Surface Layer Contains Electrolytically Exposed Refractory Metal Or Compound Patents (Class 204/290.13)
  • Patent number: 10714728
    Abstract: A lithium-sulfur battery includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium-sulfur battery separator and an electrolyte. The lithium-sulfur battery separator includes a PSL and a FL. The FL is located on a surface of the PSL. The FL comprises a plurality of graphene sheets and a plurality of MoP2 nanoparticles uniformly mixed with each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignees: Tsinghua University, HON HAI PRECISION INDUSTRY CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Yu-Feng Luo, Jia-Ping Wang, Shou-Shan Fan
  • Patent number: 10702857
    Abstract: The present invention provides a monatomic metal-doped few-layer molybdenum disulfide electrocatalytic material, a preparing method thereof, and a method for electrocatalytic nitrogen fixation. The material has a few-layer ultra-thin and irregular flake-like microstructure with a length and a width of nanometer scale. A doping metal in the monatomic metal-doped few-layer molybdenum disulfide electrocatalytic material is dispersed in a form of single atoms. When the catalyst is used in electrochemical reduction of N2, a Faradic efficiency in selective reduction of N2 into NH4+ is 18% or above, and stability of the catalyst is better.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: CENTRAL CHINA NORMAL UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Lizhi Zhang, Fengjiao Quan, Shang Chen, Falong Jia
  • Publication number: 20150122639
    Abstract: A chemically passivated photoelectrode, having a conductive substrate, a layer of conductive oxide, preferably zinc oxide (ZnO), over the conductive substrate, and an ultrathin layer of a chemically inert semiconductor material coating the conductive oxide layer, is disclosed. The ultrathin layer of chemically inert semiconductor material, which may be less than 5 nm thick, increases the efficiency of water splitting through passivation of surface charge traps and chemical stability in harsh environments, as opposed to being photoactive. A method of manufacture and a solar cell having the photoelectrode are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 31, 2014
    Publication date: May 7, 2015
    Inventors: Mingzhao Liu, Chang-Yong Nam, Charles T. Black
  • Publication number: 20150096900
    Abstract: Disclosed is an alloy of the formula: Fe3?xAl1+xMyTzTat wherein M represents at least one catalytic specie selected from the group consisting of Ru, Ir, Pd, Pt, Rh, Os, Re and Ag; T represents at least one element selected from the group consisting of Mo, Co, Cr, V, Cu, Zn, Nb, W, Zr, Y, Mn, Cd, Si, B, C, O, N, P, F, S, CI, Na and Ti; and Ta represents tantalum. Such an alloy can be used as an electrode material for the synthesis of sodium chlorate. It can also be used as a coating for protection against corrosion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 26, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Inventors: Robert Schulz, Sylvio Savoie
  • Publication number: 20150096896
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode suitable as anode for evolution of gaseous products comprising a metal substrate coated with at least one titanium suboxide layer having an interconnected porosity and containing catalytic noble metal oxides. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing such electrode comprising applying a mixture of titanium suboxides and noble metal oxide-based catalyst on a valve metal substrate via cold gas spray technique.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 16, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Applicant: INDUSTRIE DE NORA S.P.A.
