Carboxylic Acid Or Derivative Produced Patents (Class 205/440)
  • Patent number: 10501339
    Abstract: A method for forming, or crystallising, clathrates hydrates of a host molecule in a liquid including water includes the following consecutive steps: cooling the liquid to a temperature no higher than the crystallisation temperature of the clathrates hydrates; and placing the cooled liquid in contact with host molecules that are capable of forming clathrates hydrates and are adsorbed on a solid support that has a large specific surface area and is made of a hydrophobic and apolar material, whereby the host molecules are desorbed from the solid support that has a large specific surface area and is made of a hydrophobic and apolar material, and react with the water of the liquid in order to provide a liquid containing clathrates hydrates and the solid support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2019
    Assignee: BGH
    Inventor: Bruno Mottet
  • Patent number: 10006131
    Abstract: There is disclosed an electrochemical deblocking solution for use on an electrode microarray. There is further disclosed a method for electrochemical synthesis on an electrode array using the electrochemical deblocking solution. The solution and method are for removing acid-labile protecting groups for synthesis of oligonucleotides, peptides, small molecules, or polymers on a microarray of electrodes while substantially improving isolation of deblocking to active electrodes. The method comprises applying a voltage or a current to at least one electrode of an array of electrodes. The array of electrodes is covered by the electrochemical deblocking solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: CustomArray, Inc.
    Inventors: Karl Maurer, John J. Cooper, Jr.
  • Patent number: 9957620
    Abstract: Methods for simultaneously decarboxylating carbohydrate acids and reducing carbohydrate aldehydes in a divided electrochemical cell having a central compartment separate from the anode and cathode are disclosed using a cation membrane and a bipolar membrane. The improved methods are more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2018
    Assignee: DFI USA, LLC
    Inventors: J. David Genders, Jonathan A. Stapley
  • Patent number: 9951431
    Abstract: A process and related electrode composition are disclosed for the electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation of organic substrates such as biomass-derived bio-oil components by the production of hydrogen atoms on a catalyst surface followed by the reaction of the hydrogen atoms with the organic reactants. Biomass fast pyrolysis-derived bio-oil is a liquid mixture containing hundreds of organic compounds with chemical functionalities that are corrosive to container materials and are prone to polymerization. A high surface area skeletal metal catalyst material such as Raney Nickel can be used as the cathode. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation convert the organic substrates under mild conditions to reduce coke formation and catalyst deactivation. The process converts oxygen-containing functionalities and unsaturated bonds into chemically reduced forms with an increased hydrogen content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2018
    Assignee: BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: James E. Jackson, Chun Ho Lam, Christopher M. Saffron, Dennis J. Miller
  • Patent number: 9867893
    Abstract: Disinfecting method for disinfecting a room or a surface, comprising the steps of: a) providing a fluid comprising at least one organic compound obtainable from natural substances, wherein the organic compound is provided in an non-polar or polar medium, or in a mixture of non-polar and polar media; b) mixing the fluid with a gas such that fluid particles are suspended in the gas, and an aerosol of fluid particles is formed; c) directing a flow of the aerosol formed in step b) on said surface or into said room.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Inventor: Hans Peter Zarfl
  • Patent number: 9863048
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a new method for preparation of biobased imidazolium salts and derivatives thereof; in particular, for the preparation of imidazolium hydrogenooxalate. The present invention also relates to uses of imidazolium hydrogenooxalate salts, especially as a precursor of imidazolium carboxylate compounds. The present invention also refers to a green electrochemical process providing imidazolium compounds, especially imidazolium carboxylate compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignee: UNIVERSITÉ DE BOURGOGNE
    Inventors: Jacques Andrieu, Charles Devillers, Guillaume de Robillard
  • Patent number: 9481938
    Abstract: The embodiments described herein pertain generally to an electrochemical reduction method of carbon dioxide under a solution condition containing potassium sulfate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2016
    Assignees: Sogang University Research Foundation, Korea Southern Power Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Woonsup Shin, Sae Young Oh, Suk Kyu Kim, Mi Jung Park
  • Patent number: 9315913
    Abstract: In a method for generating formic acid by reducing carbon dioxide, a formic acid generation apparatus is prepared. The apparatus includes: a cathode container for storing a first electrolyte solution containing carbon dioxide; an anode container for storing a second electrolyte solution; a solid electrolyte membrane sandwiched between the cathode and anode containers; a cathode electrode provided in the cathode container in contact with the first electrolyte solution, the cathode electrode having a gallium oxide region on a surface thereof; an anode electrode provided in the anode container in contact with the second electrolyte solution; and an external power supply for applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the cathode electrode and the anode electrode, respectively. A negative voltage and a positive voltage are applied to the cathode electrode and the anode electrode, respectively, using the external power supply to generate formic acid on the cathode electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2016
    Assignee: Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takeyuki Sekimoto, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Hiroshi Hashiba, Yuka Yamada
  • Patent number: 9080240
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for electrochemically co-producing a first product and a second product. The system may include a first electrochemical cell, a first reactor, a second electrochemical cell, at least one second reactor, and at least one third reactor. The method and system for for co-producing a first product and a second product may include co-producing a glycol and an alkene employing a recycled halide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20150065688
