Liquid Electrode Patents (Class 204/250)
  • Patent number: 10559828
    Abstract: A slurry for a lithium ion secondary battery positive electrodes contains a positive electrode active material, a binder, a conductive material, and an organic solvent. The binder contains a nitrile group-containing acrylic polymer and a fluorine-containing polymer; and the viscosity ratio ((viscosity at a shear rate of 2 sec?1)/(viscosity at a shear rate of 20 sec?1)) of this slurry as measured by a coaxial double cylinder viscometer is 1.0-2.5. Positive electrodes produced using the slurry have excellent weight accuracy, and lithium ion secondary batteries produced with positive electrodes produced from the slurry have a high capacity and excellent cycle characteristics at high potentials. The produced lithium ion secondary battery is flexible and free from the occurrence of cracks in an active material layer when bent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2020
    Assignee: ZEON CORPORATION
    Inventors: Takumi Sugimoto, Ikuya Mesuda
  • Patent number: 9765421
    Abstract: A method is described that can be used in electrodes for electrochemical devices and includes disposing a precious metal on a top surface of a corrosion-resistant metal substrate. The precious metal can be thermally sprayed onto the surface of the corrosion-resistant metal substrate to produce multiple metal splats. The thermal spraying can be based on a salt solution or on a metal particle suspension. A separate bonding process can be used after the metal splats are deposited to enhance the adhesion of the metal splats to the corrosion-resistant metal substrate. The surface area associated with the splats of the precious metal is less than the surface area associated with the top surface of the corrosion-resistant metal substrate. The thermal spraying rate can be controlled to achieve a desired ratio of the surface area of the metal splats to the surface area of the corrosion-resistant metal substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2017
    Assignee: TREADSTONE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventor: Conghua Wang
  • Patent number: 8883083
    Abstract: The present invention is an air cleaner that uses molecular sieves, such as zeolite or other microporous/nanoporous crystalline materials with pore sizes ranging from 4 ? to 20 ?, as a filter to remove contaminant gas. The contaminants are adsorbed into the porous material along with ions clusters, or any other oxidant generated by a generating device within the system. The contaminant gas is then catalytically decomposed in the confined space of the pore. In one embodiment, transition metal is incorporated into the porous material, and a heater is installed to substitute or accompany the oxidant-generating device. When the heater is turned on, the contaminant is decomposed within the pores of the materials with the transition metals acting as catalysts. Ultimately, the non-harmful byproducts are the small sized water molecutes and carbon dioxide molecules. Growth of bacteria is also suppressed under a clean and dry condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: RHT Limited
    Inventors: Kwok Yung Anthony Law, Yu Hang Christopher Chao, Sui Chun Law, Wan Chung Lam
  • Patent number: 8758949
    Abstract: A reversible electrochemical system includes a first electrode comprising liquid silver metal and a second electrode, said first and second electrodes separated by a oxygen ion-conducting solid electrolyte; a conduit for directing a first reactive material across the second electrode; and a conduit for contacting second reactive material with the first liquid silver electrode, wherein the cell is capable of steam electrolysis when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is an anode and the cell is capable of electrical energy generation when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is a cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: The Trustees of Boston University
    Inventors: Uday B. Pal, Srikanth Gopalan
  • Patent number: 8715482
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for preparing lithium alloy or lithium metal from lithium carbonate or its equivalent lithium ion source such as spudomene ore without creating toxic byproducts such as halogen gases and a system adopted for such a process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: RESC Investment LLC
    Inventors: Steven C. Amendola, Lawrence Swonger, Stefanie Goldman
  • Publication number: 20140069806
    Abstract: The present invention provides bio-electrochemical systems having various configurations for the treatment of water, wastewater, gases, and other biodegradable matter. In one aspect, the invention provides bio-electrochemical systems configured for treating wastewater while generating multiple outputs. In another aspect, the invention provides bio-electrochemical systems configured for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis removal systems. In yet another aspect, the invention provides bio-electrochemical systems configured for use in banks and basins.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Publication date: March 13, 2014
    Inventors: Matthew Silver, Justin Buck, Patrick Kiely, Juan J. Guzman