    Inventors: Andrea Francesco Gullà, Chiara Pezzoni, Christian Urgeghe
  • Publication number: 20150083585
    Abstract: The present invention provides molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures, for example, nanosheets and nanoparticles, and methods of making and using same, including using such nanostructures as catalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 24, 2014
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Kotaro Sasaki, Wei-Fu Chen, James T. Muckerman, Radoslav R. Adzic
  • Patent number: 8968534
    Abstract: A process for oxidizing water using amorphous cobalt tungstate is disclosed. A plurality of amorphous cobalt tungstate nanoparticles are supported on an electrode and are able to catalytically interact with water molecules generating oxygen. The catalyst can be used as part of a electrochemical or photo-electrochemical cell for the generation of electrical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignees: Toyota Motor Egineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc., Toyota Motor Corporation
    Inventors: Hongfei Jia, Takeshi Sekito
  • Publication number: 20150027899
    Abstract: Provided is an anode for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, and the anode which is low in potential when compared with a conventional anode, able to decrease an electrolytic voltage and an electric energy consumption rate and may also be used as an anode for electroplating various types of metals, and which is low in cost. Also provided is a method for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, in which the anode is low in potential and electrolytic voltage, thereby making it possible to decrease the electric energy consumption rate. The anode for electroplating of the present invention is an anode for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, in which a catalytic layer containing amorphous ruthenium oxide and amorphous tantalum oxide is formed on a conductive substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2012
    Publication date: January 29, 2015
    Applicant: THE DOSHISHA
    Inventor: Masatsugu Morimitsu
  • Publication number: 20140353147
    Abstract: An electrode for use with a manufacturing apparatus to deposit a material onto a carrier body with the carrier body having a first end and a second end spaced from each other with a socket disposed at each end of the carrier body. The electrode includes a shaft having a first end and a second end. The electrode also includes a head disposed on one of the ends of the shaft for coupling with the socket. The shaft and the head have an exterior surface having a contact region adapted to contact the socket. The electrode further includes an exterior surface and an exterior coating disposed on the exterior surface outside of the contact region, the exterior coating having an electrical conductivity of at least 9×106 Siemens/meter and corrosion resistance higher than silver in a galvanic series based upon room temperature sea water as an electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 15, 2014
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Inventors: David Hillabrand, Theodore Knapp
  • Publication number: 20140353168
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode suitable for decreasing the chemical oxygen demand of waste-water comprising: a) a permanent component; and b) a sacrificial component arranged face-to-face and releasably attached to the permanent component and in electrical contact therewith, said permanent component consisting of a Substrate of a valve metal equipped with a catalytic coating containing noble metals or oxides thereof, said sacrificial component containing elemental iron. Further the invention relates to a method for abatement of the chemical oxygen demand in an aqueous waste containing oily compounds, glycols or waxes, optionally consisting of a foundry waste, by an electrolytic process involving anodic chlorine evolution in the presence of trivalent iron. Chlorine evolution may be carried out on the surface of an anode consisting of a catalytically activated-valve metal permanent component coupled to an iron-containing sacrificial component.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Inventor: Mariachiara Benedetto
  • Publication number: 20140291142
    Abstract: A photoelectrode for a photoelectrochemical cell, a method of manufacturing the same, and a photoelectrochemical cell including the same, the photoelectrode including TiO2 nanotubes, and a TiO2 layer coated on the TiO2 nanotubes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2014
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Applicant: Intellectual Discovery Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hyeong tag Jeon, Giyul Ham, Hagyoung Choi, Seokyoon Shin
  • Publication number: 20140231267
    Abstract: The present invention concerns an electrode for oxygen evolution in electroplating plants comprising a valve metal substrate and an outer catalytic layer, the substrate consisting of a metal plate provided with slits of area ranging from 2 to 8 cm2, said slits being spaced apart by a distance of 5 to 25 cm. The invention also concerns a horizontal electrochemical cell for electro-plating processes comprising at least one of said electrodes, and an electroplating plant equipped with at least one of said cells. The invention also concerns an electroplating process comprising the step of anodically evolving oxygen on the surface of said electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 23, 2012
    Publication date: August 21, 2014
    Applicant: Industrie de Nora S.P.A.
