With Addition Of Agent To Facilitate Removal Patents (Class 204/561)
  • Patent number: 11193071
    Abstract: Integrated gas oil separation plant systems and methods are disclosed. Systems and methods include treating a crude oil inlet feed stream with a high pressure production trap (HPPT), a low pressure production trap (LPPT), a low pressure degassing tank (LPDT), a first heat exchanger, a second heat exchanger, a LPPT recycle water stream, a fresh wash water supply stream, and a LPDT recycle water stream, where the LPDT recycle water stream is operable to supply recycle water from the LPDT to an output stream from the HPPT to form the LPPT inlet feed stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2020
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2021
    Assignee: SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY
    Inventor: Mohamed Soliman
  • Patent number: 10767121
    Abstract: Integrated gas oil separation plant systems and methods are disclosed. Systems and methods include treating a crude oil inlet feed stream with a high pressure production trap (HPPT), a low pressure production trap (LPPT), a low pressure degassing tank (LPDT), a first heat exchanger, a second heat exchanger, a LPPT recycle water stream, a fresh wash water supply stream, and a LPDT recycle water stream, where the LPDT recycle water stream is operable to supply recycle water from the LPDT to an output stream from the HPPT to form the LPPT inlet feed stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2020
    Assignee: SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY
    Inventor: Mohamed Soliman
  • Patent number: 10260010
    Abstract: Integrated gas oil separation plant systems and methods are disclosed. Systems and methods include treating a crude oil inlet feed stream with a high pressure production trap (HPPT), a low pressure production trap (LPPT), a low pressure degassing tank (LPDT), a first heat exchanger, a second heat exchanger, a LPPT recycle water stream, a fresh wash water supply stream, and a LPDT recycle water stream, where the LPDT recycle water stream is operable to supply recycle water from the LPDT to an output stream from the HPPT to form the LPPT inlet feed stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2019
    Assignee: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventor: Mohamed Soliman
  • Patent number: 9102791
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are alkoxylated sorbitan ester compounds and compositions useful in emulsion breaking applications relating to the production, transportation, storage, and separation of crude oil and natural gas. Also disclosed herein are methods of using the compounds and compositions as emulsion breakers, particularly in applications relating to the production, transportation, storage, and separation of crude oil and natural gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2015
    Assignee: Ecolab USA Inc.
    Inventor: G. Richard Meyer
  • Patent number: 8815068
    Abstract: The present invention relates to crude oil-water separation processes, specifically desalting in a petroleum refinery. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method and system for increase coalescence rates of water drops in a desalter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Phillips 66 Company
    Inventor: Samartha G. Anekal
  • Publication number: 20120097543
    Abstract: The present invention relates to crude oil-water separation processes, specifically desalting in a petroleum refinery.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2011
    Publication date: April 26, 2012
    Applicant: ConocoPhillips Company
    Inventor: Samartha G. Anekal
  • Publication number: 20110139624
    Abstract: A compact desalting system for use in a process of desalting crude oil comprises a plurality of separation stages. Each separation stage includes a compact electrostatic coalescer (42, 62) for coalescing water droplets carried with the crude oil and settling means (91, 92; 95, 96) for settling separated oil and coalesced water droplets. The system includes a vessel (46) comprising a plurality of compartments containing the settling means and the compact electrostatic coalescers are each mounted in a housing on top of the vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 11, 2010
    Publication date: June 16, 2011
    Applicant: Aker Kvaerner Process Systems A.S.
