Arc Or Spark Discharge Patents (Class 204/178)
  • Patent number: 8784617
    Abstract: A non-thermal, repetitively-pulsed gliding discharge reactor includes a high-voltage power source configured to provide a pulsed high-voltage potential; a gas inlet; a liquid sorbent inlet; a product outlet; a plurality of first electrodes connected to the high-voltage power source; a plurality of second electrodes that are grounded; and a trough; the plurality of first electrodes being separated from the plurality of second electrodes by a discharge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: EVOEnergy, LLC
    Inventors: Yury N. Novoselov, Alexey I. Suslov, Oleg P. Kutenkov
  • Patent number: 8545764
    Abstract: A microplasma array for the production of low-temperature plasmas at or near atmospheric pressures is described. The walls of holes made in a substrate at regular intervals with respect to one another form hollow electrodes and are coated with metal. The hollow electrodes are supplied individually or as a group from one side of the substrate with an electrical excitation in the GHz-region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Forschungsverbund Berlin E.V.
    Inventor: Roland Gesche
  • Publication number: 20130183225
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for bulk crystal growth using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas. This method and apparatus pertains to growth of any compound crystal involving one or more crystal components in a liquid phase (also known as the melt or solution), in communication with a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma source comprised of one or more other crystal components.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 18, 2013
    Publication date: July 18, 2013
    Inventor: The Regents of the University of California
  • Publication number: 20120318662
    Abstract: The present invention provides a doping technique that forms a stable amorphous silicon film and a stable polycrystalline silicon film at a low temperature and simultaneously that imparts conductivity in an atmospheric pressure environment. A method for producing a compound containing a bond between different elements belonging to Group 4 to Group 15 of the periodic table, the method included: applying, at a low frequency and atmospheric pressure, high voltage to an inside of an electric discharge tube obtained by attaching high-voltage electrodes to a metal tube or an insulator tube or between flat plate electrodes while passing an introduction gas, so as to convert molecules present in the electric discharge tube or between the flat plate electrodes into a plasma; and applying the plasma to substances to be irradiated, the substances to be irradiated being two or more elementary substances or compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2010
    Publication date: December 20, 2012
    Inventors: Hitoshi Furusho, Yuki Nohara, Hisayuki Watanabe, Yuichi Goto
  • Patent number: 8216433
    Abstract: A plasma generator in which the variation of the impedance in the cavity before and after plasma is ignited is less and hardly affected by the shape of the cavity, and the ignitability of the plasma is improved and a method of generating plasma using the plasma generator are provided. The plasma generator comprises a nonconductive gas flow pipe (1) for introducing a gas (9) for generating plasma and discharging it into the atmosphere and a conductive antenna pipe (2) surrounding the gas flow pipe. A microwave (7) is applied to the antenna pipe to change the gas in the gas flow pipe into plasma. The plasma generator is characterized in that a slit (3) with a predetermined length is formed in the antenna pipe (2) along the axial direction of the gas flow pipe. Preferably, the plasma generator is characterized in that the length of the slit is an integral multiple of the half-wave length of the applied microwave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2012
    Assignee: University of the Ryukyus
    Inventor: Akira Yonesu
  • Patent number: 8105546
    Abstract: A non-thermal plasma (NTP) system is used to treat air containing volatile organic compounds (VOC) and/or halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC), some of which may be odorous, and/or fine organic particulate (smoke) emissions to be released into the environment by commercial and/or industrial air exhausting, using one or more compound dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices that each incorporate a plurality of catalytically active DBD electrodes, catalytically active parts and dielectrics to develop one or more NTP fields so as to create sufficient reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl species and other highly ionized molecules and atomic species so as to cause the oxidation and/or reduction of VOC's and/or HVOC's and/or fine organic particulate contaminants in the air streams to be decomposed to simpler, non pollutant, non odorous compounds that can be subsequently released into the environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2012
    Assignee: Air Phaser Environmental Ltd.