    Inventors: Jose Eduardo Gomes De Abreu, Takashi Oishi, Alice Calderara
  • Publication number: 20140224667
    Abstract: A process for wet-chemical production of a catalyst coating on an electrically conductive support for electrodes for chloralkali or hydrochloric acid electrolysis with electrocatalytically active components based on noble metal oxides, in which the catalyst coating is produced by; producing a coating solution or dispersion comprising a precursor compound of a noble metal and/or a metal oxide of a noble metal, and a solvent or dispersant, with addition of one or more acids to the coating solution or dispersion, where the molar ratio of the total of the amounts of acid (in mol) present in the coating solution or dispersion to the sum of the amounts of the metals from the metal-containing components present in the coating solution or dispersion is at least 2:1; applying the coating solution or dispersion to the support; substantially freeing the layer applied of solvent or dispersant by drying; and subjecting the dried layer obtained to a thermal treatment to form the catalyst coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2014
    Publication date: August 14, 2014
    Applicants: NANO-X-GMBH, BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG
    Inventors: Jürgen KINTRUP, Andreas BULAN, Elin HAMMARBERG, Stefan SEPEUR, Gerald FRENZER, Frank GROß
  • Patent number: 8696877
    Abstract: The invention relates to a cathode for hydrogen evolution in electrolysis cells, for instance chlor-alkali cells or cells for producing chlorate or hypochlorite, obtained starting from a substrate of nickel or other conductive material galvanically coated with nickel co-deposited with an amorphous molybdenum oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nedeljko Krstajic, Vladimir Jovic, Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi
  • Publication number: 20140004435
    Abstract: A photoelectrode (100) of the present invention includes a conductive layer (12) and a photocatalytic layer (13) provided on the conductive layer (12). The conductive layer (12) is made of a metal nitride. The photocatalytic layer (13) is made of at least one selected from the group consisting of a nitride semiconductor and an oxynitride semiconductor. When the photocatalytic layer (13) is made of a n-type semiconductor, the energy difference between the vacuum level and the Fermi level of the conductive layer (12) is smaller than the energy difference between the vacuum level and the Fermi level of the photocatalytic layer (13). When the photocatalytic layer (13) is made of a p-type semiconductor, the energy difference between the vacuum level and the Fermi level of the conductive layer (12) is larger than the energy difference between the vacuum level and the Fermi level of the photocatalytic layer (13).
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2012
    Publication date: January 2, 2014
    Applicant: PANASONIC CORPORATION
    Inventors: Satoru Tamura, Takaiki Nomura, Takahiro Suzuki, Kenichi Tokuhiro, Noboru Taniguchi, Kazuhito Hato, Nobuhiro Miyata
  • Patent number: 8580091
    Abstract: A composition and method of manufacture of electrodes having controlled electrochemical activity to allow the electrodes to be designed for a variety of electro-oxidation processes. The electrodes are comprised of a compact coating deposited onto a conductive substrate, the coating being formed as multiple layers of a mixture of one or more platinum group metal oxides and one or more valve metal oxides. The formation of multiple layers allows the concentrations of platinum group metal and valve metal to be varied for each layer as desired for an application. For example, an electrode structure can be manufactured for use as an anode in electroplating processes, such that the oxidation of the organic additives in the electrolyte is markedly inhibited. Another electrode can be manufactured to operate at high anodic potentials in aqueous electrolytes to generate strong oxidants, e.g., hydrogen peroxide or ozone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Water Star, Inc.
    Inventors: Marilyn J. Niksa, Andrew J. Niksa
  • Patent number: 8440060
    Abstract: An electrode surface coating for manufacturing the electrode surface coating comprising a conductive substrate; and one or more surface coatings comprising one or more of the following metals titanium, niobium, tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, or gold, or an alloy of two or more metals, or a combination of two or more alloys or metal layers thereof having an increase in the surface area of 5 times to 500 times of the corresponding surface area resulting from the basic geometric shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Assignee: Second Sight Medical Products, Inc.
