Diaphragm Type Patents (Class 204/251)
  • Patent number: 9618478
    Abstract: Provided are a sample analysis method using capillary electrophoresis capable of enhancing analysis accuracy, a solution for capillary electrophoresis, and a sample analysis kit. The sample analysis method includes separating and/or detecting a substance to be analyzed in a sample through capillary electrophoresis, in which the substance to be analyzed is separated and/or detected in the presence of a pH buffer substance and a non-surfactant-type zwitterionic substance. Further, the solution for capillary electrophoresis contains a pH buffer substance, a non-surfactant-type zwitterionic substance, and water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2017
    Assignee: ARKRAY, Inc.
    Inventor: Naotsugu Onuma
  • Publication number: 20140251822
    Abstract: A NaSICON cell is used to convert carbon dioxide into a usable, valuable product. In general, this reaction occurs at the cathode where electrons are used to reduce the carbon dioxide, in the presence of water and/or hydrogen gas, to form formate, methane, ethylene, other hydrocarbons and/or other chemicals. The particular chemical that is formed depends upon the reaction conditions, the voltage applied, etc.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby
  • Publication number: 20140158545
    Abstract: The invention as described in the following relates to an apparatus for the electrochemical deposition of a metal on a substrate, which apparatus is capable of refreshing an electrolyte used for the deposition in a continuous way. Furthermore, the invention as described relates to a method of refreshing an electrolyte for the electrochemical deposition of a metal on a substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2012
    Publication date: June 12, 2014
    Applicant: ENTHONE INC.
    Inventors: Stefan Schäfer, Christine Fehlis, Marlies Kleinfeld
  • Publication number: 20140076730
    Abstract: A method of harvesting Group I metals from waste materials, including agitating Group I metal-containing materials in water to define a Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, removing any solid material from the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, and filling the cathode portion of an electrochemical cell with the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution. A current collector is introduced into the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, a steel electrode is operationally connected to the cathode portion, and the cathode portion is operated to deposite Group I metal onto the steel electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2013
    Publication date: March 20, 2014
    Inventor: Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation
  • Publication number: 20120183868
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an alkaline cation-conducting ceramic membrane covered, over at least a portion of the surface thereof, with a cation-conducting organic polyelectrolyte layer that is insoluble and chemically stable in pH-basic water. The invention also relates to an electrochemical device including such a membrane as a solid electrolyte in contact with a liquid electrolyte formed of an alkali metal hydroxide aqueous solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2010
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: Electricite De France
    Inventors: Gwenaelle Toussaint, Philippe Stevens
  • Patent number: 8137512
    Abstract: A process for analyzing a sample by a capillary electrophoresis method is provided that allows the apparatus to be reduced in size, allows a high analytical precision to be obtained, and can be carried out easily. The analytical process of the present invention is a process for analyzing a sample by a capillary electrophoresis method. The analytical process includes preparing a capillary tube to be used for the capillary electrophoresis method, and performing electrophoretic separation of a complex of a sample and an anionic group-containing compound that are bonded together, in the capillary tube, wherein the capillary tube includes an anionic layer that is formed of the anionic group-containing compound and that is coated on the inner wall of the capillary tube, and the anionic layer is fixed to the inner wall of the capillary tube by a covalent bond.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignees: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Arkray, Inc.
