Rare Earth Metal (i.e., Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Or Lu) Or Compound Containing Patents (Class 204/290.1)
  • Patent number: 9871246
    Abstract: Provided are a cathode active material including lithium transition metal phosphate particles, wherein the lithium transition metal phosphate particles include a first secondary particle formed by agglomeration of two or more first primary particles, and a second secondary particle formed by agglomeration of two or more second primary particles in the first secondary particle, and a method of preparing the same. Since the cathode active material according to an embodiment of the present invention may include first primary particles and second primary particles having different average particle diameters, the exfoliation of the cathode active material from a cathode collector may be minimized and performance characteristics, such as high output characteristics and an increase in available capacity, of a secondary battery may be further improved. In addition, since the first secondary particles are porous, the secondary particles are collapsed and fractured due to rolling when used in a cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Ji Hye Kim, Wang Mo Jung, Sang Seung Oh, Byung Chun Park, Sung Bin Park
  • Patent number: 9804078
    Abstract: A test coupon package suitable for a cathodic protection system includes a native test coupon and first and second active coupons. The active coupons may be biased with respect to the soil or other electrolytic medium in which a pipeline protected by the system resides. The first active coupon may have a surface area that will contact an electrolytic medium that is approximately equal to a surface area of the native test coupon that will contact the electrolytic medium. The surface area of the first active coupon may be substantially greater than a surface area of the second active coupon that will contact the electrolytic medium. The test coupon package may include an electrochemically stable reference electrode positioned between the first active coupon and the native coupon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2017
    Assignee: Bass Corrosion Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Randall Clay Brelsford, Jordan Groody, Richard J. Smalling
  • Publication number: 20150083585
    Abstract: The present invention provides molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures, for example, nanosheets and nanoparticles, and methods of making and using same, including using such nanostructures as catalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 24, 2014
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Kotaro Sasaki, Wei-Fu Chen, James T. Muckerman, Radoslav R. Adzic
  • Publication number: 20140261646
    Abstract: An electrode for solar conversion including a porous structure configured to contain therein at least one of a catalyst, a chromophore, and a redox couple. The porous structure has a set of electrically conductive nanoparticles adjoining each other. The set of electrically conductive nanoparticles forms a meandering electrical path connecting the nanoparticles together. The porous structure has an atomic layer by layer deposited semiconductive coating disposed conformally on the electrically conductive nanoparticles to form an exterior surface for reception of charge carriers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 18, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Inventors: Paul G. HOERTZ, Qing PENG, Berc KALANYAN, Do Han KIM, Leila ALIBABAEI, Jie LlU, Thomas J. MEYER, Gregory N. PARSON, Jeffrey T. GLASS, Mark LOSEGO
  • Patent number: 8613848
    Abstract: A device for the concurrent oxygen generation and control of carbon dioxide for life support system involves two stages, where a first stage removes CO2 from an exhalent side of a ventilation loop and a second stage employs Ceramic Oxygen Generators (COGs) to convert CO2 into carbon and O2. The first stage includes a plurality of chambers and means to switch the ventilation loop through at least one of the chambers, where CO2 removal is carried out before discharge of the CO2 depleted gas to an inhalant side of the ventilation loop, and to exclude the ventilation loop from the remaining chambers of the first stage, where these chambers are placed in communication with the second stage. The second stage has two portions separated by the COGs such that CO2 and the formed carbon remain on an intake portion from the O2 rich atmosphere on the exhaust side, which is plumbed via a metering valve to introduce the O2 rich atmosphere to the inhalant side of the ventilation loop.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 24, 2013
    Assignee: University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Eric D. Wachsman, Keith L. Duncan, Helena Hagelin-Weaver