    Inventor: Dao Min Zhou
  • Publication number: 20130112548
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode for an electrochemical cell, which is either a piece of a monocrystal grown from doped titanium dioxide or which contains a multiplicity of monocrystals grown from doped titanium dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 2, 2012
    Publication date: May 9, 2013
    Applicant: PRO AQUA DIAMANTELEKTRODEN PRODUKTION GMBH & CO KG
    Inventor: PRO AQUA DIAMANTELEKTRODEN PRODUKTI
  • Publication number: 20130087450
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode for electrochemical generation of hypochlorite. The electrode comprises a valve metal substrate coated with a catalytic system consisting of two super-imposed layers of distinct composition and having a different activity towards hypochlorite anodic generation from chloride solutions. The electrode has a high duration in cathodic operation conditions, imparting self-cleaning characteristics thereto when used in combination with an equivalent one with periodic polarity reversal. Moreover, the deactivation of the electrode at the end of its life cycle occurs in two subsequent steps, allowing to schedule the substitution thereof with a significant notice period.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2011
    Publication date: April 11, 2013
    Applicant: Industrie De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi, Mariachiara Benedetto, Alice Calderara, Chiara Pezzoni, Christian Urgeghe
  • Patent number: 8404090
    Abstract: A multi-layer cathode block (30) for an electrolytic cell (10) has at least a surface layer (32) with a surface expansion index and a second layer (34) with a second expansion index. The surface layer (32) includes a surface wetting agent in a first total amount. The second layer (34) includes a wetting agent in a second total amount. The surface layer (32) is directly superposed to the second layer (34). The second wetting agent in the second layer (34) includes metal boride precursors that react together to generate a metal boride component in situ when the cathode block (30) is exposed to start-up and operation conditions of the electrolytic cell (10). The second total amount is lower than the first total amount and is selected so as to minimize the difference between the expansion indexes of the surface layer (32) and the second layer (34).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Rio Tinto Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Jean Camire, Jules Bergeron, Pierre-Yves Brisson, Simon Leclerc
  • Publication number: 20130068613
    Abstract: The present invention relates to amorphous transition metal sulphides as electrocatalysts for hydrogen production from water or aqueous solutions and use thereof in electrodes and electrolysers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 31, 2011
    Publication date: March 21, 2013
    Applicant: ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE (EPFL)
    Inventors: Xile Hu, Daniel Merki, Heron Vrubel
  • Patent number: 8357271
    Abstract: The present invention aims to provide a zinc electrowinning anode capable of inhibiting manganese compound deposition on the anode and a cobalt electrowinning anode capable of inhibiting cobalt oxyhydroxide deposition on the anode. The zinc electrowinning anode according to the present invention is a zinc electrowinning anode having an amorphous iridium oxide-containing catalytic layer formed on a conductive substrate, and the zinc electrowinning method according to the present invention is an electrowinning method using that electrowinning anode. Also, the cobalt electrowinning anode according to the present invention is an electrowinning anode having an amorphous iridium oxide or ruthenium oxide-containing catalytic layer formed on a conductive substrate, and the cobalt electrowinning method according to the present invention is an electrowinning method using that electrowinning anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2013
    Assignee: The Doshisha
    Inventor: Masatsugu Morimitsu
  • Publication number: 20120247971
    Abstract: The present invention has a problem aiming to provide an electrowinning system capable of suppressing accumulation of a side reaction product on an anode and a rise of an electrolysis voltage caused thereby, and also to provide an electrowinning method using the system. To solve this problem, the electrowinning system of the present invention applies predetermined electrolysis current between an anode and a cathode placed in an electrolyte, thereby depositing a desired metal on the cathode, in which the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid-based or chloride-based solution containing ions of the metal, and the anode has a catalytic layer, containing amorphous iridium oxide or amorphous ruthenium oxide, formed on a conductive substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 22, 2010
    Publication date: October 4, 2012
    Inventor: Masatsugu Morimitsu
  • Patent number: 8263290