    Inventors: Yoshihide Tanaka, Shinichi Wakida, Yusuke Nakayama, Satoshi Yonehara
  • Patent number: 8114258
    Abstract: An electrolysis device producing alkali metals from a liquid alkali metal heavy metal alloy, including at least two connected tubes forming an electrolysis unit. Two solid electrolyte tubes are arranged concentrically in each tube and oriented with openings towards one end of each tube such that a first annular gap for guiding a liquid alkali metal forming an anode is located between the inside of the tube and the outside of the solid electrolyte tubes. An alloy inlet and outlet for the liquid alkali metal in each of the tubes leads into the first annular gap of a tube. An inner chamber sealed off from the alloy inlet, first annular gap, and alloy outlet in each solid electrolyte tube receives liquid alkali metal that can be used as a cathode connected to the alkali metal outlet. Two respective closure devices are arranged at the two ends of each tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2012
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Guenther Huber, Michael Lutz, Michael Wille, Holger Friedrich, Josef Guth, Uwe Behling, Axel Franke, Elisabeth Gunkel
  • Patent number: 7981260
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell for preparing alkali metals from a liquid alkali metal heavy metal alloy, including a tube arranged essentially horizontally having a closure device at each of the two ends of the tube. At least one solid electrolyte tube arranged concentrically in the tube and oriented with openings towards one end of the tube such that a first annular gap for conducting a liquid alkali metal, which forms an anode, is present between the inside of the tube and the outside of the solid electrolyte tube. An interior space in the solid electrolyte tube, sealed off from an alloy inlet, first annular gap and an alloy outlet, accommodates liquid alkali metal that can be used as a cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Guenther Huber, Reinhard Oettl, Manfred Munzinger, Heinz Neumann, Martina Schulz, Matthias Stahl, Gerhard Ruf, Ralph Hamleser, Hans-Juergen Bender, Volker Esswein
  • Publication number: 20110094877
    Abstract: Metal recovery apparatus (20) being a diaphragm-less electrolytic cell arrangement where oxidizing reactions are achieved in a cathode cell (32) in an anode mode and reducing reactions in the anode cell (43) in a cathode mode by changing the direction of current flow. Better performance is achieved by pulsing (27b) the DC power (27b) to the electrodes and in some applications, installing plastic mesh (165) over the surface of the solution electrodes (24, 31) to reduce unwanted side reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 6, 2007
    Publication date: April 28, 2011
    Inventor: Rodolfo Antonio M. Gomez
  • Patent number: 7598175
    Abstract: A proximity head and associated method of use is provided for performing confined area planarization of a semiconductor wafer. The proximity head includes a chamber defined to maintain an electrolyte solution. A cathode is disposed within the chamber in exposure to the electrolyte solution. A cation exchange membrane is disposed over a lower opening of the chamber. A top surface of the cation exchange membrane is in direct exposure to the electrolyte solution to be maintained within the chamber. A fluid supply channel is defined to expel fluid at a location adjacent to a lower surface of the cation exchange membrane. A vacuum channel is defined to provide suction at a location adjacent to the lower surface of the cation exchange membrane, such that the fluid to be expelled from the fluid supply channel is made to flow over the lower surface of the cation exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Lam Research Corporation
    Inventors: John M. Boyd, Fritz C. Redeker, Yezdi Dordi, Michael Ravkin, John de Larios
  • Patent number: 7005050
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a novel, small-scale, electrophoretic separation system based on photodefined polymers and electrode-defined sample injection. Diffusion and displacement coefficients may be modified by varying the gel concentration, the intensity of the incident UV radiation and the temperature at which the gel is run. The device is an major advance over current technology since it provides for a significant reduction in size of the micro-electrophoresis apparatus and a significant cost savings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Mark A. Burns, Sundaresh N. Brahmasandra, Victor M. Ugaz
  • Patent number: 6641713
    Abstract: An object of the invention is to provide a sodium refining apparatus which has a simple constitution and does not deteriorate a solid electrolyte employed therein. The sodium refining apparatus of the invention, in which impurities contained in sodium are removed by a solid electrolyte having sodium ion conductivity, includes a bottom-closed casing made of a solid electrolyte and containing a small amount of highly pure sodium; an outer casing accommodating said bottom-closed casing and containing, outside said bottom-closed casing, impurity-containing sodium; a first electrode inserted in the impurity-containing sodium; a second electrode inserted in the highly pure sodium; and a power source for applying DC voltage to the electrodes; wherein the impurity-containing sodium and the highly pure sodium are in electrical contact with each other via the solid electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2003
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshiro Nishi, Chisato Tsukahara, Hitoshi Kaguchi, Yukinori Usui, Kazuya Kurome
