Cells With Base Treatment Means Patents (Class 204/227)
  • Patent number: 6391165
    Abstract: A system for reclaiming cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride solar cell. The system comprises a crushing apparatus for crushing cells into pieces, a first conveyor for transporting solar cells to the crushing apparatus, a barrel for receiving etchant for etching the crushed cell pieces, a second conveyor for transporting crusehed pieces of cells from the crushing apparatus to the barrel, and a screen separator for separating the crushed cell pieces into at least three components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2002
    Assignee: First Solar, LLC
    Inventors: John Raphael Bohland, Igor Ivanovich Anisimov, Todd James Dapkus, Richard Anthony Sasala, Ken Alan Smigielski, Kristin Danielle Kamm
  • Patent number: 6365019
    Abstract: A basket, for use in the reduction of UO2 to uranium metal and in the electrorefining of uranium metal, having a continuous annulus between inner and outer perforated cylindrical walls, with a screen adjacent to each wall. A substantially solid bottom and top plate enclose the continuous annulus defining a fuel bed. A plurality of scrapers are mounted adjacent to the outer wall extending longitudinally thereof, and there is a mechanism enabling the basket to be transported remotely.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: Steven D. Herrmann, Robert D. Mariani
  • Patent number: 6361677
    Abstract: The plant comprises: an electrolysis cell (1″) having a soluble anode (2″1) and an insoluble cathode (3″) without an interposed membrane, means for introducing the bath into the cell and for removing the bath from the cell, means for maintaining an appropriate bath density gradient in the said cell so that, if D1 is the density of the bath in the vicinity of the cathode and if D2 is the density of the bath in the vicinity of the anode, (D2−D1)>100 g/l. Associated process. By virtue of the densitometric separation, the dissolved metal is not redeposited on the cathode and the overall dissolution yield is improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2002
    Assignee: Usinor
    Inventors: Bernard Fritzinger, Marc Sardoy
  • Publication number: 20020033344
    Abstract: The electrodes have jet openings which jet the electrolyte to the steel strip, that is to say, the electrode is integrated with the nozzle which jets an electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 18, 2001
    Publication date: March 21, 2002
    Applicant: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsumi Mabuchi, Tomoko Kikuchi, Yasunobu Kani, Tsuneo Nakamura, Shinichi Yokosuka
  • Patent number: 6322673
    Abstract: Apparatus for use in a continuous electrochemical treating line and a method for electrochemically treating at least one surface of a continuous web moving through an electrolyte solution contained within a tank. The apparatus includes at least one electrode extending across the surface of the continuous web in combination with at least two rigid, non-conductive, and non-polar bumper devices also extending the continuous web surface. The bumper devices include a slick contact surface positioned against the continuous web surface at spaced apart locations that prevent the continuous web from moving outside a pass-line through the electrolyte solution and arcing against the electrode. The bumper devices may comprise either a bumper strip or a conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: Electroplating Technologies, Ltd.
    Inventor: James L. Forand
  • Publication number: 20010037945
    Abstract: Between a wafer and a holder holding a wafer, a seal member is disposed so that a contact surface is formed in an approximate plane, and an inner periphery surface is formed in an approximate plane and approximately vertical to a contact surface. The seal member, in a sealed state, has a brim portion of a radius of curvature of 0.5 mm or less at a boundary portion between an inner periphery surface of a seal member and a contact surface. Due to a brim portion, a gap between a contact surface of a seal member and a surface being plated of a wafer W can be made smaller, resulting in reducing bubbles entering in a gap.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2001
    Publication date: November 8, 2001
    Inventors: Wataru Okase, Takenobu Matsuo, Koichiro Kimura, Kyungho Park, Yoshinori Kato, Yasushi Yagi
  • Patent number: 6245209
    Abstract: An electro-refining system in which the deposited metal is harvested without the need to remove the cathode from the slurry bath. The cathode has a hollow cavity permitting steam or hot water to be introduced to heat the cathode. During the deposition process, the heating of the cathode encourages the deposition process. When the deposited material is to be harvested, the cathode is heated to “melt” the bonds between the cathode and the deposited metal. Using a bracket which was installed before the deposition process and into which the deposited metal has been formed, the now-released sheet of deposited metal is easily removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2001
    Inventor: Jacobs Bill
  • Patent number: 6214179