  • Patent number: 8585888
    Abstract: Methods for electrolysis of water to oxygen gas are provided. The method utilizes dimeric copper cations in water at a basic pH. The cations are provided in the water by adding a complex in solid form with an appropriate anion, or through a “self-assembly” method whereby a copper salt and appropriate ligands are added to water adjusted to a basic pH. The cations decrease the overpotential of water electrolysis, thereby providing for efficient generations of oxygen gas using a catalyst formed from an abundant material (copper).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: University of Washington through its Center for Commercialization
    Inventors: James M. Mayer, Shoshanna M. Barnett, Karen I. Goldberg, Bobby J. Portis, II
  • Patent number: 8343690
    Abstract: A method for the fabrication of a mesoporous metal electrode in a non-liquid crystalline phase was tested. Specifically, there was tested the efficacy of the method for the fabrication of a mesoporous metal electrode which comprises forming the mesoporous metal electrode on a substrate by chemical or electrochemical reduction of a mixture comprising a solvent, a structure-directing agent, and a source of a metal, characterized in that the mixture is maintained in a non-liquid crystal phase. Furthermore, the usefulness of the mesoporous metal electrode thus prepared from the non-liquid crystalline phase was also tested. The mesoporous metal electrode prepared from the non-liquid crystalline phase had a large surface area, and a roughness factor thereof was controlled by charges passed during electroplating. The method made it possible to fabricate the mesoporous metal electrode in the non-liquid crystalline phase, even more flexible than a liquid crystalline phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2013
    Assignee: Seoul National University R&DB Foundation
    Inventors: Hee-Chan Kim, Taek Dong Chung, Sejin Park, Hankil Boo, Sunyoung Lee
  • Publication number: 20120312683
    Abstract: An electrode suitable for use as hydrogen-evolving cathode in electrolytic processes is obtained by thermal decomposition of a precursor consisting of an acetic solution of nitrates of ruthenium, and optionally of rare earths. The electrode displays a low cathodic hydrogen evolution overpotential, an improved tolerance to current reversal phenomena and a high duration in industrial operating conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 21, 2012
    Publication date: December 13, 2012
    Applicant: Industrie De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Marianna Brichese, Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi, Alice Calderara
  • Publication number: 20120305389
    Abstract: The present invention aims to provide an activated cathode enabling a long-time stable operation with hydrogen overvoltage maintained at a low value, keeping a high remaining rate of the catalyst element after a cease of operation for a short-circuiting and after an electrolysis operation at a high current density, restricting catalyst loss to a little, and having a strong resistance to contamination caused by electrolyte impurity elements. The present invention relates to a cathode for hydrogen evolution with a catalyst layer formed on the cathode substrate, having, at least, three elements comprising platinum, cerium and palladium, as essential element, in a state of metal, metal oxide, or hydroxide, contained, where the mole fraction of respective element being x, y, and z, within a range of 5 mol %?x?90 mol %, 5 mol %?y?55 mol %, 5 mol %?z?65 mol %.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 18, 2011
    Publication date: December 6, 2012
    Inventors: Miwako Nara, Eri Miyakawa, Yoshinori Nishiki
  • Patent number: 8313623
    Abstract: A cathode for electrolytic processes, particularly suitable for hydrogen evolution in chlor-alkali electrolysis comprises a metal substrate provided with a catalytic coating made of two layers containing palladium, rare earths (such as praseodymium) and a noble component selected between platinum and ruthenium. The rare earth percent amount by weight is lower in the outer layer than in the inner layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi, Alice Calderara, Marianna Brichese
  • Publication number: 20120094216
    Abstract: A catalyst member comprising a blended mixture of nano-scale metal particles compressed with larger metal particles and sintered to form a structurally stable member of any desired shape. The catalyst member can be used in one of many different applications; for example, as an electrode in a fuel cell or in an electrolysis device to generate hydrogen and oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 12, 2011
    Publication date: April 19, 2012
    Applicant: QuantumSphere, Inc.