  • Publication number: 20130153434
    Abstract: An electrolytic extraction method wins a target element from an oxide feedstock compound thereof. The feedstock compound is dissolved in an oxide melt in contact with a cathode and an anode in an electrolytic cell. During electrolysis the target element is deposited at a liquid cathode and coalesces therewith. Oxygen is evolved on an anode bearing a solid oxide layer, in contact with the oxide melt, over a metallic anode substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2013
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Publication number: 20130026032
    Abstract: A reversible electrochemical system includes a first electrode comprising liquid silver metal and a second electrode, said first and second electrodes separated by a oxygen ion-conducting solid electrolyte; a conduit for directing a first reactive material across the second electrode; and a conduit for contacting second reactive material with the first liquid silver electrode, wherein the cell is capable of steam electrolysis when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is an anode and the cell is capable of electrical energy generation when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is a cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 1, 2012
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicant: THE TRUSTEES OF BOSTON UNIVERSITY
    Inventor: The Trustees of Boston University
  • Patent number: 8303796
    Abstract: Disclosed is a novel method for producing high-purity silicon at low cost. Particularly disclosed is a novel method for producing high-purity silicon, which can be suitably used as a raw material for solar cells, at low cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2012
    Assignees: Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kunio Saegusa, Tetsuo Oishi, Kazuya Koyama
  • Patent number: 8192608
    Abstract: An anode and cathode for an electrolytic cell configured as a low inductance transmission line to enable control of an interphase at an electrode surface. The anode and cathode are coupled to a switched current source by a low inductance path that includes a parallel plate transmission line, a coaxial transmission line, or both. The switched current source provides fast switching between current sources to provide fast charging and discharging of the double-layer capacitance associated with the electrode surface so that an isotope may be selectively transported to the electrode surface for oxidation or reduction. A photon source may be used to create a population of isotope containing species within the electrolyte. An additional static magnetic field and/or an alternating current magnetic excitation source may be used to modify the composition of the population of species containing the isotope to be separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2012
    Inventor: Mehlin Dean Matthews
  • Publication number: 20120043220
    Abstract: An electrolytic extraction method wins a target element from an oxide feedstock compound thereof. The feedstock compound is dissolved in an oxide melt in contact with a cathode and an anode in an electrolytic cell. During electrolysis the target element is deposited at a liquid cathode and coalesces therewith. Oxygen is evolved on an anode bearing a solid oxide layer, in contact with the oxide melt, over a metallic anode substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 19, 2011
    Publication date: February 23, 2012
    Applicant: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Antoine Allanore, Donald R. Sadoway
  • Publication number: 20110094877
    Abstract: Metal recovery apparatus (20) being a diaphragm-less electrolytic cell arrangement where oxidizing reactions are achieved in a cathode cell (32) in an anode mode and reducing reactions in the anode cell (43) in a cathode mode by changing the direction of current flow. Better performance is achieved by pulsing (27b) the DC power (27b) to the electrodes and in some applications, installing plastic mesh (165) over the surface of the solution electrodes (24, 31) to reduce unwanted side reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 6, 2007
    Publication date: April 28, 2011
    Inventor: Rodolfo Antonio M. Gomez
  • Patent number: 7879217
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for anodizing a porous valve metal pellet in a flowing liquid electrolyte is described. The apparatus comprises an insulative container comprised of a lower region, a central region including a cavity for holding the pellet, an upper region, and a continuous passageway extending through the lower, central, and upper regions. Lower and upper screens serving as lower and upper electrodes are disposed in the passageway in the lower and upper container regions, respectively. During anodizing, the electrolyte flows through the lower container region including the lower screen, the porous pellet and then the upper container region including the upper screen. The lower and upper screens are at an opposite electrical polarity as the pellet so that a dielectric oxide is formed on the exposed valve metal including interior portions of the pellet that are exposed to the flowing electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Greatbatch Ltd.