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method of electrowinning metal from an eluate containing the metal in solution and includes the steps of feeding the eluate into a closed tank which includes a suitably electrified anode and cathode, electrolytically depositing metal from the eluate onto the cathode and at least periodically causing the deposited metal to be dislodged from the cathode for removal from the tank. Preferably the metal is dislodged from the cathode by movement of the cathode in the eluate in the tank. The invention further extends to an electrowinning cell for carrying out the method of the invention with the anode being in the form of a metal cylinder in which the cathode is rotatably located.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Kemix (Proprietary) Limited
    Inventor: William Norman Cartner
  • Patent number: 6190515
    Abstract: The invention concerns a silver refining installation operating according to the Moebius method and designed for treating particulate raw silver. The anodes contain a section for receiving the raw silver, an underlying section for receiving anodic slime and, inserted between these two sections a support permeable to anodic slime and designed for the raw silver overflow. The support has at least two mutually mobile conveying elements with horizontal axes extending substantially over the support length and between which a slot allows the anodic slime to pass through. The invention is characterized in that the conveying elements have a reciprocating motion in the axial direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2001
    Assignee: Prior Engineering AG
    Inventor: Adalbert Prior
  • Patent number: 6187166
    Abstract: A method and system for electroplating a metal coating onto a continuous part, such as the leadframe stock used in packaging integrated circuits, whereby the method comprises plating metal from a series of plating baths having the same or compatible chemical composition, supplying a continuous electrical connection between the D.C. power supply via a rotating contact held in intimate contact with the cathode, and cooling the contact by using the plating solution itself.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2001
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Paul R. Moehle, David M. Drew, Stephen J. Smith
  • Patent number: 6179983
    Abstract: An apparatus for depositing an electrical conductive layer on the surface of a wafer includes a virtual anode located between the actual anode and the wafer. The virtual anode modifies the electric current flux and plating solution flow between the actual anode and the wafer to thereby modify the thickness profile of the deposited electrically conductive layer on the wafer. The virtual anode can have openings through which the electrical current flux passes. By selectively varying the radius, length, or both, of the openings, any desired thickness profile of the deposited electrically conductive layer on the wafer can be readily obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2001
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan David Reid, Steve Taatjes
  • Patent number: 6174418
    Abstract: A continuous plating apparatus in which a planar article, to be plated, laid vertically on a rail is delivered while being clamped on both sides by vertical rotational rollers including a drive roller, and continuously fed through a slit provided liquid-tightly in a plating bath wall into a plating bath, and after the plating, fed out of the bath through a slit provided liquid-tightly in the plating bath wall in the same way, meets the following requirements: i) an upper end of the drive roller is arranged to be slanted forwardly and the slant of the drive roller is in the range of 1 to 10° so as to prevent the article to be plated from stepping during delivering; ii) a part of an rotational roller and/or a drive roller is an electric feeding roller, and a means for peeling a plated layer adhered to the surface of the electric feeding roller is provided; iii) a means for depressing the electric feeding roller against the article to be plated is provided for always keeping constant the flow of the curre
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2001
    Inventor: Kazuo Ohba
  • Patent number: 6139592
    Abstract: The object of the invention is to provide a process for producing an organic solid electrolyte capacitor which is diminished in leakage current, and an apparatus for use in practicing the process. The process includes the steps of completing a capacitor element by forming a dielectric oxide film over an anode body of valve metal and subsequently forming a cathode layer of solid conductive organic material over the oxide film, subjecting the capacitor element to an aging treatment, and forming a shell around the capacitor element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignees: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Sanyo Electronic Components Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hidenori Kamigawa, Youichi Kojima, Takeshi Takamatsu, Yasutoshi Sugita, Yasuhiko Ito, Tomohiro Nishio
  • Patent number: 6079093