    Abstract: A method for generating layered structures is disclosed. The method comprises reacting an azide-functionalized material with an alkyne-functionalized material, one of which can be a nanoparticle or a microparticle and the other can be a substrate or another nanoparticle or microparticle. The method also includes generating layered structures having multiple layers which can be built up in multiple azide-alkyne reaction steps.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Regina Ragan, Sri Sivakumar, Raj Ganesh S. Pala, Arun Prakash Upadhyay
  • Patent number: 8961774
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of butanol are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbon dioxide to a product mixture. Step (D) may separate butanol from the product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Andrew B. Bocarsly, Narayanappa Sivasankar
  • Publication number: 20150047986
    Abstract: The embodiments described herein pertain generally to an electrochemical reduction method of carbon dioxide under a solution condition containing potassium sulfate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 1, 2014
    Publication date: February 19, 2015
    Inventors: Woonsup Shin, Sae Young Oh, Suk Kyu Kim, Mi Jung Park, Ki Nam Kwon, Chan Hyo Yu, Gwang Gyu Kim, Kye Yun Lee
  • Publication number: 20140367274
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole, Paul Majsztrik, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8858777
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to organic products including formate and formic acid are provided. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce an acidic anolyte to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce a bicarbonate-based catholyte saturated with carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a high surface area cathode including indium and having a void volume of between about 30% to 98%. At least a portion of the bicarbonate-based catholyte is recycled. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to at least one of a single-carbon based product or a multi-carbon based product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Jerry J. Kaczur, Theodore J. Kramer, Kunttal Keyshar, Paul Majsztrik, Zbigniew Twardowski
  • Publication number: 20140299482
    Abstract: In various embodiments, the invention provides electro-chemical processes for reduction of carbon dioxide, for example converting carbon dioxide to format salts or formic acid. In selected embodiments, operation of a continuous reactor with a three dimensional cathode and a two-phase (gas/liquid) catholyte flow provides advantages conditions for electro-reduction of carbon dioxide. In these embodiments, the continuous two-phase flow of catholyte solvent and carbon dioxide containing gas, in selected gas/liquid phase volume flow ratios, provides dynamic conditions that favour the electro-reduction of COs at relatively high effective superficial current densities and gas space velocities, with relatively low reactor (cell) voltages (<10 volts). In some embodiments, relatively high internal gas hold-up in the cathode chamber (evident in an internal gas to liquid phase volume ratio >0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2014
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Applicant: Mantra Energy Alternatives Ltd.
    Inventors: Colin Oloman, Hui Li
  • Patent number: 8815074
    Abstract: A method for reducing carbon dioxide with use of a device for reducing carbon dioxide includes steps of (a) preparing the device. The device includes a vessel, a cathode electrode and an anode electrode. An electrolytic solution is stored in the vessel, the cathode electrode contains a copper rubeanate metal organic framework, the copper rubeanate metal organic framework is in contact with the electrolytic solution, the anode electrode is in contact with the electrolytic solution, and the electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The method further includes step of (b) applying a voltage difference between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode so as to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Reiko Taniguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi
  • Publication number: 20140206894
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products. The production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may include the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to oxalate and oxalic acid. The method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may further include the acidification of oxalate to oxalic acid, the purification of oxalic acid and the hydrogenation of oxalic acid to produce oxalic acid reduction products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 20, 2014
    Publication date: July 24, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Jerry J. Kaczur, Kyle Teamey, Kate A. Keets, Rishi Parajuli, Alexander Bauer, Narayanappa Sivasankar, George Leonard, Theodore J. Kramer, Paul Majsztrik, Yizu Zhu, Robert Farrauto, Robert Augustine, Setrak Tanielyan, Mohanreddy Kasireddy
  • Publication number: 20140206895
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products. The production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may include the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to oxalate and oxalic acid. The method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may further include the acidification of oxalate to oxalic acid, the purification of oxalic acid and the hydrogenation of oxalic acid to produce oxalic acid reduction products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 20, 2014
    Publication date: July 24, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Zbigniew Twardowski, Emily Barton Cole, Jerry J. Kaczur, Kyle Teamey, Kate A. Keets, Rishi Parajuli, Alexander Bauer, Narayanappa Sivasankar, George Leonard, Theodore J. Kramer, Paul Majsztrik, Yizu Zhu
  • Publication number: 20140206896
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products. The production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may include the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to oxalate and oxalic acid. The method and system for production of oxalic acid and oxalic acid reduction products may further include the acidification of oxalate to oxalic acid, the purification of oxalic acid and the hydrogenation of oxalic acid to produce oxalic acid reduction products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 20, 2014