    Abstract: The invention is directed to iridium oxide based catalysts for use as anode catalysts in PEM water electrolysis. The claimed composite catalyst materials comprise iridium oxide (IrO2) and optionally ruthenium oxide (RuO2) in combination with a high surface area inorganic oxide (for example TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2 and mixtures thereof). The inorganic oxide has a BET surface area in the range of 50 to 400 m2/g, a water solubility of lower than 0.15 g/l and is present in a quantity of less than 20 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst. The claimed catalyst materials are characterized by a low oxygen overvoltage and long lifetime in water electrolysis. The catalysts are used in electrodes, catalyst-coated membranes and membrane-electrode-assemblies for PEM electrolyzers as well as in regenerative fuel cells (RFC), sensors, and other electrochemical devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2012
    Assignee: Umicore AG & Co. KG
    Inventors: Marco Lopez, Andreas Schleunung, Peter Biberbach
  • Patent number: 8070924
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electrode for generation of hydrogen comprising: a conductive substrate; a catalytic layer formed on the conductive substrate and containing at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Ir, Ru, Pd and Rh; and a hydrogen adsorption layer formed on the catalytic layer. The present invention also provides an electrode for generation of hydrogen comprising: a conductive substrate, a catalytic layer formed on the conductive substrate and containing: at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Ir, Ru, Pd and Rh and/or at least one oxide of said platinum group metals; and at least one metal selected from the group consisting of lanthanum series metals, valve metals, iron series metals and silver and/or at least one oxide of said metals; and a hydrogen adsorption layer formed on the catalytic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2011
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Takeo Ohsaka, Shunsuke Sata, Miwako Nara, Yoshinori Nishiki
  • Patent number: 8021799
    Abstract: The embodiments generally relate to a high performance ceramic anode which will increase flexibility in the types of fuels that may be used with the anode. The embodiments further relate to high-performance, direct-oxidation SOFC utilizing the anodes, providing improved electro-catalytic activity and redox stability. The SOFCs are capable of use with strategic fuels and other hydrocarbon fuels. Also provided are methods of making the high-performance anodes and solid oxide fuel cells comprising the anodes exhibiting improved electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania
    Inventors: Raymond J. Gorte, John M. Vohs, Michael D. Gross
  • Patent number: 8022004
    Abstract: Various embodiments provide an electrode comprising a conductive substrate, a first layer of a mixture comprising iridium oxide in a crystalline phase and tantalum oxide in an amorphous phase on a portion of an outer surface of the conductive substrate, and a second layer of the mixture comprising iridium oxide in an amorphous phase and tantalum oxide in an amorphous phase on an outer surface of the first layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: Freeport-McMoran Corporation
    Inventors: Scot P Sandoval, Michael D Waite, Masatsugu Morimitsu, Casey J Clayton
  • Patent number: 7976989
    Abstract: The invention is directed to iridium oxide based catalysts for use as anode catalysts in PEM water electrolysis. The claimed composite catalyst materials comprise iridium oxide (IrO2) and optionally ruthenium oxide (RuO2) in combination with a high surface area inorganic oxide (for example TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2 and mixtures thereof). The inorganic oxide has a BET surface area in the range of 50 to 400 m2/g, a water solubility of lower than 0.15 g/l and is present in a quantity of less than 20 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst. The claimed catalyst materials are characterised by a low oxygen overvoltage and long lifetime in water electrolysis. The catalysts are used in electrodes, catalyst-coated membranes and membrane-electrode-assemblies for PEM electrolyzers as well as in regenerative fuel cells (RFC), sensors, and other electrochemical devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2011
    Assignee: Umicore AG & Co. KG
    Inventors: Marco Lopez, Andreas Schleunung, Peter Biberbach
  • Patent number: 7961452
    Abstract: The semiconductor photoelectrode of the present invention includes a metallic substrate having irregularities in a surface and a semiconductor layer which is formed on the surface of the metallic substrate and composed of a photocatalytic material. This can increase the light absorption efficiency and, furthermore, prevent recombination of charges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2011
    Assignee: Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takashi Oi, Yasukazu Iwasaki, Kazuhiro Sayama
  • Publication number: 20110073470
    Abstract: A multi-layer cathode block (30) for an electrolytic cell (10) has at least a surface layer (32) with a surface expansion index and a second layer (34) with a second expansion index. The surface layer (32) includes a surface wetting agent in a first total amount. The second layer (34) includes a wetting agent in a second total amount. The surface layer (32) is directly superposed to the second layer (34). The second wetting agent in the second layer (34) includes metal boride precursors that react together to generate a metal boride component in situ when the cathode block (30) is exposed to start-up and operation conditions of the electrolytic cell (10). The second total amount is lower than the first total amount and is selected so as to minimize the difference between the expansion indexes of the surface layer (32) and the second layer (34).