    Inventors: David Goad, Neal Nesselbeck, Jason Hahl
  • Publication number: 20100294671
    Abstract: A cell for the electrowinning of aluminium comprises an electrolysis chamber (20) in which alumina is electrolysed to produce aluminium (30) and a collection reservoir (40,40?) in which product aluminium is collected. The electrolysis chamber and the collection reservoir are in liquid communication so that aluminium produced in the electrolysis chamber can flow from the electrolysis chamber into the collection reservoir. The electrolysis chamber contains one or more metal-based anodes (15). Each anode has an active anodic surface (16) spaced above a facing cathodic surface (31) on which aluminium is produced. The cathodic surface is formed on a structural body (12) by a layer made of molten aluminium into which product aluminium is incorporated during operation. The anodic surface and the cathodic surface have a substantially constant operative position.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 20, 2007
    Publication date: November 25, 2010
    Inventors: Thinh T. Nguyen, Frank Schnyder, René Von Kaenel, Vittorio De Nora, Marcel Joubij
  • Publication number: 20100084283
    Abstract: A process to convert carbon dioxide into a stable substance with electrolytically activated seawater and use this process to sequester carbon dioxide from coal power plants (82) and similar carbon dioxide producing equipment, and capture and sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Electrolytically activated seawater (92) is produced using a unipolar electrolytic cell (91) and is sprayed into a contacting tower (93) or into the air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 18, 2008
    Publication date: April 8, 2010
    Inventor: Rodolfo Antonio M. Gomez
  • Patent number: 7598175
    Abstract: A proximity head and associated method of use is provided for performing confined area planarization of a semiconductor wafer. The proximity head includes a chamber defined to maintain an electrolyte solution. A cathode is disposed within the chamber in exposure to the electrolyte solution. A cation exchange membrane is disposed over a lower opening of the chamber. A top surface of the cation exchange membrane is in direct exposure to the electrolyte solution to be maintained within the chamber. A fluid supply channel is defined to expel fluid at a location adjacent to a lower surface of the cation exchange membrane. A vacuum channel is defined to provide suction at a location adjacent to the lower surface of the cation exchange membrane, such that the fluid to be expelled from the fluid supply channel is made to flow over the lower surface of the cation exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Lam Research Corporation
    Inventors: John M. Boyd, Fritz C. Redeker, Yezdi Dordi, Michael Ravkin, John de Larios
  • Publication number: 20090071841
    Abstract: A reversible electrochemical system includes a first electrode comprising liquid silver metal and a second electrode, said first and second electrodes separated by a oxygen ion-conducting solid electrolyte; a conduit for directing a first reactive material across the second electrode; and a conduit for contacting second reactive material with the first liquid silver electrode, wherein the cell is capable of steam electrolysis when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is an anode and the cell is capable of electrical energy generation when the polarity of the electrodes is selected such that the liquid silver is a cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 16, 2006
    Publication date: March 19, 2009
    Applicant: BOSTON UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Uday B. Pal, Srikanth Gopalan
  • Patent number: 7060652
    Abstract: A liquid electrode mixture for use in a gas sensor having from about 60 to about 240 milligrams of platinum black catalyst; from about 900 to about 1100 milligrams of water; from about 300 to about 400 microliters of 1-propanol; and from about 100 microliters to about 150 microliters of a polymer mixture comprising from about 40% to about 80% PTFE by weight and water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2006
    Assignees: OmegaPoint Systems, LLC, Transducer Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Edward L. Gollar, III, Joseph R. Stetter, Nathan Schattke
  • Publication number: 20040251126
    Abstract: A metal-based fuel cell in which a flow path delivers a flow of reaction solution through a particulate anode and one or more particle releasers are situated along the flow path and configured to release from the cell particles which are prone to clogging due to reductions in size caused by anodic dissolution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2001
    Publication date: December 16, 2004
    Inventors: Martin de Tezanos Pinto, Stuart I. Smedley, Guangwei Wu
  • Publication number: 20040055874
    Abstract: A fluorine gas generator is provided with which the gases used and/or generated, in case of leakage thereof, can be prevented from mixing together as far as possible and, even in case of gas leakage into the outside of the generator system, the leakage gas can be treated safely and in which the maintenance, exchange and other operations are easy to carry out. The generator comprises a box-shaped body containing an electrolyzer for fluorine gas generation, and the box-shaped body is divided into two or more compartments, including a compartment containing the electrolyzer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 15, 2003