  • Patent number: 6327566
    Abstract: An efficient method and system, particularly well-suited for correcting natural language understanding (NLU) commands, corrects spoken commands misinterpreted by a speech recognition system. The method involves a series of steps, including: receiving the spoken command from a user; parsing the command to identify a paraphrased command; displaying the paraphrased command; and accepting corrections of the paraphrased command from the user. The paraphrased command is segmented according to command language categories, which include a command action category, an action object category, and an action and/or object modifying category. The paraphrased command is displayed in a user interface window segmented into these command language categories. The user interface window also contains alternative commands for each segment of the paraphrased command.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald E. Vanbuskirk, James R. Lewis, Kerry A. Ortega, Huifang Wang
  • Patent number: 6294070
    Abstract: A process for electrolytically producing an amalgam from metal salt, using an anion exchanger membrane. The chlorine-free process provides amalgam produced from metal salt and having a high degree of purity, and ensures advantageous parameters, such as a low cell voltage and high current efficiencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2001
    Assignee: Degussa-Huels Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Carl Heinz Hamann, Peter Schmittinger, Joerg Helling
  • Patent number: 5695630
    Abstract: This invention relates to apparatus for adding mercury ions to a sample fluid within a flow-through sensor system comprising housing means in fluid connection with a main sample stream conduit via a semi-permeable part (2.11), a first electrode (2.8) located within the housing means preferably designed so that it would be in electrical contact with only the mercury when the mercury is located within the housing means, and a second electrode (2.12) located ideally within the main sample stream conduit, the apparatus being arranged such that when mercury is located within housing means and an electrical current is passed between the first and second electrodes, mercury ions are formed in the housing means which then are able to migrate from the housing means via the semi-permeable part into the main sample stream conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1997
    Assignee: The Secretary of State for Defence in Her Britannic Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Inventor: John V. Dobson
  • Patent number: 5641388
    Abstract: An electrolyzing apparatus using a circulating capillary tube type mercury bundled electrode is disclosed, in which the advantage of mercury that it has a high overpotential for hydrogen evolution reaction compared with the general solid metals is preserved, and the disadvantage of mercury that it cannot be so shaped as to have a large contact area is overcome. That is, the mercury contact area is maximized. The oxidation and reduction reactions which occur in the vertically circulating capillary tube type mercury bundle electrode electrolyzing apparatus can be defined by a simple formula so as to quantize their analysis. Based on this formula, the stability checking, and the adjustment of the oxidation state of metal ions in the solution can be carried out in a rapid and continuous manner. Further, the concentration of the metal ions and the oxidation state of the metal ions within the solution can be analyzed in the same manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignee: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
    Inventors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Eil-Hee Lee, Young-Joon Shin, Jae-Hyun Yoo
  • Patent number: 5209836
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell is disclosed having a cell bottom or baseplate that has at least one drain hole therein which is fed by drain canals adjacent an end of the catholyte chamber such that the drain holes are gradually inclined to increase in depth laterally downwardly from the opposing sides of the cell toward the center and longitudinally downwardly from the opposing end of the cell toward the drain hole to permit removal or the addition of the liquid metal cathode from the angled electrolytic cell without requiring disassembly of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1993
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Ford, Sanders H. Moore, David W. Cawlfield
  • Patent number: 5186804
    Abstract: A particular side frame design for use in an electromechanical cell with a catholyte flow pattern is disclosed wherein the cell is angled from the horizontal and the catholyte is fed into a gap in the cathode compartment between the liquid metal cathode and the membrane on the lower first end and exits the gap on the opposing higher second outlet end. The side frame is obliquely angled on the interior of the cell to prevent the escape of the flowable liquid metal cathode and to prevent contact of the acidic catholyte with the cell bottom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Ford, David W. Cawlfield, Kenneth E. Woodard, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5185069