    Inventors: Jon Liverud, Arne Myrvang Gulbraar
  • Publication number: 20100101959
    Abstract: A method for removing soot, sludge and other insoluble particulates from an engine oil is provided, the method comprising: disposing an oil containing the particulates between a pair of electrodes, wherein one of the electrodes is a positive electrode; applying a coating to the surface of the positive electrode, wherein the coating is configured to collect a portion of the particulates on the positive electrode; applying a current to the electrodes for a period of time, wherein portions of the particulates agglomerate on the positive electrode and other portions of the particulates not collected on the positive electrode are preagglomerated resulting in a larger average particle size; and applying a filtering process to remove the particulates not collected on the positive electrode. Also, disclosed herein is a filter for removing soot, sludge and other insoluble particulates from an engine oil.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 27, 2009
    Publication date: April 29, 2010
    Inventors: Daniel E. Bause, Ronald P. Rohrbach, Nageswara R. Cheekala, Peter D. Unger, Brian K. Artz
  • Patent number: 5746907
    Abstract: A method is provided to remove metals from a residual oil containing an initial amount of a selected metal, the method comprising the steps of:providing a vessel for exposing the residual oil to a DC electric field having a strength of about one kV/inch or greater,passing the residual oils through the vessel whereby at least ten percent by weight of the initial amount of the selected metal is removed by attraction to an electrode; andpassing the residual oil that has been passed through the vessel over a hydrodemetalization catalyst in the presence of hydrogen. Metal containing particles and other toluene insoluble organic and inorganic solids are effectively removed from residual oil streams by treatment with a DC electrical field prior to hydrodemetalization resulting in significant increases in useful lives for downstream hydrodemetalization catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Antonius Franziskus Heinrich Wielers, Vitold Raimond Kruka
  • Patent number: 5062928
    Abstract: A process for producing color change devices incorporating latent indicia and color change devices incorporating latent indicia produced by the process. The process involves anodizing a color generating metal, having limited surface areas thereof covered by a mask, in the presence of a fluoride as an adhesion-reducing agent in order to produce a color-generating laminate incorporating an anodic film having detachable and non-detachable areas. The improvement of the invention involves forming the mask from a masking material which permits anodization of areas of the surface covered by the mask while preventing the adhesion-reducing agent from exerting a substantial adhesion-reducing effect in the areas of the surface covered by the mask. The anodic film having the detachable and non-detachable areas can then be formed by means of a single anodization step carried out in the presence of the adhesion-reducing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1991
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventor: Gary J. Smith
  • Patent number: 5053112
    Abstract: Steel is prepared for hot-dip coating in molten zinc, by forming lead chloride on it in a greater mass (at least 12 g/m.sup.2) than possible by evaporation from saturated aqueous solution. One way of so forming the lead chloride is to cathodize the steel (24000 coulomb/m.sup.2) in 1:1 HCl saturated with lead chloride, and air-dry the steel. The steel thus prepared is dipped for 2 minutes in molten zinc or, for greater corrosion resistance, in molten scrap zinc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 1, 1991
    Assignee: National Research Development Corporation
    Inventors: Robert D. Jones, Charles A. Hotham
  • Patent number: 5041199
    Abstract: A process whereby an aqueous solution containing an electrodepositable electrolyte, such as a resin or surfactant solution, is utilized as an electrolyte bath in which particles of an electrode material, such as manganese dioxide along with particles of carbon are dispersed within the bath so that when a voltage is applied across a conductive substrate and the bath, the particles will be deposited on the substrate to produce an electrode suitable for use in electrochemical cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1991
    Assignee: Gould Inc.