    Publication date: July 24, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Robert Farrauto, Robert Augustine, Setrak Tanielyan, Mohanreddy Kasireddy, Emily Barton Cole, Kate A. Keets, Rishi Parajuli, Jerry J. Kaczur, Yizu Zhu, Farah Dhun, Kyle Teamey, Alexander Bauer, Theodore J. Kramer, Paul Majsztrik, George Leonard
  • Publication number: 20140131217
    Abstract: The electrochemical reactors disclosed herein provide novel oxidation and reduction chemistries and employ increased mass transport rates of materials to and from the surfaces of electrodes therein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: CLEAN CHEMISTRY, LLC
    Inventor: Wayne Buschmann
  • Publication number: 20140093799
    Abstract: Electrochemical devices for converting carbon dioxide to useful reaction products include a solid or a liquid with a specific pH and/or water content. Chemical processes using the devices are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, HCO?, H2CO, (HCO2), H2CO2, CH3OH, CH4, C2H4, CH3CH2OH, CH3COO?, CH3COOH, C2H6, (COOH)2, (COO?)2, acrylic acid, diphenyl carbonate, other carbonates, other organic acids and synthetic fuels. The electrochemical device can be a CO2 sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2013
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Brian A. Rosen, Wei Zhu
  • Patent number: 8685222
    Abstract: The selective electrochemical reduction of halogenated 4-aminopicolinic acids is improved by activating the cathode at a final potential from about +1.0 to about +1.8 volts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Assignee: Dow Agrosciences, LLC.
    Inventors: Chen Wang, Scott Lee Haynes, Carey L. Scortichini
  • Patent number: 8658016
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capture of carbon dioxide and electrochemical conversion of the captured carbon dioxide to organic products are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce a solvent to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. Step (B) may capture carbon dioxide with at least one of guanidine, a guanidine derivative, pyrimidine, or a pyrimidine derivative to form a carbamic zwitterion. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between an anode and a cathode sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbamic zwitterion to a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8647493
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include a step of contacting the first region with a catholyte comprising carbon dioxide. The method may include another step of contacting the second region with an anolyte comprising a recycled reactant. The method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region. The second product may be removed from the second region and introduced to a secondary reactor. The method may include forming the recycled reactant in the secondary reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur
  • Publication number: 20140034506
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8641885
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20140027303
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to carboxylic acids, glycols, and carboxylates are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte and a cathode. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to a carboxylic acid intermediate. Step (D) may contact the carboxylic acid intermediate with hydrogen to produce a reaction product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2013
    Publication date: January 30, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Andrew B. Bocarsly, Narayanappa Sivasankar
  • Publication number: 20140021059
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of formic acid are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte and a cathode. The cathode is selected from the group consisting of indium, lead, tin, cadmium, and bismuth. The second compartment may include a pH of between approximately 4 and 7. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to formic acid. Step (D) may maintain a concentration of formic acid in the second compartment at or below approximately 500 ppm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 1, 2013
    Publication date: January 23, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Ian Sullivan, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Kunttal Keyshar
  • Patent number: 8617375
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode (21), a counter electrode (23) and a vessel (28). The vessel (28) stores an electrolytic solution (27). The working electrode (21) contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution (27) contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode (21) and the counter electrode (23) are in contact with the electrolytic solution (27). A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi
  • Patent number: 8597488
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present disclosure includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode and a vessel. The vessel stores an electrolytic solution. The working electrode contains at least one nitride selected from the group consisting of titanium nitride, zirconium nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, molybdenum nitride and iron nitride. The electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the electrolytic solution. A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masahiro Deguchi, Yuji Zenitani, Reiko Taniguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi
  • Patent number: 8592633
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to carboxylic acids, glycols, and carboxylates are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte and a cathode. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to a carboxylic acid intermediate. Step (D) may contact the carboxylic acid intermediate with hydrogen to produce a reaction product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Andrew B. Bocarsly, Narayanappa Sivasankar
  • Publication number: 20130306488
    Abstract: A method for reducing carbon dioxide with use of a device for reducing carbon dioxide includes steps of (a) preparing the device. The device includes a vessel, a cathode electrode and an anode electrode. An electrolytic solution is stored in the vessel, the cathode electrode contains a copper rubeanate metal organic framework, the copper rubeanate metal organic framework is in contact with the electrolytic solution, the anode electrode is in contact with the electrolytic solution, and the electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The method further includes step of (b) applying a voltage difference between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode so as to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2013