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Applicant: RIO TINTO ALCAN INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Jean Camiré, Jules Bergeronère, Pierre-Yves Brisson, Simon Leclerc
  • Patent number: 7905993
    Abstract: Mixed-metal-oxide (MMO) coated precious-metal tape is installed directly on concrete surfaces using an electrically conductive adhesive, thereby obviating the need for slots, holes, cementitious grout or additional concrete. The electrically conductive adhesive is preferably formed by disposing mixed-metal-oxide (MMO) coated precious-metal particles in an adhesive layer. The tape anodes may be installed on the concrete surfaces including a shallow concrete cover or congested reinforcing steel without developing an electrical short circuit between the anode and the reinforcing steel. Overall the invention provides for quick and low cost installation on many concrete structures. Interconnections between the tape anodes and bare metal distribution elements may be made with conductive adhesive or spot welding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Inventor: Miki Funahashi
  • Patent number: 7811426
    Abstract: Disclosed is an oxygen evolution anode for evolving oxygen without chlorine evolution in electrolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride having high performance and durability with decreased amount of the precious metal(s) in the intermediate layer to decrease manufacturing cost and to ease problem of the resources. The oxygen evolution anode comprises an electroconductive substrate, an intermediate layer and an electrocatalyst. The intermediate layer prepared by calcination consists of multiple oxide of the platinum group element(s), Sn and Sb, with the Sn/Sb ratio of 1-40 and with the sum of Sn and Sb of 90 cationic % or less. The electrocatalyst is prepared by anodic deposition and consists of 0.1-3 cationic % of Sn, 0.2-20 cationic % of Mo and/or W and the balance of Mn.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2010
    Assignees: Daiki Ataka Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koji Hashimoto, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Naokazu Kumagai
  • Patent number: 7803260
    Abstract: Disclosed is an oxygen evolution electrode for formation of only oxygen without formation of chlorine at anode in the performance and the durability of the anode is so high that they are, even in strong acid, at the same level as that in neutral solution. The electrode is prepared by anodic deposition of multiple oxide consisting of Mn—Mo—Sn, Mo—W—Sn or Mn—Mo—W—Sn on an IrO2-coated titanium substrate. The multiple oxide are composed of Mn as the main component, 0.1-3 cationic % of Sn and 0.2-20 cationic % of Mo and/or W.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignees: Daiki Ataka Engineering Co., Ltd., Koji Hashimoto
    Inventors: Koji Hashimoto, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Naokazu Kumagai
  • Publication number: 20100119920
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided according to embodiments of the present invention which includes a reaction chamber having a wall defining an interior of the reaction chamber and an exterior of the reaction chamber; exoelectrogenic bacteria disposed in the interior of the reaction chamber; an aqueous medium having a pH in the range of 3-9, inclusive, the aqueous medium including an organic substrate oxidizable by exoelectrogenic bacteria and the medium disposed in the interior of the reaction chamber. An inventive apparatus further includes an anode at least partially contained within the interior of the reaction chamber; and a brush or mesh cathode including stainless steel, nickel or titanium, the cathode at least partially contained within the interior of the reaction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 30, 2009
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Applicant: The Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Bruce Logan, Douglas Call, Matthew Merrill, Shaoan Cheng
  • Publication number: 20100096260
    Abstract: A water chlorinator includes an aqueous chloride ion source; and a pair of dual functional electrodes configured to electrolyze the aqueous chloride ion source, each one of the pair of dual functional electrodes comprising a titanium substrate and a mixed metal oxide coating deposited thereon and consisting essentially of ruthenium oxide and titanium oxide having a molar ratio of 5:95 to 25:75, respectively.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 16, 2008
    Publication date: April 22, 2010
    Applicant: FINNCHEM USA INC
    Inventors: Yuanwu Xie, Dennis Frederick Dong
  • Publication number: 20090288958
    Abstract: Accordingly, in various embodiments, the present invention provides methods for making electrochemically active materials. Methods include making an electrochemically active material by reacting a platinum group metal salt in a organic solvent to yield a mixture, then heating the mixture to create a metal-organic solvent complex and an acid, followed by removing at least a portion of the acid, and yielding an electrochemically active material comprising the metal-organic solvent complex. In an exemplary embodiment, the resulting electrochemically active material may be used for coating an electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2009
    Publication date: November 26, 2009
    Applicant: PHELPS DODGE CORPORATION
    Inventors: Scot P. Sandoval, Michael D. Waite, Casey J. Clayton
  • Patent number: 7494583
    Abstract: An electrode having a valve metal substrate and an electrocatalytic surface composition comprising titanium dioxide doped with bismuth is provided, and an electrolytic water purification process utilizing this electrode, wherein organic substances dissolved or dispersed in water are oxidized and degraded in a nonselective manner with good current efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2009
    Inventor: Oleh Weres
  • Publication number: 20080237036