    Publication date: March 25, 2004
    Applicant: Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Jiro Hiraiwa, Osamu Yoshimoto, Tetsuro Tojo
  • Publication number: 20040020763
    Abstract: A slurry composition for a positive electrode for a lithium ion secondary battery, comprising a polymer A wherein a HOMO value by a semiempirical method molecular orbital calculation is −13.5 eV to −10 eV and a content of ethylene repeatingunits is 30 mol % to 95 mol %; apolymer B wherein a HOMO valueby a semi empirical method molecular orbital calculation is −13.5 eV to −10 eV, a glass transition temperature is −80° C. to 0° C., and a gel content is 50 wt % or more; an active material for a positive electrode; a conductivity adding agent; and a liquid medium C in which the polymer A dissolves but the polymer B does not dissolve. According to the composition, a lithium ion secondary battery having a large battery capacity, a good charge/discharge cycle characteristic and an improved rate characteristic can be realized.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2003
    Publication date: February 5, 2004
    Applicant: ZEON CORPORATION
    Inventors: Atsuhiro Kanzaki, Takao Suzuki, Katsuya Nakamura
  • Publication number: 20030201169
    Abstract: A drained cathode cell for the electrowinning of aluminium comprises a cell bottom (20) arranged to collect product aluminium and thermic insulating sidewalls (55,55′) lined with a molten electrolyte resistant sidewall lining (50) which is made of material liable to react with molten aluminium, in particular containing silicon carbide, silicon nitride or boron nitride. The thermic insulating sidewalls (55,55′) inhibit formation of an electrolyte crust on the lining (50), whereby the lining (50) is exposed to molten electrolyte. The cell bottom (20) has a peripheral surface from which the insulating sidewalls (55,55′) extend generally vertically to form, with the cell bottom, a trough for containing molten electrolyte and aluminium produced on at least one drained cathode (32).
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 27, 2002
    Publication date: October 30, 2003
    Inventors: Jean-Jacques Duruz, Vittorio De Nora, Georges Berclaz
  • Patent number: 6478934
    Abstract: The invention concerns a motorized device for adjusting the interelectrodic gap in mercury cathode electrolysis cells, mainly consisting of a frame, to which a number of anodes are suspended, movable in the vertical direction by means of a single jackscrew driven by a gear motor acting on double levers. The jackscrew with the motor and the lever system are fixed to a main frame, supported on the cell bottom by means of supports positioned on adjustable columns, while the above mentioned movable frame (also called sub-frame) carrying the anodes, is connected to the lever arms by means of four hinged supports. The shifting of the movable frame and, consequently, of the anodes can be controlled by a centralized and computerized system (which is not part of the invention) as a function of voltage and current variation measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: De Nora Elettrodi S.p.A.
    Inventors: Dario Oldani, Salvatore Peragine
  • Publication number: 20020058174
    Abstract: Compound electrodes are used instead of an anode and solution electrode and cathode and solution electrode in an electrochemical system that does not rely on a diaphragm or membrane directly between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. The compound electrode consists of a solution electrode inside the anode or cathode electrode with a liquid or gel or electrolytic membrane located between the solution electrode and the anode or cathode electrode. The compound electrode may be used in a electrolytic cell, a fuel cell or a unipolar activation cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 7, 2001
    Publication date: May 16, 2002
    Inventor: Rodolfo Antonio Gomez
  • Publication number: 20020008020
    Abstract: The invention concerns a motorized device for adjusting the interelectrodic gap in mercury cathode electrolysis cells, mainly consisting of a frame, to which a number of anodes are suspended, movable in the vertical direction by means of a single jackscrew driven by a gear motor acting on double levers. The jackscrew with the motor and the lever system are fixed to a main frame, supported on the cell bottom by means of supports positioned on adjustable columns, while the above mentioned movable frame (also called sub-frame) carrying the anodes, is connected to the lever arms by means of four hinged supports.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2000
    Publication date: January 24, 2002
    Inventors: Dario Oldani, Salvatore Peragine
  • Patent number: 6306279
    Abstract: A device for adjusting the distance between the anode and the cathode of an electrolytic cell having a compartment, at least one anode partially disposed in a molten metal producing salt bath and a layer of molten metal above a cathode. The device includes a displacement device partially disposed within the layer of molten metal, and an actuator to move the displacement device generally vertically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: Alcoa Inc.