    Abstract: A particular side frame design for use in an electrochemical cell with a catholyte flow pattern is disclosed wherein the cell can be generally horizontal or angled slightly from the horizontal and the catholyte is fed through a transition area into a gap in the catholyte compartment between the liquid metal cathode and the membrane on a first end and exits the gap on an opposing second outlet end. The side frame has opposing sides that are obliquely and downwardly angled in the corners to support the membrane in a wrinkle free manner so that the membrane is obliquely positioned between the liquid metal cathode and the anode. The membrane is above the level of the catholyte where the catholyte enters and exits the catholyte compartment, but drops to a level below the entry and exit points.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1993
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Ford, David W. Cawlfield, Kenneth E. Woodard, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4938854
    Abstract: A process for treating solutions of quaternary ammonium hydroxide containing latent halide to lower the latent halide content of the solution comprises the steps of(A) providing an electrolytic cell comprising an anode and a cathode wherein the cathode comprises zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, copper or titanium or alloys thereof, mercury or mercury amalgam,(B) charging a solution containing at least one quaternary ammonium hydroxide which contains latent halide into the electrolytic cell,(C) passing a current through the electrolytic cell to lower the latent halide content in the solution, and(D) recoverying the quaternary ammonium hydroxide solution from the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1990
    Assignee: Southwestern Analytical Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, Alan R. Tanner
  • Patent number: 4917781
    Abstract: A process is described for preparing quaternary ammonium hydroxides of improved purity. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a process of preparing quaternary ammonium hydroxides from the corresponding quaternary ammonium salts in an electrolytic cell which comprises an anolyte compartment containing an anode and a catholyte compartment containing a cathode and water, said anolyte and catholyte compartments being separated from each other by a cation-exchange membrane, said process comprising the steps of(a) providing the catholyte compartment with a cathode of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, or alloys thereof, mercury, or mercury amalgam,(b) charging an aqueous solution containing a quaternary ammonium salt to the anolyte compartment,(c) passing a current through the electrolytic cell to produce quaternary ammonium hydroxide in the catholyte compartment, and(d) recovering the quaternary ammonium hydroxide from the catholyte compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1990
    Assignee: Southwestern Analytical Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, Alan R. Tanner
  • Patent number: 4882017
    Abstract: A method for making light metal-alkali metal master alloy using alkali metal containing scrap comprises: (a) establishing an electrolytic cell divided into two or more laterally adjacent areas by porous alkali metal ion transport means, said cell including a first cell area supplied with alkali metal-containing scrap and a second cell area consisting essentially of molten light metal; (b) supplying current to this cell for transporting alkali metal ions from the first cell area to the second cell area; (c) forming master alloy by combining these ions with the molten light metal in said second cell area; and (d) withdrawing master alloy from the second cell area. An apparatus for making aluminum-lithium or magnesium-lithium master alloy using the lithium from aluminum-lithium alloy scrap is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1989
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: Mark L. Weaver
  • Patent number: 4772449
    Abstract: A method of making a cathode suitable for an electrochemical cell of the type having a molten sodium anode, a beta"-alumina separator, and a cathode which comprises one or more transition metals selected from the group comprising Fe, Ni, Co, Cr and Mn. The method comprises heating a particulate starting material comprising at least one member of the group of transition metals in an oxidizing atmosphere to cause its particles to become at least partially oxidized, and to adhere together to form a unitary porous matrix. This matrix is then heated in a reducing atmosphere at least partially to reduce the oxide formed during the formation of the matrix, and the reduced matrix is then impregnated with a sodium aluminium chloride molten salt electrolyte. Sodium chloride in dispersed form is incorporated into the matrix, preferably by mixing sodium chloride in particulate form with the particulate transition metal starting material, before the heating in an oxidizing atmosphere to form the matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1988
    Assignee: Lilliwyte Societe Anonyme
    Inventors: Roger J. Bones, David A. Teagle, Stephen D. Brooker
  • Patent number: 4668368
    Abstract: A metal amalgamatable with mercury, gold in particular, is extracted from a slurry in which it is dispersed in low concentration, in particular from alluvial sands, by contact with mercury the surface of which is continuously freed of the sulfides which form thereon as a secondary process and is renewed continuously by electrolytic deposit of mercury.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1987
    Inventor: Antonio Ferro
  • Patent number: 4615783
    Abstract: A gas-diffusion cathode is to be used in the trough-like electrolysis cell with horizontally disposed electrodes which are separated from each other by a membrane. The gas-diffusion cathode (3) rests on a grating (4) with supporting legs (2). A spacer (8) is disposed between membrane (6) and gas-diffusion cathode (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1986