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of forming an electrocatalytic surface on an electrode in a simple way, in particular on a lead anode used in the electrolytic recovery of metals. The catalytic coating is formed by a spraying method which does not essentially alter the characteristics of the coating powder during spraying. Transition metal oxides are used as the coating material. After the spray coating the electrode is ready for use without further treatment. The invention also relates to an electrode onto which an electrocatalytic surface is formed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2006
    Publication date: October 2, 2008
    Applicant: OUTOTEC OYJ
    Inventors: Michael Harold Barker, Olli Hyvarinen, Karri Osara
  • Patent number: 7378005
    Abstract: An object is to provide an electrode for electrolysis which is preferable in generation of ozone water usable in cleaning and sterilizing of water and sewage, or cleaning in a semiconductor device manufacturing process by an electrolysis process, and a method of manufacturing this electrode for electrolysis. The surface of a conductive substrate constituting the electrode for electrolysis is coated with a noble metal such as platinum or a noble metal oxide to form an intermediate layer, further a surface layer is constituted of a dielectric material on the surface of the intermediate layer, and the surface layer is provided with holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2008
    Assignee: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Kaneda, Mineo Ikematsu, Yurika Koizumi, Tsuyoshi Rakuma, Daizo Takaoka
  • Publication number: 20080116065
    Abstract: Disclosed is an oxygen evolution electrode for formation of only oxygen without formation of chlorine at anode in the performance and the durability of the anode is so high that they are, even in strong acid, at the same level as that in neutral solution. The electrode is prepared by anodic deposition of multiple oxide consisting of Mn—Mo—Sn, Mo—W—Sn or Mn—Mo—W—Sn on an IrO2-coated titanium substrate. The multiple oxide are composed of Mn as the main component, 0.1-3 cationic % of Sn and 0.2-20 cationic % of Mo and/or W.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 25, 2007
    Publication date: May 22, 2008
    Applicants: Daiki Ataka Engineering Co., Ltd., Koji Hashimoto
    Inventors: Koji Hashimoto, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Naokazu Kumagai
  • Patent number: 7374647
    Abstract: A device of an electrode is disclosed, comprising a core and a surface coating of electrically-conductive material, and it is characterized by that the surface coating comprises one or several layers with a pore-free surface, each with a thickness of 0.005 mm to 0.050 mm, and formed by spraying, especially with a vacuum plasma spray technique.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2008
    Assignee: ORO AS
    Inventors: Atle Mundheim, Lasse Kroknes
  • Patent number: 7332065
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing an electrode comprising depositing on an electrode substrate a binder dispersion comprising a precursor of a conductive or semiconductive oxide, forming a conductive or semiconductive oxide coating from the precursor on the electrode substrate, depositing an electroconductive titanium oxide and electrode particles on the conductive or semiconductive oxide coating, adhering the electroconductive titanium oxide and the electrode particles to the formed conductive or semiconductive oxide coating. The invention also relates to an electrode obtainable by the process, and the use thereof in an electrolytic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Akzo Nobel N.V.
    Inventor: Takayuki Shimamune
  • Patent number: 7258778
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrocatalytic coating and an electrode having the coating thereon, wherein the coating is a mixed metal oxide coating, preferably platinum group metal oxides, with or without low levels of valve metal oxides. The electrocatalytic coating can be used especially as an anode component of an electrolysis cell and in particular a cell for the electrolysis of aqueous chlor-alkali solutions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2007
    Assignee: Eltech Systems Corporation
    Inventor: Kenneth L. Hardee
  • Patent number: 7255894
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a component, in particular an aluminium electrowinning anode, for use at elevated temperature in an oxidising and/or corrosive environment comprises: applying onto a metal-based substrate layers of a particle mixture containing iron oxide particles and particles of a reactant-oxide selected from titanium, yttrium, ytterbium and tantalum oxides; and heat treating the applied layers to consolidate by reactive sintering of the iron oxide particles and the reactant-oxide particles to turn the applied layer into a protective coating made of a substantially continuous reacted oxide matrix of one or more multiple oxides of iron and the metal from the reactant-oxide. The metal-based substrate comprises at its surface during the heat treatment an integral anchorage-oxide of at least one metal of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2007
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Thinh T. Nguyen, Vittorio De Nora
  • Patent number: 6617154
    Abstract: An improved electrode for use in generating an electrical field in a saline solution is provided. In particular, a continuous crystalline metal nitride coated electrode is provided for use in a variety of saline solution applications, such as in an electrophoresis device for separating proteins or nucleic acids or an electroporation apparatus for the encapsulation of biologically-active substances in various cell populations. A method and apparatus are provided for the encapsulation of biologically-active substances in red blood cells, characterized by an optionally automated, continuous-flow, self-contained electroporation system which allows withdrawal of blood from a patient, separation of red blood cells, encapsulation of a biologically-active substances in the cells, and optional recombination of blood plasma and the modified red blood cells thereby producing blood with modified biological characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2003
    Assignee: MaxCyte, Inc.