    Inventors: R. Douglas Carpenter, Robert Brian Dopp, Kimberly McGrath
  • Publication number: 20120021302
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an oxygen-consuming electrode comprising at least one support structure having a surface and a gas diffusion coating having a catalytically active component disposed on the surface. The coating contains at least one fluorine-containing polymer, a silver compound, selected from the group consisting of silver particles, reducible silver compounds, and mixtures thereof, and a hydrophilic caustic alkali-resistant filler which is electrically nonconductive or has a poor electrical conductivity and has an average particle diameter from 5 to 200 ?m.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2011
    Publication date: January 26, 2012
    Applicant: Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Rainer Weber
  • Patent number: 8034221
    Abstract: An electrode for hydrogen generation can maintain a low hydrogen overvoltage for a long period of time even when electrolysis is conducted there not only with a low current density but also with a high current density. The electrode for hydrogen generation has a coating layer formed on a conductive base member by applying a material not containing any chlorine atom prepared by dissolving lanthanum carboxylate in a nitric acid solution of ruthenium nitrate and thermally decomposing the material in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2011
    Assignee: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd.
    Inventor: Osamu Arimoto
  • Patent number: 8021799
    Abstract: The embodiments generally relate to a high performance ceramic anode which will increase flexibility in the types of fuels that may be used with the anode. The embodiments further relate to high-performance, direct-oxidation SOFC utilizing the anodes, providing improved electro-catalytic activity and redox stability. The SOFCs are capable of use with strategic fuels and other hydrocarbon fuels. Also provided are methods of making the high-performance anodes and solid oxide fuel cells comprising the anodes exhibiting improved electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania
    Inventors: Raymond J. Gorte, John M. Vohs, Michael D. Gross
  • Patent number: 7959774
    Abstract: The present invention provides a cathode for hydrogen generation comprising a cathode substrate having provided thereon a catalytic layer, wherein the catalytic layer contains at least three components of platinum, cerium and lanthanum in amounts of 50 to 98 mol %, 1 to 49 mol % and 1 to 49 mol %, respectively, in the form of metal, metal oxide or metal hydroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2011
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Miwako Nara, Tomohisa Suzuki, Masashi Tanaka, Yoshinori Nishiki
  • Publication number: 20100233577
    Abstract: A catalyst member comprising a blended mixture of nano-scale metal particles compressed with larger metal particles and sintered to form a structurally stable member of any desired shape. The catalyst member can be used in one of many different applications; for example, as an electrode in a fuel cell or in an electrolysis device to generate hydrogen and oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 22, 2006
    Publication date: September 16, 2010
    Inventors: R. Douglas Carpenter, Robert Brian Dopp, Kimberly McGrath
  • Patent number: 7537678
    Abstract: The present invention uses a sensor electrode (3) in a nitrogen oxide sensor (10) which includes a nitrate or nitrite of an alkali metal and an oxide of a rare-earth element. The nitrate/nitrite of the alkali metal replaces part of the lattice of the oxide of the rare-earth element, forming a solid solution. The sensor electrode (3) therefore exhibits highly practical features, especially high water-insolubility and capability of nitrogen oxide measurement in a hot and humid atmosphere containing water vapor. Thus, a highly practical nitrogen oxide sensor electrode and nitrogen oxide sensor are provided which are usable in measurement in a hot and humid atmosphere containing water vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2009
    Assignee: Japan Science and Technology Agency
    Inventor: Nobuhito Imanaka
  • Patent number: 7527717
    Abstract: Sulfur resistant sensors and a process analytic system employing such sensors are provided. The sensors generally include a treatment or material that is adapted to increase the resistance of certain portions of the sensors to exposure to sulfur. In one aspect, an improved sulfur-resistant process analytic system includes a probe with one or more sulfur-resistant sensors therein coupled to a controller, a thermal control module, and a source of blowback gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2009
    Assignee: Rosemount Analytical, Inc.