    Inventor: Robert L. Kozarek
  • Patent number: 6287448
    Abstract: A process for producing metallic lithium starting from an aqueous solution of at least one lithium salt comprises the following steps: (I) Production of a lithium amalgam from an aqueous solution of at least one lithium salt; and (II) Electrolysis using an anode comprising the lithium amalgam, a solid electrolyte which conducts lithium ions, and liquid lithium as cathode, wherein the lithium amalgam as anode is kept in motion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Kerstin Schierle-Arndt, Hermann Pütter, Günther Huber, Dieter Schläfer, Josef Guth
  • Publication number: 20010013468
    Abstract: A system for adjustment of the anode-cathode spacing in an electrolytic cell for the production of chlorine and soda comprises (FIG. 4) a liquid mercury electrode (2) disposed on the bottom (3) of the cell (100) and a plurality of anode electrodes (4) supported in transverse lines by mobile frames or subframes (11), adjustable in height, driven by means of respective lever systems (13) disposed between said groups of anodes (4) and an upper fixed frame (16) of the electrolytic cell (1), the lever system comprising a pair of levers (13) hinged at the fixed frame (16), the point of application of resistance thereof being connected to a respective subframe (11) and the point of application of force being connected to means of application of force (19, 20) supported by the fixed frame (16).
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 1, 2001
    Publication date: August 16, 2001
    Inventor: Roberto Prandoni
  • Patent number: 6251235
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an apparatus for plating a surface of a semiconductor workpiece (wafer, flat panel, magnetic films, etc.) using a liquid conductor that makes contact with the outer surface of the workpiece. The liquid conductor is stored in a reservoir and pump through an inlet channel to the liquid chamber. The liquid conductor is injected into a liquid chamber such that the liquid conductor makes contact with the outer surface of the workpiece. An inflatable tube is also provided to prevent the liquid conductor from reaching the back face of the workpiece. A plating solution can be applied to the front face of the workpiece where a retaining ring/seal further prevents the plating solution and the liquid conductor from making contact with each other. Further, the present invention can be used to dissolve/etch a metal layer from the periphery of the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Nutool, Inc.
    Inventors: Homayoun Talieh, Bulent Basol
  • Patent number: 5695630
    Abstract: This invention relates to apparatus for adding mercury ions to a sample fluid within a flow-through sensor system comprising housing means in fluid connection with a main sample stream conduit via a semi-permeable part (2.11), a first electrode (2.8) located within the housing means preferably designed so that it would be in electrical contact with only the mercury when the mercury is located within the housing means, and a second electrode (2.12) located ideally within the main sample stream conduit, the apparatus being arranged such that when mercury is located within housing means and an electrical current is passed between the first and second electrodes, mercury ions are formed in the housing means which then are able to migrate from the housing means via the semi-permeable part into the main sample stream conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1997
    Assignee: The Secretary of State for Defence in Her Britannic Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Inventor: John V. Dobson
  • Patent number: 5641388
    Abstract: An electrolyzing apparatus using a circulating capillary tube type mercury bundled electrode is disclosed, in which the advantage of mercury that it has a high overpotential for hydrogen evolution reaction compared with the general solid metals is preserved, and the disadvantage of mercury that it cannot be so shaped as to have a large contact area is overcome. That is, the mercury contact area is maximized. The oxidation and reduction reactions which occur in the vertically circulating capillary tube type mercury bundle electrode electrolyzing apparatus can be defined by a simple formula so as to quantize their analysis. Based on this formula, the stability checking, and the adjustment of the oxidation state of metal ions in the solution can be carried out in a rapid and continuous manner. Further, the concentration of the metal ions and the oxidation state of the metal ions within the solution can be analyzed in the same manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignee: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
    Inventors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Eil-Hee Lee, Young-Joon Shin, Jae-Hyun Yoo
  • Patent number: 5531868