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Rudolf Staab
  • Patent number: 4596639
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolysis process which is characterized by carrying out the electrolysis of an aqueous alkali metal halide solution while supplying a cathode liquor into a cathode compartment formed between a cation exchange membrane positioned substantially horizontal and a cathode plate of gas-liquid impermeability, with which the membrane is wetted, then a mixed stream of the cathode liquor and cathode gas being removed from the cathode compartment.Also disclosed is an electrolytic cell which is comprised of an upper anode compartment and a lower cathode compartment partitioned by a cation exchange membrane positioned substantially horizontal, said anode compartment having therein substantially horizontal anodes and an anolyte solution inlet and outlet, and said cathode compartment having a cathode plate with gas-liquid impermeability and a cathode liquor inlet and an outlet of a mixed stream of the cathode liquor and cathode gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1986
    Assignee: Kanegafuchi Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tsutomu Nishio, Yasushi Samejima, Minoru Shiga, Toshiji Kano, Koji Saiki
  • Patent number: 4586994
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolytic process using a horizontal type cation exchange membrane electrolytic cell in which catholyte liquor is supplied into a cathode compartment with initial linear velocity of at least 8 cm/sec and gas content of at most 0.6 at a catholyte liquor outlet. Also disclosed is an electrolytic cell used for the foregoing process. The invention enables not only conversion of a mercury electrolytic cell to a cation exchange membrane electrolytic cell with low cost, but the long-term and stable operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1986
    Assignee: Kanegafuchi Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yasushi Samejima, Minoru Shiga, Toshiji Kano, Kiyoshi Yamada, Tsutomu Nishio, deceased
  • Patent number: 4556470
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell is disclosed comprising an upper anode compartment and a lower cathode compartment partitioned by a cation exchange membrane, in which partitioning spacers are provided on a cathode plate in order to eliminate the troubles owing to non-uniform flow of catholyte liquor, non-uniformity of anode-cathode gap, coarse surface of the cathode plate and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1985
    Assignee: Kanegafuchi Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yasushi Samejima, Minoru Shiga, Toshiji Kano, Kiyoshi Yamada
  • Patent number: 4362606
    Abstract: The invention relates to a new a method for simultaneous recovering vanadium, molybdenum and gallium from alumina factory aluminate liquors. The recovering is carried out in one step by electrolyzing an alumina factory aluminate liquor a temperature exceeding 70.degree. C. with a current density of from 400 to 1200 A/m.sup.2 using a low-melting liquid alloy as a cathode and agitating said alloy mechanically.By using the new process the three precious metals can be recovered simultaneously in one step with good efficiencies without any preliminary treating of the aluminate liquor and without using any auxiliary chemical.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1982
    Assignee: Magyar Aluminiumipari Troszt
    Inventors: Gabor Sinka, Mihaly Miskei, Ferenc Toth, Laszlo Revesz, Miklos Schlegel
  • Patent number: 4218301
    Abstract: Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing oxygen and hydrogen bromide in an electrolytic cell utilizing, as the cathode, a consumable bromine electrode comprising bromide ions dissolved in a pool of liquid bromine surrounding a metal electrode. The electrolytic cell also contains a water solution of an electrolyte on both sides of a hydrogen ion permeable membrane forming a two-compartment electrolytic cell. In operation of the preferred process, hydrogen bromide gas is given off in the cathode compartment and oxygen gas is given off in the anode compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1980
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Daniel H. Grantham
  • Patent number: 4209370
    Abstract: The present invention refers to a process for electrolysis of brine by mercury cathodes, being the latter cathode separated from the anode by a porous diaphragm or membrane with diameter of pore such that mercury cannot pass through it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1980
    Inventors: Eduardo D. Nogueira, Luis A. S. Infanzon, Enrique H. Tezanos
  • Patent number: 4107020
    Abstract: A vertical electrolytic cell has an anode separated from a cathode by a diaphragm. The cathode comprises continuous threads of mercury flowing down by gravity from evenly distributed apertures in the bottom wall of at least one channel fed with mercury.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1978
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventors: Michel Brochier, Maurice Pichon
  • Patent number: 4101407
    Abstract: A horizontal electrolyzer comprises a mercury cathode, an anode located above the cathode and an inclined diaphragm separating the cathode from the anode, the cathode, diaphragm and anode being substantially parallel. The cathode consists of mercury flowing longitudinally in a plurality of channels which are vertically offset with respect to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1978