    Inventor: Dino F. Di Franco
  • Patent number: 5037527
    Abstract: A reference electrode for use in a flow type measuring apparatus incorporating an immobilized enzyme working electrode, wherein a hydrophilic gel layer is provided on a silver chloride containing layer in order to prevent flow-out of silver ions that are likely to adversely affect enzyme activity, so that the silver chloride containing layer goes into contact through the hydrophilic gel layer with an electrolytic solution containing a substance to be measured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: Kanzaki Paper Mfg. Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Ryuzo Hayashi, Kariyone Akio, Yoshio Hashizume
  • Patent number: 5032236
    Abstract: A surface-blackened steel sheet is produced by electrolyzing a steel sheet at a cathode in an acidic aqueous solution containing Zn.sup.2+, at least one of Fe.sup.2+, Co.sup.2+ and Ni.sup.2+, a film-improving ion consisting of at least one member selected from the group consisting of Cr.sup.3+, Fe.sup.2+, Pb.sup.2+, In.sup.2+, Ag.sup.2+, Sn.sup.2+, Ti.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+, Mo.sup.6+, V.sup.3+, V.sup.6+, Mn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.4+, Mn.sup.6+, Bi.sup.2+, sulfite ion, thiosulfate ion, thiocyanate ion, sulfamate ion and sulfonate ion, an oxidizing ion and an organic hydroxy-compound as main components, thereby forming a black film on the steel sheet, followed by water washing, a chromate treatment, if required, and coating with a guard coat.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1991
    Assignee: Nippon Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Katsushi Saitou, Yuujirou Miyauchi, Kazumi Shibata, Kouichi Wada
  • Patent number: 5030331
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for preparing an iridium oxide film which comprises evaporating iridium and carbon by electron beam or sputtering to prepare an iridium-carbon composite film, heating said composite film in an oxidizing atmosphere to form a thermally oxidized iridium oxide film, and continuously applying an alternating potential to said iridium oxide film in an aqueous solution to conduct electrolytic oxidation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1991
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventor: Yoshiyuki Sato
  • Patent number: 5022968
    Abstract: A technique for improving the tarnish and oxidation resistance of copper and copper based alloy materials is disclosed. Copper or a copper alloy is immersed in an aqueous solution containing sodium hydroxide, zinc ions and chromium (VI) ions. While the compositional ranges may vary, the concentration of either zinc ions or chromium (VI) ions, or both, is less than 1.0 gm/l. A chromium-zinc coating is electrolytically applied. The coating provides tarnish resistance at temperatures in excess of 190.degree. C. The coating is removable by immersion in sulfuric acid. Improved results are obtained by rinsing deionized water containing a small amount of an alkaline or alkaline earth hydroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1991
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Lifun Lin, Chung-Yao Chao
  • Patent number: 5022969
    Abstract: The process for encasing an electrically conductive region in an electronic component in an insulating layer comprises the steps of depositing a polymer layer by electrochemical polymerization of phenol-, thiophenol- and analine-containing monomers and their combinations from an electrolytic solution on the electrically conductive region and subsequently cross-linking the polymer layer to form a chemically inert insulating layer. The process provides a uniformly adhering thin insulating layer. A field effect transistor so encased is suitable for use as a physical and/or chemical sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1991
    Inventors: Mira Josowicz, Karin Potje-Kamloth
  • Patent number: 5021104
    Abstract: The suitability of the kind of steel strip known as black plate, optionally coated with small quantities of tin or nickel for food packaging, is greatly improved by ensuring the presence of a layer of P-type semiconducting oxide on the surface thereof. The ratio of the number of Type-P charge bearing atoms (NA) of that semiconducting oxide to the numbr of Type-N charge bearing atoms (ND) is greater than 1.2. The quality of the plate is yet further improved by coating the oxide surface with a thin chromic passivation layer that also contains a P-type semiconducting oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1991
    Assignee: Nuova Italsider S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nazzareno Azzerri, Leonardo Giorgi
  • Patent number: 5017272
    Abstract: An electrolytic polymerization method for forming a conductive film on a surface of a conductive body coated with an insulating film is disclosed.In this method, a pulse-like electrolytic current is supplied between an electrode connected with the conductive body and a counter electrode in an electrolyte containing substance for forming a conductive high-polymer film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1991
    Assignees: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Saga Sanyo Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hidenori Kamigawa
  • Patent number: 4983262
    Abstract: The production of uniformly blackened nickel deposits for decorative or functional purposes can be achieved by depositing nickel from an electroless nickel plate composition or electrolytically followed by forming a conversion coating on the electroless nickel deposit in a chromate bath which includes nitrate ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1991
    Assignee: OMI International Corporation
    Inventor: Peter Verhoeven
  • Patent number: 4976829
    Abstract: A metallic container for beverage is protected from its contents by electrodeposited zinc, which is anodized in alkali then anodically reacted with weak poly(acrylic acid) and finally cured at 85.degree. C. at 100% relative humidity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 11, 1990
    Inventors: John Ellis, John W. Nicholson, Alan D. Wilson
  • Patent number: 4971663
    Abstract: A method of chemical fabrication for producing chemical compositions composed of at least two elemental constituents at low temperatures in an electrochemical cell is provided. Preferred compositions so produced include semiconductors, superconductors and other materials useful in various applications. By virtue of the synthesis at low temperatures, degradation of the compositions due to, for example, diffusion effects, is substantially eliminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1990