    Abstract: A method and a device for releasing electrolytically deposited cathode plates from each side of a mother plate. At least one roller is pressed against the surface of the deposited cathode plate, and the roller is moved along the surface of the deposited cathode plate in order to cause the release of the deposited cathode plate from the mother plate at least in the rolled area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Outokumpu Wenmec AB
    Inventor: Kjell Segerstrom
  • Patent number: 5776327
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for electroplating a workpiece. The apparatus includes an anode basket containing particles of an electroplating material. A mask is positioned around the anode basket to selectively block current flow from the basket to the workpiece which is mounted to a cathode. The mask includes a frame supporting a number of non-conductive plates adjusted in position to provide a desired electrical field distribution. The resulting electrical field between the anode and the cathode produces uniform plating thickness over the entire surface of the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Semiconuctor Americe, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert R. Botts, Swati V. Joshi, Louis W. Nicholls
  • Patent number: 5679224
    Abstract: Carbon or carbon-based cathodes and cell bottoms of electrolytic cells for the production of aluminium in particular by the electrolysis of alumina in a molten halide electrolyte such as cryolite, are treated to better resist intercalation of sodium in the cell operating conditions by impregnation and/or coating with colloidal alumina, ceria, cerium acetate, lithia, yttria, thoria, zirconia, magnesia or monoaluminium phosphate followed by drying and heat treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1997
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventor: Jainagesh A. Sekhar
  • Patent number: 5650053
    Abstract: A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Eddie C. Gay, William E. Miller, James J. Laidler
  • Patent number: 5628892
    Abstract: A length of electroplated metal foil, typically copper foil is prepared by placing a stationary arcuate anode concentrically with a rotating cathode drum to define a channel therebetween, passing a plating solution through the channel, conducting electricity across the channel for depositing metal on the cathode drum, and separating the metal deposit from the cathode drum. The anode includes a plurality of circumferentially arranged electrode segments formed of a valve metal material and coated with a platinum group metal or oxide thereof. The electrode segments are removably attached and electrically connected to a back plate. The split anode is easy in assembly and disassembly and, hence, in maintenance and repair, has a high degree of precision in configuration and dimensions, and ensures manufacture of copper foil of quality with a minimized variation in thickness during continuous operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Yukio Kawashima, Kazuhide Ohe, Hiroyuki Nakada
  • Patent number: 5587064
    Abstract: For the purification of heavy metal-containing wastewater, a process according to the invention deposits heavy metal deposits on a cathode or cathodes which are mechanically removed. For this purpose the invention provides an apparatus having a device for the mechanical removal of the heavy metal deposits on the cathode or cathodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1996
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Inventors: G unther Hambitzer, Winfried B oke, Armin Oertel
  • Patent number: 5567285
    Abstract: A facility for removing electro-deposited layers from cathodes, including a cathode reception area, a cathode treatment area with a cathode washing apparatus and an extraction apparatus, and a storage area to store cathodes which have had electro-deposited layers removed. The extraction apparatus includes vertical claws and two parallel rollers mounted so that they are capable of turning freely upon two horizontal parallel bars. The bars are fixed between pairs of arms that are mounted so that they may tilt on a bracket. The bracket also carries upper separating rollers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1996
    Assignee: Asturiana De Zinc, S.A.
    Inventors: Francisco J. Sitges Menendez, Fernando Sitges Menendez, Francisco Alvarez Tamargo, Francisco Tamargo Garcia, Jose M. Quiroga Alvarez, Ives Lefevre, Carlos Gonzalez Gonzalez
  • Patent number: 5453174
    Abstract: Thick layers of hard dense chromium coatings are formed on metal substrates by an electrolytic brush plating operation in which a lead-tin anode is closely positioned to a cathodic workpiece in full anode wrap relationship and the surface of the cathodic workpiece is wiped by an open construction wiper to remove hydrogen bubbles and/or outwardly extending dendritic coating material with minimum contact with and force upon the coating surface. The open wiper construction allows free access to the coated surface at all times of fresh undepleted coating electrolyte and allows hydrogen bubbles and dendritic material to be discharged unimpeded from the wiper structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1995
    Assignee: Electroplating Technologies Ltd.