    Abstract: A combination anode and cathode for an electrorefiner which includes a hollow cathode and an anode positioned inside the hollow cathode such that a portion of the anode is near the cathode. A retaining member is positioned at the bottom of the cathode. Mechanism is included for providing relative movement between the anode and the cathode during deposition of metal on the inside surface of the cathode during operation of the electrorefiner to refine spent nuclear fuel. A method is also disclosed which includes electrical power means selectively connectable to the anode and the hollow cathode for providing electrical power to the cell components, electrically transferring uranium values and plutonium values from the anode to the electrolyte, and electrolytically depositing substantially pure uranium on the hollow cathode. Uranium and plutonium are deposited at a liquid cathode together after the PuCl.sub.3 to UCl.sub.3 ratio is greater than 2:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1996
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: William E. Miller, Eddie C. Gay, Zygmunt Tomczuk
  • Patent number: 5472577
    Abstract: A pump for exerting a pumping force on a fluid in an attached conduit, the pump being actuated by a voltage from a power supply, the pump comprising a liquid metal pool, a containment vessel for confining the pool, an inner tubular member in hydraulic contact with the attached conduit and with an open end disposed in the pool to divide a free upper surface of the pool into an actuation surface and a working surface, an electrolyte in contact with the actuation surface, an electrode in contact with the electrolyte, and an electrode in contact with the pool, such that application of a voltage to the electrodes causes a surface tension change in the actuation surface and a resulting height change in the working surface, whereby a pumping action is transferred to the fluid in the attached conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation
    Inventors: Marc D. Porter, David K. Hoffman, Chuan-Jian Zhong
  • Patent number: 5443705
    Abstract: An apparatus capable of functioning as a solid cathode and for removing crystalline structure from the upper surface of a liquid cathode, includes a metallic support vertically disposed with respect to an electrically insulating container capable of holding a liquid metal cathode. A piston of electrically insulating material mounted on the drive tube, surrounding the current lead, for vertical and rotational movement with respect thereto including a downwardly extending collar portion surrounding the metallic current lead. At least one portion of the piston remote from the metallic current lead being removed. Mechanism for lowering the piston to the surface of the liquid cathode and raising the piston from the surface along with mechanism for rotating the piston around its longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: William E. Miller, Zygmunt Tomczuk
  • Patent number: 4938854
    Abstract: A process for treating solutions of quaternary ammonium hydroxide containing latent halide to lower the latent halide content of the solution comprises the steps of(A) providing an electrolytic cell comprising an anode and a cathode wherein the cathode comprises zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, copper or titanium or alloys thereof, mercury or mercury amalgam,(B) charging a solution containing at least one quaternary ammonium hydroxide which contains latent halide into the electrolytic cell,(C) passing a current through the electrolytic cell to lower the latent halide content in the solution, and(D) recoverying the quaternary ammonium hydroxide solution from the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1990
    Assignee: Southwestern Analytical Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, Alan R. Tanner
  • Patent number: 4917781
    Abstract: A process is described for preparing quaternary ammonium hydroxides of improved purity. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a process of preparing quaternary ammonium hydroxides from the corresponding quaternary ammonium salts in an electrolytic cell which comprises an anolyte compartment containing an anode and a catholyte compartment containing a cathode and water, said anolyte and catholyte compartments being separated from each other by a cation-exchange membrane, said process comprising the steps of(a) providing the catholyte compartment with a cathode of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, or alloys thereof, mercury, or mercury amalgam,(b) charging an aqueous solution containing a quaternary ammonium salt to the anolyte compartment,(c) passing a current through the electrolytic cell to produce quaternary ammonium hydroxide in the catholyte compartment, and(d) recovering the quaternary ammonium hydroxide from the catholyte compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1990
    Assignee: Southwestern Analytical Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, Alan R. Tanner
  • Patent number: 4880506
    Abstract: An electrorefining process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel using an electrolytic cell having a lower molten cadmium pool containing spent nuclear fuel, an intermediate electrolyte pool, an anode basket containing spent fuel, and two cathodes, the first cathode composed of either a solid alloy or molten cadmium and the second cathode composed of molten cadmium. Using this cell, additional amounts of uranium and plutonium from the anode basket are dissolved in the lower molten cadmium pool, and then substantially pure uranium is electrolytically transported and deposited on the first alloy or molten cadmium cathode. Subsequently, a mixture of uranium and plutonium is electrotransported and deposited on the second molten cadmium cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: John P. Ackerman, William E. Miller