    Inventors: Pavel Shuk, Ramasamy Manoharan, Tom Blanar, Ray Molnar, Marion Keyes
  • Publication number: 20080245670
    Abstract: Electrochemical methods and materials for the detection of arsenic. In one aspect, arsenic is detected using a working electrode comprising particulate platinum. In another aspect, arsenic is detected using an electrode comprising indium tin oxide and particulate gold. Also provided are methods for the production of electrodes which involve the electrodeposition of gold onto indium tin oxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 23, 2006
    Publication date: October 9, 2008
    Inventors: Richard Guy Compton, Xuan Dai
  • Publication number: 20080128274
    Abstract: A gas sensor utilizes nano-sized CeO2 and doped CeO2 particles for detecting NO, NO2 and also for studying the cross sensitivity of oxygen, un-burnt hydrocarbons, CO and CO2. Nano-crystalline powders of CeO2 and doped CeO2 are employed to configure thin films on Platinum comb type electrodes preformed on alumina substrates. Various catalytic oxides are employed to convert the NO to NO2 to get equal response to NOx gas. Gas sensing properties are measured using a dynamic chamber with a constant flow of air and NOX gas in required percentage in nitrogen gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2006
    Publication date: June 5, 2008
    Inventors: Raju A. Raghurama, Ramsesh Anil Kumar
  • Patent number: 7255894
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a component, in particular an aluminium electrowinning anode, for use at elevated temperature in an oxidising and/or corrosive environment comprises: applying onto a metal-based substrate layers of a particle mixture containing iron oxide particles and particles of a reactant-oxide selected from titanium, yttrium, ytterbium and tantalum oxides; and heat treating the applied layers to consolidate by reactive sintering of the iron oxide particles and the reactant-oxide particles to turn the applied layer into a protective coating made of a substantially continuous reacted oxide matrix of one or more multiple oxides of iron and the metal from the reactant-oxide. The metal-based substrate comprises at its surface during the heat treatment an integral anchorage-oxide of at least one metal of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2007
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Thinh T. Nguyen, Vittorio De Nora
  • Patent number: 7255893
    Abstract: A method of forming a dense and crack-free hematite-containing protective layer on a metal-based substrate for use in a high temperature oxidising and/or corrosive environment comprises applying onto the substrate a particle mixture consisting of: 60 to 99 95 weight %, in particular 70 to 95 weight % such as 75 to 85 weight %, of hematite with or without iron metal and/or ferrous oxide; 1 to 25 weight %, in particular 5 8 to 20 weight % such as 8 to 15 weight %, of nitride and/or carbide particles, such as boron nitride, aluminium nitride or zirconium carbide particles; and 0 to 15 weight %, in particular 5 to 15 weight %, of one or more further constituents that consist of at least one metal or metal oxide or a heat-convertible precursor thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2007
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Thinh T. Nguyen, Vittorio De Nora
  • Patent number: 7153412
    Abstract: Electrode having high activity to oxygen gas and low activity to flammable gas is provided. An oxygen pump includes oxide-ion conductive solid electrolyte 2, electrode 8 which is an inactive electrode, and active electrode 10. Electrode 8 is an electrode that includes Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-?. Electrode 8 is disposed on the gas detection chamber 12 side of solid electrolyte 2. Active electrode 10 is disposed on the open space side of solid electrolyte 2. Gas detection chamber 12 is an enclosed space defined by solid electrolyte 2, insulation layers 6, and diffusion control layer 4.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2006
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho
    Inventors: Tadashi Inaba, Keiichi Saji, Tadashi Nakamura, Yumi Masuoka, Jiro Sakata
  • Patent number: 7074306
    Abstract: An oxygen-depolarized cathode for aqueous hydrochloric acid electrolysis membrane cells is described, the cathode being in contact with the membrane and capable of preventing the release of hydrogen into oxygen even at the highest current densities. Hydrochloric acid may also be of technical grade with a concentration limited to 15%, whereas the operating temperature must not exceed 60° C. The cathode contains a mixture of rhodium sulphide and a metal of the platinum group applied in a single layer or alternatively applied separately in two distinct layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2006
    Assignee: De Nora Electtrodi S.p.A.