    Inventor: Douglas Philip Lanz
  • Patent number: 7919053
    Abstract: A pulsed gliding arc discharge (PGD) reactor includes an ignition coil driven by a pulse generator which is connected to a pair of divergent electrodes fixed by a reactor housing with a fluid inlet and outlet. Hydrogen peroxide and dye degradation can be carried out with a PGD reactor according to the invention with efficiencies that are more than two orders of magnitude greater than a conventional ACG reactor based on the calculated specific energy yield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Inventors: Radu Burlica, Bruce R. Locke
  • Patent number: 7883606
    Abstract: A method of producing microparticles including: (a) providing a system including: (i) a vessel containing a liquid; (ii) at least a first pair of electrodes; (iii) a mechanism for igniting an electrical arc between the electrodes; (b) disposing the first pair of electrodes within the liquid, and (c) effecting at least one pulsed electrical discharge between the electrodes so as to produce a plasma bubble, and to produce the microparticles, the microparticles being associated with the plasma bubble, wherein the pulsed electrical discharge has a pulse duration of less than 1000 microseconds, and wherein the pulsed electrical discharge has a current amplitude of at least 1 ampere (A).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2011
    Inventors: Nahum Parkansky, Raymond Leon Boxman
  • Publication number: 20110011212
    Abstract: A method for producing a cyanide including the steps of supplying a hydrocarbon and nitrogen source to an onsite plasma reactor and removing cyanide synthesised inside the onsite plasma reactor to thereby produce the cyanide is disclosed. Also disclosed is a method which includes a monitor for monitoring the cyanide requirement of an onsite cyanide utilising system and supplying the hydrocarbon and nitrogen source in accordance with the cyanide requirement. Additionally, a method for recovering, refining, purifying or treating a metal including the steps of monitoring a cyanide requirement of the method and supplying to the method in a just in time sequence a cyanide synthesised onsite to thereby recover, refine, purify or treat the metal is disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2009
    Publication date: January 20, 2011
    Inventor: Geoffrey Alexander Duckworth
  • Publication number: 20100320074
    Abstract: A method for preparing gallium nitride nanoparticles includes providing a pair of electrodes; the pair of electrodes being opposedly disposed to one another. One electrode of the pair of electrodes is filled with gallium nitride powder. The pair of electrodes is dipped in a liquid. An arc discharge is produced between the pair of electrodes. The arc discharge produces a plasma between the pair of electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 15, 2010
    Publication date: December 23, 2010
    Inventors: Woong CHOI, Manish CHHOWALLA, Seung-Yol JEONG, Jae-Young CHOI
  • Patent number: 7722813
    Abstract: A urea concentration identification device comprising a concentration identification sensor unit (2) and a support unit (4) attached at the bottom end thereof with this sensor unit and provided at the top end thereof with a mounting unit (4a) to a urea solution tank opening. The concentration identification sensor unit (2) has an indirectly-heated concentration detector and liquid temperature detector provided with metal fins (21c),(22c), respectively, for heat-exchanging with urea solution. The concentration identification sensor unit (2) is provided with a cover member (2d) that forms an opposite-ends-opened urea solution induction passage so as to surround the metal fins (21c), (22c).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 25, 2010
    Assignee: Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shinichi Inoue, Akiko Kubota, Takayuki Takahata
  • Patent number: 7534401
    Abstract: An arcing electron stream apparatus and method for reducing pollutants in a fluid. The device includes first and second electrodes and a chamber there-between. Voltage is impressed between the electrodes at a frequency, thereby causing a plurality of arcing electron streams to occur between the electrodes. The electrodes have stepped surface such that the central first section of the electrodes are in closer proximity to each other than are the outer second sections. This stepped configuration causes arcing electron streams to progressively be formed along the electrodes and, thus, traverse throughout the chamber, thereby effectively treating molecules within the chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2009
    Assignee: Global Environmental Concepts, LLC
    Inventors: Paul D. Keppel, Randolph M. Wilson
  • Patent number: 7311887
    Abstract: A process reduces SOx emissions in a flue gas stream by adding a wet collector plate section to an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or by converting the last field of an existing ESP to wet operation. To achieve the conversion, the last field or fields of an existing dry ESP are removed and replaced with components made from materials suitable for operation in a wet environment. After the ESP contains wet operation, ammonia is added to the flue gas stream while it is progressing through the collection plates in the ESP.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2007
    Assignee: Siemens Enviromental Systems&Services