  • Patent number: 4834849
    Abstract: An apparatus for recovering a conductive metal from a liquid which contains that metal, and a method for recovering that metal using that apparatus. The apparatus includes a generally closed non-metallic container defining a cavity, for containing the liquid. A first electrode is supported and affixed within the cavity. A second electrode is composed of a thin film applied to the inside surface of the container, the film including as its main constituent the same metal as that to be recovered from the solution. Finally, a power supply is electrically connected, positive to the first electrode and negative to the second electrode, thus causing the metal from the solution to be deposited on the film electrode, lining the inside surface of the container with the metal to be recovered. The disclosed method includes continuously circulating metal-containing liquid into the container and removing demetalized solution from the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1989
    Inventor: Gunter Woog
  • Patent number: 4773980
    Abstract: The invention concerns a process and an apparatus for applying prestresses to carbonaceous cathodic blocks in the operation of sealing the cathodic bar in position with cast iron.The block (1) in the course of the sealing operation is lifted on two rollers (16A, 16B) in the vicinity of its ends (E) and stresses F1 and F3 are simultaneously applied respectively to the ends (10) of the lateral edges of the limb portions (3) of the block and to the central part (C) of the block. Such stresses must be applied during the sealing operation and maintained for 15 to 30 minutes after the end of the cast iron casting operation.That virtually totally suppresses the occurrence of cracks in the cathodic blocks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignees: Aluminium Pechiney, Societe des Electrodes et Refractaires Savoie Sers
    Inventors: Laurent Michard, Gabriel Audras
  • Patent number: 4668368
    Abstract: A metal amalgamatable with mercury, gold in particular, is extracted from a slurry in which it is dispersed in low concentration, in particular from alluvial sands, by contact with mercury the surface of which is continuously freed of the sulfides which form thereon as a secondary process and is renewed continuously by electrolytic deposit of mercury.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1987
    Inventor: Antonio Ferro
  • Patent number: 4664760
    Abstract: Disclosed are electrolytic cell and method in which first and second electrodes are adapted to pass a current through an inter-electrode zone of specified dimension for containing electrolyte, wherein the first electrode is held free from support by internal cell surfaces, and one electrode is provided with electrical connection to a liquid pad, e.g., of molten metal product, having a higher electrical conductivity than cell electrolyte.A preferred embodiment includes channeling gas from the anode, facilitating run-off of product liquid from the cathode, and incorporating bipolar electrode assemblies. The cell and method of the present invention are suitable for the production of a metal, for example, aluminum, from a compound of the metal, e.g., alumina, dissolved in an electrolyte, e.g., cryolite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: Noel Jarrett
  • Patent number: 4628291
    Abstract: An oil expulsion fuse having a pair of contacts solidly secured to the ends of a high strength outer insulating tube. A resilient non-conducting inner sleeve is mounted within the bore of the insulating tube and contact assembly, the sleeve and tube being closely fit to each other. A fusible link is assembled in the bore of the resilient sleeve secured to the contact ends by fuse clamps. The fusible link includes a support tube also composed of a resilient non-conductive material which together with the inner sleeve absorb and trap high energy fuse link particles during a fusing operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1986
    Assignee: RTE Corporation
    Inventor: Wayne W. Lien
  • Patent number: 4505796
    Abstract: An electrolytic reduction cell for the production of molten metal by electrolysis of a molten electrolyte, which is less dense than the molten metal includes a generally rectangular shell, one or more suspended anodes and a floor structure which supports a body of the molten metal. At least one essentially linear baffle member extends transversely of the cell and is formed with restricted flow channels for absorbing energy from the molten metal and to reduce the amplitude of the wave motion in the molten metal. The baffle may be in the form of a single member formed with apertures for metal flow restriction or may be constituted by a number of separate aligned members with metal flow channels between them.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1985