    Inventors: Gian Nicola Martelli, Fulvio Federico
  • Patent number: 6835489
    Abstract: A double layered oxygen electrode impregnated with an active catalyst material and method of making. The design of the oxygen electrode promotes oxygen dissociation and absorption within the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode has differing layers of hydrophobicity which allow chemical impregnation of the active catalyst material into the oxygen electrode where the active catalyst material is needed most.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Assignee: Texaco Ovonic Fuel Cell LLC
    Inventors: Srinivasan Venkatesan, Hong Wang, Boyko Aladjov, Subhash Dhar, Stanford R. Ovshinsky
  • Publication number: 20040144641
    Abstract: An anode for use in a cell for the electrowinning of aluminum from alumina comprises a substrate with a core having an outer portion made of nickel covered with a barrier layer for inhibiting diffusion of fluoride species oxygen species to the core and preventing diffusion of constituents from the core during use. The barrier layer is made of silver and an electrochemically active noble metal miscible with nickel and silver, e.g. gold or palladium. The anode is coated with an electrochemically active surface layer which can be made of one or more cerium compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2003
    Publication date: July 29, 2004
    Inventors: Vittorio De Nora, Thinh T. Nguyen
  • Patent number: 6761809
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The battery further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, David J. Lenz
  • Patent number: 6673223
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a gas sensing device, an oxygen pumping cell, and a gas detection apparatus using the same for detecting lower ranges of gas concentration with high accuracy and stability. An under layer made of oxygen-ion-conductive solid electrolyte was formed between an electrolyte substrate and a sensing electrode, a conversion electrode or a gas treatment electrode. This allows the physical and chemical adhesion between these electrodes and the electrolyte substrate, thereby improving the sensing properties and stability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2004
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Riken
    Inventors: Akira Kunimoto, Yongtie Yan, Takashi Ono
  • Patent number: 6527939
    Abstract: A method of producing copper foil, and more particularly, in an electrochemical cell containing organic substituents, is provided herein. The metal may be deposited on an electrode that comprises an electrode base having at least one undercoating layer of an active coating and at least one topcoating layer of no significant activity. The copper electrodeposition cell can operate without an adverse affect on electrode potential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Eltech Systems Corporation
    Inventor: Kenneth L Hardee
  • Patent number: 6475358
    Abstract: A method of treating a carbonaceous cell component of an electrolyte cell for the production of aluminum, to impart protection against deterioration during operation of the cell. A liquid suspension of a refractory material dispersed in a lignosulfonate binder solution is prepared and applied as a protective coating to the surface of carbonaceous cell components and allowed to dry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Amir A. Mirtchi, Jules Bergeron
  • Publication number: 20020092765
    Abstract: A non-carbon, metal-based, high temperature resistant, electrically conductive and electrochemically active anode of a cell for the production of aluminium has a metal-based substrate to which an adherent coating is applied prior to its immersion into the electrolyte and start up of the electrolysis by connection to the positive current supply. The coating is obtainable from one or more layers applied from: a liquid solution, a dispersion in a liquid or a paste, a suspension in a liquid or a paste, and a pasty or non-pasty slurry, and combinations thereof with or without one or more further applied layers, with or without heat treatment between two consecutively applied layers when at least two layers are applied.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2002
    Publication date: July 18, 2002
    Inventor: Vittorio de Nora
  • Patent number: 6379526
    Abstract: A non-carbon metal-based anode of a cell for the electrowinning of aluminium comprising an electrically conductive metal substrate resistant to high temperature, the surface of which becomes passive and substantially inert to the electrolyte, and a coating adherent to the metal substrate making the surface of the anode electrochemically active for the oxidation of oxygen ions present at the electrolyte interface. The substrate metal may be selected from nickel, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, tantalum and the Lanthanide series. The active constituents of the coating are for example oxides such as spinels or perovskites, oxyfluorides, phosphides or carbides, in particular ferrites. The active constituents may be coated onto the substrate from a slurry or suspension containing colloidal material and the electrochemically active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2002
    Assignee: Moltech Invent SA
    Inventors: Vittorio de Nora, Jean-Jacques Duruz
  • Patent number: 6361680
    Abstract: Method and cell component for the electrowinning of aluminum by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten fluoride electrolyte comprises a porous micropyretic reaction product of nickel, aluminum, iron, copper and at least one additive element selected from silicon, tin zinc, vanadium, indium, hafnium, tungsten, elements from the lanthanide series starting from praesodymium, and misch metal. The micropyretic reaction product contains metallic and intermetallic phases, with a composite oxide surface produced in-situ by anodic polarization of the porous micropyretic reaction product in a molten fluoride electrolyte containing dissolved alumina, or by high temperature treatment in an oxidizing gas. The composite oxide surface usually comprises an iron-rich relatively dense outer portion and an aluminate-rich relatively porous inner portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2002
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S-A.