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Donald R. Sadoway, Robert M. Rose
  • Patent number: 4968392
    Abstract: The treatment of the external surfaces of condenser tubes, such as those used in power station condenser plants, with certain inorganic chemical compounds renders those surfaces or parts thereof sufficiently water-repellent so as to prevent the formation thereon, during operation of the condenser, of condensate films. Instead of continuous condensate films forming on the treated condenser tube surfaces during operation of the condenser, condensation is formed as discrete droplets of water which run down and drip off the tubes with the result that the condenser plant can work at higher levels of efficiency. Suitable chemical substances for use in the treatment of condenser tube surfaces include Cr VI anions, Cr.sup.3+ ions, and alkali metal tungstates, vanadates and molybdates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Assignee: BNF Metals Technology Centre
    Inventors: Susan Smith, Roger Francis, Clive Barnes
  • Patent number: 4968391
    Abstract: Disclosed are a black surface-treated steel sheet, which comprises a steel sheet or plated steel sheet and a electrodeposited composite plating coating formed in a deposition amount of 0.1 to 5 g/m.sup.2 on the surface of the steel sheet or plated steel sheet, the plating coating containing metalic Zinc or Zn-Ni alloy and oxides or hydrous oxides and sulfur compound, and a process for the preparation of a black surface-treated steel sheet, which comprises carrying out the electrolysis in an acidic aqueous solution containing Zn.sup.2+ and, as the main components, at least one member selected from the group consisting of Fe.sup.2+, Co.sup.2+ and Ni.sup.2+, an oxidative ion, and a thio compound, by electrolysis a steel sheet or plated steel sheet as the cathode, and water-washing and drying the treated steel sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Assignee: Nippon Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Katsushi Saito, Yujiro Miyauchi, Toshimichi Murata, Yoshio Shindo
  • Patent number: 4964972
    Abstract: According to the invention organic monolayer films are applied to an electrically conductive substrate, resulting in an electrode which can be used in electrochemical processes. The said film serves as ultrathin membrane and allows certain selected species to approach the substrate and be detected. The film comprises active species which are selective towards specific species contained in mixture with others and a blocking surface sealing component. It is also possible to use one compound serving both purposes. The components of the film are attached to the substrate by a variety of means: adsorption, chemisorption, electro-chemical deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 23, 1990
    Assignee: Yeda Research and Development Company Limited
    Inventors: Jacob Sagiv, Israel Rubinstein, Suzi Steinberg, Abraham Shanzer, Yitzhak Tor
  • Patent number: 4961829
    Abstract: A process for the passivation of the surface of certain semiconductor materials whereby there is formed a surface film. A mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) semiconductor may be subjected to surface anodization in a bath comprising a fluoride resulting in a fluorine-containing surface film. The composition of the protective film can be varied according to the bath used in the electrochemical process for the production of the surface layer.The invention further relates to semiconductors of the mercury cadmium telluride type passivated by the application of such surface films.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1990
    Assignee: Semi-Conductor Devices, a Tadiran-Rafael Partnership
    Inventors: Nili Mainzer, Eliezer Weiss, Leah Carmiel
  • Patent number: 4957594
    Abstract: A zinc- or zinc alloy-coated steel sheet having an excellent spot-weldability, comprising: a base steel sheet; one or more layers coated on the steel sheet, at least one of the coated layers containing zinc as a major component; and an oxidized layer formed on the outermost of the coated layers and containing zinc in an amount of from 0.03 to 3.0 g/m.sup.2, the oxidized layer containing at least one of zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 18, 1990
    Assignee: Nippon Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Kazumasa Yamazaki, Yaichiro Mizuyama, Takashi Horita, Shinichi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4941953
    Abstract: An electrode for electrolysis is disclosed, comprising an electrode substrate made of a conductive metal having provided thereon an intermediate layer and a coating of an electrode active substance, in which an intermediate layer is formed by tin-plating and is composed of a tin and/or tin oxide. The electrode exhibits high resistance to passivation and excellent durability, and is particularly suitable for use in electrolysis accompanied by oxygen generation and for organic electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1990
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukiei Matsumoto, Takayuki Shimamune
  • Patent number: 4940516
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett layer systems is described. The process comprises transferring a monolayer to a solid substrate having an electrically conductive surface by applying an electric potential, thereby oxidizing or reducing an electroactive molecule present in the monolayer. The layer systems so obtained can be used, for example, as electrically conductive layers or as sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1990
    Assignee: Ciba-Geigy Corporation
    Inventors: Alex Wegmann, Bernd Tieke, Bruno Hilti
  • Patent number: 4935111
    Abstract: A black colored steel strip having improved degree of blackness and uniform appearance is prepared by subjecting a Zn-Ni alloy plated steel substrate to anodic electrolysis or alternating current electrolysis in an electrolyte solution containing at least one member selected from the group consisting of hydroxide, sulfate, and chloride of sodium, potassium, or nickel; nitrate ion; and at least one member selected from an inhibitor and a complexing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Kawasaki Steel Corp.