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Jean-Paul R. Huni, Ethan A. Hollingshead, Thomas G. Edgeworth, Raman R. Sood, Ernest W. Dewing, Charles J. Rogers
  • Patent number: 4504366
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolytic cell including means for holding a first electrode in position relative to a second electrode to form an inter-electrode zone of specified dimension for containing electrolyte, wherein the first electrode is held essentially free from support by the internal surfaces of the cell, said means for holding including means for supporting the first electrode from the second electrode; and conductive means for electrically connecting one electrode to a separate liquid pad of higher conductivity than the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1985
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Noel Jarrett, Thomas R. Hornack
  • Patent number: 4475994
    Abstract: A process and apparatus is provided for separating oxygen from a mixture of gases such as air. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell that includes a cathode, an anode and an electrolyte. Oxygen in the air is reduced to the superoxide ion (O.sub.2.sup.-) at the cathode; the superoxide ion is transported across the cell through the electrolyte; and the superoxide ion is then reoxidized to oxygen at the anode and collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1984
    Assignee: Maxdem Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert R. Gagne, Matthew L. Marrocco, III
  • Patent number: 4448660
    Abstract: A monitoring and control apparatus for flowing mercury electrolytic cells by measurement of the voltage drop in the shunted feed line of each electrode group comprising taps at the ends of a measured section of electrical bus bars for each electrode group electrically connected to a measuring means whereby the measured voltage drop is fed as an amplified signal to the measuring means, a control means set for a value from the total cell current divided by the number of taps comparing the actual measured values at various feed lines and a signal means activated when a set excess current is exceeded and to actuate the adjusters for a group of electrodes to lift the electrodes stepwise by an adjustable amount until excess current is not measured by comparison indicating that the feed line is no longer overloaded and a method of monitoring electric current in a mercury cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1984
    Assignee: Heraeus Elektroden GmbH
    Inventor: Peter Fabian
  • Patent number: 4440614
    Abstract: In a flowing mercury cathode electrolytic cell for the electrolysis of aqueous solutions there is provided an improved brine flow baffle insertable into the brine inlet trough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1984
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Don E. Reynolds, James F. Pickering
  • Patent number: 4427519
    Abstract: A protective shield adjacent the electrolyzer container and electrolyzer cover for a flowing mercury chlor-alkali electrolytic cell is provided to serve as a stop to prevent retaining means utilized to hold the electrolyzer cover in position from being propelled into the work area and hot brine from being spewn into the work area in the event of explosive hydrogen gas buildup within the electrolytic cell gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1984
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Moore, Dennis J. Odom
  • Patent number: 4410403
    Abstract: An electrolysis method involving electrolyzing, between anodic and cathodic surface areas, a compound dissolved in a solvent. A liquid cathodic body is located in a region such that it is possible for waves in the body to touch anodic surface area. The improvement includes placing a bed of objects into the mentioned region. Interstices remain between the objects for accommodating liquid from the mentioned body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1983
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Stanley C. Jacobs, Raymond D. Wiltzius, John R. Minick, Perry A. Foster, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4400247
    Abstract: Metals and metalloids are produced by cathodically dissolving compounds thereof in electrolytic cells. These cells have one or more heterogenous bipolar electrodes in series, with a terminal electrode as cathode and another terminal electrode as a soluble or inert anode. A common electrolyte is in contact with all electrodes.The compounds of the metals or metalloids are introduced into the cells and are brought into contact with the cathodic sides of the heterogenous electrodes. A cathodic half reaction takes place on the heterogenous bipolar electrode which permits the reduction and dissolution of the metal and metalloid compounds into the common electrolyte. The terminal negative electrodes are the site of the electrolytic deposition of the metals.The cells may also include an electrowinning system of anodes and cathodes, connected by way of the common electrolyte, for depositing the dissolved metals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Metals Technology & Instrumentation, Inc.
    Inventor: Marco V. Ginatta