    Inventors: Erik S. Van Anglen, Harold M. Keeney
  • Patent number: 5443705
    Abstract: An apparatus capable of functioning as a solid cathode and for removing crystalline structure from the upper surface of a liquid cathode, includes a metallic support vertically disposed with respect to an electrically insulating container capable of holding a liquid metal cathode. A piston of electrically insulating material mounted on the drive tube, surrounding the current lead, for vertical and rotational movement with respect thereto including a downwardly extending collar portion surrounding the metallic current lead. At least one portion of the piston remote from the metallic current lead being removed. Mechanism for lowering the piston to the surface of the liquid cathode and raising the piston from the surface along with mechanism for rotating the piston around its longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: William E. Miller, Zygmunt Tomczuk
  • Patent number: 5413646
    Abstract: A method for depositing chromium and iron metals on substrates is disclosed in which the chromium hardens when heated. The electrolytic plating bath preferably includes: (a) water soluble Cr(III) produced by reducing Cr(VI) with sufficient amounts of methanol or formic acid; (b) ammonium formate; (c) a sulfate catalyst, such as sodium sulfate; (d) an inorganic iron compound, such as iron sulfate; (e) sufficient amounts of boric acid to substantially saturate the bath; and (f) a sufficient amount of sulfuric acid to provide a bath pH of from about 1.0 to about 1.5. The heat-hardenable chromium deposit allows the plated substrate to be heat tempered after plating to provide a KHN of greater than about 1200. This eliminates the necessity of removing oxidation products from an unplated heated substrate. Moreover, the amount of toxic Cr(VI) present in the bath is greatly diminished, and is replaced with a Cr(III) species that is environmentally safer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1995
    Assignee: Blount, Inc.
    Inventors: John Dash, John DeHaven
  • Patent number: 5399249
    Abstract: A device for electrolytically recovering metal, in particular silver, from a photographic processing solution, said device having an anode located in a recovery chamber and a movably arranged cathode as well as a scraper for removing metal, in particular silver, deposited on said cathode. For the purpose of electrolytically depositing metal (17), cathode (12, 32, 42) is held stationary in its operating position within the solution (16). For removal of the metal, the metal-loaded cathode (12,32, 42) is moved out of its operating position within the solution (16) and is brought into engagement with the scraper (14, 20, 34, 44) arranged outside the solution (16). Subsequently, the cathode (12,32, 42) freed from metal (17) returns to its operating position within the solution (16) for a repeated electrolytic deposition of metal (17).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1995
    Inventor: Gert Scheufler
  • Patent number: 5344539
    Abstract: An electrochemical fine processing apparatus for electrochemically performing an adding processing and a removing processing of a substance such as a metal or a polymer in a solution in order to produce a structure having a high aspect ratio. Removing electrodes for applying an electric potential opposite to that applied to an addition electrode are disposed around the addition electrode, whereby an excess portion of metal or polymer film pattern can be scraped electrochemically. In addition, alternate electric potential pulses are applied successively to the addition electrode and then to the removing electrodes. It becomes possible to form on the support a structure with sharp pattern edge portions and a high aspect ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventors: Masataka Shinogi, Toshihiko Sakuhara, Masayuki Suda, Fumiharu Iwasaki, Akito Ando
  • Patent number: 5290412
    Abstract: A process for separating an electrodeposited metal from a cathode plate in electrolytic refining is disclosed. The cathode plate on which the metal is electrodeposited is first held. Then, heated air is blown toward the cathode plate and the electrodeposited metal thereon. As a result, the electrodeposited metal is separated from the cathode plate. An apparatus for carrying out the same process is also disclosed. The apparatus includes a separating furnace, a holding assembly, and a device for introducing heated air into the separating furnace. The holding assembly is attached to the separating furnace for holding the cathode plate in the furnace. The heated air-introducing device introduces heated air, blowing it against the cathode plate, whereby the electrodeposited metal is separated from the cathode plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1994
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
    Inventors: Hideomi Saito, Saburo Tanaka, Hiroyuki Morozumi, Akiyoshi Tatsui, Akira Yoshioka
  • Patent number: 5269897
    Abstract: Installation for removing zinc deposited by electrolysis aluminum plates. The installation includes a storage zone for zinc cathode (1), a zinc scraping zone (2) and a storage zone (3) for zinc-free cathodes, the cathodes being displaced consecutively from one zone to another. The scraping zone (2) has a horizontally acting lateral piercer (22) that separates the upper edge of the sheets of deposited zinc from the cathodes, and a vertically acting scraping device (23) for removing all the zinc sheets.On one of their vertical sides, the cathodes have an upper zone of lesser thickness to which is fixed coatings (76) of dielectric material, whose surface is coplanar with that of the cathode plate (70).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1993
    Assignee: Asturiana De Zinc, S.A.