    Inventors: Sachiko Suzuki, Katsuhei Kikuchi, Nobuo Totsuka, Takao Kurisu
  • Patent number: 4935110
    Abstract: Electrode structures of solid polymer electrolyte type for use in electrolysis are disclosed, (i) in which an adhering layer containing fine particles loaded with a .beta.-lead dioxide powder is formed on one surface of an ion-exchange membrane serving as a solid polymer electrolyte, and an electrodeposited layer of lead dioxide being formed on the surface of the adhering layer, and (ii) in which an electrodeposited layer of lead dioxide having dispersed therein fine particles loaded with a .beta.-lead dioxide powder is formed electrolytically between an ion-exchange membrane serving as a solid polymer electrolyte and a current collector positioned close to the ion-exchange membrane, to thereby form a unitary assembly. The present electrode structures are useful for production of ozone by electrolysis of water and for production of peroxides by electrolysis of aqueous solutions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshinori Nishiki, Shuji Nakamatsu, Takayuki Shimamune
  • Patent number: 4929316
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing an organic semi-conductor solid electrolytic capacitor wherein a conductive polymer thin film layer of a heterocyclic compound, i.e., pyrrole, thiophene or furan, is formed as a solid electrolyte on the surface of a metal substrate having a dielectric oxide film formed thereon by electrolytic oxidation polymerization carried out in an electrolytic solution which contains pyrrole, thiophene or furan as a heterocyclic compound and an aliphatic or aromatic sulfonic acid or a salt thereof as a supporting electrolyte in an organic solvent, for example, acetonitrile, acetone or propylene carbonate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1990
    Assignee: Niksuko Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshihiro Harakawa, Seiya Takahashi, Koji Izawa, Hidemitsu Takeuchi, Keizo Ikari
  • Patent number: 4927504
    Abstract: A process of making a sculpture includes the basic steps of making a plaster sculpture model and then cutting and shaping a heavy metal wire cloth over the sculpture model. A structural framework is formed using the plaster model as a guide. The wire cloth which has been cut to size is shaped over the plaster model to form the general shape of the plaster model and the metal wire cloth is removed and attached to the structural framework and the frame with metal cloth attached is placed in an electrolyte, such as seawater, and an electrical conductor connected to the metal wire cloth to act as one electrode of an electrolytic cell. The second electrode is placed adjacent the metal sculpture and a voltage applied across the electrodes to accrete the metal sculpture to form a sculpture of the same general shape as the shape of the metal wire cloth attached to the support frame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1990
    Inventor: Christopher R. Scala
  • Patent number: 4927800
    Abstract: An electrode catalyst comprising a lead dioxide electrically deposited layer, the layer having particles containing .beta.-lead dioxide powder dispersed therein, and a method for producing the electrode catalyst are disclosed. The particles contain .beta.-lead dioxide powder and optionally an electrolytic cocatalyst selected from PTFE, agar, gelatin, a perfluoro ion exchange resin and the like. The present electrode catalyst is useful for production of ozone by electrolysis of water and for production of peroxides by electrolysis of aqueous solutions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1990
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshinori Nishiki, Shuji Nakamatsu, Takayuki Shimamune
  • Patent number: 4917779
    Abstract: A fluoroplastic coating is formed on the surface of a substrate, which is selected from the group consisting of zinc, zinc alloys and zinc platings, by (i) forming an anodic oxide film on the surface of the substrate by alternating current electrolysis, (ii) dipping the substrate with the anodic oxide film formed therein in a dispersion of a fluoroplastic to coat the anodic oxide film with the fluoroplastic; and (iii) subjecting the thus-coated substrate to a heat treatment at a temperature of at least 170.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1990
    Assignee: Usui Kokusai Sangyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Kunio Katsuma
  • Patent number: 4915799