    Publication date: November 21, 2013
    Applicant: PANASONIC CORPORATION
    Inventor: PANASONIC CORPORATION
  • Publication number: 20130284607
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products from biomass. The method involves obtaining a lipid or carboxylic acid material from the biomass. This material may be a carboxylic acid, an ester of a carboxylic acid, a triglyceride of a carboxylic acid, or a metal salt of a carboxylic acid, or any other fatty acid derivative. This lipid material or carboxylic acid material is converted into an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the carboxylic acid decarboxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2013
    Publication date: October 31, 2013
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Ashok V. Joshi, Mukund Karanjikar, David Joel Hunt, Pallavi Chitta
  • Patent number: 8568581
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8562811
    Abstract: Methods for electrochemical production of formic acid are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte and a cathode. The cathode is selected from the group consisting of indium, lead, tin, cadmium, and bismuth. The second compartment may include a pH of between approximately 4 and 7. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to formic acid. Step (D) may maintain a concentration of formic acid in the second compartment at or below approximately 500 ppm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Ian Sullivan, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Kunttal Keyshar
  • Publication number: 20130186771
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is provided for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to formate and formic acid. One embodiment features a three-compartment reactor which houses: a gas compartment; a catholyte compartment, which contains a porous cathode having a tin-based catalyst; and an anolyte compartment, which contains an anode having a mixed metal oxide catalyst. Further embodiments include a method for depositing tin onto a porous cathode, tin zinc cathodes, a reaction method using an acidic anolyte, and pulsed polarization to extend reactor runtimes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 22, 2011
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Applicant: DET NORSKE VERITAS AS
    Inventors: Shan Guan, Narasi Sridhar, Arun S. Agarwal, Feng Gui
  • Publication number: 20130186770
    Abstract: A method for converting carboxylic acids (including carboxylic acids derived from biomass) into hydrocarbons. The produced hydrocarbons will generally have at least two oxygen containing substituents (or other substituents). In one example of application, the electrolysis converts alkali salts of carboxylic acids into diols which can then be used as solvents or be dehydrated to produce dienes, which can then be used to produce elastic polymeric materials. This process allows custom synthesis of high value chemicals from renewable feed stocks such as carboxylic acids derived from biomass.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 8, 2013
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Applicant: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventor: Ceramatec, Inc.
  • Publication number: 20130180865
    Abstract: A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more organic products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce an anolyte to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell, said first compartment including an anode. Step (B) may introduce a catholyte and carbon dioxide to a second compartment of said electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a tin cathode and a catalyst. The catalyst may include at least one of pyridine, 2-picoline or 2,6-lutidine. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between said anode and said cathode sufficient for said cathode to reduce said carbon dioxide to at least one of formate or formic acid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 6, 2013
    Publication date: July 18, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: Liquid Light, Inc.
  • Publication number: 20130157174
    Abstract: Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO?, H2CO, (HCO2)?, H2CO2, CH3OH, CH4, C2H4, CH3CH2OH, CH3COO?, CH3COOH, C2H6, (COOH)2, or (COO?)2, and a specific device, namely, a CO2 sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2012
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Amin Salehi-Khojin
  • Publication number: 20130140187
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Patent number: 8444844
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for electrochemically co-producing a first product and a second product. The system may include a first electrochemical cell, a first reactor, a second electrochemical cell, at least one second reactor, and at least one third reactor. The method and system for for co-producing a first product and a second product may include co-producing a glycol and an alkene employing a recycled halide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20130118910
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: May 16, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Patent number: 8349281
    Abstract: A process for sequestrating carbon emitted into the atmosphere in the form of CO2 comprises: a) a step for concentrating CO2 in the liquid phase; b) a step for electro-reduction in an aprotic medium to a compound in which the carbon changes to oxidation number +3 in the form of oxalic acid or formic acid; c) if appropriate, a step for re-extracting oxalic or formic acid in the aqueous phase; and d) a step for mineralization by reaction with a compound of an element M, resulting in a stable compound in which the atomic ratio C/M is about 2/1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: IFP Energies nouvelles
    Inventors: Hervé Toulhoat, François Ropital, Sébastien Duval
  • Patent number: 8318972
    Abstract: Provided are various methods, systems and reactors for producing peroxycarboxylic acid compositions, such as non-equilibrium compositions of peracetic acid, for example. The methods and systems relate to electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide or peroxide ions in a reactor, wherein the generated materials are reacted with an acetyl donor to form peracetic acid. In an embodiment, a source of alkali metal ions is provided to an anode chamber such that the ratio of concentrations of the alkali metal ions to protons in the anode chamber of a reactor is greater than 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Eltron Research & Development Inc.