    Inventors: Jainagesh Akkavaju Sekhar, Vittorio de Nora
  • Publication number: 20020029973
    Abstract: An anode is configured to be used within a metal film plating apparatus. The anode has a substantially planar electric field generating portion and an electrolyte solution chemical reaction portion. The planar electric field generating portion is coated with an inert material that is impervious to the electrolyte solution. In one embodiment, the anode is formed as a perforated anode. In one aspect, the electric field generating portion is formed contiguous with the electrolyte solution chemical reaction portion. In another aspects, the planar electric field generating portion is formed as a distinct member from the electrolyte solution chemical reaction portion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2001
    Publication date: March 14, 2002
    Applicant: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventor: Dan Maydan
  • Publication number: 20020003085
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell that receives an inlet stream of air and produces an outlet stream of a high oxygen concentration of gas. The cell is made up of a plurality of layers and preferably a porous electrolyte comprised of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that allows only oxygen ions to pass therethrough and which is covered on its sides with electrodes comprised of lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM) which in turn are coated with a layer of platinum to aid in the even distribution of the electrical current. An electrical current is passed through the electrodes to produce a voltage difference therebetween. The layers of YSZ and LSM are formed by a sol-gel process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 19, 2001
    Publication date: January 10, 2002
    Inventors: Ravi R. Chandran, Lisa Klein, Sandra Mege
  • Patent number: 6312571
    Abstract: An activated cathode comprising an electrically conductive substrate, an interlayer comprising a nickel oxide formed on the surface of the electrically conductive substrate, and a catalyst layer containing at least one lanthanum component selected from oxides and hydroxides of lanthanum metals and at least one platinum component selected from platinum metals and silver and oxides and hydroxides thereof formed on the interlayer. A process for the preparation of an activated cathode is also disclosed which comprises forming an interlayer comprising a nickel oxide on the surface of an electrically conductive substrate, and then forming a catalyst layer containing at least one lanthanum component selected from oxides and hydroxides of lanthanum metals and at least one platinum. component selected from platinum metals and silver and oxides and hydroxides thereof on the surface of the interlayer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2001
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Miwako Nara, Masashi Tanaka, Yoshinori Nishiki, Shuji Nakamatsu
  • Publication number: 20010013474
    Abstract: A non-carbon, metal based slow-consumable anode of a cell for the electrowinning of aluminum self-forms during normal electrolysis an electrochemically-active oxide-based surface layer (20). The rate of formation (35) of the layer (20) is substantially equal to its rate of dissolution (30) at the surface layer/electrolyte interface (25) thereby maintaining its thickness substantially constant, forming a limited barrier controlling the oxidation rate (35). The anode (10) usually comprises an alloy or iron at least one of nickel, copper, cobalt or zinc which during use forms an oxide surface layer (20) mainly containing ferrite.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 1, 2000
    Publication date: August 16, 2001
    Inventors: Vittorio De Nora, Jean-Jacques Duruz
  • Patent number: 6242260
    Abstract: A measuring method for determining the specific surface area available for reaction of a noble metal catalyst of an electrode for use in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The method includes measuring the total specific surface area of the noble metal catalyst and the specific surface area of the noble metal catalyst mixed with a polymer electrolyte by detecting the adsorption amounts of carbon monoxide upon exposure to carbon monoxide after reduction in hydrogen, and subtracting the latter from the former. Also provided is an electrode material for use in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell having excellent polarization characteristics by controlling the utilization of a noble metal catalyst determined from the total specific surface area and specific surface area available for reaction of the noble metal catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2001
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasushi Sugawara, Makoto Uchida, Yuko Fukuoka, Nobuo Eda