    Abstract: In this electrolytic coloring method for chromium alloy, first, an aqueous solution containing, for example, chromic acid of 250 g/l as a main material and, for example, sulfuric acid of 490 g/l as an electrolyte is prepared. Then, in this aqueous solution, chromium alloy, for example, a stainless steel plate undergoes an anode electrolytic treatment and a cathod electrolytic treatment respectively for one or more seconds with a current having an average current density of 0.05-2 A/dm.sup.2 respectively one or more in an alternatingly repeated manner, and thereby an oxide film is formed on the surface of the chromium alloy. In this case, the color tone of the oxide film formed on the chromium alloy is adjusted by varying the respective average current densities, the respective treating times and the numbers of repetition cycles of the anode electrolytic treatment and the cathode electrolytic treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1990
    Assignee: Kinki Yakuhin Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideki Iai, Katsuaki Shimouchi, Yoshikazu Aoki
  • Patent number: 4911800
    Abstract: The superconducting properties of superconducting compounds are controlled or maintained by active external electrochemical intervention. The superconducting compound forms one electrode in an electrochemical cell. A counterelectrode and the superconducting compound electrode are in contact with an electrolyte and a potential is applied between the counterelectrode and the superconducting electrode. The cell is operated at a temperature near the expected transition temperature of the superconducting material. The potential applied between the electrodes is selected to control a property such as transition temperature. In a preferred embodiment, a superconducting material such as Ba.sub.2 YCu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x serves as an anode and a counterelectrode such as a mercury-mercuric oxide reference electrode serves as a cathode. Suitable oxygen-bearing electrolytes are ozone and trifluoronitrosomethane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1990
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Donald R. Sadoway, Robert M. Rose
  • Patent number: 4902387
    Abstract: A chromate-treated steel strip comprising a chromate film on a zinc plated steel strip is improved in corrosion resistance and coating adherence by forming the chromate film of three layer structure consisting of a metallic Cr layer, a Cr.sup.3+ oxide layer, and an outermost surface layer of SiO.sub.2, and Cr.sup.3+ oxide plus Cr.sup.6+ oxide. The three layered chromate film is deposited on a zinc plated steel strip by effecting cathodic electrolysis in a bath containing hexavalent chromium, colloidal silica, optional alumina sol, and a fluoride, by supplying electricity at a specific current density to a controlled quantity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 20, 1990
    Assignee: Kawasaki Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Yuko Takeuchi, Yuki Nakahara, Hajime Kimura, Shinobu Okano
  • Patent number: 4898649
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing an electrolytically chromated steel sheet, comprising the steps of: subjecting a steel sheet intermittently to a plurality of runs of cathodic electrolytic chromate treatment in an acidic electrolytic chromating solution. At least one of these plurality of runs of cathodic electrolytic chromate treatment is carried out at a high electric current density within the range of from 90 to 200 A/dm.sup.2, to form on at least one surface of the steel sheet a chromating film comprising a metallic chromium layer as a lower layer having numerous granular projections over the entire surface thereof, and a hydrated chromium oxide layer as an upper layer. The electrolytically chromated steel sheet manufactured in accordance with the method of the present invention is excellent in a secondary paint adhesion and a weldability, and has a satisfactory surface hue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Assignee: NKK Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroki Iwasa, Toyofumi Watanabe, Hirohide Furuya
  • Patent number: 4892629
    Abstract: The shelf life of electrochemically prepared AgO cathodes is improved by reasing the temperature of anodization step to about 70.degree. C. or higher. At these elevated temperatures the capacity of the AgO electrode can also be increased by using a charge-discharge-charge regime.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1990
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Daniel R. Glen, Azzam N. Mansour, Kathleen M. O'Neill, Steven Dallek, Benjamin F. Larrick
  • Patent number: 4891103