    Inventors: Wayne E. Buschmann, Andrew S. Del Negro
  • Publication number: 20120292199
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present disclosure includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode and a vessel. The vessel stores an electrolytic solution. The working electrode contains at least one carbide selected from the group consisting of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide, niobium carbide, chromium carbide and tungsten carbide. The electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the electrolytic solution. A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Publication date: November 22, 2012
    Applicant: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masahiro DEGUCHI, Yuji ZENITANI, Reiko TANIGUCHI, Satoshi YOTSUHASHI
  • Patent number: 8313634
    Abstract: The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst of one or more substituted or unsubstituted aromatic amines to produce therein a reduced organic product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Princeton University
    Inventors: Andrew B. Bocarsly, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20120228147
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of formic acid are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte and a cathode. The cathode is selected from the group consisting of indium, lead, tin, cadmium, and bismuth. The second compartment may include a pH of between approximately 4 and 7. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to formic acid. Step (D) may maintain a concentration of formic acid in the second compartment at or below approximately 500 ppm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2012
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Ian Sullivan, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Kunttal Keyshar
  • Patent number: 8241482
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a process for recovering acids from mixtures containing them, in particular organic acids and amino acids, such as acids produced by fermentation in a fermentation broth. The process of the invention comprises contacting a loaded extractant with a solution containing hydroxide ions in the presence of at least one cathode and at least one anode, wherein said hydroxide ions are produced by using said cathode, whereby said acid is converted to its anionic form, by which it can be removed from said extractant and can migrate in the direction of the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignee: Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO
    Inventors: Joost Van Erkel, Earl Lawrence Vincent Goetheer
  • Publication number: 20120184770
    Abstract: A method for preparing fluorinated carboxylic acids and theirs salts is described comprising subjecting a fluorinated alcohol of the general formula (A): A-CH2—OH to at least one first and at least one second oxidizing agent to produce a highly fluorinated carboxylic acid or their salts of the general formula (B): A-COO M+, wherein M+ represents a cation and wherein A in formulas (A) and (B) is the same and A represents the residue: Rf-[0]p-CX?Y?-[0]m-CX?Y?-[0]n-CXY— wherein Rf represents a fluorinated alkyl residue which may or may not contain one or more catenary oxygen atoms, p, m and n are independently from each other either 1 or O, X, X?, X?, Y, Y? and Y? are independently from each other H, F, CF3, or C2F5 with the proviso that not all of X, X?, X?, Y, Y? and Y? are H; or A represents the residue: R—CFX— wherein X and R are independently selected from a hydrogen, a halogen, or an alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl residue, which may or may not contain one or more fluorine atoms and which may or may no
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2010
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Klaus Hintzer, Dennis E. Vogel, Miguel A. Guerra, Jolanta Ignatowska, Gerd-Volker Röschenthaler, Oleg Shyshkov, Kim M Vogel, Tilman C. Zipplies
  • Publication number: 20120031769
    Abstract: A method for producing and recovering a carboxylic acid in an electrolysis cell. The electrolysis cell is a multi-compartment electrolysis cell. The multi-compartment electrolysis cell includes an anodic compartment, a cathodic compartment, and a solid alkali ion transporting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). An anolyte is added to the anodic compartment. The anolyte comprises an alkali salt of a carboxylic acid, a first solvent, and a second solvent. The alkali salt of the carboxylic acid is partitioned into the first solvent. The anolyte is then electrolyzed to produce a carboxylic acid, wherein the produced carboxylic acid is partitioned into the second solvent. The second solvent may then be separated from the first solvent and the produced carboxylic acid may be recovered from the second solvent. The first solvent may be water and the second solvent may be an organic solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2011
    Publication date: February 9, 2012
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Kean Duffy