharge, which takes place between a high voltage electrode and a grounded counter-electrode. In this procedure, an aerosol containing discrete inert particles is simultaneously introduced into the corona discharge space during the corona discharge to improve the slip characteristics and reduce friction of the substrate layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1997
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Corporation
    Inventors: Lothar Bothe, Hermann Dallmann, Peter Dinter, John Derek Gribbin
  • Patent number: 5637198
    Abstract: This invention is drawn to a Volatile Organic Compound environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a reactor-efficient coronal discharge zone, and at least one pair of high-dielectric coated electrodes. In particular embodiments Halogenated volatile organic compounds are reduced and the reaction chamber is chlorine and fluorine resistant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Thermo Power Corporation
    Inventor: Ronald W. Breault
  • Patent number: 5472581
    Abstract: C.sub.1 and C.sub.2 hydrocarbons may be produced under the action of pulsed microwave energy in a reactor containing activated charcoal as a catalyst/reactant. Methane and/or water is the other active ingredient and the product is primarily acetylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: Queen's University
    Inventor: Jeffrey K. S. Wan
  • Patent number: 5417817
    Abstract: An apparatus for a gasification of a biomass liquid solution includes a reaction chamber having a biomass liquid solution therein. The biomass solution includes at least water and carbon. A pair of spaced apart carbon electrodes are immersed in the solution within the chamber. A direct current electrical supply is connected to the electrodes to form an electrical arc passing from one electrode to the other and thereby oxidizing carbon of one electrode. The oxidized carbon forms a carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas mixture, and carbon released from the biomass solution during oxidation is deposited on the opposite electrode. A switch is interposed between the source of electric power and the electrodes so as to selectively switch the polarity of the electric arc to thereby cause oxidation of the opposite electrode and the deposit of carbon on the previously oxidized electrode while continuing to manufacture COH.sub.2 gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1995
    Inventors: Wilbur A. Dammann, W. David Wallman
  • Patent number: 5409584
    Abstract: An electrical apparatus is provided for the conversion of compounds, elements, or mixtures which are in particulate form, into new compounds, elements or mixtures in gaseous, liquid, or particulate form. In a reaction chamber, particulates are mechanically transported into a first region of high electric field, where they acquire a charge and are projected into a second region in which a low-density plasma is maintained. Energetic plasma ions strike the surfaces of the particulates, causing chemical reactions and release of both neutral and ionic products species. Charge exchange on particulates causes the reduced-size particles to fall back into the first region, where the charging recurs and the cycle is repeated. Gaseous and particulate products are removed from the chamber. In one application, naturally-occurring ores may be reduced by a methane plasma; in another, coal may be converted in a methane plasma to intermediate range hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: University of Alaska
    Inventor: William M. Sackinger
  • Patent number: 5328577
    Abstract: Low value hydrocarbons can be upgraded by contact with the products formed during irradiation of a hydrogen donor and water using microwave energy in the presence of at least one plasma initiator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventor: William J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 5310461
    Abstract: A vapour and gaseous effluent purification process wherein the gaseous flow is made to proceed between metal plates (1) subjected to oscillating electrical high voltages and then over a porous siliceous mass (2) having adsorbed therein an oxidation catalyst active at room temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1994
    Assignee: H.R.S. Engineering S.r.l.
    Inventors: Ernesto Bardelli, Eraldo Cassinerio
  • Patent number: 5277773
    Abstract: C.sub.1+ hydrocarbons can be effectively converted to primarily unsaturated hydrocarbon and hydrogen by subjecting the C.sub.1+ hydrocarbon to microwave radiation in the presence of water and at least one plasma initiator that is capable of initiating an electric discharge in an electromagnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1994
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventor: William J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 5205912
    Abstract: Methane can be effectively converted to acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen by subjecting the methane to pulsed microwave radiation in the presence of at least one plasma initiator that is capable of initiating an electric discharge in an electromagnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Company
    Inventor: William J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 5205915
    Abstract: Methane can be effectively converted to acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen by subjecting the methane to continuous microwave radiation in the presence of at least one plasma initiator that is capable of initiating an electric discharge in an electromagnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Company
    Inventors: Alberto Ravella, William J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 5186974
    Abstract: A self-supporting sheet-like structure comprises a coating, which reduces sliding friction, on at least one surface of the substrate. The slip-improving coating is produced by treating this substrate surface by means of an electric corona discharge between a high voltage electrode and a grounded counter-electrode while simultaneously spraying an aerosol into the corona discharge zone. The aerosol contains a film-forming agent as a slip agent, for example aqueous solutions or emulsions of monoesters of glycerol and long-chain fatty acids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: John D. Gribbin, Lothar Bothe, Peter Dinter, Hermann Dallmann
  • Patent number: 5181998
    Abstract: Low value hydrocarbons can be upgraded by contact with the products formed during irradiation of a hydrogen donor using microwave energy in the presence of at least one plasma initiator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: William J. Murphy, David H. Shaw
  • Patent number: 5156919
    Abstract: A magnesium alloy structural member for supporting at least one actuator arm in a hard disk drive and a method for making a shaped magnesium part having a fluorocarbon coating is disclosed. The coating is applied by exposing the member to a reactive gas in the presence of a glow discharge plasma to prevent corrosion. The glow discharge is generated by providing a vacuum environment at a pressure of between 250 and 300 millitorr in a reaction chamber and applying power to a pair of electrodes contained within the reaction chamber. Power is supplied at between about 100 and about 200 watts at about 13.6 megahertz, forming a low temperature glow discharge plasma. A reactive gas comprising a fluorinated alkane is introduced to the reaction chamber, and a pressure of between about 100 and about 300 millitorr is maintained. The structural member is exposed to the reactive gas and the plasma for an amount of time sufficient to form a thin and uniform polymeric fluorocarbon coating on the surface of the part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1992
    Assignee: Segate Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Amarjit S. Brar, Prativadi B. Narayan
  • Patent number: 5131993
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method for cracking a hydrocarbon material. The method includes introducing a stream including a hydrocarbon fluid and a carrier fluid into a reaction zone. A microwave discharge plasma is continuously maintained within the reaction zone, and in the presence of the hydrocarbon fluid and the carrier fluid. Reaction products of the microwave discharge are collected downstream of the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1992
    Assignee: The Univeristy of Connecticut
    Inventors: Steven L. Suib, Zongchao Zhang