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a process station to precisely control the electrochemical anodization of specially prepared silicon substrates. Remotely placed voltage probes are utilized to monitor changes in the potential drop across the wafer as the anodization proceeds. As the available anodilizable area changes, the voltage drop across the wafer and hence the anodization current density is maintained at the desired value by the computer through the use of active feedback provided by these probes. Any desired anodization conditions can be programmed into the system using the system software, thereby adding an even greater degree of control over the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1990
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Eldon J. Zorinsky, David B. Spratt
  • Patent number: 4879018
    Abstract: A low voltage anodizing process for anodic oxidation of metals in which are used: (i) an anodizing bath containing an electrolyte, an anode and a cathode; and (ii) and AC fed DC power supply for supplying pulsating DC power to the anodizing bath; the anodizing process comprising cyclicly discharging the inherent capacitance in the anodizing bath; such cyclic discharge of such inherent capacitance being accomplished by providing successive power cycles wherein each such power cycle consists of a rise portion followed by a fall portion followed by an off-time portion; and providing a shunt discharge path in electrical circuit across the anode and cathode and being external to the anodizing bath for discharging such inherent capacitance during the last part of such fall portion and all during such off-time portion of each power cycle, a significant fraction of the total anodizing current being shunted across such discharge path which is large enough to completely discharge such inherent capacitance and to empty
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1989
    Inventors: Charles Fenoglio, Peter Kljucaricek, Jeffrey Pernick, Fred C. Schaedel
  • Patent number: 4875984
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing an electrolytically chromated steel sheet, comprising the steps of: subjecting a steel sheet to an anodic electrolytic treatment with a quantity of electricity of from 0.3 to 30 coulomb/dm.sup.2 in an acidic electrolyte containing at least one of chromic anhydride, chromate and bichromate, to form a hydrated chromium oxide film having numerous holes and numerous thin portions over the entire area of at least one surface of the steel sheet; and then subjecting the anodically treated steel sheet to a cathodic electrolytic chromate treatment in an acidic electrolytic chromating solution to form on the at least one surface of the steel sheet a chromate film comprising a metallic chromium layer as a lower layer having thereon numerous granular projections, and a hydrated chromium oxide layer as an upper layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: NKK Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroki Iwasa, Toyofumi Watanabe, Hirohide Furuya
  • Patent number: 4875983
    Abstract: In the continuous electrodeposition of chromium metal and chromium oxide on metal surfaces the codeposition of chromium and its oxide, inert and insoluble, is obtained from the same bath and at high current density, by using a number of cycles of impressed cathodic current and defined ranges of electrolyte velocities in the deposition cell. In this manner a product is obtained wherein a specific quantitative relationship between chromium metal and chromium oxide ensures corrosion resistance superior to that obtainable in known products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA
    Inventors: Santa Alota, Vincenzo Ferrari, Massimo Memmi, Leonardo Pacelli, Susanna Ramundo
  • Patent number: 4874480
    Abstract: A method of producing titanium and titanium alloys having improved lubricity and cold working characteristics includes immersing titanium or titanium alloy as the cathode in an electrolytic conversion coating bath containing acidified zinc phosphate and forming a zinc phosphate coating on the titanium or titanium alloy by maintaining electrolysis conditions in the bath. Further improvements are achieved by pretreatment of the titanium or titanium alloy with a surface adjustment agent prior to immersion in the electrolytic conversion coating bath. The products are further treated with conventional lubricants and exhibit improved working characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: Henkel Corporation
    Inventors: Sakae Sonoda, Kouji Hetsugi, Yoshihiko Sawasaki, Kouji Kaburagi, Yasunobu Matsushima
  • Patent number: 4869789