    Inventors: Ralph F. Altman, John Montgomery, Boris Altshuler, Wayne P. Buckley
  • Patent number: 6118040
    Abstract: The method includes a step of creating a flow of the mixture, a step of generating an electron discharge at a velocity such as to create a zone in which the mixture is ionised and a step of directing a series of electron beams so as to intercept the flow of the mixture whereby the peripheral electron bonds of the polluting molecules and/or cells are broken by collision with the ions formed in the mixture. The apparatus includes an ionisation cell (10) having an anode (12) and an emitting cathode (13) excited at a negative voltage of the order of 50,000 volts. The cathode (13) has a series of pointed elements for emitting electron beams (30) which intersect in a zone (11) of interception of the mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Coral S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nevio Coral, Luciano Coral, Claudio Coral
  • Patent number: 6063243
    Abstract: The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing nano-scale tubes and particles. The apparatus comprises novel electrodes for use in arc discharge techniques. The electrodes have interior conduits for delivery and withdrawal of material from the arc region where product is formed. In one embodiment, the anode is optionally made from more than one material and is termed a compound anode. The materials used in the compound anode assist in the reaction that forms product in the arc region of the apparatus. The materials assist either by providing reaction ingredients, catalyst, or affecting the reaction kinetics. Among other uses, the inventive apparatus is used to produce nanotubes and nanoparticles having a variety of electrical and mechanical properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the Univeristy of California
    Inventors: Alexander Karlwalter Zettl, Marvin Lou Cohen
  • Patent number: 5879518
    Abstract: Small particles are produced by supporting a pair of elongated consumable electrodes coaxially in a housing so that corresponding ends of the electrodes are spaced apart across a gap. A potential difference is applied to the electrodes so that an arc ignited in the gap between the electrode ends gasifies the electrode material at the end. The gas is then cooled so that the gas condenses into small droplets which solidify into solid particles which are collected at a collection site.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1999
    Inventor: Manfred R. Kuehnle
  • Patent number: 5711859
    Abstract: A process for the conversion of N.sub.2 O into NO.sub.x (x=1 or 2) thereof, comprising forming a jet of gas to be treated comprising N.sub.2 O and directing the jet into the interstitial space of at least two divergent electrodes placed under an electric voltage, to create at least one electric discharge and/or arc, and is part of a low-temperature plasma generator. The generator works by formation of electric discharges sliding between the electrodes such that the gas circulates along the electrodes from the discharge region where these electrodes are closest to each other. Finally, the NO.sub.x gas formed is recovered. The invention also relates to a device for carrying out the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Rhone-Poulenc Chimie
    Inventors: Andre Caramel, Albin Czernichowski, Andre Gorius
  • Patent number: 5458748
    Abstract: This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant, high water vapor (about 3% to about 18%) tolerant, packing-free coronal-catalyst. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of high water vapor tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation of an electrical field to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream, where the electrical field has a minimum field power density of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter, and optionally, accompanying downstream scrubbers. In a particular embodiment, downstream wet or dry absorption arrest particular NO.sub.x reduction products NO.sub.2 and HNO.sub.3, optionally upon exposure to an arresting agent, including basic, caustic, or alkali materials such as CaO or NH.sub.3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Assignee: Thermo Power Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald W. Breault, Christopher R. McLarnon, Frederick E. Becker
  • Patent number: 5405515
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the production of a form of carbon nitride with a chemical formula consisting of 3 carbon atoms and 4 nitrogen atoms, and a structure similar to that of beta-silicon nitride. The apparatus utilizes a nitrogen ion beam and a carbon arc. The interaction between the ionized nitrogen and the carbon evoluted in the arc produces copious compounds of carbon and nitrogn. Enrichment of the proportion of the specific carbon-nitrogen compound is achieved by adjustment of the operational parameters of the apparatus. A pure form of this compound is produced by an electric and/or magnetic field separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1995
    Inventor: Pao-Hsien Fang
  • Patent number: 5240575
    Abstract: This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1993
    Assignee: Tecogen Inc.
    Inventors: Virendra K. Mathur, Ronald W. Breault, Christopher R. McLarnon, Frank G. Medros
  • Patent number: 5147516
    Abstract: This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1992
    Assignee: Tecogen, Inc.