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventors: Pierre Hilaire, Georges Lonchampt
  • Patent number: 4040932
    Abstract: A vertical liquid electrode is employed in an electrolytic cell used to manufacture chemical products by the electrolytic decomposition of an electrolyte. The cell incorporates the advantages of high current density, high current efficiency, low space requirement, low liquid electrode requirement, and convenience of optional diaphragm employment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1977
    Inventor: Donald J. Cotton
  • Patent number: 4036714
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the electrolysis of an aqueous solution containing alkali metal ions, for example, the electrolysis of brine to produce chlorine and caustic. In one embodiment, a composite membrane comprising at least an ion-conductive polymer and a metal permeable to alkali metal is used in an electrolytic cell. An illustration of such a polymer is a perfluorocarbon polymer containing sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups, in intimate contact with a layer of mercury. Another aspect is the use of elevated pressures or other techniques substantially to eliminate the presence of normally gaseous products from the electrolyte. For example, high pressures may be employed to dissolve chlorine in a brine electrolyte and/or liquefy it. In another aspect, sodium sulfate is electrolyzed in a cell comprising a composite membrane, a formaminous anode, and a diaphragm between the composite membrane and anode; the oxygen produced is withdrawn through the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1977
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert Spitzer
  • Patent number: 4035279
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for carrying out processes during which gas is evolved is disclosed. The cell includes at least one hoodlike cover positioned above one or more electrodes and having an outlet opening below the electrolyte surface for the gas-electrolyte suspension and an elecrolyte-recycling space positioned outside the projection of the cover. The recycling space is free from gas-producing electrodes and is spaced a sufficient distance from the outlet opening that the backflow of gas is precluded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1977
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Karl Lohrberg, Jurgen Muller
  • Patent number: 4002550
    Abstract: An electrolyzer has an electrolyte tank wherein are accommodated a cathode of the refined metal and an anode of the metal being refined located equidistant from the cathode over shelves of a box-type cross-section arranged in stepped relationship, the shelves being mounted with a clearance relative to the tank inner surface. To circulate the metal there is a pump feeding the metal being refined, from a metal collector situated in the tank bottom, to the top shelf wherefrom the metal flows by gravity over the shelves located therebeneath back into the metal collector. During the circulation of the metal being refined in the electrolyte it dissolves electrochemically and a refined metal deposit is formed on the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1977
    Inventors: Svetoslav Georgievich Smirnov, Nadezhda Semenovna Gorbacheva, Ljubov Valentinovna Ershova, Nina Andreevna Ljubimova, Galina Grigorievna Pestova, Nina Pavlovna Selekhova, Margarita Ilinichna Smirnova, Alexandr Vladimirovich Tiflov, Nina Alexeevna Fomina
  • Patent number: 3972793
    Abstract: A continuous flow-through mercury cathode electrolysis cell is described having a parallel anode and cathode and a non-conductive porous diaphragm separator. The cathode chamber is constructed so as to develop turbulence in the catholyte flowing therethrough to effect the maximum contact between the mercury and the catholyte solute and to promote removal therefrom of any gaseous by-products. Built-in heat exchangers provide efficient control of temperature sensitive electrolyses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1976
    Assignee: Eli Lilly and Company
    Inventors: David A. Hall, Donnis M. Berry, Paul W. Landis
  • Patent number: 3953316
    Abstract: An improved metal anode assembly formed as an integral titanium casting which is comprised of a spider-like distributor having an anodic surface secured to the bottom thereof. At least one anode post receiver is formed in the top of the distributor. The active face of the anodic surface is coated with at least one oxide of a platinum group metal. Utilizing cast titanium to form the distributor, the anode post receiver and the anodic surface of the metal anode assembly of this invention simplifies fabrication of the metal anode assembly and improves the durability and stability of the metal anode assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1973
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1976
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventor: Joseph E. Baker
  • Patent number: 3951767
    Abstract: Alkali metal chlorides, e.g. brine, are electrolized in the presence of substantially horizontal anodes provided on the underside with channel- or groove-like recesses. The anodes and/or the course of the channel- or groove-like recesses in the anodes are positioned to define spaced apart regions between the anodes so as to provide for an outflow of chlorine from the space between the electrodes and for an inflow of brine into this space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1974
    Date of Patent: April 20, 1976
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Karl Lohrberg, Gunther Haas, Jurgen Muller