    Abstract: The process for producing decorative coatings on metals is primarily used in the jewelry industry, in handicrafts, and in device construction according to the invention, matte, true-to-form decorative coatings with a homogenous thickness of 3 .mu.m to 30 .mu.m are provided means of an electrochemical and plasmachemical reaction using a pulse operation in aqueous electrolytes at voltage peaks of 250 V to 750 V, pulse times of 20 .mu.s to 2 ms, pulse frequencies of 35 Hz to 300 Hz, pulse currents from 20 A to 120 A, electrolyte temperatures between 318 K and 360 K, and average current densities from 0.1 A cm.sup.-2 to 1 A cm.sup.-2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1989
    Assignee: Technische Universitaet Karl-Marx-Stadt
    Inventors: Peter Kurze, Waldemar Krysmann, Maria Berger, Klaus Rabending, Joachim Schreckenbach, Thomas Schwarz, Karl-Heinz Hartmann
  • Patent number: 4861438
    Abstract: A method of making a metallic pattern on a substrate having a surface comprising bare metal in predetermined areas and metal coated by a resist in remaining areas comprises(i) protecting the bare metal by electrodepositing thereon a heat-curable polymeric film having (a) a group which is reactive with an isocyanate group and (b) a blocked isocyanate group,(ii) heating the electrodeposited polymeric film to render it resistant to a solvent with which the resist is removable,(iii) removing the resist from said remaining areas using a solvent which does not remove the electrodeposited polymeric film, thereby exposing metal in said remaining areas, and(iv) etching the metal exposed in step (iii) using an etchant which does not remove the electrodeposited polymeric film, thereby leaving a metallic pattern protected by the electrodeposited polymeric film, which can be removed subsequently using a solvent therefor.The method is useful in the production of printed circuits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1989
    Assignee: Ciba-Geigy Corporation
    Inventors: Christopher P. Banks, Edward Irving
  • Patent number: 4859287
    Abstract: A method for producing a chemically colored stainless steel stock widely used as building material or the like is characterized in that a stainless steel stock is subjected to alternating current electrolysis or dipped and then subjected to an electrolytic treatment in a coloring electrolyte solution containing ions comprising a metal having a plurality of valence numbers, thereby producing colored stainless steel stocks having a variety of colors in a uniform color tone by a single solution/single step process. The continuous production apparatus of the invention can continuously manufacture colored stainless steel stocks with a variety of colors by a single solution/single step process in a commercial scale without any troublesome operation while affording the ease of control of color tone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Kawasaki Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Sone, Kayoko Wada, Hayao Kurahashi, Yoichi Nakai, Tetsu Narutani, Shigeharu Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4846837
    Abstract: A ceramic-coated metal implant is used in medicine as a hemiprosthesis or endoprosthesis. A metal implant base body having at least a surface comprised of a barrier layer metal is imparted with a surface roughness of 100-400 .mu.m by means of a mechanical and/or chemical and/or electrochemical pretreatment, thereby increasing the effective surface by more than 400%. Using anodic oxidation through spark discharge in aqueous electrolytes, an outer thickness of the roughened barrier layer metal is converted into a ceramic layer comprising oxides of the barrie layer metal and, optionally, a resorbable calcium phosphate. A maximum amount of calcium phosphate ceramic in the oxide layer faces an implantation bed of the implant. The calcium phosphate ceramic concentration decreases in the direction towards the phase boundary of the base body and oxide layer, so that bone can grow into the ceramic-coated metal implant and attain a high tenacity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: Technische Universitaet Karl-Marx-Stradt
    Inventors: Peter Kurze, Waldemar Krysmann, Wolfram Knoefler, Hans-Ludwig Graf
  • Patent number: 4840709
    Abstract: This invention relates to a single-stage process for imaging an electrically conductive substrate by the action of electric current, wherein the substrate is brought into contact with an electrically conductive solution of an organic substance, a direct voltage is applied between the substrate and at least one electrode, and the organic substance is deposited imagewise by current impulses, at a current density from 0.01 to 100 A/dm.sup.2. The organic substances used preferably comprise polymers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1989
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Engelbert Pliefke