    Inventors: Franciso J. S. Menendez, Vicente A. Fernandez, Francisco A. Tamargo, Fernando M. S. Menendez, Manuel P. Lopez, Jose M. M. Valdes
  • Patent number: 5250166
    Abstract: A method of recovering palladium from a palladium-containing aqueous solution by electrolysis is provided. The method comprises the steps of dc-electrolyzing the palladium-containing aqueous solution acidified with nitric acid by using an electrolytic cell equipped with a platinum electrode as a cathode to thereby deposit and collect palladium on the cathode, taking the cathode on which palladium has been deposited and collected out of the electrolytic cell, transferring the palladium-deposited cathode to a recovery vessel containing dilute nitric acid therein, and mechanically shaking the cathode in the recovery vessel to remove and recover palladium from the cathode. An apparatus for carrying out the above-described method is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1993
    Assignees: Doryokuro Kakunenryo Kaihatsu Jigyodan, Johoku Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenji Motojima, Misato Horie, Shin-ichiro Torada
  • Patent number: 5186797
    Abstract: Disclosed is an in-line electrolytic deflash system and method for removing resin bleed and other materials from the leads of an encapsulated electronic component. An encapsulated electronic component is carried on a continuous belt through the system. The component first passes through an electrolytic deflash station which includes tanks filled with a deflash solution for loosening the resin bleed. The component is then rinsed in a low pressure rinse station, and then carried through a high pressure rinse station where the loosened resin bleed is removed from the component. The component is then further rinsed with both tap water and a deionized water. Once the component has been sufficiently rinsed any remaining moisture is blown off the part in an air knife station and the component is then passed through a dryer which completely removes any moisture remaining on the component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Assignee: Future Automation, Inc.
    Inventors: Heinz W. Schlenker, Louis J. Hirbour, Daniel J. Gramarossa
  • Patent number: 4894251
    Abstract: A method of testing coating integrity of containers includes the steps of introducing a probe into an electrolytic solution into the container and applying a constantly-increasing voltage to the probe from a source and taking readings of the voltage when the current flow through the container reaches a predetermined level. The apparatus also includes a gripping mechanism for producing a positive contact between the metal in the container and the remainder of the circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1990
    Assignee: American National Can Company
    Inventor: Walter J. Sieverin
  • Patent number: 4668369
    Abstract: A reciprocating electrode scrubber is provided which cleans the surfaces of an electrodic liquid treater having an elongated electrode mounted within a cylinderical container and having a second electrode attached to the interior surface thereof. The scrubber includes a ring-shaped body having a U-shaped cross section and includes first and second, spaced-apart, circumscribing wiping structures sized to fit in the space between the first and second electrodes; means coupled with the body for selectively, axially, and reciprocally moving the body; and means yieldably biasing the structures outwardly to hold them in contact with the electrode surfaces to be cleaned. In operation, the body reciprocates along the surfaces of the electrodes to keep them free of accumulated particles which may inhibit the electrodic action of the liquid cleaner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1987
    Inventor: Arthur S. King
  • Patent number: 4157290
    Abstract: A galvanic coating apparatus for coating of relatively long objects. The coating apparatus is provided with a trough for accommodating a bath liquid with the trough including two opposite end walls, each of which are provided with an opening for permitting the long object to pass therethrough. The trough is disposed in a larger container which is also provided with two openings for accommodating the object to be coated. The openings in the trough and the container are arranged such that they are in alignment when the trough is disposed in the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 5, 1979
    Assignee: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Koydl Ladislav, Mielsch Gotz
  • Patent number: 3960695
    Abstract: In the electrolytic production in water of insoluble metal hydroxide from the metal thereof, more especially of coagulant ferric hydroxide from iron, rectangular channels with flanking ribs provide for pre-established, uniform spacing of the electrode plates and intermediate binary wiping structures. Electrolytic current contact is protected against corrosion by a metallic embossment on the plates. Binary reciprocating wipers are at different wiping levels between successive plates and reversely directed to the opposite surfaces thereof. The wipers are urged against the plate surfaces by bilateral springs, as the surfaces recede due to thinning of the plates as they are consumed. Terminal panels, on which the wipers land after a reciprocating stroke, coextensively bound the plates; protuberances facilitate the transit of a wiper between them. The terminal panels may be employed to concurrently generate oxygen or chlorine as a supplement to coagulant ferric hydroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1976
    Inventor: Paul S. Roller