    Inventors: Virendra K. Mathur, Ronald W. Breault, Christopher R. McLarnon, Frank G. Medros
  • Patent number: 5002646
    Abstract: A method which comprises the manufacture of black titanium nitride which comprises heating ammonia and titanium halide by means of an electric plasma formed in a stream of non-oxidizing gas generated by the discharge of direct current electricty between a pair of electrodes. The heated gases are introduced through an inlet nozzle into a reactor so constructed and operated as to induce circulation of the gases with a specifically defined recirculation ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1991
    Assignee: Tioxide Group PLC
    Inventors: Terence A. Egerton, Anthony G. Jones, Stephen R. Blackburn
  • Patent number: 4960570
    Abstract: In order to enhance the efficiency of an ozone generator it is proposed that its outer electrodes (1,2) are formed essentially as metal plates arranged and separated from one another in pairs, between which a tube (3) or a layer of closely-spaced tubes (3) with a diameter corresponding to the separation of the metal plates lies. The tubes (3) have an outer coating of dielectric material, or themselves consist of such, and possess in each case an inner electrode (4) of an electrically conductive material.Despite a comparatively inhomogeneous discharge gap (6), such an ozone generator has a high efficiency of ozone generation because the heat arising in the discharge space can be dissipated optimally.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1990
    Assignee: Asea Brown Boveri Ltd
    Inventor: Gunter Mechtersheimer
  • Patent number: 4919968
    Abstract: During electric arc discharge discrete points of the cathode surface are so strongly heated that ionized cathode material is volatilized. Use of such hot spots as vapor source for vacuum coating is, however, impaired by the fact that a short time after beginning of the vapor emission from a hot spot molten material in the form of droplets is also hurled away. The invention provides continuous vapor deposition on the cathode surface with a metal compound which can be broken down, by which accelerated migration of the vapor emitting hot spots is forced in such a way that the hot spots migrate away from a particular site before spatter formation starts. The cathode surface is preferentially continuously sputtered so strongly that the metal quantity supplied to it through the metal compound is 12 to 25% of the quantity of metal carried off through vaporization from hot spots.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1990
    Assignee: Balzers Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Rainer Buhl, Christof Peyer
  • Patent number: 4915915
    Abstract: A system for producing nitrogen fertilizer using an electric arc process is described in which the electric arc necessary for the process is generated by piezoelectric elements actuated by a hammer mechanism powered by water pressure such as from a garden hose. The nitrogen oxides produced by the arc discharge are drawn into the water to serve as a source of nitrogen fertilizer. The net result of the invention is that the operator can provide nitrogen fertilizer as he supplies water to the same area. The only inputs to this system are air and a source of water under pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1990
    Inventor: Richard W. Treharne
  • Patent number: 4877589
    Abstract: The fixation of nitrogen by electric arc process is made more efficient by this system which combines a low frequency electric discharge and a catalyst in such a way that an electric arc is formed entirely within a catalyst bed when the reactant gases to be reacted by the arc are admitted to the interior of the catalyst bed and form a cavity there as they expand outward, the bubble-like cavity formed within the mass of catalytic particles thereby providing a type of arc chamber from which plasma state gas particles immediately contact the catalyst particles as the plasma state, gas particles are thrust outwards from the arc zone. After the reactant gases react on catalyst particles, the outward pressure moves the product gases farther through the catalyst bed where the products are then shielded from destructive ultraviolet light from the arc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1989
    Inventor: Louis R. O'Hare
  • Patent number: 4645981
    Abstract: For the glow discharge between a receptacle and a workpiece, the glow discharge path is connected in series with a first switch. A capacitor circuit is charged via the glow discharge path and two diodes. By closing a switch, the previously positive pole of the capacitor circuit is set to the zero potential, whereby the potential of the other pole is shifted negative. By closing a switch, the capacitor circuit is discharged through the glow discharge path while the first switch is closed. Upon the discharging of the capacitor circuit, the supply voltage continues to be present at the glow discharge path for the remaining pulse time. In the initial range, the voltage pulses have a pulse peak for ignition followed by a maintenance range, the height of which corresponds to the supply voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1987
    Inventor: Siegfried Stramke
  • Patent number: 4505795
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for the production of compounds from gas mixture by the plasma method, particularly useful for the production of nitric oxides from atmospheric air as a step in producing synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer. According to the novel method, a supersonic speed is imparted to the gaseous medium flowing through the reactor in which an electrical discharge is produced, and at least part of the energy of the gaseous medium exiting from the reactor is converted into electrical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1985
    Inventor: Moshe Alamaro