    Inventor: Peter Meserol
  • Publication number: 20030136669
    Abstract: Electrode at least comprising an electroconductive support of a titanium-palladium alloy, titanium, tantalum or compounds or alloys of titanium or of tantalum, an electrochemically active coating and an interlayer between the support and the electrochemically active coating, wherein the interlayer consists of titanium carbide and/or titanium boride and is applied to the support by flame or plasma spraying. Process for producing these electrodes and their use in an electrochemical cell for producing chlorine or chromic acid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 31, 2002
    Publication date: July 24, 2003
    Inventors: Fritz Gestermann, Hans-Dieter Pinter, Gerd Speer, Peter Fabian, Robert Scannell
  • Patent number: 6589405
    Abstract: An electrode with large active surface area is made by winding a Ti-fiber tow around a rectangular Ti-plate, and an electrocatalytic coating of three layers is applied. A precoat comprising a mixture of iridium dioxide and tantalum pentoxide is applied first, using a solution of the corresponding chloride salts in hydrochloric acid with some nitric acid added to inhibit corrosion of the metal. A sealing coat is then applied, comprising tin dioxide doped with antimony, in order to improve adhesion of the final oxide coat to the precoat. The third and final coat comprises particles of titanium dioxide doped with niobium in the +4 oxidation cemented with titanium dioxide that is doped with antimony. Anodes of this description are preferably assembled together with corrosion resistant cathodes in an alternating sequence, with a plastic coated fiber glass mesh placed between the anodes and cathodes to prevent short circuiting.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Inventors: Oleh Weres, Henry Edward O'Donnell
  • Patent number: 6527924
    Abstract: A cathode comprising an electrically conductive substrate made of titanium, nickel, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, iron or alloys thereof, coated with an intermediate layer of oxides of titanium and of a precious metal, and with an outer layer comprising metal oxides of titanium, zirconium and a precious metal, can be used for the electrolysis of solutions, in particular for the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of alkali metal chlorides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Atofina
    Inventors: Françoise Andolfatto, Philippe Joubert
  • Patent number: 6485961
    Abstract: An improved electrode for use in generating an electrical field in a saline solution is provided. In particular, a continuous crystalline metal nitride coated electrode is provided for use in a variety of saline solution applications, such as in an electrophoresis device for separating proteins or nucleic acids or an electroporation apparatus for the encapsulation of biologically-active substances in various cell populations. A method and apparatus are provided for the encapsulation of biologically-active substances in red blood cells, characterized by an optionally automated, continuous-flow, self-contained electroporation system which allows withdrawal of blood from a patient, separation of red blood cells, encapsulation of a biologically-active substances in the cells, and optional recombination of blood plasma and the modified red blood cells thereby producing blood with modified biological characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Assignee: MaxCyte, Inc.
    Inventor: Peter Meserol
  • Patent number: 6436274
    Abstract: A non-carbon, metal-based slow-consumable anode of a cell for the electrowinning of aluminium self-forms during normal electrolysis an electrochemically-active oxide-based surface layer (20). The rate of formation (35) of the layer (20) is substantially equal to its rate of dissolution (30) at the surface layer/electrolyte interface (25) thereby maintaining its thickness substantially constant, forming a limited barrier controlling the oxidation rate (35). The anode (10) usually comprises an alloy of iron with at least one of nickel, copper, cobalt or zinc which during use forms an oxide surface layer (20) mainly containing ferrite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2002
    Inventors: Vittorio De Nora, Jean-Jacques Duruz